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Sample records for 6-year dietary history

  1. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    Merkiel, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macro...

  2. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra;

    2016-01-01

    adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were......Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss...

  3. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  4. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  5. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    Ankarfeldt, M Z; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to the anabolic effects of protein could explain this. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations...... between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data. DESIGN: A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up 6 years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24......-h urinary nitrogen collection at baseline was done. In total, 330 participants with DHI, of whom 227 had validated and complete 24-h urine collection data, were analyzed. Macronutrient energy substitution models were used. RESULTS: Mean estimated protein intake was 14.6 E% from DHI and 11.3 E% from...

  6. Study of the association of socio-demographic factors and feeding practices with the dietary intake in 3-6years old children

    Kalantari, Naser; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the association of social factors and feeding practices with the diet in 3- 6 years old children. A cross-sectional study of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht, Iran in 2011. Measures included social factors, aspects of parental control practices and the child's diet. Mothers reported both their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of child feeding practices were assessed by using Comprehensive Feeding...

  7. Analysis of dietary behavior of children aged 1-6 years in Changning district%长宁区1-6岁儿童饮食行为现状分析及探讨

    王芳; 蔡文秀; 鲁巧珍; 黄璧琨; 金星明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解长宁区儿童饮食行为问题发生的现况及其影响因素,为儿童饮食行为问题的干预提供参考依据.方法 对长宁区1-6岁儿童采用整群系统抽样,对儿童照养人进行问卷调查,内容包括儿童的饮食行为现状和影响因素.结果 儿童饮食行为问题发生率为45.20%.而家长报告的儿童饮食行为问题为59.57%.与儿童饮食行为问题有关的因素为:儿童年龄(χ2=27.572,P<0.001)、呼吸道感染频率(χ2=8.418,P<0.05)、便秘(χ2=33.217,P<0.001)、胃食管返流(χ2=9.152,P<0.01)、气质(χ2=58.184,P<0.001)、照养人的饮食行为(χ2=10.035,P<0.01).结论 1-6岁儿童饮食行为问题发生率高.对高发人群要重点加强饮食行为的培养和干预;儿童饮食行为问题类化于照养人饮食行为问题,应开展饮食行为问题的家庭综合干预.%Objective To investigate the status of dietary behavior and its influencing factors on 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district, and to provide reference for intervention measures on dietary behavior problems of children. Methods 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district were selected with cluster and system sampling and their caregivers were surveyed with questionnaire about dietary behavior and its influencing factors. Results The prevalence of dietary behavior problems was 45. 2% and the rate reported by parents was 59. 6% . The prevalence of dietary behavior prohlems was influenced by age( x2 = 27. 572 ,P<0. 001 , frequency of upper respiratory tract infection( x2 = 8. 418 ,P<0. 05 ) , constipation(x2 = 33. 217 , P < 0. 001 ) , gastroesophageal efflux( x2 =9. 152 , P < 0. 01 ) , temperament ( x2 = 58. 184 ,P< 0. 01 )and dietary behavior of caregivers( x2 = 10. 035 , P < 0. 001 ). Gender , frequency of diarrhea , frequency of tonsillitis and saprodontia had nothing to do with the prevalence of dietary hehavior prohlems ( P>0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence of dietary behavior

  8. Survey on dietary behavior of simple obese children aged 0-6 years%0~6岁单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为调查分析

    卫淑平; 高敬文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary behavior of obese children aged 0-6 years and analyze the causes of obesity, so as to provide guidance for dietary behavior of simple obese children. Methods In the Fifth Hospital of Xi' an City 105 obese children ( obese group ) and another 105 normal weight children ( control group ) were selected, and questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information. Results There were significant differences in feeding behavior, eating behavior, food selection, eating environment between obese group and control group (x2 value was 62. 89, 34. 56, 53. 19 and 15. 36, respectively, all P <0. 01 ). Ingesting large amount of staple food and eating meat, dairy products, sweet food, fried food, snacks and supper were found in obese children. The proportion of not receiving high education among obese children' s mothers was relatively high. Conclusion Besides genetic factors, childhood obesity is closely related with dietary behavior.%目的 调查0~6岁肥胖儿童的饮食行为,分析其肥胖原因,为单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为提供指导依据.方法 选取在西安市第五医院儿保门诊肥胖儿童(肥胖组)和体重正常儿童(对照组)各105名,采用问卷调查的方式取得相关资料并加以分析.结果 肥胖组儿童的饮食行为在喂养行为、进食行为、食物选择、进食环境与对照组存在显著性差异,χ2值分别为62.89,34.56,53.19,15.36,均P<0.01.肥胖组儿童摄入主食量大,爱吃肉类食品、奶制品、甜食、油炸类食品,爱吃零食、夜宵.肥胖组儿童母亲未接受高等教育者的比例较大(χ2=23.44,P<0.01).结论 除遗传因素外,儿童肥胖与饮食行为有密切关系.

  9. Early and Late Outcome of Premature Newborns with History of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Admission at 6 Years Old in Zanjan, Northwestern Iran

    SADEGHZADEH, Mansour; KHOSHNEVISASL, Parisa; PARVANEH, Mehdi; MOUSAVINASAB, Noreddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Premature birth is an important factor for mortality and morbidity of neonates. This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of preterm neonates who needed neonatal intensive care (NICU) hospitalization after 6 yr at their entrance to the school. Materials & Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on premature neonates consecutively hospitalized in NICU of Valie Asr Hospital (the Academic Pediatric Hospital, Zanjan, Northwestern Iran) from September 2001 to September 2003. All children with a history of prematurity and NICU treatment were evaluated at their entrance to the school. Demographic findings, clinical examinations, IQ test, hearing and visual acuity exams were recorded. Results From 179 neonates, 78 (43.6%) survived and were discharged from hospital. Fifty-four of them were available and entered first grade in primary school. Only one case had severe mental retardation. One case had severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Hearing abnormality was not detected in any case. There was no significant relation between IQ score, visual as well as hearing findings and gestational age. Conclusion We did not find significant disability in the outcome of surviving infants. This could be explained by the high mortality rate of neonates during hospitalization. PMID:27247586

  10. Validity and reproducibility of a Spanish dietary history

    Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Sagardui-Villamor, Jon; Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ariza Astolfi, Mª José; Sarrión Pelous, Mª Dolores; León-Muñoz, Luz María; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Laclaustra, Martín; Benito, Cristina; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the validity and reproducibility of food and nutrient intake estimated with the electronic diet history of ENRICA (DH-E), which collects information on numerous aspects of the Spanish diet. Methods: The validity of food and nutrient intake was estimated using Pearson correlation coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls collected every 2 months over the previous year. The reproducibility was estimated using intraclass correlation coef...

  11. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  12. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  13. Validity and reproducibility of a Spanish dietary history.

    Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reproducibility of food and nutrient intake estimated with the electronic diet history of ENRICA (DH-E, which collects information on numerous aspects of the Spanish diet. METHODS: The validity of food and nutrient intake was estimated using Pearson correlation coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls collected every 2 months over the previous year. The reproducibility was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients between two DH-E made one year apart. RESULTS: The correlations coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls for the main food groups were cereals (r = 0.66, meat (r = 0.66, fish (r = 0.42, vegetables (r = 0.62 and fruits (r = 0.44. The mean correlation coefficient for all 15 food groups considered was 0.53. The correlations for macronutrients were: energy (r = 0.76, proteins (r= 0.58, lipids (r = 0.73, saturated fat (r = 0.73, monounsaturated fat (r = 0.59, polyunsaturated fat (r = 0.57, and carbohydrates (r = 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient for all 41 nutrients studied was 0.55. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two DH-E was greater than 0.40 for most foods and nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: The DH-E shows good validity and reproducibility for estimating usual intake of foods and nutrients.

  14. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  15. 鞍山市3所幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为调查%Study on Dietary Behavior Status Quo Lnvestigation of 4 to 6 Years Old Children

    高保盛; 白燕; 李书倩; 侯冬岩

    2013-01-01

    To understand the difference among kindergarten 4~6 years old from Anshan children’ s eating be-havior,this study uses cluster sampling method to investigate children’ s eating behavior by questionnaire and observationThe object of this investigation is 256 children from 3 kindergartens of Anshan cityKap level is dif-ferent from age significantly,and not different from gender significantlySo,children’ s breakfast situation is une-ven,excessive snacks and picky generally existCounterparts in kindergarten need to carry out effective and tar-geted nutrition education,enhance the cooperation between family and kindergarten,and develop children’ s healthy eating habits together;Parents should have confidence to correct poor eating habits and lay the founda-tion for children’ s physical and mental health development.%为了解鞍山市不同幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为状况,本研究运用整群抽样的方法选取鞍山市3所不同层次幼儿园的256名幼儿,采用问卷调查和观察法对饮食行为进行调查。调查发现幼儿早餐状况参差不齐,存在过度零食、挑食、偏食现象。幼儿园需要有效开展营养教育,加强家园合作关系,共同培养幼儿健康饮食行为习惯。

  16. Hip dysplasia in a 6-year-old Salz ram

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan José; Sáez, Teófilo; Sever, Ramón; Marca, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A 6-year old Salz ram was presented with a history of poor body condition, progressive gait abnormalities, pelvic limb lameness, and difficulty with copulation. Based on the history, clinical signs, hip palpation, and radiography, a diagnosis of hip dysplasia, previously unreported in sheep, was made.

  17. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women

    Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfact...

  18. Dietary habits and past medical history as related to fatal pancreas cancer risk among Adventists.

    Mills, P K; Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Fraser, G E; Phillips, R L

    1988-06-15

    Epidemiologic studies of diet and pancreas cancer are few, and include ecologic comparisons and a limited number of prospective and case-control studies. Foods and/or nutrients that have been suggested to be associated with increased risk of this cancer include total fat intake, eggs, animal protein, sugar, meat, coffee and butter. Consumption of raw fruits and vegetables has been consistently associated with decreased risk. Dietary habits and medical history variables were evaluated in a prospective study of fatal pancreas cancer among 34,000 California Seventh-day Adventists between 1976 and 1983. Forty deaths from pancreas cancer occurred during the follow-up period. Compared to all US whites, Adventists experienced decreased risk from pancreas cancer death (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 72 for men; 90 for women), which was not statistically significant. Although there was a suggestive relationship between increasing meat, egg, and coffee consumption and increased pancreatic cancer risk, these variables were not significantly related to risk after controlling for cigarette smoking. However, increasing consumption of vegetarian protein products, beans, lentils, and peas as well as dried fruit was associated with highly significant protective relationships to pancreas cancer risk. A prior history of diabetes was associated with increased risk of subsequent fatal pancreas cancer, as was a history of surgery for peptic or duodenal ulcer. A history of tonsillectomy was associated with a slight, nonsignificant protective relationship as was history of various allergic reactions. These findings suggest that the protective relationships associated with frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits high in protease-inhibitor content are more important than any increase in pancreas cancer risk attendant on frequent consumption of meat or other animal products. Furthermore, the previously reported positive associations between diabetes and abdominal surgery and

  19. Variation in dietary histories among the immigrants of Machu Picchu: Carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence

    This study estimates dietary composition during infancy and childhood among 71 adults interred at the site of Machu Picchu, a royal Inca estate in the southern highlands of Peru. Recent research suggests that the majority of individuals were members of the cosmopolitan yana and aclla servant classes, and immigrated to the site from different regions; individual dietary histories may have been similarly varied. Diet was estimated at multiple points in early life through characterization of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in tooth enamel and dentin, which preserve isotopic values from the first years of life. These data were compared to isotopic data from modern food samples, and analyzed using recently-published statistical models. A subset of individuals also has existing bone collagen isotopic data, which reflects diet from the last decade of life and thus permits comparison over the life course. Results indicate significant variation in enamel δ13C (approximately 12%o), dentin δ13C (approximately 9%o) and δ15N (approximately 8%o) between individuals across the study population. These findings suggest substantial variability in diet during infancy and childhood, and support interpretations that this population was primarily yanacona or mixed yanaconalacllacona. This study also highlights the utility of multi-tissue isotopic analysis in more nuanced reconstruction of diet in the ancient Andes

  20. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

    Vohl Marie-Claude

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial history of obesity (FHO and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1 to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2 to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3 to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index 2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+ was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO- as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary

  1. Safety for Your Child: 6 Years

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... > Safety for Your Child: 6 Years Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  2. Stable isotope series from elephant ivory reveal lifetime histories of a true dietary generalist.

    Codron, Jacqueline; Codron, Daryl; Sponheimer, Matt; Kirkman, Kevin; Duffy, Kevin J; Raubenheimer, Erich J; Mélice, Jean-Luc; Grant, Rina; Clauss, Marcus; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2012-06-22

    Longitudinal studies have revealed how variation in resource use within consumer populations can impact their dynamics and functional significance in communities. Here, we investigate multi-decadal diet variations within individuals of a keystone megaherbivore species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), using serial stable isotope analysis of tusks from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These records, representing the longest continuous diet histories documented for any extant species, reveal extensive seasonal and annual variations in isotopic--and hence dietary--niches of individuals, but little variation between them. Lack of niche distinction across individuals contrasts several recent studies, which found relatively high levels of individual niche specialization in various taxa. Our result is consistent with theory that individual mammal herbivores are nutritionally constrained to maintain broad diet niches. Individual diet specialization would also be a costly strategy for large-bodied taxa foraging over wide areas in spatio-temporally heterogeneous environments. High levels of within-individual diet variability occurred within and across seasons, and persisted despite an overall increase in inferred C(4) grass consumption through the twentieth century. We suggest that switching between C(3) browsing and C(4) grazing over extended time scales facilitates elephant survival through environmental change, and could even allow recovery of overused resources. PMID:22337695

  3. Adnexal torsion in 6 years old girl

    MRI and US findings in Ovarian torsion in a premenarcheal girl are described. Adnexal torsion is an uncommon cause of severe lower abdominal pain in young women (mean age is 10-11), and in 50% of cases such symptoms are observed in pre-menarchal females. However, adnexal torsion should be considered in all premenarcheal girls admitted with acute abdominal pain and evidence of an ovarian mass. Accurate imaging is crucial after onset of early clinical symptoms to confirm the diagnosis and to preserve the viability of the affected ovary. A pelvic ovoid mass was visualised on ultrasound, suggesting several hypothesis -cystic mass, ovarian torsion, dermoid. Magnetic resonance imaging visualized edematous ovary enlargement and the presence of multiple follicules at the periphery due to congestion from the twisted vascular pedicule. Smooth wail thickening of the partially necrotic. Twisted ovary was seen in the subacute phase, which has been confirmed during laparoscopy. CT was not considered in this 6 years old girl due to ionizing radiation. (authors)

  4. Bioplastique at 6 years: clinical outcome studies.

    Ersek, R A; Gregory, S R; Salisbury, A V

    1997-11-01

    Bioplastique is a biphasic polymer for the permanent augmentation of some soft tissues. It was developed in 1987, and clinical studies at this institution were begun in 1990. The combination of low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone and solid polymer particles allows the implantation of permanent polymer spheres through a small needle under local anesthesia. In this study 127 cases are reviewed of consecutive patients who have received Bioplastique for scar revision, wrinkles, and augmentation for soft-tissue defects at 6 years after application. All patients who had not been in for follow-up recently were contacted by mail and questioned on the permanence of augmentation and migration of particles. About 30 percent of the patients were unreachable and had their charts reviewed for permanence and migration of particles. In eight of these cases, Bioplastique was removed because of overcorrection, two of them may have had infection. Bioplastique has gained wide use throughout the world and although some complications have been reported, in general, it functions quite well when used in selected cases. PMID:9385974

  5. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    LAMONT, LINDA S.

    2009-01-01

    I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008). These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007). T...

  6. Bridging Developmental Boundaries: Lifelong Dietary Patterns Modulate Life Histories in a Parthenogenetic Insect

    Roark, Alison M.; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus) to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the ...

  7. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors. Methods: The study group consisted of 814 preschool children. A questionnaire on family, demographic and socioeconomic factors, general health, oral hygiene and dietary behavior was completed by the parents. Children were examined for cavitated and white-spot lesions (WSL). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and buffer capacit...

  8. Stable isotope series from elephant ivory reveal lifetime histories of a true dietary generalist

    Codron, Jacqueline; Codron, Daryl; Sponheimer, Matt; Kirkman, Kevin; Duffy, Kevin J.; Raubenheimer, Erich J.; Mélice, Jean-Luc; Grant, Rina; Clauss, Marcus; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have revealed how variation in resource use within consumer populations can impact their dynamics and functional significance in communities. Here, we investigate multi-decadal diet variations within individuals of a keystone megaherbivore species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), using serial stable isotope analysis of tusks from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These records, representing the longest continuous diet histories documented for any extant s...

  9. Bridging developmental boundaries: lifelong dietary patterns modulate life histories in a parthenogenetic insect.

    Alison M Roark

    Full Text Available Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the confounding influences of pair-housing, mating, and male behavior. In our study, growth rate prior to reproductive maturity was positively correlated with both adult and reproductive lifespans but negatively correlated with total lifespan. Food limitation had opposing effects on lifespan depending on when it was imposed, as it protracted development in juveniles but hastened death in adults. Food limitation also constrained reproduction regardless of when food was limited, although decreased fecundity was especially pronounced in individuals that were food-limited as late juveniles and adults. Additional carry-over effects of juvenile food limitation included smaller adult size and decreased body condition at the adult molt, but these effects were largely mitigated in insects that were switched to ad libitum feeding as late juveniles. Our data provide little support for the existence of a trade-off between longevity and fecundity, perhaps because these functions were fueled by different nutrient pools. However, insects that experienced a switch to the limited diet at reproductive maturity seem to have fueled egg production by drawing down body stores, thus providing some evidence for a life-history trade-off. Our results provide important insights into the effects of food limitation and indicate that performance is modulated by intake both within and across life-history stages.

  10. Genetic adaptation to levels of dietary selenium in recent human history.

    White, Louise; Romagné, Frédéric; Müller, Elias; Erlebach, Eva; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Andrés, Aida M; Castellano, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    As humans migrated around the world, they came to inhabit environments that differ widely in the soil levels of certain micronutrients, including selenium (Se). Coupled with cultural variation in dietary practices, these migrations have led to a wide range of Se intake levels in populations around the world. Both excess and deficiency of Se in the diet can have adverse health consequences in humans, with severe Se deficiency resulting in diseases of the bone and heart. Se is required by humans mainly due to its function in selenoproteins, which contain the amino acid selenocysteine as one of their constituent residues. To understand the evolution of the use of this micronutrient in humans, we surveyed the patterns of polymorphism in all selenoprotein genes and genes involved in their regulation in 50 human populations. We find that single nucleotide polymorphisms from populations in Asia, particularly in populations living in the extreme Se-deficient regions of China, have experienced concerted shifts in their allele frequencies. Such differentiation in allele frequencies across genes is not observed in other regions of the world and is not expected under neutral evolution, being better explained by the action of recent positive selection. Thus, recent changes in the use and regulation of Se may harbor the genetic adaptations that helped humans inhabit environments that do not provide adequate levels of Se in the diet. PMID:25739735

  11. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    Linda S. Lamont

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008. These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007. This anthropological fact, and some recent laboratory evidence, argues against the need to increase the protein RDA for athletes from 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to 1.2 to 1.4 g per kilogram per day (ACSM, 2000. Our research group found that amino acids make a small contribution (2 - 3% of total to endurance energy needs (Lamont et al, 1999 and that athlete's have similar oxidation rates if corrections are made for oxygen consumption and fat-free body mass. Others report that a short-term training program of 38-days reduces amino acid use during exercise and down-regulates a critical enzyme in the oxidative pathway in order to spare this nutrient (McKenzie et al., 2000 Yet sport nutritionists and physiologists continue to recommend an increased protein RDA for this group. If one does a Google search using the words exercise and protein you would literally get millions of citations recommending the athlete to increase their protein intake. One reason for this continued recommendation, I believe, is that the laboratory procedure used to justify an increased protein RDA (field-based nitrogen balance measurements has many methodological shortcomings that are not recognized by the sports science community (Lamont, 2008. The problems with this technique are so great that its scientific fidelity has been questioned (Lamont, 2008. And as Longo and colleagues have highlighted (2008 the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence for

  12. Fish movement and dietary history derived from otolith δ13C

    Weber, P. K.; Finlay, J. C.; Power, M. E.; Phillis, C. C.; Ramon, C. E.; Eaton, G. F.; Ingram, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    Habitat use and food web linkages are critical data for fish conservation and habitat restoration efforts, particularly for threatened salmonids species. Otolith microchemistry has been shown to be a powerful tool for reconstructing fish movement, but over small distances (kilometers), geology-derived differences in otolith chemistry are rare. Here, we demonstrate that otolith 13C/12C ratio (i.e. δ13C) of anadromous steelhead trout can be used to distinguish residence in small streams from residence in larger streams and rivers. While previous research has shown that water dissolved inorganic carbon d13C is the primary source of carbon in otoliths, the downstream change in food δ13C in this watershed appears to be the primary control on otolith δ13C. As a result, this method can also be applied to the problem of reconstructing feeding history at a location.

  13. Fish Movement and Dietary History Derived from Otolith (delta)13C

    Weber, P K; Finlay, J C; Power, M E; Phillis, C C; Ramon, C E; Eaton, G F; Ingram, B L

    2005-09-08

    Habitat use and food web linkages are critical data for fish conservation and habitat restoration efforts, particularly for threatened salmonids species. Otolith microchemistry has been shown to be a powerful tool for reconstructing fish movement, but over small distances (kilometers), geology-derived differences in otolith chemistry are rare. Here, we demonstrate that otolith {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio (i.e. {delta}{sup 13}C) of anadromous steelhead trout can be used to distinguish residence in small streams from residence in larger streams and rivers. While previous research has shown that water dissolved inorganic carbon {delta}{sup 13}C is the primary source of carbon in otoliths, the downstream change in food {delta}{sup 13}C in this watershed appears to be the primary control on otolith {delta}{sup 13}C. As a result, this method can also be applied to the problem of reconstructing feeding history at a location.

  14. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A 6 year retrospective study

    Sushruta Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical presentations of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and its response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 28 women of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia evaluated over a period of 6 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Patients were evaluated on the basis of their age, number of deliveries, history of abortion or molar pregnancy, and the treatment received. All patients were scored on the basis of WHO scoring system. Patients with low risk (score /=7 received multiple agent chemotherapy with EMACO regimen. After completion of chemotherapy patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The response to treatment was evaluated during follow-up by clinical examination, beta hCG levels and imaging as and when required. Results: Out of 28 women only 27 could be evaluated, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Out of 27 patients, 18 patients (66.67% achieved complete remission with the first-line chemotherapy and additional 25.92% (7/27 achieved complete remission with second line chemotherapy resulting in complete remission of 92.5% (25/27. Conclusion: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is curable if patient is properly evaluated and scored. It shows good response to chemotherapy.

  15. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    : Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic load (GL) and serum lipids. However, no prospective studies have been performed. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether GI or GL was associated with subsequent changes in serum lipids. DESIGN......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  16. Healthful Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Li, Shanshan; Zhu, Yeyi; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Ley, Sylvia H; Forman, John P; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James; Bowers, Katherine; Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-06-01

    Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27091899

  17. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  18. in 5-6-year-olds and adults

    MidoriTokita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a critical issue in the debate over the existence of abstract numerical representation, it remains unclear whether and how perceptual variables affect numerosity judgment and how they change across development stages. In this research, we examine the effects of perceptual variables on approximate numerosity comparison in 5-6-year-olds and adults using the identical experimental procedure. In the assessment of the effect of the perceptual variables, we measured precision (i.e., Weber fraction and accuracy (i.e., point of subjective equality; PSE of the numerosity comparison. In Study 1, we tested how the manipulation of the cumulative element area would affect approximate numerosity comparison. The results showed that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large element condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. In study 2, we tested how the manipulation of the array area would affect the precision and accuracy of approximate numerosity comparison. The results demonstrated that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large array condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of perceptual variables on 5-6-year-olds is qualitatively similar to that on adults. In addition, we also tested whether the performance of approximate comparison correlated with the initial numerical skill in 5-6-year-olds to reveal least relationship between them.

  19. Life history plasticity after attaining a dietary threshold for reproduction is associated with protein storage in flesh flies

    Hahn, Daniel A.; James, Laura N.; Milne, Kathy R.; Hatle, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Body condition affects the timing and magnitude of life history transitions. Therefore, identifying proximate mechanisms involved in assessing condition is critical to understanding how these mechanisms affect the expression of life history plasticity. Nutrient storage is an important body condition parameter, likely playing roles in both attaining minimum body-condition thresholds for life history transitions and expression of life history traits.We manipulated protein availability for femal...

  20. Duplicated Muellerian remnant in a 6-year-old boy

    Kuo, Helen J.; Cain, Mark P. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Urology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, Boaz [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2009-08-15

    We report a 6-year-old boy with large duplicated Muellerian duct remnant who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and dysuria. His prior urological problems included proximal hypospadias (repaired), urachal cyst, and a unilateral undescended testis. Imaging evaluation included US, MRI, and cystoscopy. Laparoscopic resection was performed via a retrovesical approach. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  1. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  2. VARIATION IN DIETARY HISTORIES AMONG THE IMMIGRANTS OF MACHU PICCHU: CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPE EVIDENCE VARIACIÓN EN HISTORIAS DIETÉTICAS ENTRE LOS INMIGRANTES DE MACHU PICCHU: EVIDENCIA DE ISÓTOPOS DE CARBONO Y NITRÓGENO

    Turner, Bethany L.; Kingston, John D.; Armelagos, George J.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates dietary composition during infancy and childhood among 71 adults interred at the site of Machu Picchu, a royal Inca estate in the southern highlands of Peru. Recent research suggests that the majority of individuals were members of the cosmopolitian yana and aclla servant classes, and immigrated to the site from different regions; individual dietary histories may have been similarly varied. Diet was estimated at multiple points in early life through characterization of ca...

  3. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  4. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  5. Multiple Radiolucencies of the Jaws in a 6 Year Old.

    Hansford, John T; Kelsch, Robert D; Wiltz, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    Radiolucencies of the jaws are a common finding. Mostly, they are isolated findings associated with inflammatory processes and consistent with inflammatory periapical disease, such as periapical cysts and periapical granulomas. If associated with the crowns of unerupted teeth, they may represent dentigerous cysts. However, occasionally, larger lytic/radiolucent lesions are identified; even more infrequently, these radiographic findings may be multiple and concurrent. The purpose of this report is to present the case of a 6-year-old female patient with no known concomitant syndrome who presented with multiple intraoral swellings and to discuss the treatment of multiple, bilateral mandibular and maxillary radiolucencies. PMID:26749783

  6. Calibration of the dietary data obtained from the Brazilian center of the Natural History of HPV Infection in Men study: the HIM Study

    Juliana Araujo Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the regressions calibration for the dietary data that were measured using the quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ in the Natural History of HPV Infection in Men: the HIM Study in Brazil. A sample of 98 individuals from the HIM study answered one QFFQ and three 24-hour recalls (24HR at interviews. The calibration was performed using linear regression analysis in which the 24HR was the dependent variable and the QFFQ was the independent variable. Age, body mass index, physical activity, income and schooling were used as adjustment variables in the models. The geometric means between the 24HR and the calibration-corrected QFFQ were statistically equal. The dispersion graphs between the instruments demonstrate increased correlation after making the correction, although there is greater dispersion of the points with worse explanatory power of the models. Identification of the regressions calibration for the dietary data of the HIM study will make it possible to estimate the effect of the diet on HPV infection, corrected for the measurement error of the QFFQ.

  7. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  8. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  9. Giant aneurysm in 6 years old child - case report

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms rare in childhood is. Even among the reported series of childhood aneurysms, it is unusual to find their occurrence in children less than 7 years old. The pathogenesis of these lesions is also a matter of debate and speculations. The peak age of incidence of juvenile cerebral aneurysms appear to be 12 years, occurrence below the age of 7 being rarity. We show a case of 6 years old boy with giant aneurysm. found because of episodes of headache and vomiting. Discussion of pathogenesis for the rare pathology. After discussion of multidisciplinary team, of neuroradiologist and neurosurgeons was decided to be perform endovascular embolization, because of the better outcome for the patient. We performed endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with achieving total embolization. The patient recovery completely, and after 4 days went home. (authors) Key words: GIANT ANEURYSM. SACCULAR ANEURYSM. EMBOLIZATION. STENT ASSISTED COILING

  10. Life history plasticity after attaining a dietary threshold for reproduction is associated with protein storage in flesh flies.

    Hahn, Daniel A; James, Laura N; Milne, Kathy R; Hatle, John D

    2008-12-01

    Body condition affects the timing and magnitude of life history transitions. Therefore, identifying proximate mechanisms involved in assessing condition is critical to understanding how these mechanisms affect the expression of life history plasticity. Nutrient storage is an important body condition parameter, likely playing roles in both attaining minimum body-condition thresholds for life history transitions and expression of life history traits.We manipulated protein availability for females of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis to determine whether reproductive timing and output would remain plastic or become fixed. Liver was provided for 0, 2, 4, or 6 days of adult pre-reproductive development. Significantly, liver was removed after the feeding threshold had been attained and females had committed to producing a clutch.We also identified the major storage proteins and monitored their abundances, because protein stores may serve as an index of body condition and therefore may play an important role in life history transitions and plasticity.Flesh flies showed clear post-threshold plasticity in reproductive timing. Females fed protein for 2 days took ~30% longer to provision their clutch than those fed for 4 or 6 days. Observations of oogenesis showed the 2-day group expressed a different developmental program including slower egg provisioning.Protein availability also affected reproductive output. Females fed protein for 2 days produced ~20% fewer eggs than females fed 4 or 6 days. Six-day treated females provisioned larger eggs than 4-day treated females, followed by 2-day treated females with the smallest eggs.Two storage proteins were identified, LSP-1 and LSP-2. LSP-2 accumulation differed across feeding treatments. The 2- and 4-day treatment groups accumulated LSP-2 stores but depleted them during provisioning of the first clutch, whereas the 6-day group accumulated the greatest quantity of LSP-2 and had substantial LSP-2 stores remaining at the end of

  11. Chordoma: 6 years' experience at a tertiary centre

    Nine patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of chordoma seen at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to age, sex, presentation, location of tumour, treatment, response, recurrence, metastasis and follow up. Chordoma constituted 0.07% of total cancer cases registered over 6 years. Out of nine patients, eight were males and one was female with median age at time of diagnosis 52 years (range 34-68 years). All had sacrococcygeal lesions except one who had a spheno-occipital lesion. Seven patients had undergone either subtotal or gross total resection whereas only biopsy had been carried out in two of them. All patients received radiation therapy, seven in a postoperative setting and two for palliation. Follow-up period ranged from 2 to 50 months. Four patients died - the first after fourth fraction of radiation, second after 10 days of treatment, third of progressive lesion in sphenoidal region despite resection and radiation and fourth of local recurrence in the sacrococcyx. One patient developed distant metastases in the lungs and subcutaneous tissue over the scalp along with local recurrence; he is still alive. Two patients are locally free of disease whereas the other two were lost to follow up. The present analysis was undertaken to review our institutional experience with an aim to provide a practical approach to these tumours. In this report, these cases are discussed and the published works have been reviewed for the optimal management of patients with chordoma Copyright (2006) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  12. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  13. Dietary Assessment

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  14. Usual Dietary Intake Among Female Breast Cancer Survivors is Not Significantly Different From Women With No Cancer History: Results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Tooze, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in ...

  15. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  16. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  17. Oral health in pre-school children with asthma - followed from 3 to 6 years

    Stensson, Malin; Wendt, Lill-Kari; Koch, Göran; Oldaeus, Göran; Nilsson, Mats; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate caries and its determinants in preschool children with and without asthma, followed from 3 to 6 years. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Caries, plaque, and gingivitis were examined at 3 and 6 years of age in 64 asthmatic children and 50 matched, healthy control children. Furthermore, at 6 years radiographic examination and saliva sampling were conducted. The parents were interviewed about various oral health-related factors. RESULTS: Initial caries inc...

  18. Refracture of the tibia 6 years after bilateral tibia nail removal in a patient later diagnosed with osteopetrosis

    Joost H van Linge; JHJM Gert Bessems; P Koen Bos

    2010-01-01

    Joost H van Linge1,2, JHJM Gert Bessems1 , P Koen Bos11Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Reinier de Grant Gasthuis, Ga Delft, the NetherlandsAbstract: Osteopetrosis is a rare bone disease with a high fracture incidence and a risk for recurrent fractures. We describe a case report of an adult female with a refracture of her right tibia 6 years after routine bilateral tibia nail removal. The patient and 3 of her family members had a history of multiple ...

  19. Show Me Your Rump Hair and I Will Tell You What You Ate – The Dietary History of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Revealed by Sequential Stable Isotope Analysis of Guard Hairs

    Mosbacher, Jesper Bruun; Michelsen, Anders; Stelvig, Mikkel; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional state of animals is tightly linked to the ambient environment, and for northern ungulates the state strongly influences vital population demographics, such as pregnancy rates. Continuously growing tissues, such as hair, can be viewed as dietary records of animals over longer temporal scales. Using sequential data on nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in muskox guard hairs from ten individuals in high arctic Northeast Greenland, we were able to reconstruct the dietary history of muskoxen over approximately 2.5 years with a high temporal resolution of app. 9 days. The dietary chronology included almost three full summer and winter periods. The diet showed strong intra- and inter-annual seasonality, and was significantly linked to changes in local environmental conditions (temperature and snow depth). The summer diets were highly similar across years, reflecting a graminoid-dominated diet. In contrast, winter diets were markedly different between years, a pattern apparently linked to snow conditions. Snow-rich winters had markedly higher δ15N values than snow-poor winters, indicating that muskoxen had limited access to forage, and relied more heavily on their body stores. Due to the close link between body stores and calf production in northern ungulates, the dietary winter signals could eventually serve as an indicator of calf production the following spring. Our study opens the field for further studies and longer chronologies to test such links. The method of sequential stable isotope analysis of guard hairs thus constitutes a promising candidate for population-level monitoring of animals in remote, arctic areas. PMID:27097032

  20. Show Me Your Rump Hair and I Will Tell You What You Ate - The Dietary History of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Revealed by Sequential Stable Isotope Analysis of Guard Hairs.

    Mosbacher, Jesper Bruun; Michelsen, Anders; Stelvig, Mikkel; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional state of animals is tightly linked to the ambient environment, and for northern ungulates the state strongly influences vital population demographics, such as pregnancy rates. Continuously growing tissues, such as hair, can be viewed as dietary records of animals over longer temporal scales. Using sequential data on nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in muskox guard hairs from ten individuals in high arctic Northeast Greenland, we were able to reconstruct the dietary history of muskoxen over approximately 2.5 years with a high temporal resolution of app. 9 days. The dietary chronology included almost three full summer and winter periods. The diet showed strong intra- and inter-annual seasonality, and was significantly linked to changes in local environmental conditions (temperature and snow depth). The summer diets were highly similar across years, reflecting a graminoid-dominated diet. In contrast, winter diets were markedly different between years, a pattern apparently linked to snow conditions. Snow-rich winters had markedly higher δ15N values than snow-poor winters, indicating that muskoxen had limited access to forage, and relied more heavily on their body stores. Due to the close link between body stores and calf production in northern ungulates, the dietary winter signals could eventually serve as an indicator of calf production the following spring. Our study opens the field for further studies and longer chronologies to test such links. The method of sequential stable isotope analysis of guard hairs thus constitutes a promising candidate for population-level monitoring of animals in remote, arctic areas. PMID:27097032

  1. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  2. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  3. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine breath- holding spells (BHS prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25% had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months. Seventy percent of cases (23 had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis and the commonest frequency was one spell per month (78.79%. Painful experience and falling and striking the head wee the common triggering factors (79% and 76% respectively and there was significant association between BHS and history of fallin and severe striking of the head. There was no significant associations between BHS and sex, birth weight, birth order, delivery method, type of labor initiating and duration of labor.

  4. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  5. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia

    E.E. Devore (Elizabeth); F. Grodstein (Francine); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M.J. Stampfer (Meir); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Rotterdam Study previously found that higher dietary intakes of vitamins E and C related to lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) over 6 years of follow-up. Objective: To study consumption of major dietary antioxidants relative to long-term risk of dementia. D

  6. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    Sujin YOO; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  7. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

    Shiji K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60%) were male...

  8. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-01-01

    The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physic...

  9. Dietary ecology of human

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  10. Dietary Fiber

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  11. Patients with shoulder impingement remain satisfied 6 years after arthroscopic subacromial decompression

    2011-01-01

    Background Although arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is a common procedure for treatment of shoulder impingement, few long term results have been published. In this prospective study, we determined whether the high degree of patient satisfaction at 6 months postoperatively reported by us earlier remained at the 6-year follow-up. Patients and methods We originally reported high patient satisfaction 6 months after ASD for shoulder impingement in 50 prospectively studied patients using the Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Patients with associated shoulder disorders were excluded. The surgeons were experienced shoulder arthroscopists. 6 years after surgery, the DASH questionnaire and the VAS were sent to these 50 patients. 2 patients had other medical problems of the upper extremity that affected the DASH and VAS scores, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and another refused to participate. Thus, 46 patients with a mean age of 55 (33–78) years were included in this 6-year evaluation. Results The considerable improvement in both the DASH score and the VAS that was observed 6 months after surgery persisted or had even improved 6 years after surgery. Interpretation Properly selected patients with shoulder impingement treated with ASD remain satisfied 6 years after surgery. PMID:21999621

  12. Vaginal foreign body in a 6 year old girl: a game for the child but a challenge for the gynaecologist

    Amrita Chaurasia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6 year old girl visited our gynaecology out-patient department of S.R.N hospital, Allahabad, India with the complaint of relapsing blood stained vaginal discharge for 3 months. Different gynaecologists, including us, tried treating the condition with different courses of antibiotics. To each, the girl responded only for few days and relapsed again. We investigated completely into the background of the childs home and school environment, her playing habits and her behaviour with her kins. Then, we got her various investigations done but with no derangement. With the backup of her history, examination and investigations, we performed another detailed examination of her genitals. The findings were intriguing as to their cause, and it definitely was a lesson to all of us. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 518-520

  13. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Jørgensen, L. M.; Jørgensen, T.; Schroll, M.; Heitmann, B. L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The...

  14. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.;

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  15. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  16. CT findings of sporadic cherubism in a 6 year old boy

    Cherubism is a rare hereditary disease that affects the jaws in children. This condition shows distinctive computed tomography (CT) imaging features of multilocular, expansile, cystic lesions limited to the maxilla and mandible bilaterally, which can play a key role in the diagnosis of cherubism. We report here a case of sporadic cherubism with characteristic radiologic findings in a 6-year-old Korean boy.

  17. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  18. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  19. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    F. Garcia-Godoy; R. Frankenberger; U. Lohbauer; A.J. Feilzer; N. Krämer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural str

  20. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  1. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle

  2. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  3. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  4. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...... airway resistance was within normal range for all children no mater post discharge nutrition. And there was a tendency towards a lower airway resistance among infants fed with formula or nutrient enriched human milk compared to infants fed exclusively human milk post discharge....... lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...

  5. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  6. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  7. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.)

  8. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  9. Nutritional Status of Preschool (2-6 Years of Age) Children

    MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...

  10. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Meth...

  11. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  12. Influence of Young Children (3-6 years) on Organic Food Consumption in their Families

    Freyer, B.; Haberkorn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our interest was to analyse families with young children (3-6 years) to understand their consumption patterns of organic foods. To understand the influence of children on organic food consumption, as well as the role and impact of kindergarten, we studied the attitudes, habits and behaviour of 24 mothers and one couple through qualitative interviews. We found that children positively influence the consumption of organic food in the families, and that organic foods served in kindergartens is h...

  13. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Baez Ramon J.; Baez Martha X.; Marthaler Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volum...

  14. Patients with shoulder impingement remain satisfied 6 years after arthroscopic subacromial decompression

    Lunsjö, Karl; Bengtsson, Marie; Nordqvist, Anders; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2011-01-01

    Background Although arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is a common procedure for treatment of shoulder impingement, few long term results have been published. In this prospective study, we determined whether the high degree of patient satisfaction at 6 months postoperatively reported by us earlier remained at the 6-year follow-up. Patients and methods We originally reported high patient satisfaction 6 months after ASD for shoulder impingement in 50 prospectively studied patients usi...

  15. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău; Romina Marina Sima; Nicolae Bacalbașa; Liana Pleș; Anca Daniela Stănescu

    2016-01-01

    Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 ...

  16. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    G. Babu Kl; Nagarathna, J; Subramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. ...

  17. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    Mansour Karajibani; Mahdeyeh Shaykhei; Farzaneh Montazerifar; Monir Eftekharenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. D...

  18. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The...

  19. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  20. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...

  1. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents

  2. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  3. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  4. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  6. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung in a 6-year-old boy

    Peer Wildbrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lung tumours, especially the mucoepidermoid cancer of the bronchus, are very uncommon in childhood. Obtaining the diagnosis might be difficult due to unspecific initial symptoms but early detection and treatment is crucial for a good long-term survival. Bronchoscopy is considered the "gold standard" for making the diagnosis. The recommended therapy for a mucoepidermoid lung cancer is sleeve lobectomy with favourable overall survival after complete resection. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with a right-upper-lobe bronchus tumour. The histological examination revealed a low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  7. Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart

    Rochtchina Elena; Wang Jie; Tan Ava; Mitchell Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, we aimed to compare age-specific cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract prevalence in two surveys 6 years apart. Methods The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible) in cross-section I (1992–4) and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible) in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I). Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cat...

  8. Health among 6-year-old children in a Swedish county: based on the Health Dialogue

    Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Asplund, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the experiences of self-reported health (SRH) of 6-year-old boys and girls. Background: The goals for the Swedish School Health Services (SHS) are to identify health problems, take measures to prevent illness, and promote health. One approach used to achieve this is the use of the Health Dialogue (HD) questionnaire. The HD is offered at three occasions during compulsory school and once in high school; it follows the child’s development and growth from 6 to 16 years old. Method...

  9. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  10. Academic outcomes following a school-based RCT for ADHD : 6 year follow-up.

    Sayal, K.; Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.; Kasim, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For children with high levels of ADHD symptoms, to investigate the impact of early school-based interventions on academic outcomes in mid-childhood. Methods A 6 year follow-up of 4-5 year olds (n=52,075) whose schools participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial for children at risk of ADHD. School-level interventions involved the provision of a booklet with evidence-based information (book) and/or feedback of names (identification) of children with high levels of...

  11. Reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Japanese Preschool Children Aged 4–6 Years

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used as a brief behavioral screening. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the 3- to 4-year-old version of the SDQ (SDQ 3–4) in Japanese preschool children. Methods The SDQ 3–4 was administered to 754 parents who had 4- to 6-year-old children attending kindergartens or childcare centers in Wako City, Japan, at 2 different times (Time 1 and Time 2) over a 2-week...

  12. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The general tendencies of change of these indexes are exposed during three years.

  13. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; ORREGO, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; M. Vásquez; L. Díaz; Andrews, M.; M. Arredondo

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-fou...

  14. Dietary sodium

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  15. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

    Shiji K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60% were males. There is strong hazardous association between sex and speech delay. Statistical test also shows that there is association between speech Delay and Sex i . e . , t he result is highly Statistically Significant , ( p< 0.005 . Hence males have more speech Delay than Females. LEST – this simple validatedor standardized scree ning tool will be useful for professionals to give early intervention. The Statistical method used is Chi - Square test. This test can be extrapolated to the general population. This test - LEST has been validated by Nair M.K.C et al.KEY WORDS : Speech delay , Language delay , LEST

  16. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  17. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old Boy with Advanced Renal Failure

    Majid MALAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Malak M, Barzgar M. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old boy with Advanced Renal Failure. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2:61-63. AbstractBaclofen is a drug for many diseases for all ages, but it is hazardous in patients with renal failure. This article talks about a case of baclofen overdose in a child with renal failure.A 6-year-old boy admitted to the emergency department with a loss of consciousness, hypotonia, and areflexia following administration of 20 mg baclofen (1mg/kg/daily in total dose for his voiding dysfunction. His laboratory tests showed advanced renal failure. After withholding the medication andsupportive therapy, he recovered completely after two days. After arousal, he complained of insomnia, strange sensations on the skin, intentional tremors, and ataxia. He left the hospital in good condition in three days.Renal function control before baclofen administration is mandatory especially in high-risk groups. A total dose of 1mg/kg lead to encephalopathy in children with advanced renal failure, with subtle persistent complaints persist are often overlooked for a while.

  18. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  19. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  20. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Under 6-year Olds in South Khorasan, Iran

    Hassan Mehrjoofard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Malnutrition is one of the important health problems throughout the world, particularly in developing countries, which has undesirable effects on mental and physical health of children. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of malnutrition in children under 6 years old in Privince South Khorasan, Iran, in 2007. Methods:This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was conducted on children under 6 years old in South Khorasan Iran, belonging to six urban and rural regions applying multistage cluster sampling methodology. Data were collected through measuring weight and height, structural questionnaires Anthropometric Nutrution Indicators Survey, and face-to-face interviews with mothers. Malnutrition was measured on the basis of the indices underweight, wasting and stunting. The obtained data was analyzed by means of chi-square test in the packages SPSS and EPI-Info 2000, taking α= 0.05 as the significant level. Findings:Out of 1807 children 51.7% were males, 52.2% living in urban areas, and 37% were under 24 months old. Weight index was normal in 52.2% children, 34.4% lightly underweight, 11.7% moderately underweight and 1.2% severely underweight. Prevalence of underweight had a significant relationship to habitation, mothers' job and parents education level. According to stunting criteria, 55% were normal, 28.4% lightly stunted 12.7% were moderate, and 3.9% severe stunted. Stunting also had a significant relationship to habitation, age, mothers job, and parents' level of education. Wasting criteria showed that 67.8% were normal 24.7% light, 5.9% moderate and 1.6% had severe wasting. This had a significant relationship to sex and habitation. Conclusion:Prevalence of malnutrition was in children and its relationship to socioeconomic variables, measures such as increasing parents education - especially mothers knowledge - constancy of breast feeding until the age of 2 years, and promoting nutrition status

  1. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  2. SCREENING OF THE PSYCHICAL DISTURBANCES OF THE CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OLD

    P. CAKAROVA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of optimal physical and psychical development of the child is first-degree health care. Discovering the psychical disturbances in time and reasons that cause is a precondition for adequate treatment and prophylaxis.The objects of our study are 490 children from 3 to 6 years old. We used the screening test of McCuire J. and N. Nichman.We found a relatively high percent of children with psychical disturbances. They are noticed more often in the younger children. To specify psychical disturbances we made some additional studies. The early discovering of psychical disturbances gives the possibility for timely treatment and recovery of normal psychical state of child.

  3. Gamma-ray upper limits on magnetars with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F; de Ona-Wilhelmi, Emma

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for gamma-ray emission from 20 magnetars using 6 years of Fermi, Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently-known magnetars is found. We derived the most stringent upper limits to date on the 0.1--10 GeV emission of Galactic magnetars, which are estimated between $\\sim10^{-12}-10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Gamma-ray pulsations were searched for the four magnetars having reliable ephemerides over the observing period, but none were detected. On the other hand, we also studied the gamma-ray morphology and spectra of seven Supernova Remnants associated or adjacent to the magnetars.

  4. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L; Koch, A B; Froberg, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area and...

  5. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C;

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high......Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify children at increased cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to study whether markers of metabolism and inflammation, for example, circulating plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor, are associated with cardiometabolic......-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and the reciprocal value of fitness (maximum watts per kilogram). Overweight was defined using international classification of body mass index cutoff points for children. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte...

  6. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  7. Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart

    Rochtchina Elena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we aimed to compare age-specific cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC cataract prevalence in two surveys 6 years apart. Methods The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible in cross-section I (1992–4 and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I. Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Cortical cataract was defined if cortical opacity comprised ≥ 5% of lens area. Nuclear cataract was defined if nuclear opacity ≥ Wisconsin standard 4. PSC was defined if any present. Any cataract was defined to include persons who had previous cataract surgery. Weighted kappa for inter-grader reliability was 0.82, 0.55 and 0.82 for cortical, nuclear and PSC cataract, respectively. We assessed age-specific prevalence using an interval of 5 years, so that participants within each age group were independent between the two surveys. Results Age and gender distributions were similar between the two populations. The age-specific prevalence of cortical (23.8% in 1st, 23.7% in 2nd and PSC cataract (6.3%, 6.0% was similar. The prevalence of nuclear cataract increased slightly from 18.7% to 23.9%. After age standardization, the similar prevalence of cortical (23.8%, 23.5% and PSC cataract (6.3%, 5.9%, and the increased prevalence of nuclear cataract (18.7%, 24.2% remained. Conclusion In two surveys of two population-based samples with similar age and gender distributions, we found a relatively stable cortical and PSC cataract prevalence over a 6-year period. The increased prevalence of nuclear cataract deserves further study.

  8. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE AGED BETWEEN 0-6 YEARS

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study documenting spontaneous and coordinated growth changes in young Romanian children with cleft palate is developed, for identifying the functional adaptations of oral cavity to the disrupted architecture of palate in children with cleft palate, the 3D analysis of maxillary casts being applied to visualize, evaluate and measure maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate, as well as to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be imagined from the dimensional changes produced in the first 6 years of life. Two experimental groups were involved in the study, a former one, including 44 patients with cleft palate (16 boys and 28 girls, aged between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in the St.Mary University Children Hospital from Ia[i. The resulting maxillary casts were 3D scanned at Multinr company, in Sf. Gheorghe. The maxillary alveolar arch lines, the 4 Stilmann points (TD, TS, CD, CS and the maxillary interincisive point were identified and marked by the orthodontist, being reproduced with 6 degrees of tridimensional freedom. The coordinates of this point were transferred to the CAD system, to graphically recreate the computerized three-dimensional alveolar arch. 4 direct measurements have been made, namely: anterior and posterior diameter of the alveolar maxillary arch, length of the alveolar arch and depth of the palate. Student’s t test, both simple and bivariate, performed with SPSS 13.0 soft, showed statistic significance for the dimensional differences of the alveolar maxillary arch in children with cleft palate, comparatively with the healthy control group. Conclusion: Cleft palate patients have narrower and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and a flattened palate.

  9. Changes in BMI over 6 years: the role of demographic and neighborhood characteristics

    Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324

  10. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  11. Antitumor Immunity and Dietary Compounds

    Annalise R. Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which natural dietary compounds exert their antitumor effects have been the focus of a large number of research efforts in recent years. Induction of apoptosis by inhibition of cell proliferative pathways is one of the common means of cell death employed by these dietary compounds. However, agents that can activate an antitumor immune response in addition to a chemotherapeutic effect may be useful adjuvants or alternative therapies for the treatment of cancer. The focus of this review is to highlight representative dietary compounds, namely Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, curcumin and resveratrol with special emphasis on their antitumor immune mechanism of action. Each of these dietary compounds and their sources has a history of safe human use as food or in herbal medicine traditions, potentially making them ideal therapeutics. Here we report the recent advances in the cellular immune mechanisms utilized by these compounds to induce antitumor immunity. Taken together, these findings provide a new perspective for exploiting novel dietary compounds as chemoimmunotherapeutic anti-cancer agents.

  12. The sentinel node procedure in cutaneous melanoma: an overview of 6 years' experience

    The purpose of this article is to survey the worldwide history and experience with the SN procedure since Morton et al.'s report 1992. The technique is described, and its validity and the variables that influence is success are considered. The staging function of the procedure and its potential role in respect of the use of adjuvant therapy are also addressed

  13. Insomnia, daytime sleepiness and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in the elderly: a 6-year prospective study.

    Isabelle Jaussent

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine 1 the associations between history of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and insomnia complaints and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, and 2 the relationships between sleep complaints and future CVD in persons over 65. METHODS: CVD was assessed at baseline and during two, four, and six-year follow-up in 5494 non-demented subjects. Self-reported insomnia complaints (poor sleep quality, difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintening sleep, and early morning awakening, EDS and sleep medication use were evaluated at baseline. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models, with delayed entry and age of participants as the time scale, were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. RESULTS: At baseline, 748 participants had a past-history of CVD. A past-history of CVD was associated with EDS (OR = 1.28 95%CI = [1.05-1.57] and the number of insomnia complaints (OR = 1.26 95%CI = [1.03-1.55] for 1-2 insomnia complaints; OR = 1.32 95%CI = [1.03-1.71] for ≥3 complaints. In longitudinal analyses, neither the four components of insomnia nor the number of insomnia complaints were significantly associated with first or recurrent CVD events (n = 391 events. EDS was independently associated with future CVD events even after adjusting for prescribed sleep medication and past-history of CVD (HR = 1.35 95%CI = [1.06-1.71]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the relationships between sleep complaints and CVD could be complex. Insomnia complaints are more likely a consequence of CVD, whereas EDS appears to be a determinant of CVD independently of past-history of CVD. EDS screening may thus constitute a means of detecting persons at high risk of CVD.

  14. Dietary guidelines

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in...... relation to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors...... involved and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of...

  15. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  16. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  17. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  18. High latitude climate forcing by 18.6-year lunar tidal fluctuations

    Upper layer ocean temperatures in the northern North Pacific increased by more than 2C in 10 years beginning in 1972. Proxy time series indicate that this is not a monotonic signal but rather a very low frequency fluctuation. The sea surface temperatures, which began in 1946, and the air temperature at Sitka since 1910, show fluctuations of 15-25 years. A least squares fit of the 18.6-year lunar declination signal to the 5-year block-averaged air temperature at Sitka can account for 44% of its variance. A modification of the mean ocean circulation by the change in lunar tides is suggested as the cause for this fluctuation. Similar sea surface temperature fluctuations have been observed for the northern North Atlantic Ocean from 1876 to 1965 but they appear to be out of phase with the North Pacific. The Atlantic fluctuations also have a small amplitude; 0.24C versus 0.52C for the North Pacific. Low frequency cycles are also evident in the air temperatures from the Hudson Bay region since 1700. The opposite phasing of the water and air temperatures of the North Atlantic and North Pacific is consistent with the tidal modulation of the mean ocean circulation. The most recent minimum for the Sitka air temperature should have occurred in September 1989

  19. DPT Vaccination Complications in Children up to 6 Years of Age in Tehran

    N Hadjizadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The expanded global use of vaccines has led to eradication of some contagious diseases in children. This should not lead to forget the fact that these vaccines can be associated by complications and side effects. We studied 450 children, who had received DPT vaccine at the age of under 6 years. 2 to 7 days after the DPT injection we could not observe any seriously dangerous complication, although 82.4% of the children had general and 83% local complications. Fever with a frequency of 73% was the most frequency observed general complication, this was followed by lethargy, loss of appetite, and persisted crying. The most frequency observed local complication consisted of pain at the site of injection with 63% of cases followed by swelling, erythema and induration. By increasing age, local swelling and erythema increases (P<0.001 and induration decreases (P<0.001. General complications decreases with increasing age and vaccinations, which is especially remarkable in 2 to 7 year old children (5th vaccination.

  20. DETERMINATION OF ANATOMICAL TYPE OF HEAD AND FACE IN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS IN AHWAZ

    Z. Safikhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cephalometry is an important branch of anthropology in which the dimensions of head and face can be determined. These dimensions are used to show indexes for studying brain growth and formation of all types of head and face. Indexes are vary from 65 to 95 for head and 65 to105 for face, which are used to determine 4 international anatomic types of head and 5 international anatomic types of face. The present study was carried out to determine all types of head and face among subjects aged less than 6 years. A total of 267(145 male and 131 female children were enrolled in this study. Convenience sampling was collected from kindergarten and preschool children. The subjects categorized to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 months and 11 groups of 12-72 months. Appropriate equipments were used for measuring height and width of the head and face. The results of this study indicated that brachycephalic (38% was the most common anatomical type of head, euryprosopic (38.6% and hyperleptoprosopic type (4.5% for face.

  1. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  2. Patient Responses to Dental Implant-retained Mandibular Overdenture Therapy: A 6-year Clinical Study

    Perng-Ru Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to record subjective patient experiences withrespect to the surgical placement of dental implants and the functioning ofmandibular implant-retained overdentures versus conventional dentures.Methods: Completely edentulous patients (n = 56 unable to wear a conventionalmandibular complete denture were each treated with 4 one-stage titaniumplasma sprayed or Sandblasted Large-grit Acid-etched (SLA screw implantsand overdentures retained by a cast bar with extracoronal attachments. Fiftysixpatients were subsequently clinically evaluated over a period of up to 6years. Fifty-three patients responded to questions on their experiences priorto and after treatment with implant retained overdentures.Results: No implants or restorations failed during the observation period. Most of thepatients (96% felt satisfied with their new overdentures, and reported theirnew dentures fit comfortably.Conclusions: The use of implants to retain and support the denture improved comfort, givingthe patients more self-confidence and improved social interaction, inaddition to oral rehabilitation. This study demonstrates rehabilitation of themandibluar arch with an implant-retained overdenture is a predictable treatmentprotocol.

  3. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 6 Year Olds of Yazd City

    M Sadr Bafghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric disorder in school age children and has a negative effect on the individual’s general functions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in preschool 6 year old children in Yazd in 2005 and the influence of gender, birth weight, birth order and parental education on ADHD. Methods: 400 preschool children including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected randomly through sampling method and the data of the cross sectional research was collected via compiled questionnaires based on the DSM-IV criteria and interview of parents. Data of this investigation was analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The results showed that general prevalence of ADHD was 16/3% and more in boys (19/5% than girls (13%. Most of the parents of the affected children were illiterate or uneducated. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, birth weight, order and ADHD frequency. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of ADHD among children in Yazd and its undesirable outcome, it is recommended to have a preventive mental health program for screening and treatment.

  4. 1-6 Years Aged Childrens Mothers First Aid for Burns Observation in Mardin City Center

    Betul Battaloglu Inanc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available        Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the mothers’ knowledge levels about burns and first aid. When they encounter burns, what will they do in the first instance and emergency application. At the end of this research correct information given to mothers. Aimed to supply the deficiency information. Material and Method: 25-49 age group of mothers who have 1-6 years aged childrens’ in the study were choisen ramdomly. After being informed about the study, only volunteries for questionnaires were used. There were a thousand mothers. Results: Children’ 21.6 % have burns. 81.4% burns were in their house , 18.6 % burns were out of their house. Often burns case were 2-4 years aged group children. 89.6 % mothers found themselves have no true knowledge about first aid for burns. Discussion: Mothers’ knowledge more deficient about the first aid for the burns. In this regard mothers’ lack of knowledge must be correct with the training activities to be applied. Prime necessity of the mothers were informed about the right applications.

  5. Bucket-handle tear of a discoid lateral meniscus in a 6-year-old girl

    Yalcin, Nadir; Bektaser, Bulent; Cicekli, Ozgur; Dogan, Metin

    2004-01-01

    A six-year-old girl was examined upon development of pain, swelling, and locking in her right knee after a considerable period of discomfort and popping sensation. She had no history of trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a discoid lateral meniscus, filling the entire lateral plateau and exhibiting signs of degeneration. On arthroscopic examination, a bucket-handle tear of the discoid lateral meniscus was noted and the patient was treated with arthroscopic subtotal meniscectomy. During ...

  6. Recovery of the 6-year signal in length of day and its long-term decreasing trend

    Duan, Pengshuo; Liu, Genyou; Liu, Lintao; Hu, Xiaogang; Hao, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Binbin

    2015-10-01

    There is a significant 6-year oscillation signal (called 6-year signal in this paper) existing in the interannual variations of length of day (LOD). It is unclear to understand its nature variation features. This paper extracts quantitatively the 6-year signal, from 1962~2012, using normal Morlet wavelet (NMWT) method combining wavelet packet and Fourier analysis technique, for the first time, and we investigate it in both time and frequency domains. The results indicate that the amplitude of a 6-year signal shows a long-term decreasing trend and the total amplitude reduction is about 0.05 ms during the past 50 years. The ratio of above reduction to the mean amplitude of 0.124 ms reaches 40 %. For interpreting the phenomenon on the above long-term decreasing trend, this paper proposes two alternatives; however, there is still no firm conclusion and it is required to be further explored.

  7. Detection of CMV DNA in the perilymph of a 6-year-old boy with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Foulon, Ina; Soetens, Oriane; Vleurinck, Leen; Gordts, Frans; Leus, Astrid; Naessens, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who received a cochlear implant for profound sensorineural hearing loss after being born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Even after 6 years, CMV DNA was still found in the perilymph of the cochlea. Our case shows that CMV DNA can be present in the cochlea years after congenital CMV infection, and it can explain why progressive and/or late-onset hearing loss occurs in these children. PMID:27304443

  8. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...

  9. EQAS for peripheral blood morphology in Spain: a 6-year experience.

    Gutiérrez, G; Merino, A; Domingo, A; Jou, J M; Reverter, J C

    2008-12-01

    The Spanish haematology external quality assessment scheme (EQAS), established in 1984, is run by the Spanish Haematology and Haemotherapy Association (AEHH) [Quality Assurance in Health Care 3 (1991) 75] and functions to evaluate the quality and reproducibility of the assessment of diagnostic samples by clinical laboratories. The Hospital Clinic of the University of Barcelona (HCB) serves as the EQAS Coordination Centre and follows the guidelines established by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology [Annali dell'Istituto superiore di Sanità 31 (1995) 95; International Journal of Hematology 68 (1998) 45]. During the period 2001-2006, replicates of 25 different blood films were sent to 604 EQAS participants for cell morphology evaluation. Some patient details corresponding to the samples were disclosed, such us age, sex, haemoglobin value and white blood cell count. The participants were asked to select up to four significant morphology features using a coding list, provided by the Coordination Centre, which included significant morphological alterations that appear in haematopoietic cells. For each survey, individual results were assessed against the morphological reference results (MRR) established by the Cytology Group of the AEHH ('true' answers). This paper describes the organization of the 6-year-long study and the evaluation of laboratory performance for blood smear interpretation by the Spanish haematology EQAS. Different performance levels were detected relative to the laboratory category. Laboratories providing services to hospitalized patients showed higher performances compared with laboratories providing services to nonhospitalized patients. Pathological lymphoid cells were the most difficult to identify by the participants. To improve the results in EQAS peripheral blood morphology, the development of specific cytology educational trainings is discussed. PMID:18983297

  10. Mental Health Outcomes of Cocaine-Exposed Children at 6 Years of Age

    Linares, Teresa J.; Singer, Lynn T.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Hussey, Patrick; Minnes, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess 6-year-old cocaine- and noncocaine-exposed children's mental health outcomes controlling for potential confounders. Methods The sample consisted of 322 children [169 cocaine exposed (CE) and 153 noncocaine exposed (NCE)] enrolled in a longitudinal study since birth. At age 6, children were assessed for mental health symptoms using the Dominic Interactive (DI), a child self-report measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a caregiver report of behavioral problems. Results CE children were more likely to self-report symptoms in the probable clinical range for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In contrast, prenatal cocaine exposure was not related to child behavior based on the CBCL. After control for exposure, CE children in adoptive or foster care were rated as having more problems with aggression, externalizing behaviors, and total behavioral problems than NCE children and CE children in maternal or relative care. Also, CE children in adoptive or foster care self-reported more externalizing symptoms than CE children in maternal or relative care and NCE children. Findings could not be attributed to caregiver intelligence or depressive symptoms, or to the quality of the home environment. Conclusions CE children report more symptoms of ODD and ADHD than nonexposed children. Adoptive or foster caregivers rated their CE children as having more behavioral problems than did maternal or relative caregivers of CE children or parents of NCE children. Although further studies are needed to understand the basis for the more negative ratings by adoptive or foster caregivers of their CE children, the self-report of CE children indicates a need for psychological interventions. PMID:15802608

  11. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  12. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  13. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  14. The pattern of psoriatic arthritis in Kashmir: A 6-year prospective study

    Shagufta Rather

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence, clinical presentation, and patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA vary in different parts of the world. The scenario of PsA in west is different from that of Asia. Moreover, the oligoarticular type which was considered most prevalent earlier has been replaced by polyarticular type. Aim: The study was to the clinical profile of psoriasis patients associated with PsA in Kashmir valley of India. Materials and Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective, hospital-based study involving 150 successive patients of PsA over a span of 6 years. Severity of the skin and nail involvement was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, respectively. PsA was diagnosed by classification criteria for PsA. The number and pattern of swollen and tender joints was counted and classified by Moll and Wright′s classification criteria. Results: Plaque-type psoriasis was the most common clinical type, observed in 122 (81.33% patients followed by erythrodermic psoriasis in 10 (6.66% patients and pustular psoriasis in eight (5.33% patients. PsA occurred between 30 and 40 years of age in 105 (70% patients. The cutaneous involvement occurred before joint involvement in 113 (75.33%, while they occurred simultaneously in 30 (20% cases and the PsA preceded the skin involvement in seven (4.66% cases. Symmetrical polyarthritis was the commonest clinical presentation and was seen in 90 (60% patients. Nail involvement due to psoriasis was present in 120 (80% patients. Commonest nail change found was pitting and seen in 60 (40% patients. Conclusion: The clinical pattern of PsA varies in different parts of the world. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of PsA in a given area is necessary for the successful management of this disease.

  15. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  16. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Lianhong Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods: In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI in children aged 3–6 years. Results: A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001 in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001. Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29. The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76 in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions: Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity.

  17. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  18. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  19. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  20. Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision of breast papillomas: review of 6-years experience

    Aim: To review the outcome of vacuum-assisted removal of breast papillomas performed in the Bolton Breast Unit. Materials and methods: Twenty-six benign breast papillomas were excised using an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted technique under local anaesthetic over a 6-year period. An 8 G Mammotome was used for 12 lesions, an 11 G Mammotome for 13 lesions and a 7 G EnCor for one lesion. The mean lesion size was 9 mm (range 3-17 mm). The mean number of cores taken per case was nine. Results: One patient developed a post-procedure haematoma, which did not require treatment. There were no other short-term complications. None of the papillomas were associated with atypia or malignancy. Subsequent breast imaging (mostly routine screening mammography) was reviewed and evidence of recurrence recorded. To date, 16 patients have received at least one subsequent routine screening mammogram, with a mean follow-up to latest mammogram of 30 months. Mammographic evidence of papilloma regrowth has been observed in two patents, with a third patient presenting with recurrence of the original symptom of a palpable lump. All three recurrent lesions were surgically excised and confirmed to be benign papillomas. These lesions measured 6, 12, and 15 mm prior to the original vacuum-assisted excision. Conclusion: The findings suggests that vacuum-assisted removal is a satisfactory alternative to surgery for the majority of patients, but that particular attention should be paid to ensuring complete lesion removal in view of the relatively high recurrence rate in this series.

  1. Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision of breast papillomas: review of 6-years experience

    Maxwell, A.J. [Bolton Breast Unit, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: anthony.maxwell@rbh.nhs.uk

    2009-08-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of vacuum-assisted removal of breast papillomas performed in the Bolton Breast Unit. Materials and methods: Twenty-six benign breast papillomas were excised using an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted technique under local anaesthetic over a 6-year period. An 8 G Mammotome was used for 12 lesions, an 11 G Mammotome for 13 lesions and a 7 G EnCor for one lesion. The mean lesion size was 9 mm (range 3-17 mm). The mean number of cores taken per case was nine. Results: One patient developed a post-procedure haematoma, which did not require treatment. There were no other short-term complications. None of the papillomas were associated with atypia or malignancy. Subsequent breast imaging (mostly routine screening mammography) was reviewed and evidence of recurrence recorded. To date, 16 patients have received at least one subsequent routine screening mammogram, with a mean follow-up to latest mammogram of 30 months. Mammographic evidence of papilloma regrowth has been observed in two patents, with a third patient presenting with recurrence of the original symptom of a palpable lump. All three recurrent lesions were surgically excised and confirmed to be benign papillomas. These lesions measured 6, 12, and 15 mm prior to the original vacuum-assisted excision. Conclusion: The findings suggests that vacuum-assisted removal is a satisfactory alternative to surgery for the majority of patients, but that particular attention should be paid to ensuring complete lesion removal in view of the relatively high recurrence rate in this series.

  2. Observing the Interstellar Medium Flow over the Past 6 Years with IBEX-Lo

    Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the interstellar neutral (ISN) gas flow over the past 6 years during the winter/spring when the Earth's motion opposes the ISN flow direction. Since IBEX observes near the perihelion of the interstellar atom trajectories, we are able to use an analytical model (Lee et al. 2012) based upon orbital mechanics to determine characteristics of the interstellar flow. The interstellar inflow latitude, velocity, and temperature are coupled to the inflow longitude and are restricted by the IBEX observations to a narrow valley in this parameter space (McComas et al. 2012). In our original analysis we found that the small spacecraft spin axis pointing out of the ecliptic plane had a significant influence on the determination of the ISN inflow vector (Möbius et al. 2012; Bzowski et al. 2012). Introducing the spacecraft spin axis tilt into the analytical model has shown that IBEX observations with various spin axis tilt orientations can help restrict the natural degeneracy of the ISN flow parameters as a function of inflow longitude. The IBEX operations team was able to successfully point the spin axis to be in the ecliptic during the 2012 and 2013 seasons and about 5 degrees below the ecliptic during the 2014 season. With this robust data set we are able to further test and develop the analytical model while producing a more comprehensive analysis of the ISN Flow parameters. We found that in its current implementation the analytical model describes the ISN flow most precisely for the spin axis orientation exactly in the ecliptic. This analysis refines the derived ISN flow parameters with a possible reconciliation between velocity vectors found with IBEX and Ulysses, but at a substantially higher temperature than previously reported.

  3. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: disease control and quality of life at 6 years

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may yield disease control for prostate cancer in a brief, hypofractionated treatment regimen without increasing treatment toxicity. Our report presents a 6-year update from 304 low- (n = 211), intermediate- (n = 81), and high-risk (n = 12) prostate cancer patients who received CyberKnife SBRT. The median PSA at presentation was 5.8 ng/ml. Fifty-seven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for up to one year. The first 50 patients received a total dose of 35 Gy in 5 fractions of 7 Gy. The subsequent 254 patients received a total dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy. Toxicity was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary and rectal toxicity scale. Biochemical failure was assessed using the nadir + 2 definition. No patients experienced Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5% of patients experienced any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicities. Late urinary Grade II complications were observed in 4% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 9% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Five (2%) late Grade III urinary toxicities occurred in patients who were treated with 36.25 Gy. Late Grade II rectal complications were observed in 2% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 5% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) scores initially decreased, but later returned to baseline values. An overall decrease of 20% in the sexual QOL score was observed. QOL in each domain was not differentially affected by dose. For patients that were potent prior to treatment, 75% stated that they remained sexually potent. Actuarial 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 97% for low-risk, 90.7% for intermediate-risk, and 74.1% for high-risk patients. PSA fell to a median of 0.12 ng/ml at 5 years; dose did not influence median PSA levels. In this large series with long-term follow-up, we found excellent biochemical control rates and

  4. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  5. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  6. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  7. Dietary Behaviors Predict Glycemic Control in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Nansel, Tonja; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Wysocki, Tim; Laffel, Lori M. B.; ,

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between dietary adherence and glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 119 youth aged 9–14 years (mean ± SD 12.1 ± 1.6 years) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (5.4 ± 3.1 years). Dietary adherence was assessed using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile diet domain. Higher score defined greater dietary adherence. Glycemic control was determined by A1C. RESULTS—Dietary adherenc...

  8. Daily dietary intake

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  9. Association between intake of dietary protein and 3-year-change in body growth among normal and overweight 6-year-old boys and girls (CoSCIS)

    van Vught, Anneke Jah; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;

    2010-01-01

    2001-2002, and again 3 years later. Boys and girls were separated into normal weight and overweight, based on BMI quintiles. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Associations between change (Delta) in height, FMI and FFMI, respectively, and habitual PROT intake as well...... as ARG and LYS were analysed by multiple linear regressions, adjusted for baseline height, FMI or FFMI and energy intake, age, physical activity and socio-economic status. SETTING: Eighteen schools in two suburban communities in the Copenhagen (Denmark) area participated in the study. SUBJECTS: In...... all, 223 children's data were collected for the present study. RESULTS: High ARG intake was associated with linear growth (beta = 1.09 (se 0.54), P = 0.05) among girls. Furthermore, in girls, DeltaFMI had a stronger inverse association with high ARG intake, if it was combined with high LYS intake...

  10. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  11. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test ...

  12. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year Children

    Reza Mostafavi; Vahid Ziaee; Hakimeh Akbari; Samaneh Haji-Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing.Methods: In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test...

  13. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old children in Finnmark County, North Norway

    Kokkvoll, Ane Sofie; Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt; Flægstad, Trond; Njølstad, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The aim was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old children in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway. Methods:  This is a survey of 1774 children born during 1999 and 2000 from 18 of 19 child healthcare centres in Finnmark. Body mass index data extracted retrospectively in 2007 from health records at the age of 6 years were compared with international definitions of over- and underweight. The prevalence figures were further compared wit...

  14. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Castetbon Katia; Andreyeva Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2...

  15. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  16. Reliability and Validity of “Parents’ Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children” Scale

    Ozgul Polat; Asude B. Dağal

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents’ Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors Of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents’ evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children’s responsible behaviors . The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors. Item total correlations were calculated and independent samples t-test was conducted in order to determine the presence of a meaningful difference b...

  17. Brief Family Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Initiation: School-Level Growth Curve Analyses 6 Years Following Baseline.

    Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Azevedo,Kari

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the…

  18. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours over a School-Year: Differences between 6-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Hammarberg, Annie; Hagekull, Berit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms.…

  19. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  20. Temporal Learning in 4 1/2- and 6-Year-Old Children: Role of Instructions and Prior Knowledge.

    Droit, Sylvie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)

  1. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  2. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates......Rationale Biomarkers predicting development of atopic disease are needed for targeted preventive measures and to study if disease pathology may be active prior to onset of symptoms. Objective To investigate whether eosinophil protein-X, leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (prostaglandin...... D2 metabolite) assessed in urine from healthy at-risk neonates precede development of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life. Methods We measured eosinophil protein-X (N=369), leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 (N=367), and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (N=366) in urine from 1-month-old children participating...

  3. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice; Zahra, Jesmond; Debbie A Lawlor

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children’s physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children.Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5 to 6 year-old children’s objectively-assessed physical activity.Methods: 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurtu...

  4. The socio-emotional responses to ostracism of 4-6 years children with autism spectrum disorder

    Sham, Oi-tao, Tiffany; 沈愛道

    2014-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have social-communication deficits and are often targets of bullying or ostracism. However, in the past, little has been done to examine these children’s response to negative social interactions. This study investigated how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder detect and respond to ostracism. Thirty 4-6 years old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were either included or excluded via an online ball-tossing game. Participant’s detection, feel...

  5. Auditory ERP Differences in the Perception of Anticipated Speech Sequences in 5 - 6 Years Old Children and Adults

    Portnova Galina; Martynova Olga

    2014-01-01

    The perception of complex auditory information such as complete speech sequences develops during human ontogeny. In order to explore age differences in the auditory perception of predictable speech sequences we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to anticipated speech sequences as successive and reverse digital series with randomly omitted digits. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differe...

  6. Language processing during natural sleep in a 6-year-old boy as assessed by functional MRI

    Wilke, Marko; Holland, Scott K.; Ball, William S.

    2003-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 6-year-old child prior to neuro surgical intervention. A stories-listening task was used, revealing a left-lateralized language network. The task was repeated during the same session when the child had fallen asleep and surprisingly yielded strong activation in similar language areas. Our findings suggest that language processing does occur during natural sleep even in young children, potentially allowing for an assessment of language f...

  7. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available <0.001. The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5% followed by students (0.7% and businessmen (0.25%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity.

  8. Illness in Returned Travelers and Immigrants/Refugees: The 6-Year Experience of Two Australian Infectious Diseases Units.

    O'Brien, Daniel P.; Leder, Karin; Matchett, Elizabeth; Brown, Graham V.; Torresi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data comparing returned travelers and immigrants/refugees managed in a hospital setting is lacking. METHODS: We prospectively collected data on 1,106 patients with an illness likely acquired overseas who presented to two hospital-based Australian infectious diseases units over a 6-year period. RESULTS: Eighty-three percent of patients were travelers and 17% immigrants/refugees. In travelers, malaria (19%), gastroenteritis/diarrhea (15%), and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI...

  9. Oral health in 4-6 years children with cleft lip/palate: A case control study

    Amandeep Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oro-facial clefts are a major public health problem. Children with clefts rarely escape dental complications. Aims: This study was to determine differences in the dental caries experience, gingival health, and prevalence malocclusion, enamel defects and oral mucosal lesions among 4-6 year old children with and without cleft in Panchkula. Materials and Methods: The sampling frame consisted of 4-6 year old children with clefts visiting Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, India. As a control group an age (±3 months and gender-matched sample from the same geographical areas were recruited. Dental caries status, gingival health status, developmental defect of enamel, malocclusion and oral mucosal health were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Significant differences in dental caries and gingival health status were found between children with and without cleft. Anterior open-bite, increased overjet and oral mucosal lesions (P 0.05. Conclusion: Differences of oral health status exist among 4-6 year old children with and without clefts. Children fare worse in terms of dental caries, gingival health, oral mucosal health and malocclusion.

  10. Dietary determinants of obesity

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  11. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  12. Inference of strong magnetic fields inside the earth's core from the detection of torsional waves with a 6-year period

    Complete text of publication follows. From geomagnetic observations recorded above the Earth's surface, down ward continuation of a potential magnetic field gives r.m.s. radial field values of the order 0.3 mT at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Further assumptions are needed to infer the field sustaining the geodynamo inside the conducting Earth's core, which strength cannot be directly probed. A few mT is found by applying scaling laws derived from either force balance or power dissipation arguments in numerical simulations. Nutation data and theory indicate 7 mT at the inner core boundary (ICB) to account for the dissipation in the Earth's core. Recently, the magnetostrophic balance applied to quasi-geostrophic core flow models indicated as well a few mT inside the core. However, a 60-year signal found in the length-of-day variation (lod) has been associated with torsional waves carried by a much weaker internal field, of amplitude similar to that obtained at the CMB. Instead, we find in the present study a 6-year period torsional oscillation that predicts well both the phase and the amplitude of the 6-year lod signal detected over the second half of the twentieth century. Triggered every 6 years at the ICB, the waves propagate outwards through the Earth's core in a few years time. It suggests a large internal magnetic field strength that reconciles with previous estimates from geodynamo simulations, and supports the idea of a gravitational coupling between the inner core and the mantle.

  13. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  14. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  15. Dietary Fibre and Prebiotics

    Bellei G; Haslberger A

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fibre intake is associated with a myriad of health benefits. Among others, their fermentation by the microbiota results in the formation of short chain fatty acids, which protect against pathogenic bacteria. Together with dietary fibres, prebiotics are colonic nutrients but prebiotics are degraded and utilized only by beneficial bacteria, namely bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli. (S. Macfarlane, 2010)

  16. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  17. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of...

  18. Dietary Iron Intake and Risk of Parkinson's Disease

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Wing, Al; Ascherio, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Dietary iron is the most important source of iron stores. Several case-control studies have described the association of high dietary iron and Parkinson's disease, but prospective data are lacking. The authors prospectively followed 47,406 men and 76,947 women from the United States who provided information through a mailed questionnaire on their diet, medical history, and lifestyle practices between 1984 and 2000. The authors documented 422 new cases of Parkinson's disease. Total iron intake...

  19. Bohmian Histories and Decoherent Histories

    Hartle, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories -- sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their ...

  20. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year Children

    Reza Mostafavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing.Methods: In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2, a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions, the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest.Findings: The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group.Conclusion: SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children’s motor skills.

  1. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  2. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  3. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  4. The development of joke and irony understanding: a study with 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Angeleri, Romina; Airenti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that comprehending ironic utterances is a relatively late-developing skill, emerging around 5-6 years of age. This study investigated whether younger children might show an earlier understanding when ironic utterances are performed in familiar communicative situations, and investigated the relationships among irony comprehension, language, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities. A group of 100 children aged 3.0-6.5 years was presented with 4 types of puppet scenarios depicting different communicative interactions: control, joke, contingent irony and background irony stories. Results suggested that (a) even younger children easily understand jokes, and may sometimes understand ironies; (b) children's comprehension of irony continues to develop across early childhood; and (c) receptive vocabulary scores had simultaneous effects on irony comprehension and ToM performance. PMID:24364812

  5. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne;

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...... established and described previously2. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected aged, the infants received 3 different types of nutrition: A: human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier C: preterm formula. At 6 years of age, a dexa scan was performed......: It seems that HM is the preferable nutrition for preterm born children if a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass is regarded optimal. The results are not all significant, which might be due to the small sample size. Investigations of the remaining infants are awaited....

  6. The relation between measures of cognitive and motor functioning in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2016-07-01

    Specific relations between executive functions (working memory capacity, planning and problem-solving, inhibitory control) and motor skill performance (anticipatory motor planning, manual dexterity) were examined in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 40). Results showed that the two motor skill components were not correlated. Additionally, it was found that response planning performance was a significant predictor of anticipatory motor planning performance, whereas inhibitory control and working memory capacity measures were significant predictors of manual dexterity scores. Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive and motor skills are linked, but that manual dexterity and anticipatory motor planning involve different specialized skills. The current study provides support for specific relations between cognitive and motor performance, which has implications for early childhood cognitive-motor training and intervention programs. PMID:25820330

  7. Immediate Nonfunctional Loading of Two Single-Maxillary Postextractive Implants: 6-Year Postloading Results of Two Case Reports

    Ariano, Vincenzo; Mancini, Manuele; Cardi, Andrea; Condò, Roberta; Cerroni, Loredana; Pasquantonio, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss of single-maxillary immediate postextractive implants and immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL) during 72 months of follow-up. Material and Methods. Two single titanium implants (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3I, USA) were placed in two patients using INFL technique. Implant stability and crestal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. All osseointegrated implants were clinically successful after 6 years of functional loading. Conclusion. Within the limit of the present case report, the paper supports the concept that INFL of single dental implant can be a successful treatment procedure. PMID:27293915

  8. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p reintegration of accident victims. PMID:26687330

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in Shiraz, Iran: a 6-Year- Study of 768 Patients (2004-2010

    Arabion HR.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Information about etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year-period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. Materials and Method: The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospec-tively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. Results: A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women, whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women .The other etiologies were assault (5.2%, sport related injuries (1.3% and firearm injuries (1%. Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6% patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%, which seems to have been due to schools opening. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%, probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Conclusion: Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz.

  10. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  11. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  12. Dietary determinants of obesity.

    Du, Huaidong; Feskens, Edith

    2010-08-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss. PMID:20821929

  13. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern:Findings from NHANES Ⅲ

    Suthat; Liangpunsakul

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey METHODS:A total of 9877 subjects(5144 males) constituted the study cohort.Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center(MEC).Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period.Physical examination and history of alcoho...

  14. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled tria...

  15. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  16. Family History

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  17. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  18. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  19. The 3-6-year results of a modular noncemented low-bending stiffness hip implant. A preliminary study.

    Cameron, H U

    1993-06-01

    A review of the 3-6-year clinical and radiographic results of a modular noncemented stem has been carried out. This is a three-part stem consisting of a head, stem, and proximal sleeve. The stems are split distally like a clothespin in the coronal plane to reduce bending stiffness. No mechanical failures have occurred, including no bead separation from the single-layer porous-coated taper lock sleeves. Of the 48 cases, 13 had smooth stems distally while the rest were fluted. Five of the fluted stems were solid, that is, nonsplit. Clinical results are 93.7% excellent, 4.2% good, and 2.1% poor with the Harris hip rating. There have been no revisions. Thigh pain incidence with the distal split stem was 4.4%. Radiographic follow-up evaluations revealed nonprogressive radiolucency around one of the ingrowth sleeves. When inserted in varus the smooth stems developed some radiolucency around the distal end. Fluting of the stem appeared to prevent this. PMID:8326303

  20. Pronounced lipoatrophy in HIV-infected men receiving HAART for more than 6 years compared with the background population

    Hansen, AB; Lindegaard, B; Obel, N; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, H; Gerstoft, J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV-infected......OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV......-infected men who had received HAART for at least 6 years and 34 HIV-negative men. Regional body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting metabolic parameters were obtained. Associations between regional body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: HIV...... ratio (1.7 versus 1.2, P<0.001). Also, patients without clinical lipodystrophy had reduced amounts of limb andtrunk fat. In HIV-infected men, triglyceride levels were higher (2.0 versus 1.2 mmol/L, P<0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were lower (1.2 versus 1.3 mmol/L, P<0.05) and...

  1. Pronounced lipoatrophy in HIV-infected men receiving HAART for more than 6 years compared with the background population

    Hansen, AB; Lindegaard, B; Obel, N; Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, H; Gerstoft, J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV-infected......OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV......-infected men who had received HAART for at least 6 years and 34 HIV-negative men. Regional body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting metabolic parameters were obtained. Associations between regional body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: HIV...... ratio (1.7 versus 1.2, P<0.001). Also, patients without clinical lipodystrophy had reduced amounts of limb and trunk fat. In HIV-infected men, triglyceride levels were higher (2.0 versus 1.2 mmol/L, P<0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were lower (1.2 versus 1.3 mmol/L, P<0...

  2. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  3. The Effect of Distraction Technique on the Pain of Dressing Change among 3-6 Year-old Children

    Sima Kaheni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn dressings, debridement, surgical incisions, skin grafting and physical therapy are some of painful treatments of burn. According to the studies, distraction techniques have a significant effect on patients’ pain. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of distraction on pain of dressing change in second degree burn in 3-6 year-old children. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study, was conducted on 80 hospitalized children with second degree burn in 2015. Playing a video computer game for children during the dressing change procedure was the intervention for the interventional group. Also the intensity of pain was measured by behavioral pain scale for children (FLCC scale during dressing. This scale was completed for patients without no intervention in the control group during dressing. Results Pain intensity mean in the interventional group (2.575 ± 1.807 had significant changes in comparison with the control group (8.025 ± 1.187 (P

  4. Swift-XRT 6-year monitoring of the ultraluminous X-ray source M33-X8

    La Parola, V; Cusumano, G; Mineo, T

    2016-01-01

    The long term evolution of ULX with their spectral and luminosity variations in time give important clues on the nature of ULX and on the accretion process that powers them. We report here the results of a Swift-XRT 6-year monitoring campaign of the closest example of a persistent ULX, M33 X-8, that extends to 16 years the monitoring of this source in the soft X-rays. The luminosity of this source is a few 10^39 erg/s, marking the faint end of the ULX luminosity function. We analysed the set of 15 observations collected during the Swift monitoring. We searched for differences in the spectral parameters at different observing epochs, adopting several models commonly used to fit the X-ray spectra of ULX. The source exhibits flux variations of the order of 30%. No significant spectral variations are observed along the monitoring. The average 0.5-10 keV spectrum can be well described by a thermal model, either in the form of a slim disk, or as a combination of a Comptonized corona and a standard accretion disk.

  5. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  6. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. PMID:22311519

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  8. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  9. Dietary Intake Research in Asian Children: Significance and Challenges.

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Food intake studies have a long history. However, until a few decades ago, there was limited quantitative data on feeding patterns and food intake in infants and children living in South Asia. The recent SEANUT study and MING study have provided several new insights into the dietary patterns of children living in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The complexity and variety of Asian diets makes the collation of dietary information a challenge. The double burden of under-nutrition and over-nutrition is prevalent in many Asian countries. Compared to obesity, stunting is widespread in South East Asia. Our future challenge is to develop food intake assessment techniques which can be refined and made available as a common dietary assessment tool across this region. Successful nutritional intervention can only be achieved if we know what Asian children eat. Dietary intake research will be a key factor in realizing our goal to eradicate malnutrition in this region. PMID:26598852

  10. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  11. Study of occlusal characteristics of primary dentition and the prevalence of maloclusion in 4 to 6 years old children in India

    Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Dixit, Uma B.; Shivaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background : To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and to determine the different occlusal characteristics in primary dentition of 4 to 6 years old children in India. Materials and Methods : The target population comprised 4 to 6 years old children attending different nursery, kindergarten and primary schools of Bagalkot city. Stratified cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample. Each subject was assessed for various occlusal characteristics. ...

  12. Hypothesis-oriented food patterns and incidence of hypertension: 6-year follow-up of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort

    Toledo, E. (Estefanía); Carmona-Torre, F. (Francisco de A.); Alonso, A; Puchau, B. (Blanca); Zulet, M A; Martinez, J. A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Angel)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the association between adherence to several a priori-defined healthy food patterns and the risk of hypertension. Design Prospective, multipurpose, dynamic cohort study (recruitment permanently open). We followed up 10 800 men and women (all of them university graduates), who were initially free of hypertension, for a variable period (range 2–6 years, median 4·6 years). During follow-up, 640 participants reported a new medical diagnosis of hypertension. Baseline diet wa...

  13. Incidence of Complications Developed after the Insertion of Ventilation Tube in Children under 6 years old in 2008-2009

    Nader Saki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main treatments of chronic otitis media with effusion is ventilation of the middle ear with a ventilation tube (VT. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the types of VT complications in children with otitis media with effusion in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, the medical records of 208 children (52 male and 35 female in Imam Khomeini and Apadana hospitals were reviewed. The children were between 10 months and 6 years old. The patients were followed up 12-18 months after ventilation tube insertion. We reviewed age, sex, postoperative otorrhea, eardrum atrophy, tympanosclerosis and persistent perforation. In all these patients, the indication for surgery was chronic middle ear effusion. The data were analyzed and presented as numbers and percentages using SPSS17.0. Results: Transient otorrhea occurred in 12.5% and delayed otorrhea in 8.2%. Otorrhea non-responsive to medical treatment was seen in 1.9%. Complications after tympanostomy tube extrusion included atrophy (27.8% myringosclerosis (37.9%, and persistent perforation (2.4%.The average extrusion time was 10.5 ±5 months (ranging between 3-22 months. Conclusion: After extrusion of the ventilation tube, patients should be followed up regularly for recurrence of OME. Myringosclerosis, tympanic membrane atrophy and otorrhea are the most common complications of otitis media with effusion. However, they are generally insignificant. Consequently, in the majority of these complications, there is no need for any treatment.

  14. Ozone variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere from the first 6 years of IASI observations (2008-2013)

    Wespes, Catherine; Hurtmans, Daniel; Emmons, Louisa K.; Safieddine, Sarah; Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we assess how daily ozone (O3) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp-A platform can contribute to the analyses of the processes driving O3 variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere and, in the future, to the monitoring of long-term trends. The temporal evolution of O3 during the first 6 years of IASI (2008-2013) operation is investigated with multivariate regressions separately in four different layers (ground-300, 300-150, 150-25, 25-3 hPa), by adjusting to the daily time series averaged in 20° zonal bands, seasonal and linear trend terms along with important geophysical drivers of O3 variation (e.g. solar flux, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)). The regression model is shown to perform generally very well with a strong dominance of the annual harmonic terms and significant contributions from O3 drivers, in particular in the equatorial region where the QBO and the solar flux contribution dominate. More particularly, despite the short period of the IASI data set available up to now, two noticeable statistically significant apparent trends are inferred from the daily IASI measurements: a positive trend in the upper stratosphere (e.g. 1.74 ± 0.77 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° S), which is consistent with other studies suggesting a turnaround for stratospheric O3 recovery, and a negative trend in the troposphere at the mid-latitudes and high northern latitudes (e.g. -0.26 ± 0.11 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° N), especially during summer and probably linked to the impact of decreasing ozone precursor emissions. The impact of the high temporal sampling of IASI on the uncertainty in the determination of O3 trend has been further explored by performing multivariate regressions on IASI monthly averages and on ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements.

  15. Infliximab therapy for moderately severe Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a retrospective comparison over 6 years

    Raed Alzafiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raed Alzafiri1, Christina A Holcroft2, Paula Malolepszy1, Albert Cohen1, Andrew Szilagyi11Jewish General Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC.Objective: Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal–Wallis (nonparametric tests to compare two groups and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes.Results: Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups.Discussion: Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials.Conclusions: This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.Keywords: infliximab, inflammatory bowel diseases

  16. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  18. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  19. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and...... intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  20. Romerrigets historie

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  1. Intellectual History

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  2. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  3. 上海市0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖的现状及流行变化趋势%The status and variation tendency of prevalence of simple obesity among the children aged 0~6 years old in Shanghai

    张晶; 魏梅; 姚国英; 方秉华

    2011-01-01

    目的:对上海市儿童单纯性肥胖症流行病学调查资料进行分析,以掌握0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖症发展的变化规律,并探讨儿童单纯性肥胖症的影响因素.方法:采用分阶段、不等比例、随机整群抽样的方法,3岁以下以居委会为单位,3~6岁以幼儿园为单位整群抽样,原则上与1995年调查点一致.对402名单纯性肥胖儿童和394名配对健康儿童的体格测量值、个人史、喂养和饮食习惯、生活习惯、家庭情况和家长认知等方面信息进行分析,并与1996年、1986年,以及2006年全国九市调查结果相比较.结果:上海儿童单纯性肥胖检小率为3.26%,20年间增长6.76倍,增长主要发生在前10年.儿童单纯性肥胖的检出率随年龄增长而呈上升趋势,4岁后开始明显增高,6岁组为发病高峰,其发病率为7.84%.0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖发生率男童高于女童,以轻度为主,占肥胖儿童总数的61.68%.随着儿童年龄的增长,肥胖度加重.儿童肥胖与主要照看人、进食速度、摄食蔬菜等因素相关.结论:随着社会经济的发展,儿童肥胖的发生率呈上升趋势.应加强对儿童期肥胖的研究和干预工作.%Objective: To analyze the epidemiological survey data of simple obesity among the children in Shanghai, in order to grasp the change regularity of simple obesity among the children aged 0 ~ 6 years old, and explore the effect factors of simple obesity among children.Methods: A disproportionate stratified randomized cluster sampling method was used in the study; for the children under 3 years,a neighborhood committee was a survey unit, for the children aged 3 ~6 years old, a kindergarten was a unit, which were consistent with the survey points in 1995.The data including measured values of physical examination, individual histories, feeding and dietary habits, living habits, family situations and cognitive levels of parents were analyzed among 402 children with simple

  4. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  5. Family History

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  6. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  7. Dietary Supplements Use and Related Factors of Preschoolers in 3 Korean Cities

    Kim, Hye Sil; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use, investigate the related factors associated with DS use among preschoolers and support the adequate nutrition. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey of mothers of children aged between 1 and 6 years who visited pediatric clinics in 3 Korean cities (Jeonju, Suncheon, Jeongeup) between October and November 2012 at Presbyterian Medical Center. The responses from 929 questionnaires were analyzed. Results Approximately 45.1% o...

  8. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic f...

  9. Dietary Teatment of Galactosemia

    H. Ehsani; M Kabiri

    1986-01-01

    For the time being, dietary treatment is the only available therapy for Galactosemia. This article indicates, with regard to the daily requirements of normal infants and children for protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals and vitamins, the possibilities of preparing appropriate diets for Galactosemic patients. Few instructions for preparing lactose and galactose free infant foods using MBF formula have been given. A list of foods not allowed for Galactosemic patients is also presented.

  10. Is it dietary insulin?

    Vaarala, Outi

    2006-10-01

    In humans the primary trigger of insulin-specific immunity is a modified self-antigen, that is, dietary bovine insulin, which breaks neonatal tolerance to self-insulin. The immune response induced by bovine insulin spreads to react with human insulin. This primary immune response induced in the gut immune system is regulated by the mechanisms of oral tolerance. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as the gut microflora, breast milk-derived factors, and enteral infections, control the development of oral tolerance. The age of host modifies the immune response to oral antigens because the permeability of the gut decreases with age and mucosal immune response, such as IgA response, develops with age. The factors that control the function of the gut immune system may either be protective from autoimmunity by supporting tolerance, or they may induce autoimmunity by abating tolerance to dietary insulin. There is accumulating evidence that the intestinal immune system is aberrant in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intestinal immune activation and increased gut permeability are associated with T1D. These aberrancies may be responsible for the impaired control of tolerance to dietary insulin. Later in life, factors that activate insulin-specific immune cells derived from the gut may switch the response toward cytotoxic immunity. Viruses, which infect beta cells, may release autoantigens and potentiate their presentation by an infection-associated "danger signal." This kind of secondary immunization may cause functional changes in the dietary insulin primed immune cells, and lead to the infiltration of insulin-reactive T cells to the pancreatic islets. PMID:17130578

  11. Dietary Teatment of Galactosemia

    H Ehsani

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available For the time being, dietary treatment is the only available therapy for Galactosemia. This article indicates, with regard to the daily requirements of normal infants and children for protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals and vitamins, the possibilities of preparing appropriate diets for Galactosemic patients. Few instructions for preparing lactose and galactose free infant foods using MBF formula have been given. A list of foods not allowed for Galactosemic patients is also presented.

  12. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  13. Bronchial reactivity and dietary antioxidants

    Soutar, A; Seaton, A; Brown, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that dietary antioxidants may influence the expression of allergic diseases and asthma. To test this hypothesis a case-control study was performed, nested in a cross sectional study of a random sample of adults, to investigate the relationship between allergic disease and dietary antioxidants. METHODS: The study was performed in rural general practices in Grampian, Scotland. A validated dietary questionnaire was used to measure food intake of cases, de...

  14. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Semih Ötles; Selin Ozgoz

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water i...

  15. Individual Differences in Growth in Executive Function across the Transition to School Predict Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors and Self-Perceived Academic Success at 6 Years of Age

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Building on an existing latent variable analysis of executive function (EF) in children (N=191, 57% boys and 43% girls) making the transition to school (Hughes et al. (2010), "Developmental Neuropsychology", vol. 35, pp. 20-36), the current study both documented average developmental improvements from 4 to 6 years of age and examined individual…

  16. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  17. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  18. Proposal of detailed official planning of biological textbook for 6-year middle school in Japan: some notes to the arrangement, themes and chapters selected

    Soldán, Tomáš

    Motoyamacho and Kochi: University Kochi, 2001. s. 34. [International New- Year Workshop on Making Biological Textbook for New 6 Year s Middle School (13-18y) System in Japan. 10.01.2001-12.01.2001, Motoyama-cho and Kochi] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : teacher Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  19. Changes in blood sugar content of dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation for 6 years. [Combined effects of physical stress, heat stress, and acute radiation stress

    Akhunov, A.A.

    1978-10-26

    There have not been many studies of blood sugar concentration in animals exposed to chronic gamma radiation, and the results thereof are contradictory. Therefore, data on blood sugar levels in dogs during a 6-year exposure to gamma radiation and after discontinuation thereof are reported.

  20. Analysing Mothers' Self-Efficacy Perception towards Parenting in Relation to Peer Relationships of 5-6 Year-Old Preschool Children

    Secer, Zarife; Gulay Ogelman, Hulya; Onder, Alev; Berengi, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-efficacy perception of mothers' towards parenting on the peer relations of children aged between 5 and 6. The sample group of this study comprised of 200, 5-6 year old children (girls = 96, boys = 104), and their mothers. The Ladd and Profilet Child Behaviour Scale, the Peer…

  1. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  2. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  3. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  4. Linjefaget historie

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  5. Matematikkens historie

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  6. Environmental history

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  7. Dietary history and nutritional state in treated coeliac patients.

    Collins, B J; Bell, P M; Thomson, J M; Fee, D B; Wilson, E. A.; Love, A H

    1986-01-01

    The gluten content and nutritional adequacy of the diet of a group of adult coeliac patients supposedly following a gluten-free diet for at least one year were assessed. Results were considered in relation to the nutritional state of these patients, determined by anthropometric measurement, and the histological appearance of jejunal biopsies taken at the time of nutritional assessment. Imperfect gluten avoidance, mild malnutrition and mild histological abnormalities on jejunal biopsy were fre...

  8. Potted history

    Dijk, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  9. Family History

    ... risky behaviors (such as smoking) and increasing healthy behaviors (such as regular exercise). Learn more about heart attacts. Q: How can knowing my family health history help lower my risk of disease? A: You ... you can change behaviors that affect your health, such as smoking, inactivity ...

  10. Business History

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  11. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet.The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Af...

  12. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-yea...

  13. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  14. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  15. Dietary control of cancer.

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  16. Dietary patterns and schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy controls

    Tsuruga K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Koji Tsuruga,1 Norio Sugawara,1 Yasushi Sato,1 Manabu Saito,1 Hanako Furukori,2 Taku Nakagami,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Ippei Takahashi,4 Shigeyuki Nakaji,4 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan; 4Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan Background: It has been reported that the onset of schizophrenia and the physical complications after its onset are related to diet. Diet has been considered as a variable factor of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the results of studies on this relationship have been inconsistent. Nutrients are consumed as a mixture in the diet. It is difficult to study them in isolation because they may have mutually complementary effects. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary patterns and schizophrenia in Japan.Methods: The subjects comprised 237 outpatients aged 30–60 years (123 males and 114 females with diagnoses of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The patient diagnoses were determined based on medical records. Patients were recruited between June 2011 and August 2011. As a reference group, 404 healthy volunteers aged 30–60 years (158 males and 246 females were also included. Demographic data (age, sex, and level of education were collected by face-to-face method interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We assessed eating habits over the last month using a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. We detected dietary patterns through a principal component analysis of calorie-adjusted intake; two principal components were retained. The principal components for each dietary pattern and for each individual were divided into tertiles by principal component scores. Results: We

  17. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population.

    Britton, J.; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Knox, A; Wisniewski, A; Weiss, S.; Tattersfield, A

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS--Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measure...

  18. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns

    Schumacher, Tracy L.; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Neil J. Spratt; Robin Callister; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean ...

  19. Dietary therapy in gastrointestinal disease.

    Anderson, C R; Cerda, J J

    1989-02-01

    Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases or disorders. Failure to eat, digest, or assimilate nutrients can provoke malnutrition in just a few weeks, although careful assessment of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional history by a trained professional can protect against this. Diet therapy through the elimination of offending foods such as wheat gluten or lactose, or inclusion of specialized products such as medium chain triglycerides or elemental formulas, can sustain nutritional status. Dietary components such as insoluble fiber appear to have physiologic effects, while soluble fibers may have metabolic effects important to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is a high potential for malnutrition in Crohn's disease during active and remittent phases. Elemental enteral formulas or TPN are used during the active phase to ensure optimal nutritional status and bowel rest. Hyperalimentation using the GI tract during remittent stage maintains this. Avoiding offending foods by Crohn's patients is an acceptable practice as long as entire categories of foods are not deleted. Avoiding all foods containing gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oats, however, is a crucial prerequisite to recovery from celiac disease. Gluten is commonly used as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and extender in the food industry and is not always shown on food labels. Careful consultation with a registered dietitian can identify hidden sources of gluten in the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2647390

  20. Sommerferiens historie

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became favour...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  1. The formation of bases of culture of movement at children of 3–6 years old by means of rhythmic gymnastics

    Olga Riabchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to open the versatility of a concept of culture as a phenomena and as a process which course provides the preservation of the most significant viable social relations conformably to a concept of culture of movements of children of 3-6 years old. Material and Methods: the analysis of special scientific literature in which theoretical and practical aspects of the creation of physical culture are stated. Results: questions of the creation of physical training of children of 3–6 years old taking into account their individual physical developments are considered. The most important provisions are noted in the structure of physical culture which doesn’t allow solving this problem with a full scientific validity now. Conclusions: the basic provisions are allocated which decision is a paramount task for the creation of the evidence-based system of physical training of children of the advanced preschool age.

  2. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk; Sylwia Kuźniarz-Rymarz; Małgorzata Kieć-Klimczak; Anna Skalniak; Anna Sowa-Staszczak; Filip Gołkowski; Marta Kostecka-Matyja; Dorota Pach

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about die...

  3. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low...... age, parity, family history of diabetes, physical activity, or overweight status. CONCLUSIONS: A prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from animal-food sources is positively associated with GDM risk, whereas a prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high...

  4. Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase

    Larsen, Cæcilie Crawley; Laursen, Christian B; Dalby, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare phenomenon in children but its incidence seems to be increasing. In children, it is generally caused due to systemic illness, biliary disease, trauma, idiopathy and side effects of medicines like L-aspariginase. Acute pancreatitis is difficult to diagnose in children...... pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase. He presented with fever, irritability and pain in his left groin region....

  5. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    POSTEC, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    International audience Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarcha...

  6. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    Anne ePostec; Marianne eQuéméneur; Méline eBes; Nan eMei; Fatma eBenaïssa; Claude ePayri; Christophe eMonnin; Bernard ePelletier; Linda eGuentas; Bernard eOllivier; Emmanuelle eGérard; Céline ePisapia; Martine eGérard; Bénédicte eMénez; Gaël eErauso

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal ...

  7. Academic Achievement Over Eight Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of...

  8. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074

  9. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    Fabian Jude David; Baranek, Grace T.; Chris eWiesen; Adrienne eMiao; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other de...

  10. Interstitial 14q24.3 to q31.3 deletion in a 6-year-old boy with a non-specific dysmorphic phenotype

    Riegel, Mariluce; Moreira, Lilia MA; Espirito Santo, Layla D; Maria Betânia P. Toralles; Schinzel, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background Few patients with interstitial deletions in the distal long arm of chromosome 14 have been reported, and these patients showed rather indistinct features, including growth and mental retardation and phenotypic alterations. Results We describe a de novo 14q interstitial deletion in a 6-year-old boy with dysmorphic facial traits such as hypertelorism, short and narrow palpebral fissures, broad nose with anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, thin upper lip with cupid’s bow, prominent an...

  11. Interstitial 14q24.3 to q31.3 deletion in a 6-year-old boy with a non-specific dysmorphic phenotype

    Riegel, Mariluce; Moreira, Lilia M; Espirito Santo, Layla D; Toralles, Maria B P; Schinzel, Albert

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few patients with interstitial deletions in the distal long arm of chromosome 14 have been reported, and these patients showed rather indistinct features, including growth and mental retardation and phenotypic alterations. RESULTS: We describe a de novo 14q interstitial deletion in a 6-year-old boy with dysmorphic facial traits such as hypertelorism, short and narrow palpebral fissures, broad nose with anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, thin upper lip with cupid's bow, promine...

  12. Clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung’s disease: A 6-year course review on admitted patients in Guilan, north Province of Iran

    Izadi, M.; F. Mansour-Ghanaei; R Jafarshad; Joukar, F; AH Bagherzadeh; F Tareh

    2007-01-01

    Background: Hirschsprung’s disease (H.D) is a congenital disease in which intestinal ganglionic cells are absent and can cause intestinal obstruction. The disease has various clinical manifestations and different lengths of bowel may be involved. Our aim was to study Hirschsprung’s clinical presentations and its rate of intestinal involvement in hospitalized patients in a 6-year course study in Guilan, north Province of Iran.Methods: We studied the patients with Hirschsprung’s referred to Gui...

  13. Intercommunication of anthropometric indexes and physical capabilities of children 4-6 years in prognostication of sporting results in a gymnastics

    Pomazan А.А.

    2010-01-01

    Problems and questions which are related to the process of selection of children (boys) 4-6 years in the groups of initial preparation for employments by a sporting gymnastics are considered. Materials of the last publications are analyzed on this theme. The results of correlation anthropometric data and indexes of level of development of physical capabilities of children of this age group analysis are resulted in the article, with the purpose of determination of their perspective to employme...

  14. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Nakade Miyo; Akimitsu Osami; Wada Kai; Krejci Milada; Noji Teruki; Taniwaki Nozomi; Takeuchi Hitomi; Harada Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast) points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009) and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009) at breakfast. The positive an...

  15. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture. PMID:27585613

  16. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

    JoannaLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  17. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Afterwards the healthy diet were changed further to reduce CF. CF from the diet was reduced by 4......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  18. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  19. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  20. Ildens historier

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  1. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  2. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    Today, dietary recommendations are based on recommended daily intake for the general population, and only a few subgroups are considered for additional dietary advice. Nutrigenetics aim to optimize health and prevent disease. Particularly for lifestyle disease, such as obesity, which has increased......, copy number variation, and epigenetics might identify additional genetic contributions to obesity, and the use of omics data with integration of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will identify genetic subgroups who will benefit from specific dietary advice to optimize health and prevent disease. Keywords......: Diet . Mutation . Obesity . Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) . Gene-diet interaction . Weight loss . Weight regain...

  3. Quality of dietary control in phenylketonuric patients and its relationship with general intelligence Calidad del control de la dieta en pacientes fenilcetonúricos y su relación con la inteligencia general

    M. A. Vilaseca; N. Lambruschini; L. Gómez-López; Gutiérrez, A.; Fusté, E.; R. Gassió; R. Artuch; Campistol, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Assessment of the quality of dietary treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients and investigation of its relationship with the general intelligence of the patients. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 105 PKU treated patients. The index of dietary control (IDC) was calculated as the phenylalanine (Phe) data reduction in half-year medians and the mean of all medians throughout the patient's life. We calculated four different IDCs related to age: IDC-A (< 6 years), I...

  4. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  5. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds. PMID:27095227

  6. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    ... Recognizing Cataracts Health Capsules Predicting Response to Breast Cancer Drugs Volunteers Needed ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that bottle ...

  7. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    FUJII, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; UCHIDA, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  8. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  9. Dietary intervention in rheumatoid arthritis

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1987-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a disabling disease prevalent in modern society. Dietary prevention may be possible in a subgroup of individuals who appear to suffer food intolerance; dietary intervention, as an adjunct to other management strategies, may be useful in modifying the inflammatory response. The former suggestion is supported by anecdotal evidence; the latter by some in vitro experimentation which implicates arachidonic acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid tissue inflammatio...

  10. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Mohammad Hassan Entezari; Zamzam Paknahad; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Saeid Doaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother′s life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child′s diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother′s weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary ...

  11. Impact of the Family Health Strategy in dentistry in children under 6 years of a Network of Public Health Santiago de Cali

    Lina María García Zapata; Gustavo Bergonzoli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: High rates of disease occur in childhood by dental decays; 10 years ago, the ESE Ladera of Cali implemented in Comuna 20 a Family Health Strategy (FHS). Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Family Health Strategy on the increase of oral health improvement in children under 6 years old at the municipality of Santiago de Cali 20. Material and methods: A Case Control study was conducted, taken as cases children from families of the Comuna 20 visited by FHS, and two controls. Fi...

  12. Evaluation of caries experience in 3-6-year-old children, and dental attitudes amongst the caregivers in the Ludhiana city

    Simratvir M; Moghe G; Thomas A.; Singh N; Chopra S

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a lifestyle disease that begins when the child′s teeth erupt in the oral cavity. The distinctive pattern of decay rapidly spreads from one tooth to another and involves the surfaces of teeth that are usually not at risk. Detection of disease is crucial to control the oral condition using preventive and therapeutic regimes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of caries in children of age 3-6 years in Ludhiana and to examine the relations...

  13. Stripping Voltammetric Determination Of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead And Copper In Blood Samples Of Children Aged Between 3 Months And 6 years

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.

  14. A Case of Urethral Duplication Arising from the Posterior Urethra to the Scrotum with Urinary Stone in a 6-Year-Old Male

    Kenichi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type using Effmann’s classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection.

  15. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z...

  16. Intercommunication of anthropometric indexes and physical capabilities of children 4-6 years in prognostication of sporting results in a gymnastics

    Pomazan А.А.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems and questions which are related to the process of selection of children (boys 4-6 years in the groups of initial preparation for employments by a sporting gymnastics are considered. Materials of the last publications are analyzed on this theme. The results of correlation anthropometric data and indexes of level of development of physical capabilities of children of this age group analysis are resulted in the article, with the purpose of determination of their perspective to employments by sport. More informing is certain for a selection to employments by a gymnastics morphological indexes of children of preschool age.

  17. Shared or discordant grief in couples 2-6 years after the death of their premature baby: effects on suffering and posttraumatic growth

    Büchi, S; Mörgeli, H; Schnyder, U; Jenewein, J.; Glaser, A; Fauchère, J C; Bucher, H U; Sensky, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of a baby causes severe short- and long-term distress to parents and their marital relationship, but little is known about how this distress is shared between spouses. The authors hypothesized that the grief-related concordance within a couple 2 to 6 years after the loss of a premature baby could be an indicator of shared emotional distress within a couple. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the long-term grief experience among couples. METHOD: A group of 44 parents (22 ...

  18. The specialists of physical education on the process of formation physical culture of the individual children of 5-6 years in the non-formal education

    Fandeeva Anastasia Iur'evna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed the process of formation physical education of the child in extra-curricular education. The study used data from a questionnaire survey 30 teachers. It is established that 100% of respondents believe the process of formation of high-quality physical education of the child possible. Determine the direction of the attitude of specialists in physical education in the formation of this process. Established causes that complicate the possibility of formation of physical culture personality of children 5-6 years. The most important of these is the low level of academic support, the lack of an integrated approach.

  19. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  20. Radiological imaging of congenital hand anomalies - a 6-year single-centre experience and what the hand surgeons want to know

    Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children's Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists. (orig.)

  1. Osseointegrated implants in vertical ridge augmentation with a nonresorbable membrane: a retrospective study of 75 implants with 1 to 6 years of follow-up.

    Fontana, Filippo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Fimanò, Maurizio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate 75 implants inserted in vertically augmented bone at the time of or prior to implant placement after 1 to 6 years of prosthetic loading. The study included 21 patients (29 surgical sites). The vertical procedure was performed combining a titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with autograft (7 sites), allograft (5 sites), or auto-xenograft (17 sites). Healing was uneventful in 24 surgical sites. Three sites showed premature exposure, and two sites presented an abscess. Two implants were lost, for a cumulative survival rate of 93.6%. Mean bone remodeling at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years was 0.34, 0.72, 1.04, 0.84, 0.56, and 0.61 mm, respectively. The implant success rate was higher with a simultaneous approach (82.5%) compared with a staged approach (66.8%). Implants surrounded by keratinized mucosa revealed a higher success rate (82.1%) than those without it (58.4%). PMID:25734704

  2. Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

    Almind Gitte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diabetic patients fear visual loss as the worst consequence of diabetes. In most studies the main eye pathology is assigned as the cause of visual impairment. This study analysed a broad range of possible ocular and non-ocular predictors of visual impairment prospectively in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were from a population-based cohort of 1,241 persons newly diagnosed with clinical, often symptomatic type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 40 years. After 6 years, 807 patients were followed up. Standard eye examinations were done by practising ophthalmologists. Results At diabetes diagnosis median age was 65.5 years. Over 6 years, the prevalence of blindness (visual acuity of best seeing eye ≤ 0.1 rose from 0.9% (11/1,241 to 2.4% (19/807 and the prevalence of moderate visual impairment (> 0.1; Conclusions In a comprehensive assessment of predictors of visual impairment, even in a health care system allowing self-referral to free eye examinations, treatable eye pathologies such as DR and cataract emerge together with age as the most notable predictors of continued visual loss after diabetes diagnosis. Our results underline the importance of eliminating barriers to efficient eye care by increasing patients' and primary care practitioners' awareness of the necessity of regular eye examinations and timely surgical treatment.

  3. Radiological imaging of congenital hand anomalies - a 6-year single-centre experience and what the hand surgeons want to know

    Gerety, E.L.; Hopper, M.A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grant, I. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-19

    Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children's Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of caries experience in 3-6-year-old children, and dental attitudes amongst the caregivers in the Ludhiana city

    Simratvir M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a lifestyle disease that begins when the child′s teeth erupt in the oral cavity. The distinctive pattern of decay rapidly spreads from one tooth to another and involves the surfaces of teeth that are usually not at risk. Detection of disease is crucial to control the oral condition using preventive and therapeutic regimes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of caries in children of age 3-6 years in Ludhiana and to examine the relationship between age and caries experience. A total of 609 children in the age group of 3-6 years were examined using def index. To determine dental care seeking attitude, 105 caregivers were interviewed. Results revealed that 52.87% of children in the age group of 3-3.11 years, 45.1% of children in the age group of 4-4.11 years and 58.55% of children in 5-5.11 age groups suffered from caries. The mean def index was 1.82, 1.57 and 2.21, respectively. Interview of caregivers of children revealed that out of 105 only 12 (11.4% children had previously been to a general dentist. None of them knew about Pedodontics as a specialty. The results of the present study can be used mainly for screening child populations in need of treatment, helping public workers and planners to develop dental health programs to aid early intervention and prevention.

  5. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

    Anjum Tanvir M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  6. The ability of 3- to 6-years-old Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During speech development in normal children, cluster reduction is one of the natural phonological processes. Children begin to produce some consonant clusters from the age of 2 years but ability to produce all consonant clusters continues up to 9. The main objective of this investigation was assessing the ability of Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words.Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative study, production of 19 clusters with stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, and glide consonants in 38 words were tested in 200 Persian-speaking children at the age of 3 to 6 years in kindergartens of Tehran, Iran. Content validity indexes of 38 words were above 0.80 and Cronbach’s alpha of split half was 0.91.Results: More than 75% of 3-years-old children were able to produce /xl/, /bz/, /rs/, and /xm/ clusters. Age was positively correlated with correct production scores of words (p=0.001 and was negatively correlated with cluster reduction scores (p=0.001. Conclusion: Three-years-old normal Persian-speaking children may use cluster reduction in words with consonant clusters but this phonological process decreased by increasing of age; so, most of the 6-years-old children could produce consonant clusters correctly. Place of articulation more than manner of articulation affect on correct production of consonant clusters.

  7. 大地震的18.6年周期%The 18.6-year periodicity of great earthquakes

    杜品仁; 赵俊猛; 高祥林

    2011-01-01

    Dividing the world into 15 study areas and using the earthquake catalogue of Mw≥7. 0 during 1900~2009, we make a statistical analysis of the relationship between seismicity of each area and the period of lunar nodal motion. The result shows that among the 15 areas, 10 areas exhibit an 18. 6-year cycle of great earthquakes in statistical sense, which consists of a 12. 4-year active section and a 6. 2-year quiet section. In the eastern, northern, southern and western areas of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt, such a periodicity is present and their active sections have certain regularity. In terms of seismic events during the sixth cycle (1991~2009), this study has tested the stability and applicability of the 18. 6-year periodicity derived from earlier five cycles (1900- 1990). It is found that most of periodicities are stable in the regions with such characters. The possible mechanisms of the 18. 6-year periodicity are as follows: (1) Earthquakes are modulated by the 18. 6-year tide via day and half-day tides. (2) Effect of fluid tide in upper mantle (tide within the Earth). And (3) earthquakes are dictated by 18. 6-year tide through variation of Earth rotation.%将全球分为15个研究区,用1900~2009年Mw≥7.0地震目录,统计分析了各区大地震与月球交点运动周期的关系,得出15个研究区中有10个区,大地震存在统计意义上的18.6a周期:活跃段为12.4a,平静段为6.2a;环太平洋地震带北、南、西、东4大区的大地震,不仅有这样的周期,而且其地震活跃段的时间存在一定规律.用第6个18.6 a(1991~2009年)期间的大地震,检验据前5个18.6 a(1900~1990年)地震目录所得18.6 a周期的稳定性和实用性,发现有这种周期的地区多数的周期性是稳定的.大地震18.6 a周期的可能成因有:(1)18.6 a潮波通过调制日潮和半日潮调制大地震;(2)上地幔内流体的潮汐(地内潮)作用;(3)18.6 a潮波通过影响地球自转变化调制大地震.

  8. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  9. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  10. An analysis on physical development and nutrient status of 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens%3~6岁幼儿园儿童体格发育与营养状况分析

    傅燕青

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨深圳市西乡街道3~6岁幼儿园儿童体格发育与营养状况情况。方法对2008~2012年深圳市西乡街道3~6岁幼儿园儿童的体格发育及营养状况进行走访调查,内容包括对儿童的身高、体重、血常规等方面进行评价,并对调查结果进行分析记录。结果儿童身高、体重、生长发育合格率逐年上升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);营养不良、发育迟缓、消瘦、贫血患儿逐年下降而肥胖儿逐年升高趋势,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论加强对幼儿园儿童体格发育的检查,可及时掌握儿童身高、体重、营养等身体状况,从而促进其生长发育水平,此外,加强幼儿园卫生保健工作的管理,提高保教人员的卫生知识培训,保证儿童膳食营养的均衡,可避免由营养缺乏和过剩而导致的营养不良、肥胖等问题的发生,同时加强儿童的体格锻炼,保证儿童健康快乐成长。%Objective To probe into the physical development and nutrient status of 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens in Xixiang Street of Shenzhen city. Methods The 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens in Xixiang Street of Shenzhen was interviewed and investigated from 2008 to 2012. The content covered the evaluations of height,weight and routine blood test. And,the investigation results were recorded and analyzed. Results The acceptance rate of height,weight and growing development of children were increased year by year,and the difference was significant(P<0.05);the number of children with malnutrition,hypoevolutism,marasmus and anemia was reduced yearly,and obese children showed an increasing trend,and the difference was significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion The examination of the physical development of children in kindergartens should be enhanced. Thus,we can grasp timely the health of children including height,weight and nutrient status,and promote their growing development

  11. The natural history of euthyroid multinodular goitre.

    Elte, J. W.; Bussemaker, J K; Haak, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this communication data on the natural history of euthyroid multinodular goitres are presented. From a total group of 140 patients (mean age 54.6 years, 14 men and 126 women; 88 with autonomous, 52 with non-autonomous function), follow-up data were available for 90 patients (mean age 54.0 years, 11 men and 79 women; 64 with autonomous, 26 with non-autonomous function). During follow-up (means: 5.0 years, maximum 12.2 years) transitions in function were seen 15 times; 8 autonomous patients ...

  12. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Leila Shafie Bafti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age and dmft was determined using Poisson’s regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  14. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  15. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  16. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations.

    Andrea Maier-Nöth

    Full Text Available Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y and experimental (6y approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood.

  17. Population dynamics in a 6-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production

    Poplar trees have the capacity to regrow a number of shoots after being coppiced. In April 1996, a high density field trial with 17 different poplar (Populus) clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. At the end of the establishment year (December 1996), all plants were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. Four years after the first coppicing in January 2001, the stand was cut back again. During 6 years (1996-2001), shoot diameters and number of stools and shoots were assessed every year for all clones. Before the second coppicing, biomass production of all clones was estimated. Significant clonal differences were found in stool mortality, number of shoots per stool and biomass production. After 6 years (December 2001), stool mortality averaged 7-65%. After the first coppicing (1997), the average number of shoots ranged between three and seven shoots per stool; after the second coppicing, the average number of shoots ranged between 8 and 19 shoots per stool. During the 4 years following the first coppicing, shoot density decreased exponentially, leaving mostly one or two dominant shoots per stool by the end of 2000. The other shoots had no significant influence on stool dry mass, since most of the surviving shoots were suppressed and small and made little contribution to total dry mass. The diameter of the dominant shoot(s) was the most important determinant of stool dry mass. Mean annual biomass production ranged from 2 to 11 Mg ha-1

  18. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat produces beneficial effects on metabolic control, i.a. it lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations, improves the postprandial lipid profile and lowers the blood pressure. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by desaturases. Furthermore, high fat intake and serum fatty acid profile may influence the progression of obesity and insulin sensitivity. This review highlights current dietary guidance of fats quality recommendation in health and cardio metabolic risk.

  19. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’ The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific nutrient

  20. Feasibility of recruiting families into a heart disease prevention program based on dietary patterns

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, an...

  1. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  2. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  4. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    ... Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary ... might reduce the effectiveness of some types of cancer chemotherapy. Keep in mind that some ingredients found ...

  5. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  6. Dietary Behaviours, Impulsivity and Food Involvement: Identification of Three Consumer Segments

    Rani Sarmugam; Anthony Worsley

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was 49.2 ± 16.6 years, and 27% were tertiary educated. Two-stage cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments; “impulsive, involved” (33.4%), “rational, health conscious” (39.2%), and “uninvolved” (27.4...

  7. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    2011-07-05

    ... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements:...

  8. Dietary pattern and risk of multiple sclerosis

    Mahdi Aloosh; Mansoureh Toghae; Mohammad Jamal Razeghi Jahromi; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS. Methods Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 ...

  9. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  10. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W;

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...

  11. A 6-year follow-up of a large European cohort of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype: outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood.

    van Lieshout, Marloes; Luman, Marjolein; Twisk, Jos W R; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Faraone, Stephen V; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-09-01

    There are very few studies on the long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ADHD-combined type in Europe. The objective of the present study is to assess the 6-year outcome (including pharmacological treatment) of a large cohort of participants with ADHD-combined type (N = 347, mean age 11.4 years) in late adolescence and early adulthood. At study entry and follow-up (mean age 17.4 years), participants were comprehensively assessed on ADHD and comorbid disorders by structured psychiatric interviews and multi-informant questionnaires. Overall functioning was assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The retention rate was 75.6 %. The majority of participants (86.5 %) persisted in a DSM-5 ADHD diagnosis, 8.4 % had a subthreshold diagnosis, and 5.1 % remitted from the disorder at follow-up. Comorbidities decreased strongly; oppositional defiant disorder: 58 > 31 %, conduct disorder: 19 > 7 %. At follow-up, mood- and anxiety disorders were virtually non-existent following strict criteria (1-3 %). Percentage of children having had pharmacological treatment at any time increased from 79 to 91 %. On the Children's Global Assessment Scale, 48.5 % of participants were still functionally impaired at follow-up. Parental ADHD, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline positively predicted current ADHD symptom severity (R (2) = 20.9 %). Younger baseline age, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline were positively associated with poorer overall functioning (R (2) = 17.8 %). Pharmacological treatment had no (beneficial) impact on either ADHD symptom severity or overall functioning. Results confirm that ADHD is largely persistent into late adolescence with severity and family history for the disorder as important risk factors. PMID:26837866

  12. Maternal prepregancy BMI and lipid profile during early pregnancy are independently associated with offspring's body composition at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Maaike G J Gademan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5-6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study (inclusion 2003-2004. During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB and total free fatty acids (FFA in early gestation. At age 5-6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR and fat% were assessed. RESULTS: Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included (n = 1727. Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 4.3% were obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2. After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08-0.12, WHtR*100 (β 0.13; 95% CI 0.09-0.17, fat% (β 0.21; 95% CI 0.13-0.29 and increased risk for overweight (OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10-1.20. No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. CONCLUSIONS: Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity.

  13. Clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung’s disease: A 6-year course review on admitted patients in Guilan, north Province of Iran

    M Izadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung’s disease (H.D is a congenital disease in which intestinal ganglionic cells are absent and can cause intestinal obstruction. The disease has various clinical manifestations and different lengths of bowel may be involved. Our aim was to study Hirschsprung’s clinical presentations and its rate of intestinal involvement in hospitalized patients in a 6-year course study in Guilan, north Province of Iran.Methods: We studied the patients with Hirschsprung’s referred to Guilan surgery referral center, Poursina Hospital, from 1995 to 2001. In this cross sectional descriptive- analytic study all data were collected from patients’ files and questionnaires including demographic data, clinical presentations, diagnostic methods, involved segments, surgical procedure techniques, surgical complicationsResults: We detected 58 cases of HD during these 6 years, who underwent surgery. 19 patients were female and 39 were male with age range from one day to 18 years old. Clinical findings were variable such as: constipation,abdominal distension, failure to pass mecunium, diarrhea and other less common manifestations. We found 3 different pathological types: rectosigmoid, ultra short-segment and total–colonic involved segment.There wasn’t any difference between presentations of disease in these 3 groups. Surgical procedures which were performed were: Swenson, Soave–Boley and Lynn. Early complications, which occurred duringthe first month after operation, contain anastomotic leakage, wound infection, hemorrhage and stenosis of anastomosis. Late complications, occurring at least one month after operation, comprise long-term constipation,enterocolitis, incontinence, obstruction due to adhesion. We didn’t find any significant difference between the complications of these surgical procedures and any accompanying anomalies except 3 ones.Conclusions: most of patients had a chronic course of constipation and abdominal distension

  14. Dietary Aspects of Weight Management in Cats and Dogs.

    Linder, Deborah E; Parker, Valerie J

    2016-09-01

    The optimal weight loss diet for cats and dogs is best determined by obtaining a full dietary history and performing a detailed assessment of the pet, pet owner, and environment in which the pet lives. Incorporating information about pet and owner preferences allows for individualization of the weight management plan and has the potential to increase adherence. Calorie density, macronutrients, and micronutrient concentrations should be considered as part of a weight management plan. Owners should play an active role in the weight loss plan to have the best outcome. PMID:27289252

  15. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  16. Bilateral hand transplantation: Functional benefits assessment in five patients with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years (range 4-13 years).

    Bernardon, Laurence; Gazarian, Aram; Petruzzo, Palmina; Packham, Tara; Guillot, Michel; Guigal, Vincent; Morelon, Emmanuel; Pan, Hua; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Rizzo, Christophe; Feugier, Patrick; Streichenberger, Thibault; Bincaz, Ludovic; Urien, Jean-Pierre; Mezzadri, Guillaume; Rousselon, Thibault; Plotard, Franck; Seulin, Christian; Braye, Fabienne; Mojallal, Ali; Herzberg, Guillaume; Kanitakis, Jean; Abrahamyan, Davit; Kay, Simon; Badet, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    Between January 2000 and July 2009, five adults who had suffered bilateral traumatic below-elbow amputations, received bilateral hand-forearm allografts performed by the Lyon team. We report the functional benefits achieved over a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years (range 4-13 years), up to December 31st, 2013. Clinical measurement is hampered by the lack of specific validated assessment tools, obliging us to use non-specific standardized evaluation means. Our assessment shows that the restoration of motion, strength, and sensibility are fair. Functional results (Carroll upper extremity function test, 400-point test, Activities of daily living) are good, as well as quality of life evaluation (RAND-36). Subjective and overall results explored with questionnaires - Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Hand Transplantation Score System (HTSS), are very good. Improvement was seen to continue during the first three years, and then tend to become stable. Continued efforts should be directed at designing comprehensive, condition-specific, reliable outcome measurement tools. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of patients is required to assess the long-term risk-benefit balance. PMID:26297387

  17. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia over a 6-year period.

    Anne ePostec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phyotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  18. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  19. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857

  20. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2016-07-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  1. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment

  2. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews

    Taylor David CM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  3. A single Legionella pneumophila genotype in the freshwater system in a ship experiencing three separate outbreaks of legionellosis in 6 years

    Ahlen, Catrine; Aas, Marianne; Krusnell, Jadwiga; Iversen, Ole-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. Methods Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA). Results Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was present in the ship's potable water system during every outbreak. Genotyping of the 2008 survey material showed two separate PFGE genotypes while those in 2009 and 2013 demonstrated the presence of only one of the two genotypes. FLA with intracellular L. pneumophila of the same genotype were also detected. Analyses of the freshwater system on a ship following three separate Legionella outbreaks, for L. pneumophila and FLAs, revealed a single L. pneumophila genotype and FLA (Hartmanella). Conclusions It is reasonable to assume that the L. pneumophila genotype detected in the freshwater system was the causal agent in the outbreaks onboard. Persistence of an apparently low-pathogenic L. pneumophila genotype and FLA in a potable water system represent a potential risk for recurrent outbreaks. PMID:27515183

  4. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  5. State changes in posture and arch of the foot in children aged 4 - 6 years with hypermobility of the joints under the influence of rehabilitation activities in schools

    Kalinichenko I. O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rehabilitation activities in educational institutions on the dynamics of changes in the state and posture of the foot arch in children. The study involved 446 children aged from 4 to 6 years. The rehabilitation program lasted 10 weeks and consisted of 3 periods. Found that 35.88% of healthy children had impaired posture in the sagittal plane. Flatfoot detected in 64.46% of children with joint hypermobility. After the implementation of the rehabilitation program the value of the brachial arch indicators declined in children 3 major groups, respectively, 32.85 cm, 33.24 cm and 33.92 cm in all major groups established downward trend in the proportion of children with kyphotic posture and flat feet. The positive dynamics of changes in the values of posture in the sagittal plane was observed among children of all 3 major groups: shoulder width increased respectively by 1.55%, 3.09%, 4.77%.

  6. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Grøntved, A; Brage, S; Møller, N C; Kristensen, P L; Wedderkopp, N; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively associated with future resting SBP, independent of resting SBP in childhood (P=0.045 and P=0.013, respectively). After additional adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the associations with SBP and RPP during stage two on future resting SBP only slightly materially change, although only RPP remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves the prediction of future SBP levels during rest in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:21068765

  7. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  8. The Relationship of Severe Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in a Group of 3- to 6-year-old Children in Shiraz

    Edalat A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. Materials and Method: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kin-dergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated em-ploying WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (< -2 was considered as ab-normal. The relationship between dmft index and BMI was then investigated. Results: The mean of dmft was 4.13. From children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. Conclusion: There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study.

  9. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  10. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Jeoung A Kwon

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  11. Developmental changes in the influence of conventional and instrumental cues on over-imitation in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Moraru, Cristina-Andreea; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that children in the preschool period are fastidious imitators who copy models with such high levels of fidelity that task efficiency may be compromised. This over-imitative tendency, and the pervasive nature of it, has led to many explorations and theoretical interpretations of this behavior, including social, causal, and conventional explanations. In support of the conventional account, recent research has shown that children are more likely to over-imitate when the task is framed using conventional verbal cues than when it is framed using instrumental verbal cues. The aim of the current study was to determine whether 3- to 6-year-old children (N=185, mean age=60 months) would over-imitate when presented with instrumental and conventional verbal cues, which varied only minimally and were more directly comparable between instrumental and conventional contexts than those used in previous studies. In addition to varying the overall context, we also varied the instrumental prompt used such that the cues provided ranged in the extent to which they provided explicit instruction to omit the irrelevant actions. Counter to our predictions, and the high levels of over-imitation witnessed in previous studies, the older children frequently over-imitated irrespective of the context provided, whereas the youngest children over-imitated selectively, including the irrelevant actions only when the task was presented in a conventional frame. We propose that the age differences found following an instrumental presentation are a result of the youngest children being more open to the motivation of learning the causality of the task, whereas the older children were more strongly motivated to adopt a social convention. PMID:26774258

  12. Extended disease-free interval of 6 years in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with G207 oncolytic viral therapy

    Whisenhunt Jr TR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Whisenhunt Jr, Kiran F Rajneesh, James R Hackney, James M Markert Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a relentless primary central nervous system malignancy that remains resistant to conventional therapy despite major advances in clinical neurooncology. This report details the case of a patient who had failed conventional treatment for recurrent GBM and was ultimately treated with a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 vector, G207. Methods: Case report detailing the outcomes of one patient enrolled into the gene therapy arm of the Neurovir G207 protocol whereby stereotactic injection of 120 µL G207 viral suspension containing 1×107 plaque-forming units (or active viral particles was made into the enhancing region of the tumor. Results: In this patient, despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, tumor progression occurred. However, with G207 oncolytic therapy and brief exposures to second and third treatments, this patient had an extended survival time of 7.5 years and a 6-year apparent disease-free interval, an extraordinarily unusual finding in the pretemozolomide era. Conclusion: With minimal adjunctive chemotherapy, including one course of temozolomide, one course of procarbazine, and four cycles of irinotecan, the patient survived over 7 years before the next recurrence. Addition of G207 to this patient’s traditional therapy may have been the critical treatment producing her prolonged survival. This report demonstrates the potential for long-term response to a one-time treatment with oncolytic HSV and encourages continued research on oncolytic viral therapy for GBM. Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy, malignant glioma, tumor, herpes simplex, HSV-1, immunotherapy

  13. Possible generation mechanisms for Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere based on 6 years of ground observations in Canada, Russia, and Japan

    Jun, Chae-Woo; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Poddelsky, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulations) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7°N, 246.7°E, L = 4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1°N, 150.7°E, L = 2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4°N, 142.3°E, L = 1.5) in Japan. From 6 years of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 84 Pc1 events observed simultaneously at the longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD) and 370 events observed at the latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS), all with high coherence (>0.7) of Pc1 waveforms. We calculated the cross-correlation coefficient (similarity: r) for the Pc1 pearl structures and found that more than half of the events in both pairs had low similarity (r r > 0.7) at the longitudinally separated stations are concentrated from 6 to 15 UT when both stations are in the nighttime. The similarity of Pc1 pearl structures tends to show a negative correlation with the standard deviation of the polarization angle in both pairs. The observed repetition period of Pc1 pearl structures has a clear positive correlation with the repetition period estimated from Pc1 bandwidth by assuming beating of different frequencies. From these results, we suggest that ionospheric beating effect could be a dominant process for the generation of Pc1 pearl structures. Beating processes in the ionosphere with a spatially distributed ionospheric source can cause the different shapes of Pc1 pearl structures at different observation points during ionospheric duct propagation.

  14. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years. PMID:24015253

  15. Impact of the Family Health Strategy in dentistry in children under 6 years of a Network of Public Health Santiago de Cali

    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High rates of disease occur in childhood by dental decays; 10 years ago, the ESE Ladera of Cali implemented in Comuna 20 a Family Health Strategy (FHS. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Family Health Strategy on the increase of oral health improvement in children under 6 years old at the municipality of Santiago de Cali 20. Material and methods: A Case Control study was conducted, taken as cases children from families of the Comuna 20 visited by FHS, and two controls. Finally, a multivariate multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of the variance explained by the variables from the different levels included in the statistical model. Results: dental care from tooth decays was higher in children from visited families, β coef. = -0.042, 95%IC (-0.06 to -0.001, dental care increased with age, β coef = 0.02, 95%CI (0.0070 to 0.044, dental care was higher among vulnerable families, β coef. = 0.03, 95%CI (0.01 to 0.14, and among families living in overcrowded houses, β coef. = 0.081, 95%IC (0.01-0.14. On Linear regression multilevel analysis, the increasing on dental productivity of the FHS was explained by age of the child (9.4%, variables of the second level found associated to increased productivity of the FHS were: house overcrowding and tobacco use among adults at home, they both explained 53% of the variability. Conclusions: Children of families visited by the FHS were 3 likely to be cared for tooth decay than children from families who were not visited and the variables associated with the increased productivity of the FHS on dental care were child’s age, and house overcrowding and tobacco consumption among adult family members of the child.

  16. Prognostic value of cardiovascular MR imaging biomarkers on outcome in peripheral arterial disease: a 6-year follow-up pilot study.

    van den Bosch, Harrie; Westenberg, Jos; Setz-Pels, Wikke; Kersten, Erik; Tielbeek, Alexander; Duijm, Lucien; Post, Johannes; Teijink, Joep; de Roos, Albert

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the prognostic value of outcome of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison with traditional risk factors. Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years, 22 men) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were included. At baseline a comprehensive cardiovascular MRI examination was performed: CE-MRA of the infra-renal aorta and run-off vessels, carotid vessel wall imaging, cardiac cine imaging and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment. Patients were categorized for outcome at 72 ± 5 months follow-up. One patient was lost to follow-up. Over 6 years, six patients had died (mortality rate 14.6 %), six patients (14.6 %) had experienced a cardiac event and three patients (7.3 %) a cerebral event. The mean MRA stenosis class (i.e., average stenosis severity visually scored over 27 standardized segments) was a significant independent predictor for all-cause mortality (beta 3.0 ± standard error 1.3, p = 0.02). Descending aorta PWV, age and diabetes mellitus were interrelated with stenosis severity but none of these were significant independent predictors. For cardiac morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean MRA stenosis class were associated, but only LVEF was a significant independent predictor (beta -0.14 ± 0.05, p = 0.005). Diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for cerebral morbidity (beta 2.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Significant independent predictors for outcome in PAD are mean MRA stenosis class for all-cause mortality, LVEF for cardiac morbidity and diabetes mellitus for cerebral morbidity. PMID:27209283

  17. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  18. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  19. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa.

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-07-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita(-1) day(-1). Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, 'cut-point' approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting HarvestPlus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  20. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    Plambeck Hansen, Camilla; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia;

    2016-01-01

    and body composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993......-TFA intake was 1·3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0·4, 2·7 g/d) or 0·6 % of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0·2, 1·1 %). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. CONCLUSIONS: R-TFA intake within......OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...

  1. Dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; P trend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; P trend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; P trend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; P trend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. PMID:26997498

  2. Adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines in relation to metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women.

    Nishimura, Terumi; Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-28

    While Japanese diets have attracted considerable attention because of, for example, the long-life expectancy in Japan, their health benefits have not been examined. In the present study, we cross-sectionally examined whether adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines is associated with metabolic risk factors in 1083 Japanese women aged 18-22 years. Based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines was assessed using dietary information on consumed servings of grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk and fruits and energy from snacks and alcoholic beverages during the preceding month, which was derived from a comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Higher dietary adherence was associated with higher intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, Na, K and vitamin C, and lower intakes of total and saturated fat. There was also an inverse association between dietary adherence and dietary energy density. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary adherence was inversely associated with waist circumference (P for trend = 0·002). It also showed an inverse association with LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P for trend = 0·04). There was no association with the other metabolic risk factors examined, including BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, TAG, glucose, glycated Hb and insulin concentrations. In conclusion, higher adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines, which was characterised by favourable dietary intakes of foods and nutrients as well as lower energy density, was associated with lower waist circumference and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in this group of young Japanese women. PMID:26212663

  3. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  4. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31%...

  5. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  6. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies...

  7. Is dietary diversity an indicator of food security or dietary quality?

    Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    Although dietary diversity is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets, there is still a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize it. This paper focuses on the issues of dietary diversity in developing countries. It also draws upon experience from developed countries to address the following questions: 1. How is dietary diversity conceptualized, operationalized, and measured, and how does it relate operationally to dietary quality? 2. Is there an association be...

  8. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    Vajihe Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not.

  9. Dietary carbohydrates and change in physical performance of elderly Europeans. SENECA 1993 and 1999

    Kynde, I; Schroll, K; Tetens, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    scores indicate a better physical performance. Habitual diets were measured using diet history interviews and dietary GI and GL were estimated from table values. Setting Eight towns/centres from the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action (SENECA) in 1993 and 1999. Subjects......Objective To study dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in association with physical performance in elderly Europeans. Design Cross-sectional and prospective study. Physical performance was measured using the Physical Performance Test (PPT) score on a scale from 0 to 27, where high...... Seven hundred and sixty-five men and women, 75–80 years old, were examined in 1993; of these, 357 (47 %) were followed up in 1999, at age 80–85 years. Results At baseline, both dietary GI and GL were significantly inversely associated with PPT scores (P = 0·03 and P = 0·05, respectively). When adjusted...

  10. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  11. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    Küllenberg Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  12. The role of dietary creatine.

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26874700

  13. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  15. Population groups in dietary transition

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods: A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMedfor articles published in 19902011.Results: A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western or...

  16. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    Ernsberger, Paul; NELSON, DOUGLAS O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state (125 ± 8 vs. 121 ± 4 mmHg in chow-fed controls) or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia (71 ± 4 vs. 63 ± 3 mmHg). ...

  17. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations......-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food...

  18. "Know your CD4 campaign": 6-year outcomes from a quality improvement initiative to promote earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    Peter Memiah

    2014-07-01

    institutional barriers to using CD4 cell testing. Specific on-site training was initiated for both providers, with regard to use of CD4 cell counts, and nurses, with advanced training to initiate routine CD4 testing. These activities were well received because all staff were able to review unlinked, site-based clinical data to appreciate gaps in a local care. Results: The number of CD4 samples obtained and recorded increased by 114% between May and October 2007 at targeted health facilities. ART enrollment increased by 62% between June and September 2007 without other significant change in care delivery. The median baseline CD4 at enrollment increased from 110 cells/mm 3 in June to 150 cells/mm 3 in September. Overall retention rate was 77% for 13,333 HIV patients enrolled in seven facilities. In September 2013, the cumulative 6-year overall retention rates are 77% for 53,040 patients enrolled in 42 health facilities in the region. Obstacles were addressed and community empowerment techniques used to stimulate change in established clinical behaviors. Conclusion: This "Know your CD4 campaign" initiative resulted in increased uptake of CD4 testing, treatment initiation and an unanticipated improvement in patient retention. With attention to patient, staff, and laboratory elements in resource-poor settings, decline in immune function and morbidity may be reduced and viral suppression prolonged. Empowering patients to be involved in their own care resulted in better overall adherence with HIV management. Local use of reviewed data can impact overall effectiveness of HIV care delivery. Simple quality improvement approaches impact sustainable change.

  19. Witnessing the birth of a new ocean? The first 6 years of the Dabbahu rifting episode, and other activity in Afar

    Wright, T.; Ayele, A.; Barnie, T.; Belachew, M.; Calais, E.; Field, L.; Hamling, I.; Hammond, J.; Keir, D.

    2012-04-01

    . The initial dyke was followed by a sequence of smaller dyke intrusions, which began in June 2006. To date, there have been 14 dyke intrusions in total, with the most recent occurring in May 2010. These later dykes were typically 2-3 m thick and 10-15 km long, and have a cumulative volume approaching 1 km3. Three dykes broke the surface to produce basaltic fissural eruptions. Seismicity data show that they were all fed from the AVC and propagated at rates of 0.2 - 0.5 m/s. Overall, the locations of the dyke intrusions appear to be guided by tectonic driving stress, with the later dykes filling in areas that opened less in the initial dyke. However, the location of individual dyke intrusions is also influenced by their immediate predecessor. Activity in the 21st century in Afar has not been restricted to the Dabbahu Magmatic Segment. In the Erta Ale Magmatic Segment (EMS), a large basaltic eruption occurred at the Alu-Dalafilla range in November 2008, and the Erta Ale lava lake itself overflowed in November 2010. In addition, we have recently identified a shallow dyke intrusion at the north of the EMS, which propagated south from Dallol in 2004. Further afield, Nabro volcano in Eritrea, near the border with Eritrea, began erupting explosively in June 2011. Many of the eruptions were first detected by satellite observations of SO2 emissions and thermal hotspots, which enabled reliable alerts to be transmitted to local and national authorities, sometimes before eye-witness reports were communicated. Nabro was the 7th eruption in Afar in less than 6 years. An intense and immense collaborative effort involving numerous Ethiopian and international scientists, with crucial support from local and national authorities, has enabled us to document and learn from this unique period of activity in Afar.

  20. Essays in History & Finance

    D'ACUNTO, FRANCESCO

    2015-01-01

    To which extent may history help us understand current financial outcomes? FinancialHistory typically tests for financial theories using historical data, or studies past financialoutcomes to understand the present through analogy. This dissertation focuses on an alternative approach to the use of history in finance, which I label "History & Finance." This approach exploits facts and institutions of the past, and the persistence of the economic and social phenomena they determine, to directly...

  1. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  2. Conducting the Medical History

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  3. Studying Ancient History.

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  4. Modern History of Tibet

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  6. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel.

    Jacobs, David R; Haddad, Ella H; Lanou, Amy Joy; Messina, Mark J

    2009-05-01

    We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows. Although nutrient-based thinking and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may help ensure an adequate diet in the sense that deficiency states are avoided, the emphasis on DRIs may not capture many important nutritional issues and may inhibit a focus on foods. More generally, in the context of the conference on vegetarian nutrition, this report focuses on the history and structure of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, on various plant food-oriented recommendations that are supported by literature evidence, and on mechanisms for participating in the process of forming dietary guidelines. Among recommendations that likely would improve health and the environment, some are oriented toward increased plant food consumption and some toward vegetarianism. The literature on health effects of individual foods and whole lifestyle diets is insufficient and justifies a call for future food-oriented research, including expanding the evidence base for plant-based and vegetarian diets. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's role should be carried forward to creation of a publicly accessible icon (eg, the current pyramid) and related materials to ensure that the science base is fully translated for the public. PMID:19297463

  7. Dietary LC-PUFA deficiency early in ontogeny induces behavioural changes in pike perch (Sander lucioperca) larvae and fry

    Lund, Ivar; Höglund, Erik; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether dietary supply of DHA and phospholipids during early ontogeny affected the outcome of behavioural challenges in pike perch larvae and fry, and whether the history of lipid nutrition carried over in long-term effects on learning ability. Pike perch larvae were fed Artemia...

  8. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  9. Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages

    C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.

  10. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Williams Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  11. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Williams Melvin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  12. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals.

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Santosh K. Katiyar

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFIACATION: adverse effects;Animals;Antineoplastic Agents;Antineoplastic Agents,Phytogenic;Antioxidants;chemistry;Chemoprevention;drug therapy;Dermatology;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Dietary Supplements;Evaluation;Humans;methods;Neoplasms,Radiation-Induced;prevention & control;Phytotherapy;radiation effects;Research;Skin;Skin Neoplasms;therapeutic use;toxicity;Ultraviolet Rays. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultra...

  13. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    2010-07-01

    ... nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident. (a) Staffing. The facility management must employ a... American Dietetic Association. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility management must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional...

  14. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    2010-10-01

    ..., palatable, well-balanced diet that meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident... programs. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional adequacy. Menus must— (1) Meet...

  15. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  16. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  17. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  19. Development of a diet quality index assessing adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations and dietary guidelines in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

    Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Jan; Wallström, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, di...

  20. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  1. Cirurgia cardíaca videoassistida: 6 anos de experiência Video-assisted cardiac surgery: 6 years of experience

    Jeronimo Antonio Fortunato Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia cardíaca minimamente invasiva e videoassistida (CCVA tem aumentado em popularidade nos últimos 15 anos. As pequenas incisões têm sido associadas a um bom efeito estético e menor trauma cirúrgico, consequentemente, menor dor e rápida recuperação pós-operatória. OBJETIVOS: Apresentar nossa casuística com CCVA, após 6 anos de uso do método. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos à CCVA, após consentimento escrito, entre setembro de 2005 e outubro de 2011, sendo 50% do sexo masculino, com idade de 47,8 ± 15,4 anos, divididos em dois grupos: com circulação extracorpórea (CEC (GcCEC=105 pacientes: valvopatia mitral (47/105, valvopatia aórtica (39/105 e cardiopatia congênita (19/105 e sem CEC (GsCEC=31 pacientes: ressincronização cardíaca (18/31, tumor cardíaco (4/31 e revascularização miocárdica minimamente invasiva (6/31. No GcCEC, foi realizada minitoracotomia direita (3 a 5 cm e acesso femoral para canulação periférica. RESULTADOS: No GcCEC, a média de dias em UTI (DUTI e de internação hospitalar (DH foi, respectivamente, 2,4 ± 4,5 dias e 5,0 ± 6,8 dias. Doze pacientes apresentaram complicações no pós-operatório e cinco (4,8% foram a óbito. Noventa e três (88,6% pacientes evoluíram sem intercorrências, foram extubados no centro cirúrgico, permanecendo 1,8 ± 0,9 DUTI e 3,6 ± 1,3 DH. No GsCEC, foram 1,3 ± 0,7 DUTI e 2,9 ± 1,4 DH, sem intercorrências ou óbitos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados nesta casuística são comparáveis aos da literatura mundial e confirmam o método como opção à técnica convencional.INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive and video-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS has increased in popularity over the past 15 years. The small incisions have been associated with a good aesthetic effect and less surgical trauma, therefore less postoperative pain and rapid recovery. OBJECTIVES: To present our series with VACS, after 6 years of use of

  2. Association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults

    Naja, F.; Nasreddine, L.; Itani, L.; Adra, N.; Sibai, A.M.; Hwalla, N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic abnormalities among Lebanese adults, using data from a national nutrition survey. Methods A cross-sectional analysis involving adults aged ≥18 years (n = 323) with no prior history of chronic diseases was conducted. Participants completed a brief sociodemographic and 61-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and fasting b...

  3. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  4. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the ‘fiber gap’

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refin...

  5. Continuous histories and the history group in generalised quantum theory

    Linden, N

    1995-01-01

    We treat continuous histories within the histories approach to generalised quantum mechanics. The essential tool is the `history group': the analogue, within the generalised history scheme, of the canonical group of single-time quantum mechanics.

  6. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  7. Dietary lipid emulsions and endotoxemia

    Michalski Marie-Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance. Among factors triggering such inflammation, recent works revealed the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, so-called endotoxins. LPS are naturally present in the gut via the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies show that they can induce in plasma a metabolic endotoxemia after the consumption of unbalanced hyperlipidic meals. This article reviews recent knowledge gained on the role of intestinal lipid absorption and the composition of dietary lipids on: (i the induction of metabolic endotoxemia, (ii the types of plasma transporters of LPS and (iii associated low-grade inflammation. Notably, lipids are present in foods under various physicochemical structures and notably in emulsified form. Our recent works reveal that such structure and the type of emulsifier can modulate postprandial lipemia; recent results on the possible consequences on metabolic endotoxemia will be discussed.

  8. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  9. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  10. Detecting psychosocial problems among 5-6-year-old children in Preventive Child Health Care: The validity of a short questionnaire used in an assessment procedure for detecting psychosocial problems among children

    Vogels, T.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hollander-Gijsman, M.den; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: An extended re-assessment of the psychometric properties of the LSPPK, an instrument aimed at identifying children with emotional and behavioural problems. Methods: Data came from a national sample in the Netherlands of parents of 1248 children (aged 5-6 years) interviewed by child healt

  11. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [3H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  12. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise.

    Evans, W J; Hughes, V A

    1985-05-01

    Antecedent diet can greatly influence both substrate utilization during exercise and exercise performance itself. A number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that short-term (three to seven days) adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet results in greatly reduced liver and muscle glycogen stores. While carbohydrate utilization after such a diet is reduced, the limited glycogen stores can severely limit endurance exercise performance. High carbohydrate diets on the other hand expand carbohydrate stores which can limit performance. However, long-term adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet can greatly alter muscle and whole body energy metabolism to drastically limit the oxidation of limited carbohydrate stores with no adverse effect on performance. Glycogen loading techniques can result in supercompensation of muscle stores. Exercise induced depletion of muscle glycogen is the most important single factor in this phenomenon. Following the exercise a low carbohydrate diet for two to three days after which a high carbohydrate diet is eaten seemingly has the same effect on increasing muscle glycogen stores as simply eating a high carbohydrate diet. The form of the dietary carbohydrate during glycogen loading should be high in complex carbohydrates; however, the type of dietary starch that effects the greatest rate of resynthesis has not been investigated. Rapid resynthesis of glycogen following exercise is at least in part due to increased insulin sensitivity. The enhanced glucose transport caused by the increased sensitivity provides substrate for glycogen synthase. How rapidly this enhanced sensitivity returns to pre-exercise levels in humans is uncertain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3993621

  13. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  14. Population groups in dietary transition

    Per E. Wändell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods: A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results: A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated, overweight and obesity (14 articles were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles. For hypertension (three articles, dyslipidemia (four articles, and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles, the results were contradictory. Conclusions: Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention.

  15. Dietary fibre: consensus and controversy.

    Bijlani, R L

    1985-01-01

    Technological advances have reduced and refined man's plant food intake and consequently brought about an unprecedented decline in his consumption of dietary fibre (DF). The emergence of certain diseases selectively in regions which have been affected the most by this dietary change has led to an enhanced awareness of the functions of DF. DF is a heterogeneous group of substances which resist digestion by the endogenous enzymes of the human gut, although they are fermented to a substantial extent by the bacterial flora of the large intestine. Chemically, DF essentially consists of nonstarch polysaccharides and lignin, and its major constituents are cellulose, hemicelluose, lignin and pectin. The physiological effects of DF are attributable largely to its physicochemical properties. DF primarily affects gastrointestinal (GI) function; its effects are observable at all stages from ingestion through defaecation. It restricts caloric intake, shows gastric and small intestinal transit, and affects the activity of digestive enzymes and release of GI hormones. Its overall impact is to reduce apparent digestibility of nutrients marginally but consistently. In the large intestine, DF accelerates transit, supports bacterial growth and serves to hold water. As a result, the faecal weight and water content increase, and the transit time generally becomes shorter. Secondary to its GI effects, DF attenuates postprandial glycaemia and has long term effects on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein metabolism. These effects have important implications in the aetiopathogenesis of constipation and its sequelae including diverticulosis, cholesterol gallstones, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. DF has traditionally been used therapeutically for constipation; now its use in diabetes is also well established. Our appreciation of the role of DF in human nutrition has undergone a major change in the last two decades. From a redundant constituent of plant foods

  16. Ranking economic history journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  17. Ranking Economic History Journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  18. Marine Environmental History

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  19. Relationship between dietary iron intake, corrected for diet reporting error, and serum ferritin in Danish women aged 35-65 years.

    Heitmann, B L; Milman, N; Hansen, G L

    1996-06-01

    Several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between Fe status and intake of dietary Fe. However, in the long term, it seems logical to presume that body Fe reserves are, fundamentally, dependent on the intake of bioavailable dietary Fe. This discrepancy may depend on several factors: (1) interindividual variation in biological availability of dietary Fe (differences in intestinal absorption), (2) interactions between dietary Fe and absorption enhancers and inhibitors, (3) variations in physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or unphysiological (blood donation) Fe losses, (4) the failure to adjust dietary intake data for Fe supplements, (5) uncertain food composition data (discrepancies between calculated and chemically measured Fe content in the diet), and (6) diet reporting error (reported intake of dietary Fe may deviate considerably from the true intake). The present study examined associations between dietary intake of Fe (assessed by diet history interview) and Fe status (assessed by ferritin status) among 167 Danish women aged 35-65 years, who were not blood donors, by taking into account diet reporting error (assessed from p-amino benzoic acid-validated urinary N), physiological blood losses (menstruation, childbirth, abortions), and Fe supplementation. Our results indicate that the lack of a general association between Fe status and dietary Fe intake may, in part, be caused by selective diet reporting error. PMID:8774235

  20. [History of Polish pharmacy].

    Okuda, J; Okuda, R

    1993-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718

  1. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  2. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  3. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  5. Cooperative Station History Forms

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  6. Regression of conjunctival tumor during dietary treatment of celiac disease

    Tuncer Samuray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old girl presented with a hemorrhagic conjunctival lesion in the right eye. The medical history revealed premature cessation of breast feeding, intolerance to the ingestion of baby foods, anorexia, and abdominal distention. Prior to her referral, endoscopic small intestinal biopsy had been carried out under general anesthesia with a possible diagnosis of Celiac Disease (CD. Her parents did not want their child to undergo general anesthesia for the second time for the excisional biopsy. We decided to follow the patient until all systemic investigations were concluded. In evaluation, the case was diagnosed with CD and the conjunctival tumor showed complete regression during gluten-free dietary treatment. The clinical fleshy appearance of the lesion with spider-like vascular extensions and subconjunctival hemorrhagic spots, possible association with an acquired immune system dysfunction due to CD, and spontaneous regression by a gluten-free diet led us to make a presumed diagnosis of conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma.

  7. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  8. A history of the histories of econometrics

    Boumans, Marcel; Dupont-Kieffer, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories writte

  9. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  10. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J.; Sijben, John W. C.; Broersen, Laus M.

    2016-01-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined...

  11. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    Ockene Ira S; Li Wenjun; Schneider Kristin L; Olendzki Barbara C; Ma Yunsheng; Merriam Philip A; Pagoto Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized contr...

  12. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge and health status

    Geaney, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence and associated burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases is a global public health concern. The environments in which people live and work influences their dietary behaviours. Aim The focus of this thesis was on the effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions. The comparative effectiveness of a complex workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention were assessed both alone and in combination relat...

  13. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  14. FDA vs. Ephedra: Dietary Supplement Regulation Under DSHEA

    Jones, Adam R.

    2002-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) dramatically changed the way dietary supplements are regulated in the United States. DSHEA created a new category of products defined as “dietary supplements,†and altered the way in which these products are regulated in an attempt to promote consumer access to dietary supplements. By weakening the FDA’s regulatory control of dietary supplements, DSHEA made it impossible for the F...

  15. Dietary and reproductive determinants of plasma organochlorine levels in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro

    Organo chlorine (OC) plasma levels and their dietary and reproductive determinants were investigated in 64 pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Prenatal exposure of newborns was evaluated in a subset of these womens in which umbilical cord blood was analyzed. To assess the influence of dietary factors on OC levels, a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire as completed by participants. Non dietary determinants were investigated through a general questionnaire that addressed reproductive history, lifestyle, and social-demographic characteristics. Both women and their newborns had detectable but low levels of OCs. The most frequently detected compound was p,p'-DDE, the main metabolite of p,p'-DDT. This compound was found in 97% of the women who participated in the study and in 67% of the umbilical cord blood samples, with levels ranging from 0.161 to 8.03 ppb and from 0.320 to 1.06 ppb, respectively. Among the OCs detected, only p,p'-DDE showed any correlation with dietary and non dietary factors. There was a positive correlation between maternal p,p'-DDE and the consumption of fish Pearson r=0.38,P=0.002) and chicken (Pearson r=0.26, P=0.042). The correlation between pork consumption and p,p'-DDE exhibited an inverse relationship (Pearson r=-0.25,P=0.052). Parity was the only non dietary factor hat showed a significant correlation (Pearson r=-0.36,P=0.004). The main determinants of p,p'-DDE levels in this group of women were fish consumption and parity, together explaining 28% of the variance (P<001), in a multivariate model

  16. Dietary Guidelines 2010: selected messages for consumers

    2011-01-01

    1 page This one-page document breaks down the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans into three categories: balancing calories, foods to increase, and foods to reduce. Two simple recommendations are made in each category.

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  18. DIETARY FIBER: DEFINTION, SOURCES AND EXTRACTION

    Jolana Karovičová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in food rich in dietary fiber increased in the recent decades, and the importance of this food constituent has led to the development of a large market for fibre-rich products and ingredients. A high dietary fiber intake has been related to several physiological and metabolic effects. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of compounds which may be used because of their favourable technological or nutritional properties. Soluble dietary fiber is those components that are soluble in water and includes pectic substances and hydrocolloids. Good sources of soluble fibers include fruits, vegetables, legumes, soybeans, psyllium seeds and oat bran. Insoluble dietary fiber is those components that are insoluble in water and includes cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Whole grains are good sources of insoluble fiber. Comercialize fibre product have to perform some characteristic properties.doi:10.5219/125

  19. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  20. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    ... about dietary supplements. These include TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, store clerks, friends, family, or the Internet. It is important to question recommendations from people who have no formal training in nutrition, botanicals, or medicine. While some of these sources, ...

  1. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  2. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    Hof, van het K.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid bioavailability.In a

  3. History-Painting

    Gagnon, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This was the first official "History-Painting" in The History-Project, a series of works of art - interdisciplinary! - that I engaged in from the Summer of 2001 until around circa 2005. It is an oil painting on Masonite board, roughly 6 inches by 8 inches.

  4. Musikterapiens historie i Danmark

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Gennemgang af musikterapiens historie og udvikling i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig. Revideret udgave af samme kapitel i "Musikterapi: Når ord ikke slår til" (2001).......Gennemgang af musikterapiens historie og udvikling i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig. Revideret udgave af samme kapitel i "Musikterapi: Når ord ikke slår til" (2001)....

  5. Business history and risk

    Gourvish , Terry

    2003-01-01

    CARR, in association with the Centre for Business History, University of Leeds, held a successful workshop on 'Business History and Risk' on 20 February 2002. The workshop, which was sponsored by the ESRC, brought together business historians, economists, accountants and risk analysts to develop an interdisciplinary discussion on understandings of risk by employers, workers and governments in different historical settings.

  6. History of Mathematics

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  7. Dietary prevention at home and abroad.

    Shaper, A G

    1980-01-01

    The main dietary recommendations towards the prevention/postponement of coronary heart disease (CHD) made in the U.K. in the last decade are reviewed. There is substantial agreement regarding the need for a reduction in the intake of saturated fats. It is suggested that only moderate changes in dietary polyunsaturated: saturated ratio may be sufficient to achieve changes in the incidence of CHD.

  8. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students during th...

  9. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background: A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective: To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design: A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students d...

  10. Welfare and sustainability effects of dietary recommendations

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2015-01-01

    The paper develops a framework combining a model of rational behaviour under dietary constraints, an epidemiological model of diet-related mortality, and a life-cycle-analysis model of environmental impact, which permits the ex-ante assessment of dietary recommendations in multiple sustainability dimensions (i.e., taste cost, welfare effect, deaths avoided, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and acidification). It is applied to compare in a French context the relative effects and efficien...

  11. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    Land, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    1. The objective of this working paper is to analyse consumers' dietary patterns as reflected in shopping, meal patterns, eating habits, traditions, cooking and the content of the diet itself. These dietary patterns were analysed with regard to th connection to consumers' ways of life, family form and living conditions, in as much as cooking and eating food play an extremely important role in the structuring of everyday life. 2. The consumer analyses are based on 12 qualitative interviews con...

  12. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because o...

  13. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Mahdi Aloosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However,dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS.Methods:Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 food items. To define major dietary patterns, we used factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of MS.Results:Traditional pattern (high in low-fat dairy products,red meat, vegetable oil, onion, whole grain, soy, refined grains, organ meats, coffee, and legumes was inversely related to the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR = 0.15; 95%confidence interval (CI: 0.03-0.18; P = 0.028]. A similar inverse relationship was noted between MS risk andlacto-vegetarian (high in nuts, fruits, French fries, coffee,sweets and desserts, vegetables, and high-fat dairy products and vegetarian (high in green leafy vegetables, hydrogenated fats, tomato, yellow vegetables, fruit juices, onion, and other vegetablespatterns (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82; P = 0.018 and OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.90; P = 0.026, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of MS was higher in those who had high animal fat dietary pattern (high in animal fats,potato, meat products, sugars, and hydrogenated fats and low in whole grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.63-2.94;P < 0.005.Conclusion:Our findings showed that the risk of RRMS can be affected by major dietary patterns.

  14. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity

    Wang, Shu; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, InSook; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins and epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol, and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related-inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols r...

  15. DIETARY FIBER: DEFINTION, SOURCES AND EXTRACTION

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Michaela Jurasová

    2011-01-01

    The interest in food rich in dietary fiber increased in the recent decades, and the importance of this food constituent has led to the development of a large market for fibre-rich products and ingredients. A high dietary fiber intake has been related to several physiological and metabolic effects. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of compounds which may be used because of their favourable tec...

  16. School Lunch Source and Adolescent Dietary Behavior

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As rates of childhood obesity rise, the nutritional content of lunches eaten at school is more heavily scrutinized. We examined the association between dietary behaviors and the number of days that adolescents bring lunch to school. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data for 2,774 adolescents who responded to the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and reported dietary behaviors for a weekday. Results In bivariate analyses, adolescents who typically brought their lunch from...

  17. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    Vajihe Izadi; Leila Azadbakht

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key word...

  18. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  19. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J. M.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CV...

  20. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of soybean oil decrease plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and increase the activity of heparin-released lipoprotein lipase activity in horses. The metabolic adaptation...

  1. Neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out in relation to dietary intake in young Japanese women.

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake. PMID:21512296

  2. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  3. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  4. A history of coeliac disease.

    Losowsky, M S

    2008-01-01

    Coeliac disease may have an ancient history dating back to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The first clear description was given by Samuel Gee in 1888. He suggested that dietary treatment might be of benefit. In the early 20th century various diets were tried, with some success, but without clear recognition of the toxic components. The doctoral thesis of Wim Dicke of 1950 established that exclusion of wheat, rye and oats from the diet led to dramatic improvement. The toxicity was shown to be a protein component, referred to as gluten. Dicke's colleagues, Weijers and Van de Kamer, showed that measurement of stool fat reflected the clinical condition. Early studies were in children but stool fat measurements documented that the condition could be recognised in adults. Histological abnormalities of the lining of the small intestine were demonstrated beyond doubt by Paulley in 1954 and techniques of per-oral biopsy described by Royer in 1955 and Shiner in 1956 afforded reliable diagnosis. Concurrence in monozygotic twins suggested a genetic component, confirmed by studies of HLA antigens. Additional, non-genetic factors seem likely. Circulating antibodies suggest an immunological mechanism of damage and provide non-invasive screening tests. Lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and ulceration of the small intestine and a range of immunological disorders are associated. A relationship with dermatitis herpetiformis was suggested by Samman in 1955 and established by Shuster and Marks in 1965 and 1968. The Coeliac Society (now Coeliac UK) was founded in 1968 and similar societies now exist across the world. They provide an extremely valuable service. Present problems include definition of the tolerated levels of gluten, whether oats are toxic for some or all coeliacs and the likelihood that the condition is relatively common and frequently without classical symptoms. Hope for the future is that more convenient methods of treatment will follow better understanding. PMID:18431060

  5. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  6. Portraying User Interface History

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism in that...... they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some...

  7. A history of mathematics

    Boyer, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics. For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind's relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture , in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs.: Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume; Cover

  8. Science A history

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  9. Construction of training proсess of tennis players aged 5-6 years, taking into account the specifics of the development and control of their coordination skills

    Kozak A. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presented results of the research to determine the features of the construction of the training process for young tennis players aged 5-6 years, in particular the specific application of pedagogical testing to test the level of development of their coordination skills. Material: The survey was attended by 30 experts. Results: Established that bigger part of coaches build the training process at the initial stage of preparation on the basis of the game approach and apply a program of the International Tennis Federation "Play and stay". About two-thirds of the coaches do not carry out a selection of tennis players aged 5-6 or make it only in individual cases. To assess the level of development of motor abilities are equally important coaches define pedagogical supervision and pedagogical testing. A significant proportion of respondents (43% previously had experience in assessing motor abilities of tennis players 5-6 years by mean of pedagogical tests. Conclusions: Overwhelming majority of coaches support the idea of having to modify the tests in accordance with the age characterristics of tennis players aged 5-6 years and expediency of complex assessment of the level of development of their coordination skills.

  10. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D.; Osella, Alberto R.; Eynard, Aldo R.; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  11. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

    Chao-Qun Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination; the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women; no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5% were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05 than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI, compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05. However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  12. Oral history database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  13. IUTAM a short history

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  14. History Begins at Home

    McCully, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that high school history can be more interesting and useful if students are taught to formulate, evaluate, and use historical statements on the basis of evidence available in primary sources. Outlines a curriculum based on this thesis. (AV)

  15. History of Lake Andes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... for Emergency Health Professionals Clinician Outreach (COCA) Crisis & Risk Communication (CERC) Laboratory Information Health Alert Network (HAN) ... Cleaning Public Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend ...

  17. Water Level Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food ...

  19. History of Catalan numbers

    Pak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We give a brief history of Catalan numbers, from their first discovery in the 18th century to modern times. This note will appear as an appendix in Richard Stanley's forthcoming book on Catalan numbers.

  20. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...