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Sample records for 6-month exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its determinants in first 6 months of life: A prospective study

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Chikitsa D. Amin; Yogesh N Parikh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months of life is recommended under Infant and Young Child Feeding practices in India. The objective of present study was to estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during first 6 months of life of babies and to identify factors that interfere with the practice in the study area. Methods: A prospective cohort of 462 women who delivered at maternity unit of Government Medical College & Hospital, Rajkot, which is a tertiary care centre ...

  2. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  3. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  4. Breastfeeding exclusively and iron deficiency anemia during the first 6 months of age

    Rosa F.S.V. Marques; José A. A. C. Taddei; Fábio A Lopez; Josefina A.P. Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among exclusively breastfed infants from one to six months of life and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This is a cohort study of the hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of 102 healthy full-term infants, weighing more than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds) at birth, evaluated for growth development and supported to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels were meas...

  5. Breastfeeding exclusively and iron deficiency anemia during the first 6 months of age

    Rosa F.S.V. Marques

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among exclusively breastfed infants from one to six months of life and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This is a cohort study of the hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of 102 healthy full-term infants, weighing more than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds at birth, evaluated for growth development and supported to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels were measured in the first, fourth, and sixth months of life. The hemoglobin and ferritin levels of the mothers were also measured in the first month postpartum. Results At four months, 5.7% presented iron deficiency and 3.4% had iron deficiency anemia. At six months, the percentage of children with iron deficiency increased more than four times, reaching 26.1%, while iron deficiency anemia was present in 23.9% of the infants studied. Iron deficiency at six months of age was significantly correlated to growth velocity. Conclusion According to the results of this study, exclusive breastfeeding protects infants from iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia for the first four months of life. After this age, in accordance with the literature, the findings of this study demonstrated an increase in anemia and iron deficiency rates, adding to evidence that supports the monitoring of iron levels in exclusively breastfed children presenting higher weight gains beginning at four months of age.

  6. Patterns of Daily Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding among Exclusively Breastfed Infants in Shiraz, Iran, A 6-Month Follow-up Study Using Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite numerous studies on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half year of life, little information is available on actual breastfeeding practices in terms of daily duration and frequency of suckling. This study proposes to determine daily breastfeeding patterns among exclusively breastfed infants from birth to six months. Subject and Methods: An observational prospective follow-up study of daily feeding practices among exclusively breastfed infants was co...

  7. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING OF INFANTS AGED 0-6 MONTHS BY URBAN REFUGEE WOMEN IN KIGALI

    Gedeon Jino Bahemuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee women’s knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EBF and to determine EBF practice rate among these women. This is a descriptive crosssectional study. It involves 90 urban refugee women who had children aged six months to two years during the period of the study. The study was conducted between January 2011 and mid-February of the same year.The main results are the following: 74.4% of the mothers have correct knowledge about the EBF, and the health facilities are reported to at 90 % their main source of the information 71.1% of the mothers have positive attitude towards EBF, but 34.4 % practised EBF up to 6 months. There is no significant correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (p > 0.05.The factors leading the mothers in the study to such low practice of EBF, which are not captured by this study, might be anchored in their cultural or traditional practices. For almost all of the mothers come from the same country: the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mainly from the East of the country.Therefore, as a recommendation, a qualitative research should diligently be conducted in order to dig up the reasons for these women’s failure in practising EBF to six months. In addition, the women’s sensitisation for EBF practice should continue and be enhanced.

  8. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled. PMID:20721426

  9. Becoming a role model: The breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months

    Tarrant, M; Dodgson, JE; Choi, VWK

    2004-01-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis wa...

  10. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  11. Tendência e determinantes do aleitamento materno exclusivo em crianças menores de 6 meses Trends and patterns of exclusive breastfeeding for under-6-month-old children

    Giuliana M. Parizoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a tendência e os determinantes do aleitamento materno exclusivo no município de Bauru (SP. MÉTODOS: Foram comparados três inquéritos transversais, metodologicamente equivalentes, que integram projeto de monitoramento de indicadores de aleitamento materno no estado de São Paulo. Foram estudadas crianças de 0 a 6 meses de idade que compareceram a uma das duas etapas da campanha de multivacinação nos anos de 1999, 2003 e 2006, com respectivamente 496, 674 e 509 crianças. Apresentam-se estatísticas descritivas comparando a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo segundo idade (em meses e conjunto de crianças menores de 6 meses. As diferenças de prevalência foram expressas em termos de pontos percentuais e submetidas a teste estatístico (qui-quadrado de Pearson e tendência, adotando-se p OBJECTIVE: To study the trends and patterns of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for under-6-month-old infants in the city of Bauru, Brazil. METHODS: Data from three methodologically equivalent cross-sectional surveys integrating the project for monitoring breastfeeding indicators in São Paulo state were compared. Infants aged zero to 6 months who attended one of the two phases of the Multivaccination Campaign in 1999, 2003 and 2006, respectively 496, 674 and 509 infants, were studied. Descriptive statistics were presented to compare the prevalence of EBF according to age (in months and for the set of children under 6 months. The differences in prevalence were expressed in percentage and submitted to statistical tests (Pearson's chi-square and tendency, adopting p < 0.05 as the critical level. Factors associated with EBF interruption in 2006 were also studied by uni- and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Increase in EBF prevalence was found in under-6-month-old infants: in the 1999-2003 period, increase of 9.1%; in the 2003-2006 period, increase of 6.6%, thus reaching the annual increase rate of 2.3% in the first period and 2.2% in

  12. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    Forough Mortazavi; Seyed Abbas Mousavi; Reza Chaman; Ahmad Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at s...

  13. Associations between perceived value of exclusive breastfeeding among pregnant women in the United States and exclusive breastfeeding to three and six months postpartum: a prospective study

    Nnebe-Agumadu, Uche H.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Coffman, Maren J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Successful breastfeeding often starts with prenatally established intention. Yet, few mothers with the intention to exclusively breastfeed achieve their intended breastfeeding duration goal. This study examined the degree to which having a strong value of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration for at least 3 and 6 months postpartum among women who reported prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed. Methods Data were from the Infant Feeding Pr...

  14. Implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between the level of implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 916 infants < 6 months, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Data on breastfeeding, place of outpatient care and other characteristics were collected during the National Vaccination Campaign. The factor studied is where outpatient care took place: Private; Non-...

  15. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    Rusia Usha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61 mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  16. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    Rusia Usha; Faridi MMA; Raj Shashi; Singh Om

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured...

  17. Exclusive maternal breastfeeding and the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale

    Edficher Margotti; Matias Epifanio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the factors related to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and to associate them to the scores of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale. 300 mother-baby binomials were studied, from the capital cities of the southern region of Brazil in 2012, using the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale during postpartum period and with intervals from 15 to 120 days after delivery. The average of the score of breastfeeding was 36 points. The risk factors for breastfeeding we...

  18. (Correlation between Family Social Economy Status and Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tanah Kali Kedinding Public Health Centre, Surabaya

    Suci Wulansari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The result of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010 showed that the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months were lower than the exclusive breastfeeding coverage target in Indonesia that is 80%. One of the factor that assumed can affect the continuity of exclusive breastfeeding is social economy condition. Methods: This study was a descriptive research with cross sectional design. Samples were taken from population who were mothers with 6-12 months old children within the area of Puskesmas Tanah Kali Kedinding on 2011. Closed quistionnaire was used to collect data and analyzed with Chi Square. The aim of the study was described the correlation between social economy factors and exclusive breastfeeding on babies. Result: Only a small portion of respondents that had good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a significant correlation between good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice. There was a significant correlation between vocational status of mother and knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice. There was no significant correlation between education level and family income with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusions: The scope of exclusive breastfeeding must be enhanced. Poor of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding and working mothers influence the low level of exclusive breastfeeding practice. Recomendation: Increasing knowledge of mothers and families about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, preparation and technical, as well as how storage and giving stored breastfeeding to the baby. Working mothers should try to give the exclusive breastfeeding which it must be facilitated by the company.

  19. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  20. A systematic review on the effectiveness of interventions to promote the initiation, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding

    Ching, Wan-yee; 程韻儀

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is beneficial to infant and child health, woman health and society. Breastfeeding is promoted by various strategies in Hong Kong. Although the breastfeeding initiation rate is increasing, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 4-6 months remains low in Hong Kong. The current policy and interventions are not effective on promoting breastfeeding and addressing the needs of mothers. Aims This systematic review aimed to identify effective interventions to promote b...

  1. Breastfeeding Performance Index at Age of 6 Months in Mansoura, Egypt

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many indicators for breastfeeding assessment. The breastfeeding performance index (BPI as a composite index to describe overall breastfeeding performance among infants under six months of age. Objectives: To describe the breastfeeding practice using BPI and to identify factors associated with low breastfeeding performance. Methods: A total of 528 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features, obstetric history, and the seven components of the BPI. Results: The proportions of infants belonging to low, average and high BP categories were 27.1%, 41.7% and 31.3%, respectively. The regression analysis revealed that significant predictors of low BPI are (in order: private clinic/hospital delivery (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=3.6; working mothers (AOR=2.0, and cesarean section delivery (AOR=1.7. Conclusion: Factors identified will help to target mothers for breastfeeding promotion interventions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 225-230

  2. (Correlation between Family Social Economy Status and Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tanah Kali Kedinding Public Health Centre, Surabaya)

    Suci Wulansari; Mochammad Setyo Pramono

    2014-01-01

    Background: The result of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010) showed that the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months were lower than the exclusive breastfeeding coverage target in Indonesia that is 80%. One of the factor that assumed can affect the continuity of exclusive breastfeeding is social economy condition. Methods: This study was a descriptive research with cross sectional design. Samples were taken from population who were mothers with 6-12 months old children within t...

  3. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  5. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND CHALLENGES OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG PRIMIGRAVIDAS

    Kiragu, Reginah; Neupane, Jharna Elizabeth; Kandel, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate types of primigravidas´ knowledge regarding exclusive breastfeeding; to explore their attitudes towards and identify the possible challenges they experienced during exclusive breastfeeding period. The goal of the study was to provide knowledge for nurses and professional teams to comprehend the reasons behind early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding by new mothers, hence revising a new most competent course to boost exclusivity of breastfeeding a...

  6. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to be cost effective in West Africa. A randomized intervention study from Guinea-Bissau

    Jakobsen, Marianne S; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of promotion of exclusive breastfeeding on infant health in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, where mortality rates are high, breastfeeding is widely practiced but exclusive breastfeeding is rare. METHOD: At the Bandim Health Project in Guinea Bissau, West Africa, a birth...... cohort of 1721 infants were randomized to receive health education: promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life according to WHO recommendations at the time of the study. All children were followed from birth to 6 months of age. RESULTS: Introduction of both water and weaning...

  7. Pattern of Breastfeeding in Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from birth to 6 months in Tehran - Iran

    Ramin Kermani

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The most important factor which affects ART infants' nutrition pattern is their birth weight. The beginning time of feeding affects their weight and length increase till 6 months. Based on reproductive techniques, breastfeeding was similar in different methods of ART.

  8. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  9. Profiles of eight working mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Depok, Indonesia.

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Wibowo, Yulianti; Fahmida, Umi; Roshita, Airin

    2012-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding practice is generally low because of multifaceted factors internally within mothers themselves and also the surroundings. In addition, studies have consistently found that maternal employment outside the home is related to shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. With all these challenges, it is interesting that there are some mothers who manage to exclusively breastfeed their infants. Therefore, this report aims at exploring the characteristics of working mothers who are able to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The original study population was non-working and working mothers who have infants around 1 to 6 months old. The study design is an observational study with a mixed methods approach using a quantitative study (survey) and qualitative methods (in-depth interview) in sequential order. In addition, in-depth interviews with family members, midwives, supervisors at work, and community health workers were also included to accomplish a holistic picture of the situation. The study concludes that self-efficacy and confidence of the breastfeeding mothers characterize the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge that was acquired way before the mothers got pregnant suggests a predisposing factor to the current state of confidence. Home support from the father enhances the decision to sustain breastfeeding. PMID:21777072

  10. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Elizabeth Yohmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the best and most ideal food for babiesbecause it contains all nutrition needed for their optimal growthand development. Babies who receive breast milk will have strongimmune system, good brain development, and closer emotionalbonding with their mothers. Considering the importance of breastmilk, Indonesian government has been campaigning to endorseexclusive breastfeeding up to six months in the last four years. Todate, there is no national data available to evaluate the exclusivebreastfeeding program. Therefore, Indonesian Pediatric Society(IDAI conducted a national survey on breastfeeding to investigateexclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia.Objective To find out the prevalence of exclusive breastfeedingin Indonesia.Methods This study included 22 provinces in Indonesia and targetedon mothers with infants aged 0-11 months. For the quantitativeportion of the study we used simple random sampling design to getthe prevalence from the population. For the qualitative interviewdata we used a stratified random sampling design to ensure thateach infant age group was well represented. Survey location in eachprovince was selected based on defining the capital city to be urbanarea and its sub-urban areas to be rural. This study was performedbetween October – November 2010.Results We found that the prevalences of breastfeeding amongbaby 0-11 months was quite high which were 91%, 86%, and72% in infants aged 0-3 months, 0-6 months, and 6-11 months,respectively. Interestingly, the prevalence of breastfeeding inurban area was higher than in rural area for infants aged 6-11months. However, despite the high prevalence of giving breastmilk, less than half of mothers gave breast milk exclusively, tobabies aged 0-3 months and to those aged 0-6 months. Theawareness to exclusively breastfeed was greater for urban mothersthan for rural ones in those with infants aged 0-6 months. Motherswith high socioeconomic status had the highest

  11. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Agunbiade Ojo M; Ogunleye Opeyemi V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Ni...

  12. Education, contraceptive use in women and the chance of six months exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia

    Ummi Kalsum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Di Indonesia proporsi ibu-ibu yang melaksanakan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI eksklusif selama enam bulan masih rendah. Pada tulisan ini disajikan beberapa faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif 6 bulan. Metode: Analisis naskah ini memakai sebagian data Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI 2012 di 33 provinsi di Indonesia berdasarkan desain stratified sampling. Pada analisis ini sub-sampel ialah wanita berumur 15-49 tahun yang mempunyai bayi lahir tunggal hidup berumur 6 bulan, mempunyai bayi hidup bersama ibunya, dan mempunyai data lengkap untuk keperluan analisis ini. Jumlah ibu yang mempunyai anak <2 tahun serta hidup bersama anaknya sebanyak 1040, dan 325 di antaranya yang mempunyai anak 6 bulan serta lengkap datanya.Hasil:Ibu-ibu yang memberi ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan sebanyak 3,7%. Pemakaian kontrasepsi serta pendidikan merupakan dua faktor dominan terhadap kemungkinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Dibandingkan dengan ibu yang memakai kontrasepsi hormonal, ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi non hormonal serta yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi 7,3 kali lipat dan 9,1 kali lipat lebih tinggi memberikan ASI eksklusif [masing-masing risiko relatif (RRa = 7,25; P = 0,031; dan RRa = 9,08; P = 0,004]. Ditinjau dari segi pendidikan  ibu,  ibu  yang  yang  berpendidikan  rendah  dibandingkan  dengan  ibu  berpendidikan  tinggi/menengah 4.2 kali lipat memberikan ASI eksklusif (RRa = 4,19; P = 0,027.Kesimpulan:Ibu-ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan lebih sering terdapat di antara ibu-ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi serta yang berpendidikan rendah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:17-22Kata kunci: ASI eksklusif, pendidikan ibu, kontrasepsi AbstractBackground: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months among Indonesian women is very low. This paper aimed to assess several factors related to exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used part of the data from

  13. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production. Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  14. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production.Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  15. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Elizabeth Yohmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the best and most ideal food for babies because it contains all nutrition needed for their optimal growth and development. Babies who receive breast milk will have strong immune system, good brain development, and closer emotional bonding with their mothers. Considering the importance of breast milk, Indonesian government has been campaigning to endorse exclusive breastfeeding up to six months in the last four years. To date, there is no national data available to evaluate the exclusive breastfeeding program. Therefore, Indonesian Pediatric Society (IDAI conducted a national survey on breastfeeding to investigate exclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia. Objective To find out the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Methods This study included 22 provinces in Indonesia and targeted on mothers with infants aged 0-11 months. For the quantitative portion of the study we used simple random sampling design to get the prevalence from the population. For the qualitative interview data we used a stratified random sampling design to ensure that each infant age group was well represented. Survey location in each province was selected based on defining the capital city to be urban area and its sub-urban areas to be rural. This study was performed between October – November 2010. Results We found that the prevalences of breastfeeding among baby 0-11 months was quite high which were 91%, 86%, and 72% in infants aged 0-3 months, 0-6 months, and 6-11 months, respectively. Interestingly, the prevalence of breastfeeding inurban area was higher than in rural area for infants aged 6-11 months. However, despite the high prevalence of giving breast milk, less than half of mothers gave breast milk exclusively, to babies aged 0-3 months and to those aged 0-6 months. The awareness to exclusively breastfeed was greater for urban mothers than for rural ones in those with infants aged 0-6 months. Mothers with high socioeconomic

  16. A randomized controlled trial of a professional breastfeeding support intervention to increase the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding

    Fu, Chui-yuk, Idy; 傅翠玉

    2013-01-01

    Breastmilk is the most natural and complete nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding incurs numerous benefits for both infants and mothers. The World Health Organization recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed their infants for six months and continue breastfeeding for up to two years of age and beyond. More than 80% of Hong Kong mothers now initiate breastfeeding. However, overall breastfeeding duration remains short and rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low. Premature weaning is i...

  17. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  18. Evidence-based guidelines of breastfeeding focused on skill training for improving duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding

    談詠珊; Tam, Wing-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for babies and exhibits short and long-term health benefits for mothers and babies. Comparing the breastfeeding figures worldwide, Hong Kong has lower breastfeeding rates compared with other developed countries. Clinically and locally, inadequate skill support from nurses decreases breastfeeding rates. This thesis introduces evidenced-based guidelines of breastfeeding focused on skill training for improving duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding...

  19. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  20. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-201...

  1. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    Julio Cesar Mateus Solarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and pro­tect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  2. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    Mateus Solarte, Julio César

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short.Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced.Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems.

  3. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Ndeezi Grace; Semiyaga Nulu; Soltvedt Åshild; Tumwine James K; Nankunda Jolly; Tylleskär Thorkild

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a r...

  4. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  5. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  6. Exclusive Breastfeeding, Prevalence and Maternal Concerns: Saudi and Egyptian Mothers

    Nafee Elsayed, Hoda Mohamed; Al-Dossary, Latifa Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is rich in nutrients and anti-bodies and contains the right quantities of sugar, water, fat and protein that promotes not only growth and development of infants but also important for their survive. Exclusive breastfeeding is enough to the needs of infants less than six months without any addition. Several studies mentioned that the…

  7. Feeding practices of mothers and/or caregivers of infants below the age of 6 months in South Africa / Linda Precious Siziba

    Siziba, Linda Precious

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is widely recognised as the ideal approach for improving child survival and feeding new-born babies and young infants. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life with timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 months and continued breastfeeding for up to two years and beyond. The feeding practices of mothers are widely influenced by different factors which may be embedded within different contexts ...

  8. Becoming Baby-Friendly: Increasing breastfeeding exclusivity and duration rates through Vancouver's community health services

    Graham, Katie Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent gains in breastfeeding initiation and ongoing public health recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of an infant’s life, breastfeeding exclusivity and duration rates remain suboptimal in Vancouver and across Canada. In an effort to establish breastfeeding as the cultural norm for women, children, and families, Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) recently developed a VCH-wide policy and guidelines about the feeding of healthy term infants. This paper...

  9. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Binns Colin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  10. Barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urbanwomen in southeastern Nigeria

    Joseph O Ugboaja; Berthrand, Nwosu O.; Igwegbe, Anthony O.; Amaka L OBI-Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence shows that only a small proportion of Nigerian women access postnatal care and practice exclusive breastfeeding. Given that both interventions are critical to the survival of both the mother and the new born, it is important to identify factors that militate against an effective postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding in the country, in order to scale up services. The aim was to determine the major barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among ...

  11. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Binns Colin W; Zhao Yun; Qiu Liqian; Lee Andy H; Xie Xing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the...

  12. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  13. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study.

    Måstrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof.

  14. Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.

    Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

  15. [Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding: the role of primary health care].

    Pereira, Rosane Siqueira Vasconcellos; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Santos Brito, Alexandre dos

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between promotion, protection, and support for breastfeeding in primary health care services and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,029 mothers of infants younger than six months treated at primary health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by Poisson regression. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 58.1%. Factors associated with increased prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding were: white skin color (PR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.36); schooling (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.35); marital status (married or in common-law marriage) (PR = 1.72; 95% IC:1.02-2.90); previous breastfeeding (PR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1,49); exclusive breastfeeding at the time of hospital discharge (PR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.20-3.36); group support for the mother (PR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.28); and orientation on breastfeeding (PR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08-1.33). Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased 17% per month in the infant's life. Support groups and orientation by primary health care for breastfeeding were associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding prevalence. PMID:21243229

  16. Frequency of exclusive breastfeeding and its affecting factors in Tehran, 2011.

    Hossein Dalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding in two health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences in Khak Sefid, Tehran, Iran. A total of 175 mothers, referred for the third dose of their infants' DPT vaccination program participated in the study by completing a questionnaire regarding characteristics of their pregnancy, delivery and exclusive breastfeeding within the first six months of birth. Two-variable analysis and logistic regression test were applied to evaluate factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding. Results indicated that the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, i.e., breastfeeding within the first six months of birth without the use of any other food with or without vitamin supplementation, was 31.17% (95% CI=23.77%-38.57%, which means 48 infants of 154<179 days old Among 154 infants (<179 days old 48 did not have a history of being separated from their mothers. In logistic regression analysis, the variables which were directly associated with exclusive breastfeeding, with 0.05 significance level of alpha, included breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, eight times or more breastfeeding per day and receiving breastfeeding education during pregnancy. Variables with a negative association with breastfeeding included lack of breast milk, presence of a breast problem that could hinder breastfeeding, bottle feeding, physician or family's advice not to breastfeed and infant's refusal to breastfeed. Frequency of breastfeeding within the six months of birth is less than similar frequencies which are obtained by asking about breastfeeding on the day of the interview. It is recommended to apply real frequency for assessment, evaluation and programming of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of birth.

  17. The Influence of Lactation Education toward Growth of Infants 0-6 Months in Kendari

    Nurmiaty; Arsunan A. A.; Sirajuddin S.; Syafar M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth is the basis for assessing nutritional adequacy of baby. Appropriate intake of nutrition give an impact on the optimal growth. Growth of infants 0-6 months is a critical period in the first 1000 days of life and appropriate intake is exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding lowers the risk of morbidity and mortality infants. This study aims to determine the effect of lactation education toward the growth of infants 0-6 months. This study design was Quasy Experiment, ie. pre-test and post...

  18. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  19. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF. PMID:25487415

  20. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Ndeezi Grace

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer

  1. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  2. Influência do tipo de aleitamento materno e da presença de anemia na mãe na concentração de hemoglobina aos 6 meses de idade Influence of breastfeeding type and maternal anemia on hemoglobin concentration in 6-month-old infants

    Maria de Lourdes P. D. Teixeira

    2010-02-01

    duration of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. This study was conducted in four towns in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco and newborn infants were recruited from March to August of 2001. The hemoglobin concentrations of 330 mothers and infants were assayed and type of breastfeeding was assessed 6 months after delivery. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors that independently contributed to the infants hemoglobin concentration. RESULTS: The type of feeding had no influence on the hemoglobin concentration in the sample as a whole, however, there was a significant difference when the exclusive + predominant breastfeeding” subset of infants was analyzed, with the children of anemic mothers exhibiting a reduction of 0.7g/dL in median hemoglobin. Mothers hemoglobin level, type of flooring at home, type of delivery, and birthweight all significantly contributed to the variation in the infants hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with type of breastfeeding, maternal anemia did have an influence on the hemoglobin levels of 6-month-old infants, even when only children on exclusive + predominant breastfeeding” were analyzed. These findings highlight the need to prevent maternal anemia before conception, during pregnancy and throughout lactation.

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared toformula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months.Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants.Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey.Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996.Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of an antenatal intervention to increase exclusive breastfeeding

    Wong Cheung, Ka-lun; 黃張嘉倫

    2014-01-01

    In Hong Kong, while around 85% of mothers choose to breastfeed their infants, most discontinue within the first one to two months postpartum. This indicates that there is room for improving the current breastfeeding education. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a professional one-to-one antenatal breastfeeding support and education intervention on the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding. A total of 469 primiparous women who attended the ante...

  6. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and the use of the Iowa Infant Attitude Feeding Scale to describe breastfeeding initiation and duration in a population of urban, Latina mothers: a prospective cohort study

    Holbrook, Katherine E; White, Mary C.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age. Maternal attitudes toward infant feeding are correlated with chosen feeding method and breastfeeding duration. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been used to assess attitudes towards breastfeeding prenatally and is predictive of breastfeeding decisions in certain population groups. Methods ...

  7. Breastfeeding

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  8. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were  20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids. PMID:26825923

  9. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    Mateus Solarte, Julio César

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to prom...

  10. The Effect of Interventional Program on Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Pregnant Women in Ahvaz, Iran

    Ansari, Somayeh; Abedi, Parvin; Hasanpoor, Shirin; Bani, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational program on Breastfeeding self-efficacy and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in pregnant women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 nulliparous pregnant women who tended to breastfeed. The primary self-efficacy scores of samples were measured using Faux and Dennis breastfeeding self-efficacy questionnaire. Women were randomly recruited into two intervention and control groups. Educat...

  11. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants’ brain responses to emotional body expressions

    Kathleen Marie Krol; Purva eRajhans; Manuela eMissana; Tobias eGrossmann

    2015-01-01

    Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programming of the mammalian offspring’s brain. Exclusive breastfeeding duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current s...

  12. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findin...

  13. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings:...

  14. Factors influencing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in a group of Turkish women.

    Alikaşifoğlu, M; Erginoz, E; Gur, E T; Baltas, Z; Beker, B; Arvas, A

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of demographic characteristics, hospital practices, maternal psychosocial factors, and knowledge about infant feeding and breast milk on duration of breastfeeding. The mothers of 91 healthy, term infants delivered at a university hospital between June 1998 and December 1998, and first seen in the well-child unit within 10 days of delivery, participated in the study. Forty-nine (54%) infants were exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age. Cox regression analysis showed a negative association between formula supplementation during the hospital stay and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The median age for starting non-breast milk liquids was 1 month for those who received formula in the hospital and 3 months for those who did not (P = .001). The hospital practices were more predictive of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in this study group than mothers' knowledge of infant feeding or psychosocial factors. Thus, hospital practices should be reevaluated. PMID:11847987

  15. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  16. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Ob...

  17. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Object...

  18. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among rural women in Tamil Nadu

    Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world′s major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Various studies have shown that infant feeding could be influenced by socioeconomic status, maternal education, place of living and many other factors. Hence a prevalence study on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted in rural Tamil Nadu. Aim and Objective: To assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and the factors influencing them among women in a rural area in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Attyampatti Panchyat Union, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, from March 2011-June 2011. All the 291 children in the age group of six months to two years in Attyampatti Panchayat Union were included in the study, irrespective of any sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results: Among the study population 52.6% were male children and 47.4% were females. Only 99 (34% children were exclusively breastfed for six months. The majority of women (60.5% initiated breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery. Various demographic factors like the education of the mother, type of delivery, type of family, occupation, number of children, monthly income, family size, age at marriage and religion had a direct influence on exclusive breastfeeding, which in turn influenced the weight of the baby and immune status of the child. Most of the mothers (44.7% inferred that the main reason for giving bottle feed is because of inadequate breast milk secretion. Conclusion: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on the factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.

  19. Barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urbanwomen in southeastern Nigeria

    Joseph O Ugboaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available evidence shows that only a small proportion of Nigerian women access postnatal care and practice exclusive breastfeeding. Given that both interventions are critical to the survival of both the mother and the new born, it is important to identify factors that militate against an effective postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding in the country, in order to scale up services. The aim was to determine the major barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urban women in southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 400 urban market women using semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results: Out of 400 women interviewed, 365 (91.7% attended postnatal clinic. Lack of knowledge about postnatal care services (42.2%; n = 14, distant location of the hospitals (36.4%; n = 12 and feeling that postnatal visits was not necessary (21.1%; n = 7 were the main reasons for non-attendance to postnatal clinic. With respect to exclusive breastfeeding, 143 (35.9% of the women practiced EBF. The main reasons for nonpractice of EBF were that EBF was very stressful (26.2%; n = 67, mother′s refusal (23.5%; n = 60, and the feeling that EBF was not necessary (18.1%; n = 46. Thirty five (13.7% of the women were constrained by time while the husband′s refusal accounted for 1.5% (n = 3 of the reasons for nonpractice of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: Poor knowledge and inaccessibility to health facilities were the main obstacles to postnatal care while the practice of exclusive breastfeeding was limited by the stress and mothers refusal.

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  1. Tempo de aleitamento materno exclusivo em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo Time of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term newborn babies

    Waléria Ferreira da Silva

    2013-02-01

    with exploratory and longitudinal nature on the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term babies. RESULTS: as for the percentage of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding of preterm babies at 6 months old. There were significant differences in the birth weight variable. The causes for the early weaning, we found to be educational factors, followed by cultural factors. As a consequence of early weaning, the practice of oral habits occurred in 98.1% of the children. CONCLUSION: preterm children remained more time in breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding than the term babies. The educational and cultural factors were the main causes for the early weaning, and the consequence was the use of pacifier and bottle.

  2. Tempo de aleitamento materno exclusivo em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo Time of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term newborn babies

    Waléria Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    with exploratory and longitudinal nature on the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term babies. RESULTS: as for the percentage of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding of preterm babies at 6 months old. There were significant differences in the birth weight variable. The causes for the early weaning, we found to be educational factors, followed by cultural factors. As a consequence of early weaning, the practice of oral habits occurred in 98.1% of the children. CONCLUSION: preterm children remained more time in breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding than the term babies. The educational and cultural factors were the main causes for the early weaning, and the consequence was the use of pacifier and bottle.

  3. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study.

    Ragnhild Maastrup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. METHODS: A prospective survey based on questionnaires was conducted with a Danish national cohort, comprised of 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-36 weeks. Adjusted for covariates, the pre-specified clinical practices were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.8 and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6, respectively. The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2 and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6 were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated with an inadequate breastfeeding duration were the initiation of breast milk expression at 12-24 hours (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4 and 24-48 hours (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1 vs. before six hours postpartum, and the use of nipple shields (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSION: Early initiation of breast milk pumping before 12 hours postpartum may increase breastfeeding rates, and it seems that the use of nipple shields should be restricted. The use of test-weighing and minimizing the use of a pacifier may promote the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, but more research is needed regarding adequate support to the mother when test-weighing is ceased, as more of these mothers ceased exclusive breastfeeding at an early stage after discharge.

  4. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months Factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna durante los primeros 6 meses de vida Fatores associados ao abandono do aleitamento materno durante os primeiros seis meses de vida

    Antoni Oliver Roig

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF and any breastfeeding (ABF cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration ≤4 months and worse evaluation of previous experience were associated with cessation of ABF and FBF. Lower educational level was associated with cessation of ABF and the use of pacifiers or occasional breast-milk substitutes with cessation of FBF. Attending childbirth education was a protective factor against early FBF or ABF cessation. Activities supporting breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled.El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna (LM y de la lactancia materna completa (LMC. Fueron acompañadas 248 madres que acudieron a la visita posparto. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante entrevista personal durante el primer mes posparto y por teléfono a los cuatro y seis meses siguientes. El análisis se realizó mediante la Regresión de Cox. Los resultados muestran una asociación con el abandono de la LMC y de la LM con no haber amamantado anteriormente, con LM anterior ≤4 meses, y, con una peor valoración de la experiencia anterior. El menor nivel de estudios se relaciona con un mayor abandono de la LM y los chupetes o suplementos en el hospital con el abandono de la LMC. La educación prenatal es un factor protector para la LMC y la LM. Se concluye que el apoyo a la LM debería intensificarse las madres: sin experiencia anterior, con experiencia negativa, y, con

  5. Breastfeeding Practices in Ireland: a Review

    Tarrant, Roslyn; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has be...

  6. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    Dipen V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5% started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035, not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001, unemployed mothers (p = 0.035, having two or more kids (p = 0.001, and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007 increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045, severe malnutrition (p = 0.018, and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026 increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened.

  7. "Socio Cultural:Case Study" Pregnant women's perception of exclusive breastfeeding in Makassar Ethnic (Makassar city, Gowa and Takalar regency) 2012

    Syafar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays 80% of infants in Indonesia are no longer breast-feeding since 24 hours the first since they were born, where mother should breast feed which is the main food that baby needed. The study was conducted to obtain information knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of pregnant women for exclusive breastfeeding.In this study conducted exploration of information through in-depth interviews among women who did exclusive breastfeeding, the mother who does not do exclusive breastfeeding, and midw...

  8. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Karamagi Charles A; Nankunda Jolly; Moland Karen M; Engebretsen Ingunn MS; Tylleskär Thorkild; Tumwine James K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF) or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF). Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS) has been the World Health Organization (WHO)'s a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeedi...

  9. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding among HIV-positive mothers: an exploratory qualitative study

    Hazemba, Alice N.; Ncama, Busisiwe P.; Sithole, Sello L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding has the potential to reduce infant and under-five mortality, but research shows the practice is not widespread in resource-poor settings of sub-Saharan Africa. We explored factors influencing the decision to exclusively breastfeed among HIV-positive mothers accessing interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in selected sites of Zambia. Methods This exploratory qualitative study was embedded in research conducted on: HIV and infant ...

  10. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  11. Factors that intervene in exclusive breastfeeding: an integrative review

    Flávia Corrêa Porto de Abreu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early weaning is still very present in Brazil, despite the investments in promoting, supporting and protecting breastfeeding. This current integrative review of qualitative researches characterized the factors that intervene in the early weaning and identified the collaborative nuclei for its prevention. Fourteen primary researches composed this study, through a research developed in the following databases: BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIENCE DIRECT, with the descriptors: Breast Feeding, Weaning, and Nursing. Early weaning is related to the socioeconomic context, working mom, previous experiences, and breast problems. These are all considered in the decision-making on weaning. Health professionals need to review their practices to encourage and support breastfeeding, aiming to develop them in an individual and dialogued way together with the women and her family.

  12. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.......4-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively). The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2)) and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6)) were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated...

  13. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition.

  14. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guide...

  15. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Patel, Sanjay; Patel, Shveta

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding for all infants starting at birth and continuing until at least 6 months of age has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The health benefits to infants and mothers have been demonstrated in many studies. Dedicated lactation specialists may play a role in providing education and support to pregnant women and new mothers wishing to breastfeed to improve breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess if lactation education or support programs using lactation consultants or lactation counselors would improve rates of initiation and duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared with usual practice. A systematic literature review of the evidence was conducted using electronic databases. The review was limited to randomized trials and yielded 16 studies with 5084 participants. It was found that breastfeeding interventions using lactation consultants and counselors increase the number of women initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] for any initiation vs not initiating breastfeeding = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.67). The interventions improve any breastfeeding rates (OR for any breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not breastfeeding = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). In addition, there were beneficial effects on exclusive breastfeeding rates (OR for exclusive breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not exclusive breastfeeding = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.44). Most of the evidence would suggest developing and improving postpartum support programs incorporating lactation consultants and lactation counselors. PMID:26644419

  16. The exclusive breastfeeding experiences of working mothers in West Sumatera (Sumbar Peduli ASI community

    Yanti P. Sari

    2015-10-01

    Results: Based on the data analysis, it was found three themes, that are and ldquo;the sacrifice of a working mothers to give exclusive breastfeeding and rdquo;, and ldquo;provided a good support system and rdquo; and and ldquo;encountered problems and rdquo; and seven sub-themes, that is and ldquo;sacrifice time and rdquo;, and ldquo;physical sacrifice and rdquo;, and ldquo;family support and rdquo;, and ldquo;social support and rdquo;, and ldquo;health workers support and rdquo;, and ldquo;technical problems and rdquo; and and ldquo;non-technical problems and rdquo;. Conclusions: To be successful in providing exclusive breastfeeding, mothers have to sacrifice time and physically, to get the support of family, social and health workers so that obstacles can be solved. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2599-2604

  17. Relationship Between Delivery Type and Successful Breastfeeding

    Motahhareh Golestan

    Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding has a major effect on decreasing the mortality of the children, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this survey was to study the effect of type of delivery on success of exclusive breastfeeding.Methods: In a case-control study, 344 women including two equal groups of 172 cases were chosen based on the type of delivery, vaginal or by cesarean section, and followed for 6 months the way of feeding their infants and the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among them.Findings: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly lower in the mothers delivered by cesarean section than who delivered vaginally (13.4% vs. 41.8%. The average duration of breastfeeding among the women with vaginal delivery was significantly longer than the cases with cesarean delivery (4.5±1.7 months vs. 4.0±1.5 months. The rate of the onset of breastfeeding in the first hour of delivery was significantly higher among the group with vaginal delivery than the group with cesarean section (82 % vs. 38 % and finally the rate of formula feeding among the infants of the mothers with cesarean section was higher than in the infants of the mothers with vaginal delivery (33% vs. 22%.Conclusion: Cesarean section decreases the exclusive breastfeeding and hence attempts should be made to encourage the mothers for vaginal delivery and breastfeeding as well. Besides, discussing the benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and infant, supports the fact that mothers should be advised to attain executive breastfeeding.

  18.  Breastfeeding Status and Some Related Factors in Northern Iran

    Aliakbar Abdollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main objective of this study is to assess the Breastfeeding Duration, Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration and other related factors among children aged less than 5 years old in rural areas of Northern Iran.Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted on 2520 children aged 6-60 months (male: 1309, female: 1211 chosen by cluster random sampling from 20 out of 118 villages. Data were collected from mothers using a questionnaire. The duration of breastfeeding was computed only for children aged over 24 months old. Breastfeeding duration and Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration were classified based on WHO definition. SPSS Version 16 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration was 5.59 months, while 66.4�0of children had exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months. The lowest Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration and the highest Breastfeeding Duration were observed among the Turkman ethnic group. Exclusive Breastfeeding duration of at least 5 months was 14.6�20thus the results were significantly higher than in the Turkman ethnic group (p=0.001. Meanwhile, the results showed that exclusive breastfeeding duration significantly increased with maternal education level (p=0.004. The study found that the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.6 months, and 89.3�0and 74.7�0of children were breastfed for at least 18 and 24 months, respectively. A positive correlation was reported between breastfeeding duration and family size, birth order, maternal age and children nutritional status, (p<0.05. Additionally, lactation period in underweight children was significantly higher than in obese children, (p=0.023.Conclusion: The study found that two-thirds of children exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.6 months. While both exclusive breastfeeding duration and breastfeeding duration were influenced by socio-demographic factors in the rural areas

  19. Costs of promoting exclusive breastfeeding at community level in three sites in South Africa.

    Lungiswa Leonora Nkonki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings. METHODS: We conducted a cost analysis of a community cluster randomised-controlled trial (Promise-EBF, aimed at promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. The costs were considered from the perspective of health service providers. Peer supporters in this trial visited women to support exclusive infant feeding, once antenatally and four times postpartum. RESULTS: The total economic cost of the Promise-EBF intervention was US$393 656, with average costs per woman and per visit of US$228 and US$52, respectively. The average costs per woman and visit in an operational 'non research' scenario were US$137 and US$32 per woman and visit, respectively. Investing in the promotion of exclusive infant feeding requires substantial financial commitment from policy makers. Extending the tasks of multi-skilled community health workers (CHWs to include promoting exclusive infant feeding is a potential option for reducing these costs. In order to avoid efficiency losses, we recommend that the time requirements for delivering the promotion of exclusive infant feeding are considered when integrating it within the existing activities of CHWs. DISCUSSION: This paper focuses on interventions for exclusive infant feeding, but its findings more generally illustrate the importance of documenting and quantifying factors that affect the feasibility and sustainability of community-based interventions, which are receiving increased focus in low income settings.

  20. Effect of Breastfeeding Education Model Supported Through Home Visits on the Exclusive Breastfeeding Behaviour During the Postpartum Six Month

    ERENEL, Dr. Ayten Şentürk; EROĞLU, Doç.Dr. Kafiye

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted experimentally, to determine the impact of the breastfeeding education model on exlusive breastfeeding behaviour supported beginning at the hospital and continuing through house visits for a period of six months. The study was conducted at the postpartum care units of two major hospitals in Ankara and at the women's homes. The sampling consisted of a total of 46 women, with 23 in the study group and 23 control group. Breastfeeding education was provided to the wom...

  1. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  2. Actual exclusive breastfeeding rates and determinants among a cohort of children living in Gampaha district Sri Lanka: A prospective observational study

    Perera Priyantha J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF during the early months of life reduce infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommendation in Sri Lanka is to continue exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding rates are generally assessed by the 24 recall method which overestimates the actual rates. The objective of this study was to determine actual exclusive breast feeding rates in a cohort of Sri Lankan children and to determine the reasons that lead to cessation of breastfeeding before six months of age. Methods From a cohort of 2215 babies born in Gampaha district, 500 were randomly selected and invited for the study. They were followed up at two (n = 404, four (n = 395 and six (n = 286 months. An interviewer administered questionnaire asked about feeding history and socio-demographic characteristics. Child health development record was used to assess the growth. Results Exclusive breastfeeding rates at two, four and six months were 98.0%, 75.4% and 71.3% respectively. The main reasons to stop exclusive breastfeeding between two to four months was concerns regarding weight gain and between four to six months were mothers starting to work. Majority of the babies that were not exclusively breastfed still continued to have breast milk. Mothers above 30 years had lower exclusive breastfeeding rates compared to younger mothers. Second born babies had higher rates than first borns. There was no significant association between maternal education and exclusive breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding rates were high among this cohort of children. A decrease in EBF was noted between two and four months. EBF up to six months does not cause growth failure. Mothers starting to work and concerns regarding adequacy of breast milk were the major reasons to cease EBF. The actual exclusive breastfeeding rates up to six months was 65.9%.

  3. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  4. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential. PMID:19748244

  5. 产科门诊母乳喂养健康课堂对促进纯母乳喂养效果观察%Breastfeeding Maternity Clinic Health Class to Promote Exclusive Breastfeeding Effect Observation

    陈娟; 范二林

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigate the maternity clinic breastfeeding health class to promote the ef ect of exclusive breastfeeding.Methods Direct questions, investigation in May 2014~June of exclusive breastfeeding mothers in our production.Results In obstetrics outpatient health education training through breastfeeding, ten days at the hospital, postpartum maternal postpartum 42 days exclusive breastfeeding rate was significantly higher than that of without training of maternal, both comparisons are significant ( <0.05).Conclusion Outpatient service of breastfeeding education classroom has positive significance to promote exclusive breastfeeding.%目的调查产科门诊母乳喂养健康课堂对促进纯母乳喂养的效果。方法直接询问方式,调查2014年5月~6月在我院生产的产妇纯母乳喂养情况。结果在产科门诊经历过母乳喂养健康教育培训的产妇在出院时、产后10d、产后42d时纯母乳喂养率显著高于未经过培训的产妇,两者对比有显著意义(<0.05)。结论门诊开展的母乳喂养教育课堂对促进纯母乳喂养有积极的意义。

  6. Exploring the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Labbok Miriam H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI seeks to support breastfeeding initiation in maternity services. This study uses country-level data to examine the relationship between BFHI programming and trends in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in 14 developing countries. Methods Demographic and Health Surveys and UNICEF BFHI Reports provided EBF and BFHI data. Because country programs were initiated in different years, data points were realigned to the year that the first Baby-Friendly hospital was certified in that country. Pre-and post-implementation time periods were analyzed using fixed effects models to account for grouping of data by country, and compared to assess differences in trends. Results Statistically significant upward trends in EBF under two months and under six months, as assessed by whether fitted trends had slopes significantly different from 0, were observed only during the period following BFHI implementation, and not before. BFHI implementation was associated with average annual increases of 1.54 percentage points in the rate of EBF of infants under two months (p Conclusion BFHI implementation was associated with a statistically significant annual increase in rates of EBF in the countries under study; however, small sample sizes may have contributed to the fact that results do not demonstrate a significant difference from pre-BFHI trends. Further research is needed to consider trends according to the percentages of Baby-Friendly facilities, percent of all births occurring in these facilities, and continued compliance with the program.

  7. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates, with special focus on developing countries

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the recognized benefits of breastfeeding for the health of the mother and infants, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for the first six months of life. However, the prevalence of EBF is low globally in many of the developing and developed countries around the world. There is much interest in the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates in early infancy. Methods A systematic literature was conducted to identify all studies that evaluated the impact of breastfeeding promotional strategies on any breastfeeding and EBF rates at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months. Data were abstracted into a standard excel sheet by two authors. Meta-analyses were performed with different sub-group analyses. The overall evidence were graded according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG rules using the adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria and recommendations made from developing country studies for inclusion into the Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Results After reviewing 968 abstracts, 268 studies were selected for potential inclusion, of which 53 randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials were selected for full abstraction. Thirty two studies gave the outcome of EBF at 4-6 weeks postpartum. There was a statistically significant 43% increase in this outcome, with 89% and 20% significant increases in developing and developed countries respectively. Fifteen studies reported EBF outcomes at 6 months. There was an overall 137% increase, with a significant 6 times increase in EBF in developing countries, compared to 1.3 folds increase in developed country studies. Further sub-group analyses proved that prenatal counseling had a significant impact on breastfeeding outcomes at 4-6 weeks, while both prenatal and postnatal counseling were important for EBF at 6 months. Conclusion Breastfeeding promotion

  8. Factors associated with initiation and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge: late preterm compared to 37 week gestation mother and infant cohort

    Ayton Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and examine the factors associated with initiation of, and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge of, late preterm (34 0/7 - 36 6/7 weeks compared to 37 week gestation (37 0/7 - 37 6/7 week mother and baby pairs. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study using a Perinatal National Minimum Data Set and clinical medical records review, at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia in 2006. Results Late preterm and 37 week gestation infants had low rates of initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, 31 (21.1% and 61 (41.5% respectively. After multiple regression analysis, late preterm infants were less likely to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1, 0.7 p = 0.009 and were less likely to be discharged exclusively breastfeeding from hospital (OR 0.4 95% CI 0.1, 1.0 p = 0.04 compared to 37 week gestation infants. Conclusion A late preterm birth is predictive of breastfeeding failure, with late preterm infants at greater risk of not initiating breastfeeding and/or exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge, compared with those infants born at 37 weeks gestation. Stratifying breastfeeding outcomes by gestational age groups may help to identify those sub-populations at greatest risk of premature cessation of breastfeeding.

  9. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Binns Colin W; Qiu Liqian; Xu Fenglian; Liu Xiaoxian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and sin...

  10. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods ...

  11. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  12. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  13. Breastfeeding as an environment preserving facto

    Lucas Amaral Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine the knowledge on breastfeeding acquired by women during the pregnant and puerperal period and to check if the breastfeeding benefits for the environment preservation were referred by the mothers. METHODS: this is a documental, descriptive and quantitative by nature research, with secondary data, collected from records of “Vamos amamentar, mamãe?” ("Let's breastfeed, mom?" extension project, resultant from the mothers monitoring during the 2008 year, with a total of 116 mothers. RESULTS: most mothers are in the age group from 14 to 18 years (31.89%; 57.75% have only primary level; 62.06% have stable relationship/married; 92.24% report having received information about breastfeeding during prenatal care, among which the highlights were: exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months (45.68%; pregnant women feeding (47.41%; breasts care 28 (24.13%, while: milking, myths’ clarification and non-use of bottles and pacifiers each submitted, only (0.86%, noting also that breastfeeding as an environment preservation factor was not mentioned. CONCLUSION: the mothers hold a reasonable knowledge of breastfeeding. Health professionals have an important role in stimulating and implementing new works focused on a practice that considers this subject from a multidimensional perspective, considering the complex bio-psycho-socio-cultural-environmental-emotional factors involving breastfeeding.

  14. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

    Gewa, Constance A.; Chepkemboi, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers’ knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers’ knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothe...

  15. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  16. Parent Reports of Exclusive Breastfeeding After Attending a Combined Midwifery and Chiropractic Feeding Clinic in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Service Evaluation.

    Miller, Joyce; Beharie, Monica Christine; Taylor, Alison M; Simmenes, Elisabeth Berg; Way, Susan

    2016-04-01

    This service evaluation investigated an interdisciplinary allied professional health care strategy to address the problem of suboptimal breastfeeding. A clinic of midwives and chiropractors was developed in a university-affiliated clinic in the United Kingdom to care for suboptimal feeding through a multidisciplinary approach. No studies have previously investigated the effect of such an approach. The aim was to assess any impact to the breastfeeding dyad and maternal satisfaction after attending the multidisciplinary clinic through a service evaluation. Eighty-five initial questionnaires were completed and 72 (85%) follow-up questionnaires were returned. On follow-up, 93% of mothers reported an improvement in feeding as well as satisfaction with the care provided. Prior to treatment, 26% of the infants were exclusively breastfed. At the follow-up survey, 86% of mothers reported exclusive breastfeeding. The relative risk ratio for exclusive breastfeeding after attending the multidisciplinary clinic was 3.6 (95% confidence interval = 2.4-5.4). PMID:26763046

  17. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  18. Why do mothers use nipple shields and how does this influence duration of exclusive breastfeeding?

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Nilsson, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    breastfeeding period. Primiparae used nipple shields more often than multiparae, and early breastfeeding problems as well as background factors like lower age, education and higher body mass index were associated with a higher likelihood of using nipple shields. Characteristics of infants associated with...

  19. The Terneuzen Birth Cohort. Longer exclusive breastfeeding duration is associated with leaner body mass and a healthier diet in young adulthood

    van Buuren Stef

    2011-05-01

    outcomes was not shown. Conclusions Exclusive BF duration had a significant inverse dose-response relationship with BMI, WC and WHR at young adulthood. BF duration was positively related to a healthier diet at adulthood, but this did not explain the protective effect of BF against body fat. Our results underline the recommendation of the WHO to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months or longer.

  20. Prevalence and determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Enderta woreda, Tigray, North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Teka, Bahre; Assefa, Huruy; Haileslassie, Kiday

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia national breastfeeding practice is poor because of traditional and cultural beliefs, low educational levels, heavy workload of mothers, poor sanitary conditions, type of assistance at delivery, duration of stay at home, ethnicity, poor maternal knowledge, age, parity, antenatal service utilization and place of delivery. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practice in mothers in Enderta woreda (district), Ethiopia. Met...

  1. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Other Foods in the First Six Months of Life: Effects on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Brazilian Children

    Magalhães, Taís C. A.; Vieira, Sarah A.; Priore, Silvia E.; Ribeiro, Andréia Q.; Joel A. Lamounier; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Sant'Ana, Luciana F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of other foods in the first six months of life in the nutritional status and body composition of children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study with 185 children aged from 4 to 7 years was monitored during the first months of life in a program of support to breastfeeding. We evaluated weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition by using DEXA. The nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age index. Th...

  2. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

  3. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em Guarapuava, Paraná Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil

    Marcela Komechen Brecailo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa investigou a prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo aos seis meses de idade e sua associação com características socioeconômicas, demográficas, ambientais, de morbidade e biológicas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal e a amostra foi composta por 426 crianças entre zero e 23,9 meses, assistidas pelo Programa Saúde da Família e residentes na área urbana da cidade de Guarapuava (PR. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares com a aplicação de questionários pré-codificados para investigar fatores relacionados ao aleitamento materno RESULTADOS: A mediana de aleitamento materno exclusivo aos seis meses foi de sessenta dias e a prevalência foi de 12,9%. Verificou-se associação estatisticamente significante (pOBJECTIVE: This research investigated the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at the age of six months and its association with socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, biological and morbidity characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with a sample of 426 children from Guarapuava, PR, aged 0 to 23.9 months seen by the Family Health Program. Pre-coded questionnaires were administered during home interviews to investigate breastfeeding-associated factors. RESULTS: The median of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was 60 days and the prevalence was 12.9%. Exclusive breastfeeding at six months was significantly associated (p<0.05 with the mother's employment status and with breastfeeding continuing until the occasion of the interview. CONCLUSION: The results indicate low prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding and the need of more effective actions to support working mothers, since it is harder for them to continue exclusive breastfeeding once they go back to work.

  4. Do fathers′ attitudes support breastfeeding? a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Mumbai, India

    Sunil Karande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The views of fathers have been shown to be important determinants of infant feeding decisions, but men′s attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula feeding have rarely been explored. AIMS: To explore the relationship between maternal and paternal infant feeding attitudes and their impact on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Settings and Design: Prospective questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care public hospital. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to September 2010, a convenience sample of 238 parents of infants (>6 months to <1 year of age were included. Each parent′s attitude toward infant feeding was measured by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson′s correlation test, independent samples t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were carried out for statistical significance. Results: Only 83 (34.9% mothers had exclusively breastfed their babies for 4-6 months. A mother′s "total" infant feeding attitude score was significantly correlated with her husband′s score ( r = 0.43, P < 0.01. The couples shared similar "individual" infant feeding attitudes to all but four of the 17 items. These 13 "individual" attitudes favorable toward breastfeeding were related to its optimal nutritional value, convenience of administration, ease of digestibility, unique role in mother-infant bonding, acceptability of breastfeeding in public places, and long-term health benefits to babies. Only maternal attitudes played an influential role in achieving an exclusive breastfeeding period of 4-6 months. Conclusions: Fathers′ attitudes do support breastfeeding, but do not influence the time duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

  5. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  6. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26416439

  7. A decade of change in breastfeeding in China's far north-west

    Xiao Cuiqin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been considerable changes in breastfeeding practices in China over the past forty years. However China is a very large country, and breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably. The objective of this paper is to identify and compare breastfeeding types and rates between 1994–1996 and 2003–2004 in Shihezi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PR China. Methods In 1994–1996, a study of breastfeeding (n = 2197 was undertaken in Shihezi, Xinjiang, PR China. A decade later in 2003–2004, a longitudinal study (n = 545 of infant feeding practices was undertaken in the same area. Results The 'any breastfeeding' rates at 1, 4 and 6 months were 94%, 82% and 78% respectively in the early 1990s. A decade later, breastfeeding at 1 month was lower, but rates at 4 and 6 months remained the same. In 2004 the 'full breastfeeding' rate at one month was significantly higher (57% than a decade earlier (38%, but after 3 months there was a rapid decline. This reflected a shift in the way complementary foods are introduced: the initial introduction was later, but by a higher proportion of mothers. Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding at one month is significantly lower in 2003–2004 when compared to 1994–1996. The 'full breastfeeding' rates were initially higher, but after 3 months were then lower. The Chinese national breastfeeding targets were not reached in either period of the study. These studies show the need to further promote full or exclusive breastfeeding and further longitudinal studies are necessary to provide the detailed knowledge about risk factors required for health promotion programs.

  8. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  9. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. METHODS: Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. RESULTS: The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%; 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%; and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers, or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. CONCLUSION: There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution.

  10. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  11. Committee Opinion No. 658: Optimizing Support for Breastfeeding as Part of Obstetric Practice.

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942393

  12. Committee Opinion No. 658 Summary: Optimizing Support For Breastfeeding As Part Of Obstetric Practice.

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942386

  13. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  14. Improving Hospital Breastfeeding Policies in New York State: Development of the Model Hospital Breastfeeding Policy

    Hawke, Bethany A.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Hisgen, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The public health importance of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding, is gaining increased recognition. Despite a strong evidence base that key hospital maternity practices (Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) impact breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the hospital and breastfeeding duration post-discharge, they are not widely implemented. In 2009, written hospital breastfeeding policies were collected from all New York State (NYS) hospitals providing maternity care se...

  15. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; phazard of stopping breastfeeding (hazard ratio=0.66; p=0.03) than primiparous mothers. Conclusions: Women who have breastfed previously have significantly different breastfeeding experiences than primiparous women. Pre- and postdelivery breastfeeding support should differentially target primiparous women to improve breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:25549051

  16. A family practice breastfeeding education pilot program: an observational, descriptive study

    Laughlin Kathleen M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States Preventive Services Task Force found that effective interventions for extending breastfeeding duration are generally begun during the prenatal period, provide ongoing support for patients and combine information with face-to-face guidance. A 2001 literature review had similar findings but also found that employing a lactation consultant in the clinical setting may increase breastfeeding duration rates. Thus, a program was developed at a family practice office that employed a lactation consultant and followed the American Academy of Pediatrics' "Ten Steps to Support Parents' Choice to Breastfeed Their Baby." Methods The program distributed handouts at each prenatal and well-child visit (up to one year. Using questionnaires, a small audit project evaluated the program's impact on breastfeeding goals, duration, in-hospital exclusivity and maternal perception of success. Mothers completed goal surveys at baseline and post-intervention, usually while waiting for prenatal clinic visits. Duration was assessed by surveys completed during well-infant visits, postal mailings or telephone interviews at breastfeeding cessation, 6 months and 1 year. The outcomes measured were increases in goals, maternal perception of success, duration and in-hospital exclusivity. Results Participants included 33 women: 48% had a bachelor's or master's degree, 61% were non-Hispanic white, and 67% reported incomes of US$75,000 or higher. At baseline 5/31 planned to exclusively breastfeed for 4–6 months and 5/33 planned to breastfeed for 6–12 months. Post-intervention there was a 200% increase (15/31 in the exclusively breastfeeding 4–6 month group and a 160% increase (13/33 in the 6–12 month duration group. Actual in-hospital exclusivity rates were 61%, 6-month duration rates were 73%, and 12-month rates were 33%. Over 75% of mothers reported feeling successful. Conclusion This small pilot educational program may have significant

  17. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  18. Aleitamento materno exclusivo e adiposidade Amamantamiento materno exclusivo y adiposidad Exclusive breastfeeding and adiposity

    José Fernando V. N. Moraes

    2011-06-01

    ón transversal, en la que 134 pre-escolares entre 3 y 5 años de edad de una escuela privada de Brasilia, Brasil, fueron evaluados respecto a: masa corporal, estatura, perímetros del brazo y de la cintura, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. Los padres de los niños contestaron a un cuestionario sobre el tiempo de amamantamiento. El diagnóstico de sobrepeso y obesidad fue realizado conforme a la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el índice de masa corporal por edad. RESULTADOS: Las niñas tuvieron mayor concentración adiposa en el pliegue cutáneo tricipital (p=0,001, subescapular (p=0,044 y en la suma de éstos (p=0,003 respecto a los niños. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue similar en los dos sexos (25,4% en los niños y 22,6% en las niñas, así como el tiempo mediano de amamantamiento exclusivo (4,3 meses para niños y 4,6 meses para niñas. Se notó correlación inversa significativa entre tiempo de amamantamiento exclusivo y perímetro de la cintura (r=-0,166; p=0,05. Las otras variables también mostraron tendencia de correlación inversa con el tiempo de amamantamiento materno exclusivo, pero sin valores significativos. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación inversa entre el tiempo de amamantamiento y el perímetro de la cintura muestra un posible efecto del amamantamiento materno sobre la distribución de grasa corporal en el pre-escolar.OBJECTIVE: To associate exclusive breastfeeding with central and peripheral adiposity measured by body mass index, waist and arm circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and their sum in preschool children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 134 preschool children aged 3-5 years from a private school in Brasília, Brazil. All children had their body weight, height, waist and arm circumferences, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds measured. Children's parents an-swered a questionnaire about breastfeeding duration. Overweight and obesity were diagnosed based on the World Health

  19. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  20. Breastfeeding, Malta 2002

    Attard Montalto, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Although the scientific and economic benefits in support of breastfeeding over formula feeds is overwhelming, Malta retains one of the lowest rates for breastfeeding in almost all developed and several under-developed countries. Recently, this rate had begun to improve: from just 45% of maltese mothers breastfeeding (exclusively or mixed feeding) at the time of discharge from St. Luke's Hospital in 1995, to 64% in 2000. Nevertheless, this improvement was not sustained and only 18% of maltese ...

  1. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breastfeeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “energies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  2. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breast-feeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “en-ergies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  3. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritional management of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.

  4. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health. PMID:22815310

  5. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: promoting and supporting breastfeeding.

    Lessen, Rachelle; Kavanagh, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and health protection for the first 6 months of life, and that breastfeeding with complementary foods from 6 months until at least 12 months of age is the ideal feeding pattern for infants. Breastfeeding is an important public health strategy for improving infant and child morbidity and mortality, improving maternal morbidity, and helping to control health care costs. Research continues to support the positive effects of human milk on infant and maternal health, as it is a living biological fluid with many qualities not replicable by human milk substitutes. Recent research advancements include a greater understanding of the human gut microbiome, the protective effect of human milk for premature infants and those born to women experiencing gestational diabetes mellitus, the relationship of breastfeeding with human immunodeficiency virus, and the increased ability to characterize cellular components of human milk. Registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, should continue efforts to shift the norm of infant feeding away from use of human milk substitutes and toward human milk feeds. The role of registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, in breastfeeding promotion and support, in the context of the professional code of ethics and the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, are discussed in the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding," published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:25721389

  6. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    ... fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish, and limit albacore ... bacteria and viruses that cause infection. Exclusive Breastfeeding: Feeding a baby only breast milk and no other ...

  7. Diet-Induced Changes in Spectrum Patterns of Serum Gangliosides in 6-Month-Old Infants

    Dida A. Gurnida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human milk contains higher levels of gangliosides than infant formula. Gangliosides play a role in neuronal growth, migration and maturation, sinaptogenesis, and myelination. Seven of gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are dominant with their own specific functions. Thus, the aim of the study was to know the effects of add on diet gangliosides and to compare the spectrum patterns of those seven classes of serum gangliosides in infants consuming standard infant formula (IF group, ganglioside-fortified infant formula (GA group and exclusive breastfeeding (BF group. This study used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS method. This was a prospective study involving 30 infants in IF group, 29 in GA group and 32 in BF group. Subject recruitment was performed using consecutive admission from March 2008 to February 2009 in Bandung. Statistical analyses using Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant change in the spectrum patterns of GD3, GM1, GM2 and GT1b in IF group; of GD1a, GM1 and GM2 in GA group and of GD1a, GD1b, GM1 and GM3 in BF group. Conclusions, add on diet gangliosides extend spectrum patterns of gangliosides especially in seven of them, i.e. GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, in 6-month old infants.

  8. Aleitamento materno exclusivo entre trabalhadoras com creche no local de trabalho Exclusive breastfeeding among working women with free daycare available at workplace

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores relacionados à decisão das mulheres em amamentar e a duração planejada e, de fato observada, do aleitamento exclusivo entre trabalhadoras que dispõem de creche na empresa. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo no qual se comparou um grupo de 15 trabalhadoras cujos bebês estavam sendo alimentados apenas com leite materno quando começaram a freqüentar a creche da empresa com outro similar que incluía mulheres cujos bebês que, ao ingressar, já estavam recebendo, além do leite materno, outros alimentos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupos focais. RESULTADOS: Evidenciaram-se como fatores relacionados à decisão de iniciar a amamentação e mantê-la ao retornar ao trabalho: o desejo de amamentar, embasado no valor que as mulheres dos dois grupos atribuíam ao aleitamento materno, bem como seus maridos e outras pessoas significativas (por exemplo: mãe, irmã, amigas. A duração do aleitamento exclusivo relacionou-se principalmente à orientação do pediatra que cuidava do bebê, que foi distinta em cada um dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A existência da creche no local de trabalho aparece como elemento relevante para a manutenção do aleitamento após a licença de maternidade, especialmente o materno exclusivo. A decisão sobre quanto tempo amamentar de forma exclusiva esteve relacionada às informações recebidas acerca do assunto antes e durante a gestação, e no pós-parto. A diferença entre os dois grupos estudados foi que as mulheres que mantiveram o aleitamento exclusivo por quase seis meses acreditavam que quanto mais tempo dessem somente o leite materno, mais benefícios o bebê teria, enquanto as mulheres do outro grupo acreditavam que três meses de aleitamento exclusivo eram suficientes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors related to the decision of exclusive breastfeeding, and the planned and the actual duration among working women with free daycare available at workplace

  9. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  10. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  11. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  12. Using community volunteers to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Asma Misbah Qureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available for 6 months, were older (P=0.00 multi-parous (P=0.05 and more educated (P=0.00 compared to those who did not practice EBF. Among them, significantly increased proportion of women agreed that EBF should be continued during the night (P=0.03, infant should be fed on demand (P=0.05, sick child could be given medication (P=0.02, EBF offered protection against childhood diarrhea (P=0.01, and helped mothers with birth spacing (P=0.00. CONCLUSION: This study shows that there is a need for reaching women with reliable information about infant nutrition in Sokoto State. The results show decreased EBF practice among working mothers, young women, mothers with poor education and fewer than five children. Counseling is a useful strategy for promoting the duration of EBF for six months and for developing support systems for nursing mothers. Working mothers may need additional resources in this setting to enable them to practice EBF.

  13. Community volunteers can improve breastfeeding among children under six months of age in the Democratic Republic of Congo crisis

    Balaluka Ghislain B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries and exclusive breastfeeding is an efficient strategy that can be used to prevent malnutrition and reduce child mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of community volunteers in promoting exclusive breastfeeding from birth in an area of endemic malnutrition. Methods This evaluation analyzed the impact of the community-based nutrition project in Katana health district of the Democratic Republic of Congo from 2004 to 2006. Each of the villages in this sector had a nutritional village committee made up of five members responsible for continuously working to raise awareness of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding from birth among pregnant women and community leaders in their respective villages. The program worked with community volunteers with a mean age of 37 years, most of whom were married (86%. Eighty percent of the community volunteers had completed secondary school or a higher level of education. Data related to the period of exclusive breastfeeding and to the number of visits made to the health services for 208 children. The data were compared with data from 178 infants collected from another health sector, which had never developed a community-based nutrition program. Results The duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth (median, range was 6 months (2 to 7 in the intervention area compared with 4 months (1 to 6 in the comparison area (p Conclusions The promotion of breastfeeding by community volunteers in an area of endemic malnutrition in rural Democratic Republic of Congo increased the duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth.

  14. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  15. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were...

  16. 新生儿院内纯母乳喂养情况及其影响因素分析%Status of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding and its influence factors

    张悦; 王惠珊; 罗倩; 张丽晋; 王硕; 姚礼明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To find out the status of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding in urban areas of China,and explore the influence factors to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding. {Methods] 1 288 data were collected in 32 maternity and children health care hospitals of provincial and municipal levels. The breastfeeding status within 24 hours were recalled. The associations between in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding with socio-demographic variables, pregnant and puerperal factors and hospital related factors were explored by Chi-square analyses and binary Logistic regression analyses. [Results] The rate of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding was 46. 6%. Logistic regression showed that high education level,high family income were negative effects to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding;sucking breast within 30 minutes after-born,breastfeeding during the first day and without feeding sugar water were positive effects to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding. [Conclusion] Actively carrying out baby-friendly hospital implementation, promoting breastfeeding of focus person, will promote breastfeeding success.%[目的]了解我国城市地区新生儿院内纯母乳喂养情况及孕产情况、产后医院护理行为对院内纯母乳喂养的影响. [方法]以全国32所省、市级妇幼保健院的1 288例产妇为研究对象,采用单因素和Logistic回归法分析产妇出院前24 h内母乳喂养情况及影响院内纯母乳喂养的可能因素. [结果] 出院前产妇的纯母乳喂养率为46.6%.文化程度高、家庭收入高对纯母乳喂养有负性作用;生后半小时早开奶、生后第1天母乳喂养、不添加糖水对纯母乳喂养是正性作用. [结论]积极贯彻爱婴医院的措施,开展有针对性的母乳喂养干预,将有利于促进住院期间母乳喂养成功.

  17. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

    Victora, Cesar G; Bahl, Rajiv; Barros, Aluísio J D; França, Giovanny V A; Horton, Susan; Krasevec, Julia; Murch, Simon; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Walker, Neff; Rollins, Nigel C

    2016-01-30

    The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor. PMID:26869575

  18. WIC AND BREASTFEEDING RATES: FOOD ASSISTANCE RESEARCH BRIEF

    De Oliveira, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) promotes breastfeeding as the preferred method for feeding infants. The breastfeeding rates among women participating in WIC, although improving, continue to be significantly lower than the Healthy People 2010 target established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Servicesthat at least 75 percent of women initiate breastfeeding and at least 50 percent continue breastfeeding for at least 6 months. WIC face...

  19. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent moth...

  20. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  1. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Oriá Mônica Oliveira B.; Glick Doris F.; Alves Maria Dalva S.

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches...

  2. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    Bazzano AN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Richard A Oberhelman,1 Kaitlin Storck Potts,1 Leah D Taub,1 Chivorn Var2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Background: Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods: Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results: The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion: Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. Keywords: formative research, health education, lactation, behavior change

  3. Influência da técnica de amamentação nas freqüências de aleitamento materno exclusivo e lesões mamilares no primeiro mês de lactação The influence of breastfeeding technique on the frequencies of exclusive breastfeeding and nipple trauma in the first month of lactation

    Enilda M. L. Weigert

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência da técnica de amamentação nas freqüências de aleitamento materno exclusivo e de lesões mamilares no primeiro mês de lactação. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisados parâmetros desfavoráveis à amamentação (cinco relacionados ao posicionamento mãe/bebê e três à pega do bebê em 211 mães/bebês na maternidade e, aos 30 dias, no domicílio. Foram comparadas as freqüências desses parâmetros entre as duplas com e sem amamentação exclusiva aos 7 e 30 dias, e entre as mães com e sem lesões mamilares na maternidade. RESULTADOS: O número de parâmetros desfavoráveis na maternidade foi semelhante nas duplas com e sem amamentação exclusiva aos 7 e 30 dias. Porém, aos 30 dias, foi, em média, menor nas duplas em amamentação exclusiva, tanto no posicionamento (1,7±1,2 versus 2,2±1,1; p = 0,009 quanto na pega (1,0±0,6 versus 1,4±0,6; p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of breastfeeding technique on the frequencies of exclusive breastfeeding and nipple trauma in the first month of lactation. METHODS: We searched for unfavorable parameters of breastfeeding (five related to mother/baby positioning and three related to baby' latch on in 211 mother-baby pairs in the maternity ward and at day 30, at home. We compared the frequencies of these parameters between mothers practicing or not exclusive breastfeeding at days 7 and 30, and between mothers with or without nipple trauma at the hospital. RESULTS: The number of unfavorable parameters in the maternity ward was similar for mother-baby pairs practicing or not exclusive breastfeeding at day 7 and 30. However, at day 30, it was, on average, lower among those under exclusive breastfeeding, regarding positioning (1.7±1.2 vs 2.2±1.1; p = 0.009 as well as latch on (1.0±0.6 vs 1.4±0.6; p < 0.001. The number of unfavorable parameters related to latch on in the maternity ward was similar for women with or without nipple trauma, but women without trauma

  4. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  5. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103

  6. Breastfeeding successfully

    Malta. Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Directorate; Malta. Breastfeeding Working Group

    2012-01-01

    This leaflet issued by the Health Promotion & Disease Directorate and the Breastfeeding Working Group provides a better understanding of the breast, milk production as well as tips on successful breastfeeding.

  7. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    McLachlan, Helen L.; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H.; Small, Rhonda; Cullinane, Meabh; Watson, Lyndsey F; Shafiei, Touran

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with significant positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. However, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization, exclusive breastfeeding for six months is uncommon. Increased breastfeeding support early in the postpartum period may be effective in improving breastfeeding maintenance. This trial will evaluate two community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia....

  8. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  9. Professionally Mediated Peer Support and Early Breastfeeding Success

    Vari, Patty M.; Camburn, Joan; Henly, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Social support interventions that incorporate professionally mediated peer support (PMPS) for improved breastfeeding outcomes were compared with no special breastfeeding support. Fifty-five breastfeeding mothers participated. The breastfeeding outcomes of duration, completeness, satisfaction, and exclusive breastfeeding were compared at 6 weeks postpartum among an experimental group that received PMPS, and among younger community (YC) and older community (OC) groups that received no special b...

  10. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of children: assessment at one year of age.

    Hoque, M M; Ahmed, N U; Khan, F H; Jahan, R; Yasmeen, H N; Chowdhury, M A

    2012-04-01

    Breastfeeding is the fundamental component of child survival strategy. It significantly influences neurological development of children. The study was conducted to assess whether exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development, including low birth weight (LBW) babies, in a developing country setting like Bangladesh. This observational study was done on a cohort of newborn infants who were discharged from the special care baby unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital during January 2006 to December 2008 with proper counseling about exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding. Their neuro-developmental follow-up was started at 4 weeks postnatal age and continued at 3-monthly intervals up to 1 year of age. At each visit, cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II). Cognitive development was compared between the babies of exclusive vs. non exclusive breastfeeding, normal weight vs. low birth weight and male vs. female babies. A total of 105 cases were successfully followed-up during this period. Out of these 47(44.8%) babies were exclusively breastfed up to 6 month of age and 58(55.2%) were in nonexclusive group. Overall Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was slightly more (108.40 ± 23.06 vs. 103.23 ± 19.87) in the exclusive breast fed babies in comparison to nonexclusive breast fed babies, but was significantly more in babies having birth weight >2.5 kg in comparison to those having birth weight of <2.5 kg. Other parameters of cognitive development were more or less same in both normal and LBW groups. Mental and motor development was same in both boys and girls. In behavior ratings, cooperation was significantly high (5.89 ± 2.54 vs. 4.71 ± 3.13, p=0.05) and vocalization (5.89 ± 1.07 vs. 4.58 ± 1.16) was also high, though not significant, in girls than boys. PMID:22561777

  11. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Quyen Thi-Tu Bui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective: This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design: Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results: Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11 but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01. Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13, and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of

  12. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Determinantes de la amamantación óptima en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Guatemala

    Kirk Dearden; Mekibib Altaye; Irma de Maza; Maritza de Oliva; Maryanne Stone-Jimenez; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Barton R. Burkhalte

    2002-01-01

    Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey o...

  13. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfee...

  14. Effect of time of initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding on postpartum weight retention of women who breastfeed at least 12 months

    Hiestand, Kathleen Louise

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a fundamental health promotion practice. Decades of research have documented mental, physical, and social benefits of breastfeeding for the child and the mother. However, the literature is inconclusive about one issue of great concern to many mothers and health care professionals: is there a significant relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight retention? Breastfeeding is a complex practice with many dimensions - timing of onset, duration, ...

  15. Postnatal Peer Counseling on Exclusive Breastfeeding of Low-birthweight Filipino Infants : Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Agrasada, Grace V.

    2005-01-01

    In a Manila hospital, 204 mothers were randomized into three groups: two intervention groups receiving home-based counseling visits, one of them (n=68) by counselors trained to use a locally developed, two-tiered program of breastfeeding counseling, and the other by counselors trained in general childcare (n=67), were compared with a control group of mothers (n=69) who did not receive any counseling. All infants were scheduled for seven visits to the hospital for follow-up. During hospital vi...

  16. Factors Associated with Duration of Breastfeeding in Ireland: Potential Areas for Improvement

    Tarrant, Roslyn; Younger, Katherine; Sheridan Pereira, Margaret; Kearney, John

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to comprehensively examine why mothers in Ireland discontinue breastfeeding early and to explore thefactors influencing duration of breastfeeding during the first 6 months postpartum. Findings from this study provide valuabledirection for future strategies and interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding duration rates in Ireland.

  17. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in ireland: potential areas for improvement.

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-08-01

    There is a need to comprehensively examine why mothers in Ireland discontinue breastfeeding early and to explore the factors influencing duration of breastfeeding during the first 6 months postpartum. Findings from this study provide valuable direction for future strategies and interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding duration rates in Ireland.

  18. Safety for Your Child: Birth to 6 Months

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Safety for Your ...

  19. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increas...

  20. Behaviour of exclusive breastfeeding in children of mothers with and without prior training Comportamiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva en niños de madres con y sin adiestramiento previo

    Pilar Maritza Almaguer Sabina; Mercedes Fonseca Hernández; Luis Alberto Corona Martínez; Carmen Guerra Cabrera; Alberto Roteta Dorado; Esteban Sánchez Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Background: Since mankind’s onset, breast milk has been the main source of food for little children. Nevertheless, in recent years there has been an alarming trend to the decline of this practice. Objective: To determine the behaviour of exclusive breastfeeding in children of mothers with and without previous training. Methods: A community intervention, quasi-experimental, comparative and prospective study ...

  1. A complex breastfeeding promotion and support intervention in a developing country: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    Nabulsi, Mona; Hamadeh, Haya; Tamim, Hani; Kabakian, Tamar; Charafeddine, Lama; Yehya, Nadine; Sinno, Durriyah; Sidani, Saadieh

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeed...

  2. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  3. Bobbi Be Best: the development and evaluation of an audio program and discussion guide to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Reinsma, Kathryn; Bolima, Nancy; Fonteh, Florence; Okwen, Patrick; Siapco, Gina; Yota, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    One risk factor for infant and childhood morbidity is not exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life. Entertainment Education (EE) is a communication strategy consisting of placing educational information into television, movies, and radio programs. In developing countries this form of behavioral change communication has proven effective in addressing health-related issues; however, no research has determined if EE is effective in promoting EBF. The objective of this research was to develop an EE audio program and discussion guide and to determine if a series of four 15-minute episodes and post-listening discussion improved knowledge, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and intention and decreased misconceptions and perceived barriers toward EBF in the Kumbo West Health District, Cameroon. Pregnant women and their partners were assigned to either the control group (N = 116; 74 women, 42 partners) or intervention group (N = 148; 99 women, 49 partners) based on expected date of delivery. All control and intervention group participants completed a questionnaire prior to listening to the first and after the last episode. Pre- and post-listening questionnaires were used to determine changes in the EBF knowledge, misconceptions, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and intention variables as a result of exposure to the audio program. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed significant improvement in all of the variables, except perceived barriers, within the intervention group (p constitutes EBF, but addresses misconceptions and perceived barriers that may prevent women from practicing EBF for six months. PMID:25564250

  4. Estimating the duration of full breastfeeding with survival analysis procedure

    Singh G

    2007-01-01

    Background: Full breastfeeding refers to exclusive breastfeeding, which is the practice of feeding only breast milk excluding water, breast milk substitutes, other liquids and solid foods. `Full breastfeeding for the first six months is the most appropriate infant feeding practice. The duration of full breastfeeding varies considerably among women belonging to different sections of the population. Objective: To estimate the probabilities at various time intervals for the duration of full b...

  5. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals...

  6. Integrating health care practices with the promotion of breastfeeding

    Riccardo Davanzo; Pierpaolo Brovedani; Laura Travan

    2014-01-01

    Although breastfeeding is the normative standards for infant nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge in the general population of newborns are still suboptimal. Besides many other psychological, social, economical, cultural factors, breastfeeding success is also significantly influenced by maternity practices that have the potential to foster or otherwise to hinder breastfeeding physiology during postpartum hospital stay. On their part, health professionals need to impr...

  7. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  8. Infant feeding practices and breastfeeding duration in Japan: A review

    Inoue Madoka; Binns Colin W; Otsuka Keiko; Jimba Masamine; Matsubara Manami

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese health system places great emphasis on healthy development. However, the prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding at one month postpartum between 1980 and 2005 has remained unchanged, fluctuating between 42% and 49%. At the same time, the Any Breastfeeding prevalence has gradually increased from about 80% to 95%. In 2010, the latest national breastfeeding report showed that ‘exclusive’ and ‘any’ breastfeeding rates have improved. However, as the World Health Organization (W...

  9. Breastfeeding Peer Counseling: From Efficacy through Scale-up

    Chapman, Donna J.; Morel, Katherine; Anderson, Alex Kojo; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    There are a growing number of publications evaluating various breastfeeding peer counseling (PC) models. We have systematically reviewed a) the randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of breastfeeding PC in improving rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, exclusivity and maternal and child health outcomes; and b) scientific literature describing the scale-up of breastfeeding PC programs. Twenty-six peer-reviewed publications were included in this review. The overwhelming majority ...

  10. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available ... Breastfeeding 411 What breastfeeding means to me Staying healthy and eating well Overcoming challenges Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  11. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding ... knew before they started breastfeeding and how to work through those new-to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last ...

  12. Process-oriented training in breastfeeding for health professionals decreases women’s experiences of breastfeeding challenges

    Blixt, Ingrid; Mårtensson, Lena B; Ekström, Anette C

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends promoting exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Women often end breastfeeding earlier than planned, however women who continue to breastfeed despite problems often experience good support and counselling from health professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-oriented training in breastfeeding support counselling for midwives and child health nurses, on women’s satisfaction with breastfeeding counselling, ...

  13. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    Adriana Passanha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057. The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54 and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39, after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals.

  14. Breastfeeding and child cognitive outcomes: Evidence from a hospital-based breastfeeding support policy

    Del Bono, Emilia; Rabe, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the causal effects of breastfeeding on early child development using exogenous variation in breastfeeding support policies across UK maternity hospitals. Based on data from the Millennium Cohort Study, we find that mothers giving birth in hospitals where such policies are implemented are between 8 and 9 percentage points more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 4 and 8 weeks than mothers who give birth in other hospitals. The effect of breastfeeding are found to be large ...

  15. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  16. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  17. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  18. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with iron deficiency in HIV-infected Malawian women that is mitigated with supplementation, but is not associated with infant iron deficiency during 24 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Objective In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (via fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2004-2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4>200 cells/ul) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal-LNS/maternal-ARV (n=424), maternal-LNS/infant-ARV (n=426), maternal-LNS (n=334), maternal-ARV (n=425), infant-ARV (n=426), or control (n=334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n=537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. Results In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR>8.3 mg/L) (Risk ratio (RR): 3.1, p0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all p-values>0.1). Conclusions Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not appear to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated. PMID:25723140

  19. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  20. BREASTFEEDING IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Human milk is recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics as the optimal feeding for all infants, although supplementation with specially formulated human milk fortifiers is required to meet the nutritional needs of premature newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six mo...

  1. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    Camila Campos Romero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05 with odds ratio (OR calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1, 26.1% (G2, 22.1% (G3, and 6.2% (G4. G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1 and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3. Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  2. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  3. Maternal, Infant Characteristics, Breastfeeding Techniques, and Initiation: Structural Equation Modeling Approaches

    Ying Lau; Tha Pyai Htun; Peng Im Lim; Sarah Ho-Lim; Piyanee Klainin-Yobas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and infant characteristics, breastfeeding techniques, and exclusive breastfeeding initiation in different modes of birth using structural equation modeling approaches. Methods We examined a hypothetical model based on integrating concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, a breastfeeding initiation model, and a social cognitive theory among 952 mother-infant dyads. The LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool ...

  4. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  5. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. PMID:21929639

  6. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  7. Maternal Variables Influencing Duration of Breastfeeding Among Low-Income Mothers

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Tluczek, Audrey; Henriques, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a retrospective comparison of 2 naturally occurring groups, first to examine how exclusive versus partial breastfeeding relates to duration of breastfeeding and, second, to determine if factors such as age and body mass index are associated with exclusive versus partial breastfeeding duration. These factors were hypothesized to influence the amount of breastfeeding in a sample of 42 low-income mothers enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Child...

  8. Theory-Based Design and Development of a Socially Connected, Gamified Mobile App for Men About Breastfeeding (Milk Man)

    White, Becky K; Martin, Annegret; White, James A; Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce R; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding, <15% of Australian babies are exclusively breastfed to the recommended 6 months. The support of the father is one of the most important factors in breastfeeding success, and targeting breastfeeding interventions to the father has been a successful strategy in previous research. Mobile technology offers unique opportunities to engage and reach populations to enhance health literacy and healthy behavior. Objective The objective of our study was to use previous research, formative evaluation, and behavior change theory to develop the first evidence-based breastfeeding app targeted at men. We designed the app to provide men with social support and information aiming to increase the support men can offer their breastfeeding partners. Methods We used social cognitive theory to design and develop the Milk Man app through stages of formative research, testing, and iteration. We held focus groups with new and expectant fathers (n=18), as well as health professionals (n=16), and used qualitative data to inform the design and development of the app. We tested a prototype with fathers (n=4) via a think-aloud study and the completion of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Results Fathers and health professionals provided input through the focus groups that informed the app development. The think-aloud walkthroughs identified 6 areas of functionality and usability to be addressed, including the addition of a tutorial, increased size of text and icons, and greater personalization. Testers rated the app highly, and the average MARS score for the app was 4.3 out of 5. Conclusions To our knowledge, Milk Man is the first breastfeeding app targeted specifically at men. The development of Milk Man followed a best practice approach, including the involvement of a multidisciplinary team and grounding in behavior change theory. It tested well with end users during development. Milk Man is currently being trialed as part

  9. Breastfeeding Perceptions and Attitudes: The Effect of Race/Ethnicity And Cultural Background

    Krystal Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been generating a lot of publicity in the past years largely due to new legislation promoting breastfeeding -friendly policies. However, the United States is far below many developed nations in regards to its populations’ breastfeeding prevalence and despite the unprecedented benefits of breastfeeding being documented, many are not breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in the U.S. varies dramatically by race, with individuals identifying as Black or African American breastfeeding much less at 6 months postpartum than Asian or Pacific Islander, White, or Hispanic. Overall, Individuals identifying as Asian or Pacific Islander have a higher breastfeeding rate 6 months postpartum with Hispanics coming in second. This study uses survey data to analyze the impact of race/ethnicity and cultural background on college students’ attitudes towards breastfeeding. This study found that respondents identifying as Hispanic had a more positive attitude towards breastfeeding than any other race or ethnicity. Also, respondents having at least one parent born outside of the United States had a more positive perception of breastfeeding than those who had parents born in the United States. These findings suggest that there are some cultural and racial influences on one’s perception and attitudes as it pertains to breastfeeding.

  10. Fetus -in -fetu in a 6-month-old

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a malformed parasitic monozygotic diamniotic twin found inside the body of the living child or adult. We report a case of lumbar mass having superficial rudimentary phallus, labioscrotal fold, testes, pedunculated thumb-like digit and rudimentary pelvis in addition to bowel loops in a 6-month-old Nigerian girl. The mass was excised and the baby did well. We propose based on these that dizygotic parasitic foetiform twin could exist.

  11. Tinnitus before and 6 Months after Cochlear Implantation

    Kompis, M; Pelizzone, M.; Dillier, N; J. Allum; Demin, N; Senn, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this prospective multicenter study, tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress were investigated in 174 cochlear implant (CI) candidates who underwent CI surgery at a Swiss cochlear implant center. All subjects participated in two session, one preoperatively and one 6 months after device activation. In both sessions, tinnitus loudness was assessed using a visual analogue scale and tinnitus distress using a standardized tinnitus questionnaire. The data were compared with unaided pre- a...

  12. Acute gastroenteritis in infants under 6 months old.

    Fox, R; Leen, C L; Dunbar, E M; Ellis, M E; Mandal, B K

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two babies under the age of 6 months who were admitted with gastroenteritis completed a study of gradual refeeding compared with abrupt refeeding after a period of rehydration. There was no difference in the incidence of recurrence of diarrhoea due to lactose intolerance, effect on weight, or duration of hospital stay. Twenty six babies (42%) had recurrence of diarrhoea after refeeding, all of whom settled with the introduction of a lactose free soya based formula. Well nourished babies...

  13. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  14. Effect of pregnancy health education on delivery modes and exclusive breastfeeding%孕期健康教育对孕妇分娩方式及纯母乳喂养的影响

    吴燕琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期健康教育对孕妇分娩方式及纯母乳喂养方式选择的影响。方法:选择从孕早期即入院产检并接受正规健康教育至分娩的孕妇180例为观察组,随机抽取同期产检和分娩、但未接受正规健康教育的孕妇180例为对照组;对比两组孕产妇最终的产前分娩意愿、实际分娩方式、母乳喂养、产后子宫复旧的情况。结果:观察组孕妇经干预后孕产妇自然分娩率明显高于对照组(P<0.01),观察组孕产妇因社会因素行剖宫产术的比例明显低于对照组(P<0.05),纯母乳喂养率及产后子宫复旧状况(P<0.05),两组自然分娩率、纯母乳喂养率及产后子宫复旧正常明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义。结论:对孕妇孕期进行系统健康教育能加强孕产妇对自然分娩的了解,提高孕产妇对纯母乳喂养相关知识的掌握程度,增强了孕产妇自信心,对于促进产妇自然分娩、降低社会因素剖宫产率、提高纯母乳喂养率和产后子宫复旧具有积极的作用,有效提高孕产妇、婴幼儿的生存质量。%Objective: To investigate the effect of Pregnancy He breastfeeding.alth Education on the choice of delivery mode and exclusive. Method :180 pregnant women who were admitted to the hospital from the early pregnancy, and received regular health education to delivery, were observed in the observation group, and 180 pregnant women in the same period, but did not receive normal health education in the control group. Compared the situations of two groups of pregnant women in prenatal childbirth final wishes, the actual delivery, breastfeeding, involution of uterus. Result: The pregnant women in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The proportion of pregnant women in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), Breastfeeding rate

  15. Assessing Breastfeeding Using Nuclear Science

    Children who receive only human milk for the first 6 months of their lives are more resistant to disease and infection and less likely than children fed with formula milk to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in adulthood. With the IAEA’s guidance, nuclear techniques are being used to test the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion strategies. Researchers use non-radioactive stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H) in water (2H2O) to measure the movement of liquid from mother to child

  16. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  17. Fatores associados com a duração do aleitamento materno Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding

    Roberto G. Chaves

    2007-06-01

    used to study the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding. The impact on breastfeeding duration of a series of co-variables was assessed by means of Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was 5.3%, and for breastfeeding at 12 months it was 33.7%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 40 days, and median breastfeeding duration was 237 days. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a negative association (p 9 consultations, use of alcohol or tobacco, delay before first feed (> 6 hours and use of a pacifier. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding rates in Itaúna (MG are well below those recommended by the World Health Organization. The principal variables with a negative relationship with duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding are related to mother and baby health care and, therefore, interventions are possible.

  18. Pediatric Nurse\\s Educational Role in an International Task: Maternal Education Experience on 0-6 Month Baby Nutrition

    Derya Suluhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO, for the baby\\s optimal growth and development, recommends all mothers all over the world feeding infants only breast milk for the first six months, initiating of additional nutrients after the sixth month, and suggests the need to continue to breastfeed for the first two years. The pediatric nurse works for Head of the Turkish delegation at the disposal of the Kosovo for a period of six months has decided to make a priority about an education on feeding infants (0-6 months as a result of a meeting with local health professionals and mothers. It is aimed to improve the level of knowledge about breastfeeding techniques and importance of breastfeeding of the mothers who have a 0-6 month old baby in Kosovo Mamusa Family Health Center. Besides the tasks where I\\ve been doing as a representative of the Turkish Armed Forces in Kosovo, it is an exciting experience in such a personal and professional sense to identify needs of people, plan and implement an education. The health care team assigned to work in the international arena, served especially to keep abreast of the needs and problems of people and work to fulfill the task of interacting with them. It is suggested to make cooperation with the local health care team to identify the issues of health education needs, to make, maintain and evaluate the planned education. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 265-268

  19. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  20. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  1. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  2. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead The benefits of breastfeeding Learn the unique ...

  3. Behaviour of exclusive breastfeeding in children of mothers with and without prior training Comportamiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva en niños de madres con y sin adiestramiento previo

    Pilar Maritza Almaguer Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since mankind’s onset, breast milk has been the main source of food for little children. Nevertheless, in recent years there has been an alarming trend to the decline of this practice. Objective: To determine the behaviour of exclusive breastfeeding in children of mothers with and without previous training. Methods: A community intervention, quasi-experimental, comparative and prospective study was conducted. The sample, including 160 women who had given birth in 2005 and 2006 and belonged to the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos, was divided into two independent groups: one trained in breastfeeding and the other one not trained. The variables included were: age, occupation, educational level, duration of exclusive and mixed breastfeeding and introduction of artificial and complementary feeding. Results: younger mothers (42, 5% and those who were still students are in the untrained group. The elimination of exclusive breastfeeding and the replacement of mixed feeding by artificial feeding are more precocious in the untrained mothers group (43, 8% nursed less than 2 months. The introduction of complementary breastfeeding was lower in the group of untrained mothers (23, 8% did so in 4 to 5 months. Conclusions: Training provided before or immediately after delivery is an extremely useful tool to improve quantitatively and qualitatively breastfeeding.Fundamento: desde que existe la humanidad la leche materna ha constituido la fuente principal de alimento para el niño pequeño. Contradictoriamente en los últimos años ha existido alarmante tendencia a la declinación en esta práctica. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva en niños de madres con y sin adiestramiento previo. Métodos: estudio de intervención comunitaria, cuasi experimental, comparado, prospectivo

  4. Does breastfeeding affect maternal postpartum mood?

    Cheng, Man-wai,; 鄭敏惠

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is well known to be beneficial to both the mother and the baby. To the baby, it is associated with decreased short-term health problems such as diarrhea and respiratory infections, as well as decreased long-term health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and raised blood cholesterol levels. To the mother, it is suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, as well as ovarian cancer. Increasing exclusive breastfeeding rate, in which higher proportion of infants a...

  5. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Cognition, Executive Function, and Behavioural Disorders in Primary School-Aged Children in Rural South Africa: A Cohort Analysis.

    Tamsen J Rochat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is associated with early child health; its longer-term benefits for child development remain inconclusive. We examine the associations between EBF, HIV exposure, and other maternal/child factors and the cognitive and emotional-behavioural development of children aged 7-11 y.The Vertical Transmission Study (VTS supported EBF in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women; between 2012 and 2014, HIV-negative VTS children (332 HIV exposed, 574 HIV unexposed were assessed in terms of cognition (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition [KABC-II], executive function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Second Edition [NEPSY-II], and emotional-behavioural functioning (parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist, [CBCL]. We developed population means by combining the VTS sample with 629 same-aged HIV-negative children from the local demographic platform. For each outcome, we split the VTS sample into scores above or at/below each population mean and modelled each outcome using logistic regression analyses, overall and stratified by child sex. There was no demonstrated effect of EBF on overall cognitive functioning. EBF was associated with fewer conduct disorders overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.3-0.7], p ≤ 0.01, and there was weak evidence of better cognition in boys who had been exclusively breastfed for 2-5 mo versus ≤1 mo (Learning subscale aOR 2.07 [95% CI 1.0-4.3], p = 0.05. Other factors associated with better child cognition were higher maternal cognitive ability (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 1.1-1.9], p = 0.02, Sequential; aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.3-2.4], p < 0.001, Planning subscales and crèche attendance (aOR 1.96 [95% CI 1.1-3.5], p = 0.02, Sequential subscale. Factors positively associated with executive function were home stimulation (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.0-1.8], p = 0.04, Auditory Attention; aOR 1.35 [95% CI 1.0-1.8], p = 0.05, Response Set and crèche (aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.0-3.0], p = 0.05, Animal

  6. Do 6-month-olds understand that speech can communicate?

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H

    2014-11-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they appreciate that speech is communicative earlier, with little such experience? We examined whether 6-month-olds recognize that speech can communicate information about an object. Infants watched a Communicator selectively grasp one of two objects (target). During test, the Communicator could no longer reach the objects; she turned to a Recipient and produced speech (a nonsense word) or non-speech (coughing). Infants looked longer when the Recipient selected the non-target than the target object when the Communicator spoke but not when she coughed - unless the Recipient had previously witnessed the Communicator's selective grasping of the target object. Our results suggest that at 6 months, with a receptive vocabulary of no more than a handful of commonly used words, infants possess some abstract understanding of the communicative function of speech. This understanding may provide an early mechanism for language and knowledge acquisition. PMID:24835877

  7. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

    Agampodi Thilini C; Agampodi Suneth B; Piyaseeli Udage Kankanamge D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers wi...

  8. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R C; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated ...

  9. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice to...

  10. Breastfeeding: guidance received in prenatal care, delivery and postpartum care

    Mayara Caroline Barbieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the guidelines considering breastfeeding given by health professionals to women during prenatal care, delivery and postpartum care. Quantitative and descriptive work developed at Regional Pinheiros, Maringá-PR, from the registry in SisPreNatal, from May to August 2009. Data were collected through interviews conducted with parents at home, using a structured instrument. Participants were 36 mothers, most of whom received counseling for breastfeeding during prenatal (58.3%, maternity (87.6% and in nursing visits to newborn (84.6%. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 37.5%, even with the end of maternity leave. The rate is still below the recommended by the World Health Organization for exclusive breastfeeding. The present results may contribute to the monitoring of health actions and development of new strategies in the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  11. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery......, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and...

  12. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    , length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and...... 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. RESULTS......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...

  13. Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233 and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR = 0.23–0.72. Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93, an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37, but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767. Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.

  14. Alimentação de crianças no primeiro semestre de vida: enfoque no aleitamento materno exclusivo Children in the first semester of life: focus on exclusive breastfeeding

    Vera Lúcia Fugita dos Santos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever o tipo de alimentação recebida por 205 crianças nos primeiros seis meses de vida. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, de caráter exploratório, enfocando-se o aleitamento materno exclusivo. A pesquisa foi realizada na cidade de Votuporanga, interior de São Paulo, durante um dia nacional de multivacinação. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada com as mães das crianças incluídas no estudo. RESULTADOS: a maioria das mães amamentou, mas menos da metade realizou aleitamento materno exclusivo nos primeiros seis meses de vida do bebê. A maioria das entrevistadas tinham idade entre 15 e 31 anos; eram casadas ou viviam em união consensual; com grau de escolaridade em nível fundamental incompleto e com rendimento familiar de um até seis salários mínimos. 62,6% das mulheres receberam orientação sobre a amamentação durante o pré-natal. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados desta pesquisa apontam para a importância da investigação do tipo de alimento oferecido para a criança durante o primeiro semestre de vida; assim como para a necessidade de orientação das mulheres durante todo o ciclo reprodutivo, a fim de obtermos maior aderência ao aleitamento materno exclusivo.OBJECTIVES: describe the type of diet offered to 205 children in the first six months of life. METHOD: descriptive exploratory study, focusing on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. Survey was performed in the city of Votuporanga, interior of São Paulo, during the national day of multiple vaccination. RESULTS: the majority of mothers breastfed their children, but less than half of them exclusively in their first six months of life. The majority of respondents were between 15 and 31 years old; were married or lived with their companions; had incomplete elementary education level and family income ranged from one to six minimum salaries. 62.6% of the women were oriented on breastfeeding during prenatal care

  15. The Prevalence and Determinants of Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in a Sample of Women in Ireland

    Tarrant, Roslyn; Younger, Katherine; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; White, Martin; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and ‘any’ breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers. Design: This prospective cross-sectional study involved the recruitment of women during the antenatal period, with subsequent follow-up of mothers who delivered healthy, term singleton infants, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Se...

  16. Influence of systematic nursing intervention on breastfeeding skills and exclusive breastfeeding in different periods of postpartum%系统化护理干预对产妇产后不同时期哺乳技能与纯母乳喂养的影响

    戴红霞; 李小毛

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨系统化护理干预对产妇产后不同时期哺乳技能与纯母乳喂养的影响。[方法]对照组接受现有常规护理,试验组接受以计划行为理论为指导的纯母乳喂养综合护理干预,分别于产后3d、6周、3个月各填写1次 LATCHES 母乳喂养技能量表。[结果]试验组产后6周、3个月的 LATCHES 母乳喂养技能评分分别为33.01分±2.38分、33.55分±2.39分,均高于同期对照组(31.00分±3.09分、31.98分±4.29分),差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.001);重复测量的双因素方差分析发现两组 LATCHES评分在时间效应、组间效应、时间与组间的交互效应均有统计学意义(均P<0.001),两组 LATCHES评分随时间变化均有增高趋势,但试验组增高幅度大于对照组;试验组产妇乳汁排空执行率为53.3%,高于对照组(26.4%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);产后3 d、6周、3个月试验组的纯母乳喂养率分别为31.5%、52.7%、59.4%,均高于同期对照组(20.9%、29.7%、29.1%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.001)。[结论]系统化护理干预能显著提高产妇的哺乳技能,作用持续到产后3个月;能显著提高产后3d、6周和3个月的纯母乳喂养率。%Obj ectives:To probe into influence of systematic nursing in-tervention on breastfeeding skills and exclusive breastfeeding in different periods of postpartum.Methods:Patients in control group received con-ventional nursing.Patients in experimental group received exclusive breastfeeding and comprehensive nursing intervention on the theory of planned behavior guidance,filling in LATCHES breastfeeding skills scale respectively at 3 d,6 week,3 months after delivery.Results:Patients of test group 6 weeks postpartum,3 months of LATCHES breastfeeding skills scores were respectively 33.01 ± 2.38 and 33.55 ± 2.39,which were higher than that in control group (31.00±3.09,31.98±4.29).The differences were statistically significant (P

  17. Impact of maternal fasting during Ramadan on growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants in Shahroud, 2012

    Hossein Haratipour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many advantages in breastfeeding of infants. The impact of fasting of breastfeeding mothers during Ramadan, on their exclusively breastfed infants’ growth, is still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of maternal Ramadan fasting on growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants. Methods: This cohort study was conducted on 55 healthy, exclusively breastfed infants, aged 1 to 6 months, during Ramadan and three months after it. 20 infants, whose mothers fasted throughout Ramadan (case group and 35 infants, whose mothers did not fast (control group, were enrolled in the study. All infants underwent periodic physical examinations, twice in Ramadan and 3 times in the first, second and the third months after Ramadan. The data analyses were done using a repeated measure analysis of variance. Statistical significance was defined as PFindings: The average age was 3.43±1.38 months in the case group and 2.31±1.45 months in the control group that presence no significant difference between. From the total number of infants, 23 cases (41.8% were males and the rest were females. All growth parameters increased during the study period (P< 0.05, with the same rate of increase for both groups (P=0.125. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting by breastfeeding mothers did not adversely affect the growth parameters of exclusively breastfed infants in short-term.

  18. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  19. Workplace bullying as an antecedent to job insecurity and intention to leave: a 6-month prospective study

    GLAMBEK, Mats; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Hetland, Jørn; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a severe problem in contemporary working life, affecting up to 15 per cent of employees. Among the detrimental outcomes of bullying, it is even postulated as a major risk factor for exclusion from work. In support of this claim, the current study demonstrates that exposure to bullying behaviour predicts an increase in both levels of job insecurity and intention to leave over a 6-month time lag, among a random sample of North Sea workers (n = 734). The finding...

  20. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  1. Breastfeeding and lactation research: exploring a tool to measure infant feeding patterns

    Noel-Weiss, Joy; Taljaard, Monica; Kujawa-Myles, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant feeding categories, often referred to as breastfeeding definitions, form the basis to describe infant feeding patterns; especially, breastfeeding duration and degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. Researchers use a variety of algorithms and no validated tool exists to measure feeding patterns for research purposes. The goal of this research project was to develop and test a tool to measure patterns of infant feeding for breastfeeding and lactation research. Methods We used a ...

  2. The Relationship between Life Stress and Breastfeeding Outcomes among Low-Income Mothers

    Dozier, Ann M.; Alice Nelson; Elizabeth Brownell

    2012-01-01

    Stressful life events during pregnancy negatively affect maternal and infant outcomes including breastfeeding initiation. Their impact on breastfeeding duration is uncertain. Given breastfeeding's important health benefits we analyzed stressful life event types and cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding by 4 and 13 weeks. Methods. We collected self-administered survey data at 5–7 months postpartum from over 700 primarily urban low-income US mothers. Data covered prepregnancy, prenatal, ...

  3. Factors associated with breastfeeding in England: an analysis by primary care trust

    Oakley, Laura L; Renfrew, Mary J; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Quigley, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the sociodemographic factors associated with variation in area-based breastfeeding in England; to calculate the predicted breastfeeding rates adjusted for sociodemographic variations. Design Ecological analysis of routine data using random effects logistic regression. Setting All 151 primary care trusts (PCTs) in England 2010–2011. Outcome measures PCT level data on breastfeeding: initiation, any and exclusive breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks. Results There was considerable v...

  4. Breastfeeding duration related to practised contraception in the Netherlands

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Treffers, P.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain insight into contraception practised and related to breastfeeding duration. Methods: Mothers with infants up to 6 months received a questionnaire on infant feeding (breast or formula feeding) and contraception (hormonal or non-hormonal methods). Estimates of th

  5. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support for......-osteoporotic treatment. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous treatment with anti-osteoporotic medication. Data were collected through in-depth interviews shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. The performed analyses were inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation of texts...... the patients to gain understanding of their diagnosis and the risk of osteoporotic fracture as well as to learn to live with osteoporosis. The study highlights new health promotion areas for targeting interventions at newly diagnosed patients, helping them accept and interpret the diagnosis, and the...

  6. Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina.

    Leon, Kyla A; Hyre, Amanda D; Ompad, Danielle; Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To determine stress levels among a workforce 6 months after hurricane Katrina made landfall, a web-based survey that included the four-item Perceived Stress Scale was administered to employees of the largest employer in New Orleans. An overall Perceived Stress Scale score was obtained by pooling responses for the four items. Among 1,542 adult respondents, 24.1% stated they felt that they were "fairly often" or "very often" unable to control the important things in their life and 21.4% considered that their difficulties were "fairly often" or "very often" piling up so high that they could not overcome them. Also, 6.1% reported that they "almost never" or "never" felt confident about their ability to handle their personal problems and 15.2% indicated that things were "almost never" or "never" going their way. The overall mean Perceived Stress Scale score was 6.3 (standard deviation = 3.1; range = 0-16). Higher stress scale scores, indicating more stress, were present for women, and for participants with lower income, displaced longer than 3 months, who were more afraid of losing their life during hurricane Katrina and its immediate aftermath, and who knew someone that died during the storm. Additionally, participants who were living in a relative of friend's house or in a temporary trailer at the time of the survey had higher stress scores compared to their counterparts who had returned to live in their pre-hurricane residence. There was a direct association between higher stress scores and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Employers and health care providers should be apprised of the need for monitoring stress and offering counseling opportunities for returning workforces following future large-scale disasters. PMID:17932611

  7. Obesity and early cessation of breastfeeding in Denmark

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is multi-factorial and several factors contribute to this association. Our aim was to investigate to what extent socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, parity and prenatal conditions could explain...... the association between high BMI and early cessation of breastfeeding Methods: We used data from a randomized trial of 1597 Danish mothers of singleton infants. Self-reported Maternal postnatal weight and height were available from 1375 (86 %). High BMI was defined as body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 at ~ 17...... breastfeeding, and were more frequently characterised by socio-demographic-, psychosocial-, perinatal- and behavioural factors known to increase the risk of early breastfeeding cessation. In the adjusted analyses (n = 1226) the association between BMI and duration of exclusive breastfeeding depended on parity...

  8. Health workers' support for breastfeeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    OlaOlorun, Funmilola Morinoye; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke

    2006-05-01

    Breastfeeding in Nigeria is universal, and exclusive breastfeeding was introduced in 1992, yet no study has assessed health workers' support for breastfeeding at the grassroots level. This study assessed health workers' tangible support for breastfeeding at primary care facilities in Ibadan and factors affecting it, including knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding. Among the 386 workers, there was moderate support for breastfeeding (median score = 15.0, maximum = 20). Following multivariate analysis, young age of worker (20-29 years; odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.8), more than 5 years of post-training experience (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4), senior profession (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), high breastfeeding knowledge scores (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5), and sufficient opportunities to practice tangible breastfeeding support (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.4-7.7) were found to predict tangible breastfeeding support. Deliberate efforts should be made to incorporate continuing education workshops to better prepare health professionals for their role in providing tangible breastfeeding support at the primary care level. PMID:16684907

  9. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers...

  10. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  11. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    Fatemeh Nayyeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was filled by mother for each child and later the infants with “nursing strike” were compared with all others.Results:In this study prevalence of breast feeding refusal in infants was 24%.There was significant relation between the “breastfeeding refusal” and maternal academic education or working status. In this study mothers reported various reasons associated with “refusal breast feeding. According to the mothers playful infant and nasal obstructions were the probable causes for refusal.Conclusion:There is a diverse variety of factors influencing nursing strike. Most of these factors can be prevented by identifying the background reasons and proper training.

  12. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

  13. What about Breastfeeding?

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  14. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  15. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    ... is part of a continual effort to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among African American women by involving fathers in breastfeeding promotion efforts. Target Audience: African American fathers. Also ...

  16. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Dad's Role ...

  17. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses ...

  18. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding ...

  19. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to ...

  20. Anemia em lactentes de baixa renda em aleitamento materno exclusivo Anemia in low-income exclusively breastfed infants

    Marco Antonio A. Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Verificar o comportamento dos valores da hemoglobina e a prevalência de anemia entre lactentes de termo de 3 a 6 meses de idade em aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 242 lactentes de 3 a 6 meses de idade com peso de nascimento superior a 2.500 g, em aleitamento materno exclusivo e em acompanhamento no Programa de Promoção do Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Lactente do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. A dosagem de hemoglobina foi realizada por meio de punção digital entre o terceiro e o sexto meses de vida. Adotaram-se os valores de Hb OBJECTIVE: To verify the behavior of hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence in full term infants, aged 3 to 6 months and on exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 242 infants aged 3 to 6 months with birth weights of more than 2,500 g, on exclusive breastfeeding and monitored by the Program for the Promotion of Infant Growth and Development, part of the Paraisópolis Einstein Community Program. Hemoglobin was assayed by finger prick between the third and sixth months of life. Anemia was defined as Hb < 10.3 g/dL (Saarinen or Hb < 10 g/dL (Brault-Dubuc for infants aged 3 to 5 months and as Hb < 11.0 g/dL (WHO for infants aged 6 months. RESULTS: Mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.3 and 11.4 g/dL at 3 and 4 months and 11.2 and 11.1 g/dL at 5 and 6 months, respectively. The percentage of anemic infants varied depending on age and the cutoff adopted, being 11.8, 10.2 and 8.3% at 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, according to the Brault-Dubuc criteria, and 20.6, 14.8 and 10.4% by the Saarinen criteria. Anemia prevalence at 6 months was 37.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia prevalence rates observed among infants aged between 3 and 6 months varied from 8.3 to 37.5%, justifying increased attention on the part of pediatricians to the hemoglobin levels of infants who are on exclusive breastfeeding, come from low-income families and present risk factors

  1. Breastfeeding and its gamut of benefits.

    Gertosio, Chiara; Meazza, Cristina; Pagani, Sara; Bozzola, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal milk is recommended as the optimal and exclusive source of early nutrition for all infants from birth and until at least their sixth month of age. Their nutritional virtues are due to potent immune factors and a unique composition which evolves in tandem with the infant's growth and developmental needs. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development, and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea or pneumonia, and improves recovery time during illness. Breastfeeding provides numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both the baby and its mother. Beyond the immediate benefits for infants, breastfeeding also contributes to a lifetime of good health. In this review we describe the influence of breastfeeding on mental and psychomotor development, on the risk of endocrine disorders, pediatric cancers and allergic diseases for the breastfed child. More prospective studies with comparable methodologies and longer periods of follow-up are necessary to allow firm conclusions on the effects of breastfeeding in some of these aspects. PMID:26023793

  2. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    Verma Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks. White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]. Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding

  3. Impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança sobre práticas relacionadas à amamentação no interior do Nordeste The impact of training based on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding practices in the Northeast of Brazil

    Sonia B. Coutinho

    2005-12-01

    midwives were trained at two institutions (A and B in Palmares, Pernambuco state. Three hundred and thirty-four mothers were interviewed within the first 48 hours and 10 days after childbirth to evaluate breastfeeding practices at the maternities and fulfillment of steps 4 through 10 of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. A subset of 166 mothers received seven home visits to evaluate breastfeeding practices throughout the first 6 months of life and to compare results with those of a cohort study conducted in the area in 1998. RESULTS: The performance of maternity B was significantly better than that of maternity A, from steps 4 to 10 and also in terms of exclusive breastfeeding and offering less water or tea to infants (p < 0.001. The comparison with a previous cohort study demonstrated an improvement in breastfeeding practices at the maternity wards and an increase of exclusive breastfeeding prevalence (from 21.2 to 70%, during the first 48 hours after delivery and throughout the first 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The training promoted partial change to some practices related to breastfeeding, having a positive effect on total and exclusive breastfeeding at the maternity wards. However, there was no significant change to these practices over the first 6 months of life, suggesting the need for effective interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding in the health sector and in the community.

  4. A study of the relationship between sexual activity and breastfeeding

    Masoumeh Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran2(Received 2 March, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Longterm breastfeeding is an important factor for women. Reverse effects of breastfeeding regarding sexual activities have been reported. However, the impact of breastfeeding, along with sexual activity of women during postpartum, is a debatable matter. This effect remains unknown in many societies such as Iran. Sexual activity during breastfeeding from women has not been studied. This study was carried out to compare the association of sexual activity of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women within 2-6 months after birth.Materials and methods: In this historical cohort study, which was carried out in 2007, the sexual activity of breastfeeding women was compared with 198 bottle-feeds women, who were referred to a public maternity health care center in Tehran. Women were recruited within the age of 20-35, being their first or second child and in 2-6 months after birth. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Women were interviewed face-to-face by the first author.Results: Of 456 respondents, 258 were currently breastfeeding and 198 were bottle feed. Mean age of the mothers was 27±4.7 years. 28.3% of breastfeeding women and 22.9% of non breastfeeding women had sexual intercourse within the one month of postpartum period. There was no significant difference between the time of resumption of sexual activity and being breastfeed or not (p<0.07. Also, no significant difference was found between breastfeeding and bottle-feed women on sexual desire and satisfaction prior to pregnancy and in postpartum period (p<0.1, p<0.5. In 49/8% of breastfeed and 43.3% of non breastfeed women, sexual desire was decreased and also in 32.6% and 33%, sexual satisfaction was decreased respectively. The orgasm experience did not have a significant difference between the two groups

  5. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  6. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  7. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  8. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Waldenström Ulla; Harris Heather; Beanland Christine; Lumley Judith; McLachlan Helen; Forster Della; Earl Diane; Dyson Kaye

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breas...

  9. 单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性研究%The correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index

    杨雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index.Methods To investigate and analyze the maternal age, height, body weight before childbirth way, prenatal, gestational age, birth weight, baby weight, gender, height in 140 case. milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index were contrastive analysised.Results Antenatal and pre-pregnancy BMI satisfied the equation BMI = 9.036 + 0.873 *. Maternal body index increases were positively associated with milk composition of zinc, calcium, magnesium, protein, fat, minerals, and the solid fat, were negatively correlated with iron, copper, and lactose.Conclusion Maternal body index increases were correlated with milk component content;controlling the maternal weight increase can keep the balance of milk component content.%目的:探讨研究单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性。方法:调查分析我院妇产科分娩的140例产妇年龄、身高、孕前体重、产前体重、孕周、分娩方式、婴儿体重、性别、身长等,对比分析产妇体重增长与乳汁成分含量的相关性。结果:产妇产前和孕前BMI满足方程:产前BMI=9.036+0.873*孕前BMI,产妇体重指数增幅与乳汁成分中锌元素、钙元素、镁元素、蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质和非脂肪固体呈正相关,与铁元素、铜元素和乳糖呈负相关。结论:产妇体重指数增加与乳汁成分含量有一定的相关性;控制产妇体重增加可保持乳汁成分含量的均衡性。

  10. Racial/ethnic variation in breastfeeding across the US: a multilevel analysis from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    Belanoff, Candice M; McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; McCormick, Marie C; Subramanian, S V

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether differences across states in race/ethnicity-specific breastfeeding rates are due solely to state differences in individual factors associated with breastfeeding or additionally, certain state "contextual" factors. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, multilevel models examined whether state variability in race/ethnicity specific breastfeeding initiation and duration to 6 months were explained by (1) individual sociodemographic characteristics of women in states, and (2) an aggregate state measure of the availability of evidence-based maternity care services related to breastfeeding. Observed variability of race/ethnicity-specific breastfeeding rates was only minimally reduced after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (Median Odds Ratios (MOR), breastfeeding initiation: non-Hispanic White = 1.46, non-Hispanic Black = 2.26; Hispanic = 1.89. MOR, breastfeeding for 6 months: non-Hispanic White = 1.36, non-Hispanic Black = 1.84; Hispanic = 1.56). Overall variability in the degree of state gaps changed little in adjusted models (breastfeeding initiation: non-Hispanic Black σ(2) = 0.74, se 0.28, Hispanic σ(2) = 0.45, se 0.11; breastfeeding to 6-months: non-Hispanic Black σ(2) = 0.41, se 0.10, Hispanic σ(2) = 0.22, se 0.05). The measure of maternity care services was positively associated with breastfeeding overall but generally did not explain a substantial portion of between-state variability nor the overall variability in racial/ethnic gaps. Contextual sources of variation in state breastfeeding practices and disparities remain poorly understood. Differences in the socioeconomic makeup of states do not fully explain variability. The association of state breastfeeding rates and disparities with relevant policy and practice factors should be further investigated. PMID:22466719

  11. [Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil].

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  12. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  13. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  14. Breastfeeding practices among mothers in an urban polyclinic.

    Siah H Yadav, C K; Yadav, H

    2002-06-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study on breast feeding practices in an urban clinic was conducted among 136 mothers aged between 21-49 years who were interviewed using a questionnaire. Malays constituted 61% of the respondents, Chinese 22.8% and Indians 16.2%. Mojority of these were working mothers and although the initiation of breastfeeding was high (99.3%), exclusive breastfeeding was only 12.5%. A large proportion (33.8%) dtopped prior to 3 months. Majority of the Chinese mothers (61.3%) stipped before 3 months as compared to the Indian (40.9%) and Malay (21.7%) mothers (pbreast feeding rate is high in this urban setting but more efforts are needed to effect a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding and longer duration of breastfeeding. PMID:24326649

  15. WIC Breastfeeding Policy Inventory

    Sarah Forrestal; Ronette Briefel; James Mabli

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion and support is a core component of the nutrition services provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The objectives of this study were to describe a census of state and local WIC agencies’ policies and practices to promote breastfeeding; the breastfeeding measures that agencies collect and report; and the data systems used to store and report that information. The study also used paradata to assess the WIC Breastfee...

  16. Breastfeeding and Antidepressants

    Field, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature supports the benefits of breastfeeding, this review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women, even though their infants benefit from the breastfeeding. Depressed mothers, in part, do not breastfeed because of their concern about potentially negative effects of antidepressants on their infants. Although sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxol) concentrations are not detectable in infants’ sera, fluoxetine (Prozac) and citalopram ...

  17. Vivências maternas associadas ao aleitamento materno exclusivo mais duradouro: um estudo etnográfico Vivencias de madres asociadas a la lactancia materna exclusiva más duradera: un estudio etnográfico Maternal experiences associated with longer term exclusive breastfeeding: an ethnographic study

    Carolina Guizardi Polido

    2011-01-01

    . RESULTADOS: El amamantamiento se presentó como evento particular en los diferentes contextos de su ocurrencia, sin embargo fue posible identificar que la lactancia exclusiva estuvo ligado a la determinación materna, a pesar de las dificultades vividas. La lactancia materna exclusiva más duradera se relacionó a las madres que se mostraron motivadas con la práctica, concientes de sus beneficios y apoyadas por la familia, aun frente a la interferencia contraria de su medio cultural. CONCLUSIÓN: La ausencia de determinación materna para amamantar exclusivamente debe ser investigada y, cuando presente, recibir abordaje especial de los profesionales de salud.OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of breastfeeding mothers using the Unified Health System who were seeking to obtain knowledge, expectations, perceptions and feelings involved with identifying aspects relevant for more prolonged, exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A qualitative ethnographic study conducted with eight primiparas and family references, through observation and household interviews during the first semester of the infants' lives. The data were summarized in three categories: starting breastfeeding; experiencing the process of early weaning; maintaining exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: Breastfeeding appeared as a particular event in different contexts of occurrence, however, it was possible to identify that exclusive breastfeeding was linked to maternal determination, despite the difficulties experienced. Longer lasting exclusive breastfeeding was related to the mothers who were highly motivated to practice, those who were aware of its benefits and were supported by their family, even in the face of interference contrary to their culture. CONCLUSION: The lack of determination for exclusive maternal breastfeeding should be investigated and, when present, receive special consideration by health professionals.

  18. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    ... hand expression, see www.workandpump.com/handexpression.htm ). TRAVELING WITH A BREASTFEEDING CHILD Breastfeeding provides unique benefits to mothers and children traveling together. Health care ...

  19. A prática de amamentar entre mulheres que exercem trabalho remunerado na Paraíba, Brasil: um estudo transversal Breastfeeding practices among paid working mothers in Paraíba State, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estar no mercado de trabalho não deve impedir a mulher de amamentar. A Organização Mundial de Saúde preconiza o aleitamento materno exclusivo até seis meses de vida. No Brasil as leis propiciam à mulher trabalhadora quatro meses de licença maternidade, mas nem sempre ela recebe este benefício. Assim, como praticar amamentação exclusiva? Este artigo objetiva descrever as taxas de aleitamento materno e se o trabalho remunerado interfere na amamentação de mães da Paraíba. Trata-se de estudo transversal em 70 de 223 municípios que aceitaram participar da pesquisa na campanha de vacinação em 2002. Em 11.076 crianças menores de um ano, a prevalência de amamentação exclusiva foi de 22,4% de 0-4 meses e foi significativamente maior entre as mães que trabalhavam fora e que tiveram licença maternidade. Entre estas, foi também menor a prevalência de amamentação total e predominante. Na zona rural o trabalho fora de casa esteve associado com a redução do aleitamento materno exclusivo. A prática do amamentar na Paraíba está muito aquém das recomendações e o retorno precoce da mãe ao trabalho agrava esta situação.Paid work should not be an obstacle to women's breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. In Brazil, women are legally entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, but in practice few women enjoy such benefits. How is it possible to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months? We analyzed both the breastfeeding rates and whether paid jobs interfere with breastfeeding in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 70 of 223 municipalities (counties during the annual immunization campaign in 2002. Among 11,076 infants (< 12 months of age, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 0-4 months was 22.4% and was significantly higher among working women receiving maternity leave as compared to those who did not. The prevalence of total and

  20. Exclusions

    Adam, Michel; Assal, Sophie; Benicourt, Emmanuelle; Bonte, Pierre; Dorier Apprill, Élisabeth; Gillet, Marie; Giordano, Christian; Goedefroit, Sophie; Govoroff, Nicolas; Jacques-Jouvenot, Dominique; Karadimas, Dimitri; Lécrivain, Valérie; Lestage, Françoise; Lévi-Strauss, Claude; Pagès, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Sous le titre «Exclusions» sont réunis, dans ce numéro aux approches diverses, plusieurs sujets communs répondant à cet intitulé général : la pauvreté en milieu rural (France, Brésil, Madagascar) et le point de vue de la Banque mondiale sur cette question, les tensions ethniques et la territorialisation (Balkans, Mexique, Zambèze) enfin, l'importance d'une analyse anthropologique comparative pour comprendre la portée relative de la notion de productivité (C. Lévi-Strauss) et les logiques soci...

  1. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The CDC Breastfeeding Report Card provides state-by-state data to help public health practitioners, health professionals, community members, child care ...

  2. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    into two groups. Mothers in the intervention group were given health education according to WHO's recommendations; about exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 4 mo, prolonged breastfeeding and family planning methods. At 4 mo of age introduction of weaning food was delayed in the intervention...... weaning of children in special risk groups was not avoided. An evaluation of the impact of the WHO recommendations in different settings is warranted....

  3. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioec...

  4. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Mortazavi, Forough; MOUSAVI, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assess...

  5. Breastfeeding as an Exposure Pathway for Perfluorinated Alkylates.

    Mogensen, Ulla B; Grandjean, Philippe; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are widely used and have resulted in human exposures worldwide. PFASs occur in breast milk, and the duration of breastfeeding is associated with serum-PFAS concentrations in children. To determine the time-dependent impact of this exposure pathway, we examined the serum concentrations of five major PFASs in a Faroese birth cohort at birth, and at ages 11, 18, and 60 months. Information about the children's breastfeeding history was obtained from the mothers. The trajectory of serum-PFAS concentrations during months with and without breastfeeding was examined by linear mixed models that accounted for the correlations of the PFAS measurements for each child. The models were adjusted for confounders such as body size. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with increases of most PFAS concentrations by up to 30% per month, with lower increases during partial breast-feeding. In contrast to this main pattern, perfluorohexanesulfonate was not affected by breast-feeding. After cessation of breastfeeding, all serum concentrations decreased. This finding supports the evidence of breastfeeding being an important exposure pathway to some PFASs in infants. PMID:26291735

  6. Maternal Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Therapy or Immunizations: Very few Contraindications to Breastfeeding

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1. There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases (2-4. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfeeding, particularly unnecessary ones. The present article summarizes the maternal infectious diseases in which continuing breastfeeding is recommended, the very few infectious diseases in which it is not recommended, the rare instances in which maternal antimicrobial therapy indicates a caution for breastfeeding, and the continuation of breastfeeding when a mother or her infant is receiving a routine recommended immunization.

  7. Breastfeeding practices in the city of Iguatu-CE

    Lúcia Vanda Teixeira de Freitas Cavalcante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess breastfeeding practices in Family Health Strategy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study conducted in Family Health Units of the urban area of Iguatu-CE, Brazil, from August 2008 to May 2009. Participants were 402 mothers with children under six months of age who underwent prenatal consultations. We used a form with questions regarding breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, introducing other foods, infant nutrition, consultations prenatal and postpartum visits undertaken by staff. The data were entered into SPSS 16.0 and analyzed descriptively. Results: Among the mothers interviewed (402, most said that was breastfeeding babies (N = 343, 85.3%, but introduced other food (N = 252, 62.6%, verifying low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 252 women who reported offering other food to baby, 158 (62.7% offered on their own, followed by those who chose to follow the indication of relatives and neighbors (N = 63, 25%. Conclusions: The study revealed that mothers of the Family Health Units from Iguatu-EC did not breastfeed their children exclusively, but with the introduction of other foods (other milk, porridge, thereby demonstrating the low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding.

  8. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em crianças até o sexto mês de idade na cidade de Maringá, estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222 Prevalence of breast-feeding in infants up to six months old, in Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222

    Suzana Cunha Vituri

    2003-04-01

    accomplished by means of inquiry domicile, with a sample of 373 children, through questionnaire, to characterize them according to the variables and to analyze the type and duration of breast-feeding until the 6th month. The variables, associated with exclusive breast-feeding until the 4th month, were also studied. In the analysis of breast-feeding duration, the curve of Kaplan-Meier was used. The prevalence of breast-feeding at 4 and 6 months was 60.3% and 54.9%, respectively. In relation to exclusive breast-feeding, the prevalence was 14.2% and 9.5% at 4 and 6 months. We found positive association with exclusive breast-feeding in the 4th month to the variables: married situation with bond, newly born with pregnancy age below 37 weeks and mothers with previous experience in breast-feeding.

  9. Breastfeeding intentions, patterns, and determinants in infants visiting hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent ecological research from Latin America has shown that infant health could be promoted through exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 0–3 months and partial breastfeeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 1995, the author interviewed 518 mothers with infants ≤ 1 year in La Paz, Bolivia, to describe the breastfeeding pattern and its determinants including socio-economic, religious and ethnic background. Results The rate of any...

  10. Breastfeeding Duration: A Survival Analysis—Data from a Regional Immunization Survey

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report the duration of and factors associated with exclusive and any breastfeeding among the French-speaking community of Belgium (Wallonia). Material and Methods. A two-stage cluster sample was drawn from the population of children aged 18–24 months living in the area in 2012. Anamnestic data on breastfeeding and sociodemographic information were collected from 525 mothers. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with discontinuing breastfeeding...

  11. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: A prospective study

    Sham Alice; Wong Emmy MY; Lee Irene LY; Wu Kendra M; Fong Daniel YT; Tarrant Marie; Lam Christine; Dodgson Joan E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding provides optimal and complete nutrition for newborn babies. Although new mothers in Hong Kong are increasingly choosing to breastfeed their babies, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low and duration remains short. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and weaning practices of Hong Kong mothers over the infant's first year of life to determine the factors associated with early cessation. Methods A cohort of 1417 mother-infant pairs was...

  12. The Effects of Breastfeeding on Childhood BMI: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    L. A. Gibson; Hernandez, M; Kelly, M; Campbell, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of breastfeeding on childhood body mass index (BMI). We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a nationally representative UK cohort survey, containing detailed infant feeding information, which allow us to explore the effects of a range of breastfeeding variables on the mean BMI of children breastfed for different durations and for exclusive and partial breastfeeding. Using propensity score matching, we find statistically significant influences of...

  13. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Mutua Martin K; Gitau Tabither M; Kyobutungi Catherine; Fotso Jean-Christophe; Madise Nyovani J; Kimani-Murage Elizabeth W; Yatich Nelly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan A...

  14. Ethnic Variation in Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding in the Republic of Ireland

    Castro, Patricia; Layte, Richard; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2014-01-01

    Early nutrition plays a pivotal role in long-term health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, with the gradual introduction of solids after this period. However, studies in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) have shown poor compliance with guidelines. The ROI continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. Our objective was to analyse differences in breastfeeding and complimentary feeding behaviours between ...

  15. Acceptability of financial incentives for breastfeeding: thematic analysis of readers’ comments to UK online news reports

    Giles, Emma L.; Holmes, Matthew; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whilst it is recommended that babies are breastfed exclusively for the first six months, many mothers do not maintain breastfeeding for this length of time. Previous research confirms that women and midwives value financial incentives for breastfeeding, but limited research has explored the wider acceptability of these interventions to the general public. This paper examines opinion towards financial incentives for breastfeeding using reader responses to UK on-line media coverage o...

  16. Ethnic variation in breastfeeding and complimentary feeding in the Republic of Ireland.

    Patricia Dominguez Castro; Richard Layte; John Kearney

    2014-01-01

    Early nutrition plays a pivotal role in long-term health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, with the gradual introduction of solids after this period. However, studies in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) have shown poor compliance with guidelines. The ROI continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. Our objective was to analyse differences in breastfeeding and complimentary feeding behaviours between ...

  17. Maternal Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Therapy or Immunizations: Very Few Contraindications to Breastfeeding

    MacDonald, Noni E

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1). There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases) (2-4). To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfee...

  18. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W.; Davila, Yolanda R.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three database...

  19.  Breastfeeding Status and Some Related Factors in Northern Iran

    Aliakbar Abdollahi; Azadreza Mansourian; Gholamreza Veghari

    2011-01-01

     Objectives: The main objective of this study is to assess the Breastfeeding Duration, Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration and other related factors among children aged less than 5 years old in rural areas of Northern Iran.Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted on 2520 children aged 6-60 months (male: 1309, female: 1211) chosen by cluster random sampling from 20 out of 118 villages. Data were collected from mothers using a questionnaire. The duration of breastfeeding was comput...

  20. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  1. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's ...

  2. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  3. Breastfeeding and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Digestive Symptoms

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aims to evaluate the role of breastfeeding in the acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in Iran and to compare the histopathologic changes occurring in children feeding on breast milk with those in infants feeding on formula. Methods:In a case-control study parents of children with and without H. pylori infection who had undergone endoscopic survey and gastric biopsy in the Childrens Medical Center, Tehran, were asked about their feeding practices during the first 6 months after birth, the duration of breastfeeding period, the symptoms, and the duration of symptoms and concomitant diseases. Findings:A total of 154 children were included in this study. From this sample, 77 children formed the case group and 77 children formed the control group. A significant difference was found between H. pylori infection and feeding with formula (P=0.045. In case group, a significant difference was found between breastfeeding and age of the infected child (P=0.034, shorter duration of symptoms (P=0.016, and finally degree of H. pylori colonization (P=0.021. Conclusion:It appears that breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth can decrease the degree of H. pylori colonization, postpone infection until older age, shorten the duration of symptoms, and be concomitant with milder gastritis.

  4. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    ... Добро пожаловать ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence ... and Breastfeeding. Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink ...

  5. Breastfeeding and returning to work

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet aims to encourage breastfeeding mothers to continue breastfeeding after they have returned to work. It highlights the benefits of continuing to breastfeed, sets out the options for combining breastfeeding and work, explains the rights breastfeeding mothers have to support from their employer, and outlines what facilities and equipment mothers will need to express milk at work.

  6. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    . Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1-7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting...

  7. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  8. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  9. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006

  10. BREASTFEEDING AND CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING UNDER 5 CLINIC OF A GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, KARNATAKA

    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding and contraception are important determinants of child mortality and morbidity. These practices vary in different communities due to different socio-cultural factors. Breast feeding practices influences health of the child and incidence of infections. OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the socio demographic characteristics among mothers attending under 5 clinic. 2. To determine the breast feeding practices among mothers. 3. To determine the association between ARI and ADD with breastfeeding. 4. To determine the contraceptive practices among the mother. METHODOLOGY: This Cross-sectional study was conducted at a government tertiary care teaching hospital, Karnataka for a period of 6 months. The data was collected from the mothers by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire in the local language (Kannada. RESULTS: Of the total 2932 mothers, 46.1% mothers had breast-fed their babies within one hour of delivery, 9.2% had given pre-lacteal feeds and colostrum was not fed to 7.9% of the babies. The difference in the incidence of ARI and ADD between the children who were exclusively breastfeed and the children who were not exclusively breastfed was significant. Contraception was practices by 10.8% of the mothers. CONCLUSION: The immunization clinic offers an opportunity to enquire the mother about the breast feeding practices and advise about the importance of exclusive breast feeding. It also provides an opportunity for questioning and offering advice about contraception.

  11. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful - mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up breastfe......Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed by...... aware that mothers who have to give up breastfeeding need special attention and support....

  12. Positive and negative experiences of breast pumping during the first 6 months.

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Hicks, Katherine G; Huynh, Justine; Cabana, Michael D; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-04-01

    For mothers with breastfeeding difficulties, pumping can be recommended to help establish milk production. However, pumping may present some barriers to successful breastfeeding. Mothers with milk supply concern may be at higher risk of barriers to successful breastfeeding. No previous studies have described experiences of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern. We conducted 10 focus groups of 56 mothers who had milk supply concern in the first month after birth. A paid, trained facilitator led groups in a semi-structured approach. Sessions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded independently by two investigators and analysed using grounded theory. We identified five themes related to the experience of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern: (1) additional control over breastfeeding from pumping: 'I would feed and then give him … whatever I could manage to pump to him'. (2) Painful experience: 'The first time I pumped my boobs hurt so bad'. (3) Pumped volume affected milk supply concern: 'Pump and there was hardly anything coming out that's when I started to worry'. (4) Pumping interfered with other nurturing activities: 'While you're pumping, you can't touch the baby'. (5) Frustration from inconsistent provider advice: 'They told me to pump … and then said, "That's going to cause your milk to increase too much" '. Mothers had positive and negative experiences with pumping. Clinicians should assess a mother's experience shortly after she initiates pumping, as further management and counselling may be necessary to avoid barriers to successful breastfeeding. PMID:25134622

  13. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended. PMID:26278351

  14. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  15. Latinas and Postpartum Depression: Role of Partner Relationship, Additional Children, and Breastfeeding

    Hassert, Silva; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, additional children, and partner relationship predicted postpartum depression among 59 Latinas who had an infant who was 6 months old or younger. The most powerful predictor was conflict with partner. Counselors working with Latinas experiencing postpartum depression should explore the partner relationship, particularly relationship…

  16. Breastfeeding as an Exposure Pathway for Perfluorinated Alkylates

    Mogensen, Ulla B; Grandjean, Philippe; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are widely used and have resulted in human exposures worldwide. PFASs occur in breast milk, and the duration of breastfeeding is associated with serum-PFAS concentrations in children. To determine the time-dependent impact of this exposure pathway, we...... examined the serum concentrations of five major PFASs in a Faroese birth cohort at birth, and at ages 11, 18, and 60 months. Information about the children's breastfeeding history was obtained from the mothers. The trajectory of serum-PFAS concentrations during months with and without breastfeeding was...... examined by linear mixed models that accounted for the correlations of the PFAS measurements for each child. The models were adjusted for confounders such as body size. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with increases of most PFAS concentrations by up to 30% per month, with lower...

  17. Eltrombopag for management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (RAISE): a 6-month, randomised, phase 3 study

    Cheng, Gregory; Saleh, Mansoor N; Marcher, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. We aimed to compare the response to once daily eltrombopag versus placebo in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia during a 6-month period....

  18. Breastfeeding practice in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the new countries established after the break up of the former Yugoslavia. One of the unfortunate legacies of this country due to the 1992-1994 war is the destruction of human and material resources. Despite many negative events, steady progress can be seen in social, technological and cultural aspects of life. According to the global public health recommendation, infants should be breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, health and development. Therefore, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe food, with Breastfeeding (BF extended up to and beyond two years of age. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H majority of mothers (estimated at 95% have initiated breastfeeding. However, Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF is not commonly practiced, and BF ceases by the age of five months. After 1995, a number of programs were introduced by WHO and UNICEF in B&H with a primary goal to ensure that babies were given a healthy start in life. Through implementation of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI, enabling exact public health survey – the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, it would be possible to create comparable health indicators and make a step forward to promote and support breastfeeding practice as the best option for infants.

  19. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration

    Morden, Erna; Technau, Karl-Günter; Giddy, Janet; Maxwell, Nicola; Keiser, Olivia; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life. Methods This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) while growth (longitudinal WAZ) was assessed using mixed effects models. Results We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0) and 51% were male). The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007) compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001) experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011). Conclusion Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower longitudinal growth. PMID:27049853

  20. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  1. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  2. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  3. Breastfeeding - self-care

    ... of fruit: 1/2 cup fruit juice Apples Apricots Peaches 1/2 cup cut up fruit, such ... cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines pass into mother's milk. ...

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges ...

  5. Supporting breastfeeding poster

    Public Health Agency

    2013-01-01

    This poster shows how grandparents can make a real difference by supporting a daughter or son's partner in their decision to breastfeed and directs them to the leaflet A grandparent's guide to supporting breastfeeding

  6. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    ... Their Families Communities Health Care Employment Research & Surveillance Public Health Infrastructure National Policies & Positions Healthy People 2020 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Resources & Publications Breastfeeding Progress MMWR Highlights CDC Guide to Strategies to ...

  7. Timing of breastfeeding

    ... your baby's teeth. If your baby is drinking sugary drinks and breastfeeding, your baby may have problems with tooth decay. DO NOT give your baby sugary drinks, especially close to sleep time. Formula feeding at ...

  8. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  9. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    ... positions include the side-lying position and the football hold. (See the Breastfeeding holds section for illustrations of these positions.) Some women have a strong milk ejection reflex or let- ...

  10. Variáveis que influenciam a manutenção do aleitamento materno exclusivo Variables que influencian la manutención del amamantamiento materno exclusivo Variables that influence the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding

    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2009-03-01

    la mujer durante el proceso de parto y nacimiento influye de forma directa en el amamantar.This is a descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study, with a quantitative approach, performed in a low-income community in São Paulo, with the purpose to identify whether the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in the first six months is influenced by the following variables: early contact in the first hour after birth, permanence in joint lodging, type of delivery and type of hospital. Data were collected from 75 medical records and analyzed with the methodology of generalized estimate equations. The results showed that the variables joint lodging, type of hospital and type of delivery interfered in the maintenance of EBF; however, that was not the case with early contact. It was concluded that the EBF indexes were higher in cases where the mother and the baby remained together after the birth, in baby-friendly hospitals and after normal deliveries. It was also observed that the care received by the mother during the process of delivery and birth influences breastfeeding directly.

  11. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study

    Yotebieng, Marcel; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Labbok, Miriam; Behets, Frieda

    2013-01-01

    Background Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Methods Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facili...

  12. Integrating health care practices with the promotion of breastfeeding

    Riccardo Davanzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is the normative standards for infant nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge in the general population of newborns are still suboptimal. Besides many other psychological, social, economical, cultural factors, breastfeeding success is also significantly influenced by maternity practices that have the potential to foster or otherwise to hinder breastfeeding physiology during postpartum hospital stay. On their part, health professionals need to improve their knowledge on lactation, to acquire better skills to manage breastfeeding problems and to commit themselves to prepare evidence based clinical protocols that support breastfeeding and the use of human milk. At the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste (Italy, we have developed two surveillance protocols related to situations that commonly challenge health professionals to give their qualified advice to the breastfeeding dyad. Particularly, we have documented the feasibility of a protocol on the management of skin to skin contact between mother and his/her newborn infant. This protocol is applied in the delivery room in the context of the prevention of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse. The second protocol refers to the management of early neonatal weight loss. Finally, we believe that combining an effective promotion of breastfeeding with good clinical practice is appropriated and safe and we recognize that both the competence and the attitude of staff have an essential role in the success of the initiation of breastfeeding. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  13. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  14. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare; Aaby, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  15. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  16. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Things to ...

  17. Association between duration of breastfeeding and its influence upon the development of harmful oral habits

    Fabiana Vargas FERREIRA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to identify harmful oralhabits and relate them to the duration of breastfeeding. Material andmethods: This was a retrospective study, using data from 143 dentalcharts of 0-59 months-old children of a public pediatric dental clinic. The charts contained information about presence of harmful oral habits and its frequency, as well as the duration of breastfeeding. Data were analyzed through chi-square test with significance level of 5%. Results:It was observed that 94 children (76.4% used pacifiers, 28 (22.7%presented oral breathing, 18 (14.7% had bruxism and 15 (12.2% bit their nails. Data from 143 dental charts indicated that 94 children(65.7% were breastfed for less than 6 months. There was a statistical significant association between duration of breastfeeding and harmful oral habits. Conclusion: The insufficient duration of breastfeeding is associated with the presence of harmful oral habits.

  18. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  19. Situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in a medium-sized municipality in the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo

    Gislene dos Anjos Tamasia; Sonia Isoyama Venâncio; Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in the city of Registro, São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected sociodemographic and feeding information of infants aged less than one year who participated in the 2011 multiple vaccine campaign. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding were analyzed by indicators proposed by the World Health Organization. The association between outcomes (exclusive breastfeeding and introduction to complementary f...

  20. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Breastfeeding

    ... FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Breastfeeding The experience of breastfeeding is special for so many reasons: the joyful ... her child. Here, you’ll find facts about breastfeeding and get practical tips on how to make ...

  2. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding d...

  3. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants under 6 months with cystic fibrosis

    Heine, R.; Button, B.; Olinsky, A.; Phelan, P.; Catto-Smith, A

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To establish the incidence of pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in newly diagnosed infants with cystic fibrosis and to identify clinical predictors of increased reflux.
METHODS—26 infants with cystic fibrosis less than 6 months of age (14 male, 12 female; mean (SEM) age 2.1 (0.21) months, range 0.8to 5.6 months) underwent prolonged oesophageal pH monitoring (mean duration 27.1 (0.49) hours; range 21.3 to 30.2 hours). Reflux symptoms, anthropometric variables, pan...

  4. Comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: results of 6-month program

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova; D. E. Karateev; A V Kochetkov

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a comprehensive rehabilitation program (CRP) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 6 months. Subjects and methods. Sixty patients with early RA were examined. During medical therapy, 6-month CRP was implemented in 34 patients in the study group. The 2-week in-hospital stage involved ten sessions of 15-min local air cryotherapy (-60 °C) of the hands, knee or ankle joints; ten classes of 45-min therapeutic exercises (TE) under the supervis...

  5. Constraints, synergies and avenues for scaling up breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in the Cusco region, Peru [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/Vk0ueY

    Giselle Sarganas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the feasibility of scaling up exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, antibiotics for pneumonia and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI child interventions in three districts of the Cusco region, Peru. Methods: During field visits, constraints, synergies and solutions to the implementation of the selected interventions were collected through observational recording and interviews of mothers, health workers, and health managers/decision makers. Results are presented for each intervention according to the health system level where they occurred: mother/community, health worker, health centre, and political/managerial levels. Findings: This case study demonstrates that it is feasible to scale up exclusive breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in poverty-stricken rural areas of a low-income country. Factors that helped and hindered the implementation were identified for each intervention. Conclusions: The need for a coherent multi-sector approach that includes regulation, implementation and monitoring of health policies and education of all involved stakeholders was apparent. This study also demonstrates that global health interventions need to undergo local adaptation. Identifying local constraints and facilitating factors in a systematic way as proposed in this study is a useful step to increase their effectiveness and reach at the local level and to identify areas for improvement in the original intervention policies.

  6. Breastfeeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    In the past few years there has been a great interest in the growth and energy requirements of breast fed infants, because their growth is different from that of the artificially fed infants. In Chile during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breastfeed their infants has increased: the last figures obtained in a country sample of 10,000 mother-infant pairs, shows that 45% of the mothers attending the Public Health System are exclusively breastfeeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants, could be evaluated by the adequate charts. The anthropometrics study proposed by WHO was thought to benefit considerably from adding the determination of breast milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium to measure and compare intake of breast milk and water from non breast milk sources in exclusively breastfed infants. The method also provides the determination of body composition of the mother. We also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. The study was conducted in 328 mothers of a middle class community in Santiago de Chile selected at the prenatal clinic of 'Consultorio Recreo'. Mean maternal age was 26.5±3 years, and pregnancy weight gain was 14.7± 2 Kg. All of them completed the protocol and received the doss of 10gr of deuterium oxide (99%) Urine samples were collected on days 1,2,3,5,13,14,on the infant and 1,2,14 on the mother. An additional dose of 0.2 gr/kg body weight was given to the infant at the end of the dose to mother protocol for the determination to total body water (TBW) in the infant. We followed the infants for 24 months. The anthropometrics data showed excellent growth of the group. The composition of the milk was comparable to the published in the literature. The body composition data showed that there is a slight difference in body composition between mothers that are exclusively breastfeeding

  7. Increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration at a community level: an evaluation of Sagkeeng First Nation's community health nurse and peer counselor programs.

    Martens, Patricia J

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of two Sagkeeng First Nation breastfeeding initiatives--prenatal instruction by a community health nurse and a postpartum peer counselor (PC) program for breastfeeding women--was evaluated at a community level through chart audits (1992 to 1997, n = 283). Breastfeeding initiation rates increased from 38% in 1995 to 60% in 1997 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1, P = .01, adjusted for birth weight and parity). PC clients were half as likely to wean (RR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.25-0.98, P = .04, adjusted for birth weight and parity), with 61% still breastfeeding at 2 months (vs 48% nonclients) and 56% at 6 months (vs 19%). PC clients had fewer problems (median 1 vs 2, P = .044) and greater satisfaction with breastfeeding (median 5 vs 4, P = .07). Qualitative interviews (n = 22) confirmed PC clients as more satisfied and more confident about breastfeeding, with fewer problems and more information. PMID:12192958

  8. Research on breastfeeding and neurobehavioral development%母乳喂养与神经行为发育的相关研究

    刘燕; 林茜; 匡晓妮; 钱红艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objectives] To investigate the early feeding of some infants in Changsha Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital to study the correlation of breastfeeding and neurobehavioral development, which might provide a more rational guidance for infant feeding. [Methods] From July to December of 2010,274 infants aged 6~12 months old who involved in the physical examination in Changsha Maternal and Chil Health Hospital were selected. Questionnaire survey was used to collect the information of feeding,Gesell Development Scale was used to evaluate neurobehavioral development, Anova single factor analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used. [Results] Exclusive breastfeeding after born for 67. 9% .exclusive breastfeeding 6 months for 13. 1%. The Gesell Scales showed that the DQ of female was higher than that of male(Pexclusive breastfeeding were higher than formula feeding and mixed feeding group (P<0. 05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding of the main factor to promote the DQ. [Conclusion] Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding may promote the neurobehavioral development of infants.%[目的]通过调查儿保门诊婴儿喂养情况,探讨母乳喂养与婴儿神经行为发育相关性. [方法]对长沙市妇幼保健院2010年7-12月进行健康体检的274例6~12月龄婴儿进行现况调查,通过问卷调查收集婴儿喂养情况,采用Gesell发育量表对婴儿的神经行为发育进行评估.用ANOVA单因素方差分析及多元逐步回归分析等方法进行统计分析. [结果]出生后纯母乳喂养占67.9%,纯母乳喂养6个月以上占13.1%.婴儿发育商比较,女婴发育商高于男婴(P<0.05);纯母乳喂养组高于人工喂养组和部分母乳喂养组,在适应性、大运动能区,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多元逐步回归分析显示:纯母乳喂养时间为

  9. Adherence to WHO breastfeeding guidelines among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia: implication for intervention

    Haile D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural

  10. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  11. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  12. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  13. Clinical Trial to Comparison the Effect of Family- centered Educational-supportive Program on Mothers’ Empowerment in Breast-feeding

    Zeinab Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Results: Thirty-five mothers were in the intervention group and 35 were in the control group. The mean of the total score of breast-feeding empowerment and its seven areas in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, exclusive breast-feeding was also significantly higher in the intervention group (P

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top ... to-breastfeeding jitters. Content last updated: January 20, 2013. Print Return to top Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | ...

  15. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby ...

  16. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... have diabetes. Breastfeeding may help prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Mothers who breastfeed find it easier to lose weight ... Wage and Hour Division. Break Time for Nursing Mothers. www.dol.gov/whd/nursingmothers. Accessed April 28, ... MD, Pediatric ER, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  17. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  18. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    compared in Cox proportional-hazards models overall, and by gender and vaccine. RESULTS: Between August 2007 and November 2010, 7587 children were enrolled. Within 6 months of follow-up 80 nonaccident deaths occurred (VAS: 38; placebo: 42). The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing VAS versus placebo......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  19. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  20. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.; Danebod, K.; Nielsen, J.; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, C.L.; Bale, C.; Aaby, P.; Lisse, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated......OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in...... with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small...

  1. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 6-month follow-up

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Osterlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons diagnosed with cancer (65 years and above), in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, activities of daily living, hope, social network and support. The investigation points were at...... aged (age 65+) recently diagnosed with cancer (74 women, 27 men), but was reduced to 75 (57 women, 18 men) by the 6-month investigation point. EORTC QLQ C30, Katz ADL, Nowotny's Hope Scale and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction were used in structured personal interviews and questionnaires....... Emotional function improved significantly over time, and complaints of nausea and vomiting decreased. Contact with a district nurse at baseline predicted deteriorated QoL from baseline to 6 months later. Support from grandchildren increased significantly. About 30% of the total sample deteriorated in Qo...

  2. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers.

    Krol, Kathleen M; Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a dynamic biological and social process based on hormonal regulation involving oxytocin. While there is much work on the role of breastfeeding in infant development and on the role of oxytocin in socio-emotional functioning in adults, little is known about how breastfeeding impacts emotion perception during motherhood. We therefore examined whether breastfeeding influences emotion recognition in mothers. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task, we found that longer durations of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with faster recognition of happiness, providing evidence for a facilitation of processing positive facial expressions. In addition, we found that greater amounts of breastfed meals per day were associated with slower recognition of anger. Our findings are in line with current views of oxytocin function and support accounts that view maternal behaviour as tuned to prosocial responsiveness, by showing that vital elements of maternal care can facilitate the rapid responding to affiliative stimuli by reducing importance of threatening stimuli. PMID:25387686

  3. Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial

    de Haas M; Zajdel D; Kishiyama S; Flegal KE; BS, Oken

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine factors that predict adherence to a mind-body intervention in a randomized trial. Design We analyzed adherence data from a 3-arm trial involving 135 generally healthy seniors 65–85 years of age randomized to a 6-month intervention consisting of: an Iyengar yoga class with home practice, an exercise class with home practice, or a wait-list control group. Outcome measures included cognitive function, mood, fatigue, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and ph...

  4. Social perception: How do 6-month-old infants look at pointing gestures?

    Schmitow, Clara; Kochukhova, Olga; Nyström, Pär

    2016-02-01

    The study explored 6-month-old infants' ability to follow a pointing gesture in a dynamic social context. The infants were presented with a video of a model pointing to one of two toys. The pointing gesture was performed either normally (with arm and hand pointing at the same direction), with a stick, or the model's arm and hand pointing in different directions (at different toys). The results indicate that infants at this age reliably followed pointing performed normally. PMID:26859864

  5. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    Fei Yuan; Liyan Wang; Chien-Chen Lin; Cheng-Hung Chou; Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the ...

  6. Contrast Sensitivity after Zyoptix Tissue Saving LASIK and Standard LASIK for Myopia with 6-Month Followup

    Li-Quan Zhao; Huang Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This control-matched comparative study evaluated changes in contrast sensitivity after Zyoptix tissue-saving (TS) LASIK and Planoscan standard LASIK (Technolas 217z, Bausch & Lomb) for myopia 6 months postoperatively. 102 TS LASIK-treated eyes were matched with 102 standard LASIK-treated eyes (divided into low, moderate, and high groups). There were no significant differences in refraction outcomes between the groups postoperatively. In high group, a significant reduction in contrast sensitiv...

  7. Neuroplasticity-Based Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: An Interim Report on the Effects 6 Months Later

    Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Subramaniam, Karuna; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background: New cognitive treatments for schizophrenia are needed that drive persistent gains in cognition and functioning. Using an innovative neuroplasticity-based cognitive training approach, we report our interim findings on the effects on cognition and functional outcome at 6 months after treatment. Methods: Thirty-two clinically stable schizophrenia subjects were randomly assigned to either targeted cognitive training (TCT, N = 22) or a computer games (CGs) control condition (N = 10). T...

  8. Breastfeeding and its impact on daily life in women with type 1 diabetes during the first six months after childbirth: a prospective cohort study

    Berg Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For mothers with diabetes, breastfeeding is a great challenge due to their struggle with potentially unstable blood glucose levels. This paper explores breastfeeding attitudes and impact of breastfeeding on the daily life of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic mothers. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 108 mothers with type 1 diabetes and a reference group of 104 mothers in the west of Sweden. Data were collected through medical records and structured telephone interviews at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Results Women in both the diabetes group and the reference group had high levels of confidence (84% and 93% respectively in their breastfeeding capacity before childbirth, and 90% assessed breastfeeding as a positive and an important experience during the six months of follow-up. About 80% assessed breastfeeding as influencing daily life ‘very much’ or ‘quite a lot’ at 2 months as did 60% at 6 months, with no difference between the groups. In mothers with diabetes, the impact of breastfeeding on the priority of other duties decreased over time, as did feelings of time pressure and negative effects on patterns of sleep. Compared to the reference group, mothers with diabetes at 6 months remained more affected by disruptions in daily life and they felt more worried about their health both at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. For the reference group mothers’ sensitivity to unexpected disruptions in daily routines decreased between 2 and 6 months after childbirth, and they expressed a greater need to organize their time than mothers with diabetes. Conclusion Mothers with diabetes type 1 express more worry for own health and are more sensitive to distruptions. To balance their everyday life and to reduce the risk of stress and illhealth they are therefor, compared to other mothers, likely to need additional professional and peer support.

  9. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. PMID:27138814

  10. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  11. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wai P Wong; Shit F Chew

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During t...

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  13. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  14. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  15. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  16. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  17. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Aurélia Garry; Virginie Rigourd; Ammar Amirouche; Valérie Fauroux; Sylvie Aubry; Raphaël Serreau

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  18. People's initiative to counteract misinformation and marketing practices: the Pembo, Philippines, breastfeeding experience, 2006.

    Salud, M A Lourdes B; Gallardo, Josephine I; Dineros, Juliana A; Gammad, Alma F; Basilio, Juanita; Borja, Vicenta; Iellamo, Alessandro; Worobec, Lana; Sobel, Howard; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2009-08-01

    The Philippines is among 42 countries accounting for 90% of under 5-year-old deaths. Only 16% of 4 to 5 month old Filipinos exclusively breastfeed. In 2006, almost $100 million was spent advertising formula in the Philippines. To counter widespread misinformation and improve breastfeeding a peer counseling intervention was developed to target mothers with infants less than 2 months of age who were not exclusively breastfeeding or had difficulty breastfeeding. Participants received 3 peer counseling visits. At baseline and 3 weeks later, 24-hour food recalls for infants were collected. The number of exclusively formula-fed infants decreased seven-fold (P Mixed-fed infants decreased 37% (P methods after 3 home visits, 76% of whom to exclusive breastfeeding. Community-based peer counseling was associated with a drastic improvement of exclusive breastfeeding practices. This intervention evolved and became sustainable by engaging political figures, cities, and communities throughout the process. In 2 years, the Department of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) program has scaled up to improve health service delivery for 161,612 persons in depressed urban communities in the Philippines. PMID:19383634

  19. Breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among mothers in a rural area of Thailand

    Westmar, Hanna; Johansson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes and confidence among women can predict the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The longer duration of breastfeeding, the more advantages there are for both mother and child. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how the attitudes and the confidence were among Thai mothers and if there was a difference between nuclear families and extended families in these issues. Method: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study with a quantitative method was performed by using IIFAS (Io...

  20. Association of breastfeeding, pacifier use, breathing pattern and malocclusions in preschoolers

    Sebastião Batista Bueno; Telmo Oliveira Bittar; Fabiana Lima Vazquez; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration, pacifier use and nasal air flow with occlusal disorders among children. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 138 children aged 4 and 5 years selected in all the daycare centers of the city of Campo Limpo Paulista, Brazil. Questionnaires were applied to mothers to identify total duration of exclusive breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking. The independent variables were: Sucking (pacifier, bottle, finger),...

  1. Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study ☆

    Deoni, Sean C.L.; Dean, Douglas C.; Piryatinsky, Irene; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Han, Michelle; Dirks, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Does breastfeeding alter early brain development? The prevailing consensus from large epidemiological studies posits that early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with improved measures of IQ and cognitive functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Prior morphometric brain imaging studies support these findings, revealing increased white matter and sub-cortical gray matter volume, and parietal lobe cortical thickness, associated with IQ, in adolescents who were breastfed as infants co...

  2. Determinants of successful breastfeeding initiation in healthy term singletons: a Swiss university hospital observational study

    Gubler, Tabea; Krähenmann, Franziska; Roos, Malgorzata; Zimmermann, Roland; Ochsenbein-Kölble, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Breastfeeding significantly benefits mothers and infants. We aimed to identify the determinants of its successful initiation. Methods: A retrospective study of 1893 mothers delivering healthy term singletons at a Swiss university hospital from 1/2008 to 3/2009 determined the associations between multiple breastfeeding and early postpartum parameters by univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results: Multiparity was associated with nursing exclusively at the breast at disc...

  3. Breastfeeding and HIV-infected women in the United States: harm reduction counseling strategies.

    Levison, Judy; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2014-07-15

    Social and cultural forces have led some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women to question the recommendation in the United States not to breastfeed. Without an open dialogue, women may choose to breastfeed exclusively or intermittently and not disclose this to their provider. We review the evidence from global studies of the risks of breastfeeding among HIV-infected mothers and propose a harm reduction model for women considering breastfeeding. PMID:24771330

  4. Risk factors for cancer recurrence or death within 6 months after liver resection in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Dong-Sik; Yu, Young Dong; Han, Jae hyun; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to find risk factors for early recurrence (ER) and early death (ED) after liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). Methods Between May 1990 and December 2011, 279 patients underwent liver resection for CRCLM at Korea University Medical Center. They were assigned to group ER (recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) or group NER (non-ER; no recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) and group ED (death within 6 months aft...

  5. Breastfeeding throughout legal separation: women's experiences of the Australian Family Law system.

    Sweet, Linda

    2010-11-01

    In 2006, the Australian Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility) Act 2006 (Cth), which put in place a legal presumption of shared parental responsibility for children after separation and which emphasizes "equal-time" parenting arrangements regardless of the child's age. A qualitative approach was taken to investigate breastfeeding women's experiences of the implementation of the act and its impact on their ability to maintain breastfeeding. Fifteen women responded to questions related to their breastfeeding and their engagement with the family law system. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and data were then analyzed thematically. These women experienced inconsistent advice from all facets of legal services, including opinions about the inappropriateness of breastfeeding for infants over 6 months of age. Breastfeeding was considered only as nutrition, without recognition of its immunological and cognitive benefits and the security and comfort it provides. Many participant women felt that they had been persuaded against discussing breastfeeding in the legal system, resulting in a sense of disempowerment. PMID:20841494

  6. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  7. Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding, some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits. Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.

  8. Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review

    Prameela; Kannan; Kutty

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding,as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life,is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants.Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding,some of which still controversial,breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding.Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population.The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites,particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution.The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections,make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized.Breast milk,the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission,but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites.The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored.It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens,must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits.Within this context,and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties,researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.

  9. ROLE OF PLATELET TRANSFUSIONS IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER- 6 MONTHS REPORT

    Geeta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allogenic platelet transfusion plays a major role in the management of thrombocytopenia. The study includes details of pla telet transfusion over a period of 6 months from January-2011 to June-2011 at blood bank of Gan dhi Hospital. Total number of patients who received were 487 and proportionate use of total un its of RDP (Random Donor Platelets issued from blood bank were as follows; dengue hemorrhagic fever (38% and remaining for acute leukemia (12%, Aplastic anemia (10%, sepsis (10% , DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (10%, cardiac surgery (10%. In dengu e hemorrhagic fever, correlation of platelet count with platelet transfusion and platelet increm ent have been evaluated.

  10. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    Wu, Yi-Shan; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lee, Yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL) between those with and without depressive disorders (depression). Materials and methods Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements. Results A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%). A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001), loss of speech (P<0.001), low libido (P=0.001), dry mouth (P<0.001), and weight loss (P=0.001) were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001) and nutrition supplements (P<0.001). The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001) and trouble with social contact (P<0.001) at 3 months, and trouble with social eating (P<0.001) at 6 months. Conclusion Patients with HNC experienced different changes in anxiety and depression in the first 6 months of treatment. Dysfunction in salivation, problems with eating, and problems with social contacts were major risk factors for depression. PMID:27175080

  11. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    Wu YS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Shan Wu,1 Pao-Yen Lin,1,2 Chih-Yen Chien,3 Fu-Min Fang,4 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Chi-Fa Hung,1 Yu Lee,1 Mian-Yoon Chong11Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, 3Department of Otolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL between those with and without depressive disorders (depression.Materials and methods: Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements.Results: A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%. A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001, loss of speech (P<0.001, low libido (P=0.001, dry mouth (P<0.001, and weight loss (P=0.001 were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001 and nutrition supplements (P<0.001. The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001 and trouble with

  12. Control of ascariasis through age-targeted chemotherapy: impact of 6-monthly chemotherapeutic regimens.

    Thein-Hlaing; Than-Saw; Myat-Lay-Kyin

    1990-01-01

    A field trial of 6-monthly ascariasis chemotherapeutic regimens targeted at 1-19-, 1-14-, and 5-19-year-olds was carried out in three communities in rural Myanmar to observe the effects on the prevalence, intensity, and morbidity indicators over 2 years. After periodic chemotherapy, the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection in age-targeted and non-age-targeted groups fell in all the study areas, more markedly among the 1-19- and 1-14-year-olds. There was also a decrease in the frequen...

  13. Tamoxifen for one year versus two years versus 6 months of Tamoxifen and 6 months of megestrol acetate: A randomized comparison in postmenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer (DBCG 89C)

    Andersen, Jørn; Kamby, C.; Ejlertsen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    6 months followed by megestrol acetate for 6 months (TAM/MA). When the preplanned sample size of 1 500 patients was reached it was decided to continue randomisation to TAM1 or TAM2 and the study was finally closed December 31, 1996. With a median follow-up of more than 10 years, there was no...

  14. Comparison of vaccination-related pain in infants who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection

    Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Fatemeh KHODAEI; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Maroufi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. Despite the irreparable consequences and complications of acute pain in infants, and existence of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods for pain control, pain control in infants has received less attention. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants younger than 6 months who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection, in order to suggest a strateg...

  15. Benefits and risks of breastfeeding

    In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics extended their position concerning the superiority of human milk for feeding human infants and the reasons for encouraging breastfeeding. Yet questions have been raised whether the benefits of breastfeeding pertain to populations in the industrialized wor...

  16. Prognostic Utility of Routine Chimerism Testing at 2 – 6 Months after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Mossallam, Ghada I.; Kamel, Azza M.; Storer, Barry; Martin, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of routine chimerism analysis as a prognostic indicator of subsequent outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning regimens remains controversial. To address this controversy, routine chimerism test results at 2 – 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens were evaluated for association with subsequent risks of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse and overall mortality. Only 70 (5%) of 1304 patients had <95% donor-derived cells in the marrow. Low donor chimerism in the marrow occurred predominantly among patients with low risk disease as compared to higher risk diseases and was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD. Among 673 patients tested, 164 (24%) had <85% donor-derived T cells in the blood. Low donor T cell chimerism occurred predominantly among patients with low risk disease as compared to higher risk diseases, among those who had conditioning with busulfan as compared to TBI, and among those with lower grades of acute GVHD. Low donor T cell chimerism in the blood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD, but not with the risks of relapse, NRM or overall mortality. Routine testing of chimerism in the marrow and blood at 2 – 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens may be helpful in documenting engraftment in clinical trials but provides only limited prognostic information in clinical practice. PMID:19203726

  17. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  18. A cornea substitute derived from fish scale: 6-month followup on rabbit model.

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  19. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    Fei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement.

  20. Is low back pain associated with worse health-related quality of life 6 months later?

    Nolet, P. S.; Kristman, V. L.; Cote, P.; Carroll, L. J.; Cassidy, J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of low back pain (LBP) on future health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Current evidence suggests that individuals with LBP have poorer HRQoL than those without LBP. However, most of the evidence comes from cross-sectional studies where LBP......, income, arthritis, neck pain, and kidney disorders: grade III-IV LBP (beta = -10.23; 95 % CI -12.46, -7.99), grade II LBP (beta = -6.72, 95 % CI -8.79, -4.65), and grade I LBP (beta = -1.77; 95 % CI -3.18, -0.36). There was no dose-response relationship between LBP and mental HRQoL at 6 months. Low back...... control of known confounders. We formed a cohort of 1,110 randomly sampled Saskatchewan adults in September 1995. LBP at baseline was measured with the chronic pain questionnaire. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to measure physical and mental HRQoL at 6 months follow-up. Multivariable linear regression...

  1. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6 month followup results

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels.

  2. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6 month followup results

    Choo, Hye Jung; Jeong, Hae Woong; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Young Mi [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Chul [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels.

  3. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  4. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  5. Prevalence of breastfeeding in premature infants with very low birth weight in the first six months of life - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11805

    Anelize Helena Sassá

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the duration of breastfeeding among premature infants born with very low birth weight. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among very low birth weight premature infants at a university hospital in Londrina Paraná State, Brazil and the identification of factors related to breastfeeding practice were determined. Current quantitative and analytic retrospective study analyzed the medical records, attendance reports and interviews of 54 mother-infant binomials. Breastfeeding was prevalent in 90% of infants, of which 50% were exclusively breastfed, at hospital discharge. However, 51% were weaned before their sixth month. The statistical analysis showed a positive association between breastfeeding and do not working mothers outside the home, cesarean delivery, positive previous experience in breastfeeding and gestational age at birth over 33 weeks. MF prevalence in the specific population NBVLW infants reinforce the notion that breastfeeding preterm infants, albeit challenging, may be carried out with the appropriate support of the mother-child binomial.

  6. Contribution of Knowledge on Breastfeeding among Mothers who Joined Mother Support Group Program

    Lina Handayani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The infant feeding decision is complex and involves the influence of psychological, social, and economic factors, and health care system. This study aimed to determine the contribution of knowledge on breastfeeding among nonworking mothers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 173 nonworking mothers with babies between 0-6 months who joined the mother support group (MSG program participated in this study. The results showed that knowledge has significant influence on breastfeeding practice among the non working mothers (beta= .21, p= .01. MSG may be a suitable method to promote breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers.

  7. Comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: results of 6-month program

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a comprehensive rehabilitation program (CRP in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA for 6 months. Subjects and methods. Sixty patients with early RA were examined. During medical therapy, 6-month CRP was implemented in 34 patients in the study group. The 2-week in-hospital stage involved ten sessions of 15-min local air cryotherapy (-60 °C of the hands, knee or ankle joints; ten classes of 45-min therapeutic exercises (TE under the supervision of a trainer; ten sessions of 45-min ergotherapy (training people how to therapeutically position their joints, to apply their protective methods, to lift and move things, to use assistive devices, and to do hand exercises; orthotics (working wrist orthoses, knee ones, or individual orthopedic insoles; and four 90-min educational program classes. The outpatient and domiciliary stages included 45-min TE thrice weekly; creation of a correct functional stereotype; and orthotics. Twenty-six patients received medical therapy only (a control group. The authors estimated tender joint count (TJC, swollen joint count (SJC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, joint pain on 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS, DAS28, HAQ, RAPID3, hand grip strength, average maximum knee extension and ankle flexion by the EN-TreeM movement analysis, and compliance with drug and non-drug treatments. Results. The study group showed a stably high compliance with therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, less need for symptomatic agents, higher adherence to the methods of creating a correct functional stereotype, orthotics, and regular TE. Twenty-two patients completed 6-month CRP; 12 patents did not complete the treatment because of non-compliance with nondrug methods, primarily TE. Upon completion of the in-hospital stage of CRP, the study group exhibited significant positive changes in pain and functional status and no significant impact on global

  8. Mother’s knowledge about breastfeeding at the São Lucas’ Hospital in Juazeiro do Norte (CE - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p170

    Erlane Marques Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During human history the maternal process of breastfeeding has become less frequent. Numerous policies have been introduced worldwide to stop this unfavourable trend. The benefits of breastfeeding are well established. However, despite this fact, the rates of breastfeeding continue to be low. Maternal knowledge about breastfeeding influences on the initiation and duration of lactation. This study had the objective of investigating the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was designed involving 206 mothers of newborns on their first day of life while they were at the maternity hospital São Lucas (Juazeiro do Norte - Ceará. The mothers answered a standardized questionnaire to test their knowledge on breastfeeding. 32% were adolescent mothers and 60% had not completed elementary school. 61% received prenatal orientation about breastfeeding. 76% of the mothers knew that the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding is six months. 91% knew about the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections. 32% of the mothers believed that their milk was watery. 62% did not know how to solve mammary engorgement. It is concluded that the majority (87% of the mothers answered correctly the questions about breastfeeding, but continuous education over this theme for future mothers is still needed.

  9. Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007

    Hanif Hafsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have profound implications for the maternal and child health status of a society. Feeding practices in Pakistan are suboptimal, leading to adverse outcomes on child health. In Pakistan, the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH Program, in collaboration with several international organizations, including WHO and UNICEF, is working to improve these feeding practices in the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods Estimates on the various indicators for infant and young child feeding proposed by WHO were analyzed in light of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (1990-91 and 2006-07 and several other national studies conducted since 1995. Results Nearly half the core and optional indicators have improved over the years, though modestly; the others have demonstrated no statistically significant improvement over the years. Of the five indicators required in the WHO tool for the assessment of infant and young child feeding, introduction of complementary foods, bottle-feeding, and early initiation of breastfeeding, stand in the poor category, while exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding fall in the fair category, suggesting an overall poor status. Conclusions There is considerable scope to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Pakistan. Further programs should focus on improving the following indicators that have shown no significant development: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at two years, age appropriate feeding, and bottle feeding. Effective implementation of interventions that are known to improve breastfeeding practices is imperative, as is further research to yield data that can lead future endeavors.

  10. Intention or Experience? Predictors of Continued Breastfeeding

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Thompson, Nancy; Martorell, Reynaldo; Fein, Sara; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, many women do not breastfeed their infants or stop breastfeeding early. This study examines the effects of prenatal intention and initial breastfeeding experiences on breast-feeding initiation and duration among 1,665 U.S. women completing questionnaires on infant feeding practices. Outcomes included no…

  11. Addressing Breastfeeding Disparities in Social Work

    Hurst, Carol Grace

    2007-01-01

    This article examines social justice issues affecting breastfeeding in the United States. Public health goals for breastfeeding initiation and duration and barriers to breastfeeding among low-income groups are discussed. Suggestions are made about ways social workers may more assertively support breastfeeding in the context of social work practice.

  12. The influence of grandmothers on breastfeeding rates: a systematic review

    Negin, Joel; Coffman, Jenna; Vizintin, Pavle; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life has enormous potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. The older generation, particularly the infant’s grandmothers, play a central role in various aspects of pregnancy and child rearing decision-making within the family unit. This is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where older women are seen as owners of traditional knowledge. Despite this, most health programs target the individual perso...

  13. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Elizabeth Ashton; Hardwick, Catherine M.; Marnie K. Rowan; Chia, Elisa S.; Fairclough, Kyle A.; Lalitha L. Menon; Courtney Scott; Georgia Mather-McCaw; Katherine Navarro; Donna T. Geddes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, ...

  14. [Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding].

    Bellantuono, Cesario; Migliarese, Giovanni; Maggioni, Francesca; Imperadore, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The post-partum period, as well as pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and/or affective disorders. Postnatal depression, frequently in co-morbidity with anxiety symptoms, is recognised as the most frequent form of maternal morbidity after delivery, with a prevalence rate estimated between 5% to 15%. Among antidepressant drugs, the SSRIs are considered the drugs of choice in the treatment of post-partum affective disorders, particularly in the major depression. It is, thus, crucial from a clinical standpoint to establish, in the newborn whose mother needs to be treated with an SSRI, the safety profile of these drugs during breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding, on the other hand, both for the nursing mother and the infant, are in fact very well documented. Unfortunately, all antidepressant drugs, including SSRIs, cross into breast milk and the milk-to-plasma ratio, a measure proposed to establish the amount of drug transferred to maternal milk, does not seem to be a reliable parameter to predict the safety of these drugs. From the available literature, however, it seems that among SSRIs, paroxetina and sertralina offer the best safety profile, as these drugs has never been associated with unsafe reports in suckling infants. Despite these reassuring but preliminary data, more studies are needed to better assess the safety of the antidepressant drugs in the infants exposed during breastfeeding. As general rule, it is important to recommend if the mother wishes to breastfeed her infant while taking an antidepressant, that the baby should be closely monitored in order to detect, as soon as possible, any unwanted drug-related side effect. PMID:17345878

  15. Suspended liminality: breastfeeding and becoming a mother in two NICUs

    Khulood Kayed Shattnawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents the results of an ethnographic study of breastfeeding and mothers’ experiences within two neonatal intensive care units (NICU. Methods: The data collection involved 135 hours of participant observation over a 6-month period and semi-structured interviews of 17 mothers. Results: Data analysis showed that the mothers faced many obstacles that prohibited them from practicing breastfeeding within the NICUs, which impacted on their experiences as mothers. Their experiences were revealed as a developing process as their feeling changed from fearful and terrifying toward becoming and feeling like a ‘real’ mother. Four distinct themes emerged; the first highlighted the crisis, which involved the mother's feelings of emotional instability, their strategies for coping such as not visiting the baby, and recognition of the NICU as a stressful environment. The second theme described issues relating to control and power. This involved the perception of having a lack of control and needing to seek permission, the use of language as a mechanism for control, and mothers being placed in a subordinate role. The third theme related to the separation, which included difficulties of acceptance, feeling like stranger and not being important, and the need for physical closeness. The final theme, becoming a mother, included issues such as the special moments, breastfeeding as a turning point, and practical and informational needs. Conclusions: A finding suggests that mothers, who deliver prematurely, may have their rite of passage into motherhood interrupted, resulting in them being placed in a position of suspended liminality.

  16. Amamentação exclusiva de recém-nascidos prematuros: percepções e experiências de lactantes usuárias de um serviço público especializado Achieving exclusive breastfeeding of premature babies: the perceptions and experience of women from public health services

    Danielle Freitas Braga

    2008-06-01

    . This study is based on the theoretical premises of phenomenology. After transcription, the material was analyzed and classified into four axis of meaning: the mother's experiences at the initial contact with the premature baby; the support given to the mothers of premature babies by the hospital professionals; the mother's decision to breastfeed exclusively and the kangaroo care experience. RESULTS: The results revealed that each mother had a unique experience of breastfeeding. For these women, the decision to breastfeed the premature baby was strongly related to their acknowledging the importance of this practice for the child's health. However, the support given by the institution and the professionals to the mothers of premature babies, as observed in the analyzed service, is a decisive element for exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breastfeeding of premature babies is still a challenge for some mothers; however, it is possible as long as there is motivation and support from the family, from the social network, and especially from health professionals.

  17. Role of spinal ultrasound in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months

    Highlights: •This was a prospective study to evaluate role of spinal ultrasound (US) in 60 infants (<6 months of age) with clinically suspected meningitis. •On ultrasound examination, we evaluated echogenicity and /or trabeculations in the posterior subarachnoid space and spinal cord pulsations. •Results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. •Results of our study show presence of echogenicity/trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space or abnormal pulsations of spinal cord and nerve roots are significantly associated with meningitis with a high specificity and positive predictive value in its diagnosis. •Spinal ultrasound can be used as a radiation free imaging modality to detect meningitis. -- Abstract: Background: Spinal ultrasound (US) can detect changes in CSF echogenicity and decreased cord pulsations which reflect the inflammatory changes in meningitis. Till date, there is no published data about the prospective accuracy of spinal US in meningitis. Objective: To assess accuracy of spinal US in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months. Methods: This was an institute ethics committee approved prospective study carried out in infants less than 6 months of age with clinical suspicion of meningitis who presented to pediatric emergency unit. 60 infants each in study and control group were enrolled. US of thoraco-lumbar spine were performed prior to lumbar puncture in all cases. We looked for the presence of echogenicity or trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space and for presence or absence of spinal cord and nerve root pulsations on real time ultrasound. The results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Follow up ultrasounds were done in infants who showed abnormal findings after the initiation of treatment and findings compared with initial results. Results: The study group comprised of 40 boys and 20 girls with mean age of 47.85 days. The control

  18. Role of spinal ultrasound in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months

    Nepal, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj-123@live.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh, E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay Kumar, E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Singhi, Sunit, E-mail: sunit.singhi@gmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •This was a prospective study to evaluate role of spinal ultrasound (US) in 60 infants (<6 months of age) with clinically suspected meningitis. •On ultrasound examination, we evaluated echogenicity and /or trabeculations in the posterior subarachnoid space and spinal cord pulsations. •Results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. •Results of our study show presence of echogenicity/trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space or abnormal pulsations of spinal cord and nerve roots are significantly associated with meningitis with a high specificity and positive predictive value in its diagnosis. •Spinal ultrasound can be used as a radiation free imaging modality to detect meningitis. -- Abstract: Background: Spinal ultrasound (US) can detect changes in CSF echogenicity and decreased cord pulsations which reflect the inflammatory changes in meningitis. Till date, there is no published data about the prospective accuracy of spinal US in meningitis. Objective: To assess accuracy of spinal US in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months. Methods: This was an institute ethics committee approved prospective study carried out in infants less than 6 months of age with clinical suspicion of meningitis who presented to pediatric emergency unit. 60 infants each in study and control group were enrolled. US of thoraco-lumbar spine were performed prior to lumbar puncture in all cases. We looked for the presence of echogenicity or trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space and for presence or absence of spinal cord and nerve root pulsations on real time ultrasound. The results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Follow up ultrasounds were done in infants who showed abnormal findings after the initiation of treatment and findings compared with initial results. Results: The study group comprised of 40 boys and 20 girls with mean age of 47.85 days. The control

  19. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Hamadani, J; Amin, N J; Kabir, I; Malek, M A; Mahalanabis, D; Habte, D

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  20. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training and 6-Month Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Seeking Employment

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Roberts, Andrea G.; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). METHODS Trainees completed up to 10 hours of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded human resource experts and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. RESULTS Trainees reported the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6 month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=−0.63, pimproving job interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. PMID:26032567

  1. Femtosecond lenticule extraction for correction of myopia: a 6 month follow-up study

    Demirok A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Demirok,1 Alper Agca,2 Engin Bilge Ozgurhan,2 Ercument Bozkurt,2 Ugur Celik,2 Ali Demircan,2 Nimet Burcu Guleryuz,2 Kadir Ilker Cankaya,2 Omer Faruk Yilmaz3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, 3Private Practice, Istanbul, Turkey Aims: To report our initial experience with femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEX compared with femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Settings and design: This was a prospective pilot study carried out at the Refractive Surgery Department of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Materials and methods: Surgery was performed on both eyes of 14 consecutive patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism. Patients underwent FLEX in one eye and femtosecond LASIK (FemtoLASIK in the other eye. The primary outcome was based on uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and spherical equivalent of the subjective manifest refraction, at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postsurgery. Statistical analyses were performed using PAWS Statistics 18. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used to compare the groups. Results: During the last follow-up visit (6 months postsurgery, the mean spherical was −0.37 ± 0.60 diopters (D (range −1.00 to 0.50 (P 0.05. No complications occurred during surgery or the postoperative period. Conclusion: FLEX is a safe, effective, and predictable procedure for surgical correction of myopia. Refractive results were stabilized within the first postoperative week, and visual acuities were stabilized within the first month, comparable to FemtoLASIK. Keywords: FLEX, femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

  2. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  3. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm. PMID:26792771

  4. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  5. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    Victora, Cesar G.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families. PMID:18797716

  6. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  7. The effect of a culture-specific education program to promote breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Sydney.

    Rossiter, J C

    1994-08-01

    The rate of breastfeeding among immigrant Vietnamese women in Western countries is low compared to those in Vietnam. To counteract this trend, a language and culture specific education program was developed. An experimental design was used to test the effectiveness of this program. The sample consisted of 182 prenatal Vietnamese women. Data collection included questionnaires and interviews. Results suggested that the education program had significant effects on knowledge, attitudes, planned and actual behaviour towards breastfeeding. However, the effect did not sustain until 6 months postpartum. Implications for nursing practice and further research are discussed. PMID:7928125

  8. International Breastfeeding Journal: Introducing a new journal

    Amir Lisa H

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International Breastfeeding Journal is a new open access peer-reviewed journal with a multidisciplinary focus. The aim of International Breastfeeding Journal is to contribute to understanding all aspects of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with enormous social and economic implications. In order to help women breastfeed successfully there is a need to understand both the physiology of lactation and the social and cultural context within which breastfeeding occurs. International Breastfeeding Journal invites manuscripts from around the world, which address all of these aspects, including the impediments to breastfeeding, the health effects of not breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and the management of breastfeeding problems.

  9. Early termination of breastfeeding among Philippine urban poor.

    Guthrie, G M; Guthrie, H A; Fernandez, T L; Estrera, N

    1983-01-01

    The research objective was to identify factors that caused mothers to terminate breastfeeding prematurely, i.e., before the infant reached his or her 1st birthday. Nursing for at least 1 year was a minimum goal of health authorities in the area of this research. The study was conducted in 2 urban poor areas and in 2 fringe squatter settlements of Cebu City, a metropolitan area of 500,000 people in the central Philippines. The data were collected by 2 women field workers. The 130 participants, who were within 3 months of delivery, pre- or postpartum were recruited in 1979. They were visited in their homes once a month by the worker who weighed the mother and the baby, inquired about their diets, and recorded breastfeeding experiences and plans. Special attention was given to any problems the mothers were having that might interfere with continued nursing. Other than encouraging mothers to use the local health center, workers did not intervene to support breastfeeding. The mothers were followed for at least the crucial 1st 6 months. Many were followed for a year or more. Of those who agreed to participate prior to delivery, and who composed 1/3 of the total group, some 95% initiated breastfeeding. Of the 3 who did not, 2 tried to nurse but gave up when the newborn showed persistent diarrhea. Between 10-20% of babies were on a mixed diet of breast and bottle feeding, some beginning as early as the 1st month when mothers returned to part-time work. Other mothers, feeling that the babies were not getting enough to eat, added bottles regularly. This pattern did not necessarily lead to the early termination of breastfeeding. With the exception of 2 instances when mothers decided that their babies were big enough to get along without breast milk, the mothers were forced by circumstances as they perceived them to wean the child. Almost all the terminations were abrupt, with the mother continuing to have an adequate supply of milk. The insufficient milk situation reported by

  10. Efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina nos primeiros seis meses de vida: um estudo de seguimento Effect of length of exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in the first six months of life: a follow-up study

    Andréa Silva de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina de lactentes. Trata-se de um estudo de seguimento com seis meses de duração, envolvendo 150 crianças nascidas na maternidade de Mutuípe, Bahia, Brasil. Mensalmente, as crianças eram submetidas ao exame de sangue para avaliação dos níveis de hemoglobina e realizava-se coleta de dados de consumo alimentar. Foram obtidos, ainda, dados obstétricos e sócio-econômicos. Utilizou-se o modelo linear de efeitos mistos para investigar as associações de interesse. Ao final do seguimento, a perda amostral foi de 15,3%, e detectou-se uma prevalência de 71,7% de anemia. Constatou-se um incremento de 0,091g/dL nos níveis de hemoglobina a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno exclusivo (p = 0,031, enquanto, a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno misto, os níveis de hemoglobina declinaram em 0,097g/dL (p = 0,017. Concluiu-se que as práticas alimentares inadequadas parecem estar diretamente envolvidas na etiologia da deficiência nutricional de ferro nesse período da vida.This six-month follow-up study aimed to assessing the effect of length of both exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in 150 infants born at the Mutuípe maternity facility in Bahia State, Brazil. Blood tests were performed monthly to assess the hemoglobin levels, at which time data were gathered on food intake. Obstetric and socioeconomic data were also collected. The linear mixed effects model was used to investigate the target associations. Loss to follow-up was 15.3%, and anemia prevalence was 71.7%. An increase of 0.091g/dL (p = 0.031 in hemoglobin levels was found for each month of exclusive breastfeeding, while a decrease of 0.097g/dL (p = 0.017 was shown for each month of mixed feeding. In conclusion, inadequate food practices appear to be directly involved in the etiology of iron deficiency anemia during

  11. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    ... you're a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share ... When the time is right, start with a single-grain, iron-fortified cereal for babies (rice cereal ...

  12. Factors affecting mothers’ choice of breastfeeding vs. formula feeding in the lower Umfolozi district war memorial hospital, KwaZulu-Natal

    Robin C. Dolman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which factors influence choice of breast- versus the formulafeeding of infants. This may help to understand where the focus should lie in the promotion of breastfeeding. A structured questionnaire was completed by a 100 women and focus-group discussions were held with 22 women who delivered babies at the Lower Umfolozi District War Memorial Hospital (LUDWM in Kwazulu-Natal. Most of the mothers (72% chose breastfeeding and 58% intended to breastfeed for only 6 months. One-third (33% were influenced by health care professionals and 44% of the mothers made their own decisions in their feeding method. Only one participant stated that she chose formula-feeding due to her HIV-positive status, but in the focusgroup discussions, the fear of transmission of HIV through breast-milk was stated as an important reason why mothers chose replacement-feeding. Significantly more HIV-infected than uninfected mothers chose replacement-feeding as the feeding method and mothers who chose breastfeeding were significantly older than mothers who selected replacement-feeding. They made their infantfeeding decision earlier than those who chose replacement-feeding. Findings showed that the majority of women in this study did not have access to running water and flush toilets in their houses.In these areas where replacement-feeding will not be acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, due to lack of sanitation and poor socio-economic status, health professionals should promote exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, even though there is a high prevalence of HIV infection.

    Opsomming

    Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal watter faktore vroue in hulle keuse van bors- of bottelvoeding beïnvloed. Dit sal help om te verstaan op watter faktore gesondheidswerkers moet fokus wanneer borsvoeding bevorder word. ’n Gestruktureerde vraelys is voltooi deur 100 vroue en fokusgroepbesprekings is met 22 vroue

  13. Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Jianghong Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.

  14. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Glenn Wendy K; Heads Joy; Lawson James S; Whitaker Noel J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the propo...

  15. Breastfeeding in China.

    Liu, D S; Wang, X

    1995-01-01

    In China, where breast feeding was almost universal 30-40 years ago, the prevalence of breast feeding has declined rapidly in urban and periurban areas because of 1) separation of the newborn and mother in the hospital, 2) mothers returning to work early and working far from home, 3) perceptions of too little milk, and 4) easy access to substitutes. Studies have revealed that breast-fed babies over 6 months old grow at a slightly lower rate than bottle-fed babies, suggesting that proper weaning foods should be provided after 6 months of age. Breast feeding is associated with lower infant morbidity (lower respiratory infection, gastrointestinal tract infection, eczema, and rickets). Despite their fears to the contrary, Chinese mothers produce an amount of breast milk in the range of that produced by women in Western countries and greater than that produced by women in other developing countries. Studies of the nutritional composition of the milk of Chinese mothers also found that it is adequate for the baby's needs. Research has indicated, however, that the foods offered to the baby during weaning satisfy only about 18% of their caloric needs. Thus, not only does breast feeding need promotion in China, weaning practices also require modification. PMID:7495141

  16. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; CHO, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the ...

  17. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  18. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    Arndt Büssing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9±8.3 years; 57% Christians starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP, mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief. At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen’s =.33, Religious orientation (=.21, Lightheartedness/Relief (=.75 and mindfulness (=.53 increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1 may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners’ spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2 that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3 that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness.

  19. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation in Crohn's disease: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Hoffmann, D; Clarençon, D; Mathieu, N; Dantzer, C; Vercueil, L; Picq, C; Trocmé, C; Faure, P; Cracowski, J-L; Pellissier, S

    2016-06-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability). Vagus nerve stimulation was feasible and well-tolerated in all patients. Among the seven patients, two were removed from the study at 3 months for clinical worsening and five evolved toward clinical, biological, and endoscopic remission with a restored vagal tone. These results provide the first evidence that VNS is feasible and appears as an effective tool in the treatment of active CD. PMID:26920654

  20. The dynamics of self-esteem in adults over a 6-month period: an exploratory study.

    Ninot, Grégory; Fortes, Marina; Delignières, Didier

    2005-07-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examined the dynamics of self-esteem in 8 adults over a 6-month period. Each participant (M age = 29.4 years, SD = 7.9, SEM = 2.8) completed a single item from the Physical Self Inventory (G. Ninot, M. Fortes, & D. Delignières, 2001) using a 10-cm visual analog scale (horizontal line), twice a day between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m. and between 7:00 and 9:00 p.m. Time series analyses, including autocorrelation and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) procedures, showed that global self-esteem dynamics were neither stable, stationary, nor random. The ARIMA procedures indicated that this perceived dimension functioned as a moving average (0, 1, 1) without a significant constant, thus suggesting a short-term dynamic adjustment. This pattern is a typical signature of a complex system submitted to several constraints and not an indication of personality trait or state. PMID:16097272

  1. Níveis de hemoglobina, aleitamento materno e regime alimentar no primeiro ano de vida Hemoglobin concentration, breastfeeding and complementary feeding in the first year of life

    Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis

    2004-08-01

    /or water consumption was associated with a reduction in hemoglobin concentration of 0.76 g/dl (p<0,001 among children under age 6 months. For children aged 6-12 months, hemoglobin concentrations increased significantly with the consumption of sugar (p=0.017 and beans (p=0.018, and decreased significantly with the consumption of fruit (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding until age 6 months and continuation of breastfeeding after this age, combined with qualitatively and quantitatively appropriate feeding may contribute towards an increase in hemoglobin concentration in the first year of life.

  2. Aleitamento materno e níveis de hemoglobina em crianças menores de 2 anos em município do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Breastfeeding and hemoglobin concentration in children under 2 years of age in a municipality of São Paulo, Brazil

    Luciane Simões Duarte

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre aleitamento materno e níveis de hemoglobina em crianças menores de 2 anos residentes na cidade de Itupeva, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em amostra representativa de 254 crianças menores de 2 anos, selecionadas aleatoriamente na área urbana de Itupeva, SP, por procedimento de amostragem por conglomerados em 3 etapas. O aleitamento materno foi classificado utilizando-se as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde e a hemoglobina foi determinada em hemoglobinômetro portátil (HemoCue. Para o diagnóstico, utilizou-se o ponto de corte de 11,0g/dL. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 41,7%. Anemia foi mais freqüente entre os menores de 6 meses que não se encontravam em aleitamento materno (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and hemoglobin concentration in children under 2 years of age in Itupeva City, SP, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a representative sample of 254 children under 2 years of age randomly selected in the urban area of Itupeva, SP. The sampling process was done in three stages. The recommendations made by the World Health Organization were used to classify breastfeeding. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by the cyanmethemoglobin method, using the HemoCue system and anemia was defined when hemoglobin concentration was below 11.0g/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 41.7%. Anemia was more frequent among children who were weaned before 6 months (p<0.05. The mean hemoglobin levels of breastfed children were significantly higher among children under 6 months (p<0.05. Children who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed in the first six months of life had higher mean hemoglobin levels than the remaining children (12.3g/dL versus 10.99g/dL; p=0.022. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that partial or total substitution of

  3. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  4. Initiation of breastfeeding within 120 minutes after birth is associated with breastfeeding at four months among Japanese women: A self-administered questionnaire survey

    Moji Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of mothers in Japan who breastfeed exclusively has been low since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the time of first breastfeed after birth and the proportion of mothers fully breastfeeding up to four months postpartum. Methods A survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were 318 mothers who participated in a physical examination of their four month old infants in Nagasaki City, Japan in 2003. Results The time of first breastfeeding up to 120 minutes was significantly associated with the proportion of mothers fully breastfeeding during their stay in the clinic/hospital (p = 0.006, at one month (p = 0.004 and at four months after birth (p = 0.003. There was no significant difference in the proportion of full breastfeeding in mothers who first breastfed between the period of less 30 minutes after birth and that of between 31 and 120 minutes after birth. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the proportion of mothers who continued full breastfeeding at four months was significantly higher in those who breastfed their baby within 120 minutes compared with more than 120 minutes (OR 2.5, p = 0.01, but was not significantly different in those who breastfed within 30 minutes compared with more than 30 minutes (OR 1.8, p = 0.06. Early breastfeeding was affected by caesarean section, premature delivery and severe bleeding during delivery. Conclusion Commencement of early breastfeeding was associated with the proportion of mothers who fully breastfed their infants up to four months. Early breastfeeding, especially within two hours, is recommended for child and maternal health.

  5. Effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus%母乳喂养对妊娠期糖尿病母亲子代儿童期超重的影响

    赵亚玲; 马润玫; 黄永坤; 梁琨; 丁臻博

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether breastfeeding can reduce the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Follow-up was performed on 1189 offspring of mothers with GDM between January 2003 and December 2009. The influence of the manner and duration of breastfeeding between 0 to 3 months after birth on the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with GDM was analyzed by logistic regression. Results After correcting confounding factors such as pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational blood sugar, sex, birth weight, age and farther's body weight, it was found that the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring who received exclusive breastfeeding during the first 3 months after birth was lower than in the artificial feeding group (OR: 0.479, 95%CI:0.256-0. 897). Offspring who were breastfed for 0 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months and over 6 months had a lower risk of childhood overweight than the artificial feeding group (OR: 0. 456, 95% CI:0. 233-0. 827; OR: 0. 29, 95% CI: 0. 103-0.817; OR: 0.534, 95% CI: 0.280-0.970), offspring who were breastfed for 4 to 6 months had a lower risk of childhood overweight than those who were breastfed forO to 3 months (OR: 0. 372, 95% CI: 0. 129-0.874) , and offspring who were breastfed for more than 6 months did not show significantly lower risk of overweight than those who were breastfed for less than 6 months ( OR: 0. 769, 95% CI: 0. 470-1. 258). Conclusions Within 3 months of birth, breastfeeding, especially exclusively, may reduce the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with GDM. Within 6 months of birth, the risk of childhood overweight decreases as the duration of breastfeeding increases, but prolonging the duration of breastfeeding cannot necessarily reduce the risk of childhood overweight after postnatal six months.%目的 通过对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)母亲子代的随访,探讨母乳喂养是否可以降

  6. Factors affecting breastfeeding cessation after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV

    Morgan, Melissa C; Masaba, Rose O; Nyikuri, Mary; Thomas, Timothy K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission study, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is provided from 34 weeks gestation, through delivery to six months postpartum. The study recommends that women practice exclusive breastfeeding for six months, then wean abruptly. We sought to explore factors such as, education, family support, cultural norms, and sources of information about perinatal HIV transmission, which may influe...

  7. Breastfeeding practices on postnatal wards in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region, Sichuan province of China

    Gao, Haoyue; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Stiller, Caroline; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the efforts that have been made to promote breastfeeding in China since the 1990s, there is still a very low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to assess the current situation of infant feeding practices during the postpartum hospital stay in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region. Methods Cross-sectional sampling was used in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics in the Deyang region of southwestern China. Interviews with mothers...

  8. Does breastfeeding offer protection against maternal depressive symptomatology?: A prospective study from pregnancy to 2 years after birth

    Hahn-Holbrook, J; Haselton, MG; Dunkel Schetter, C; Glynn, LM

    2013-01-01

    Mothers who breastfeed typically exhibit lower levels of depressive symptomatology than mothers who do not. However, very few studies have investigated the directionality of this relationship. Of the prospective studies published, all but one focus exclusively on whether maternal depression reduces rates of subsequent breastfeeding. This study again examines this relationship, but also the reverse - that breastfeeding might predict lower levels of later depression. Using multilevel modeling, ...

  9. Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial

    Haas M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine factors that predict adherence to a mind-body intervention in a randomized trial. Design We analyzed adherence data from a 3-arm trial involving 135 generally healthy seniors 65–85 years of age randomized to a 6-month intervention consisting of: an Iyengar yoga class with home practice, an exercise class with home practice, or a wait-list control group. Outcome measures included cognitive function, mood, fatigue, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and physical measures. Adherence to the intervention was obtained by class attendance and biweekly home practice logs. Results The drop-out rate was 13%. Among the completers of the two active interventions, average yoga class attendance was 77% and home practice occurred 64% of all days. Average exercise class attendance was 69% and home exercise occurred 54% of all days. There were no clear effects of adherence on the significant study outcomes (quality of life and physical measures. Class attendance was significantly correlated with baseline measures of depression, fatigue, and physical components of health-related quality of life. Significant differences in baseline measures were also found between study completers and drop-outs in the active interventions. Adherence was not related to age, gender, or education level. Conclusion Healthy seniors have good attendance at classes with a physically active intervention. Home practice takes place over half of the time. Decreased adherence to a potentially beneficial intervention has the potential to decrease the effect of the intervention in a clinical trial because subjects who might sustain the greatest benefit will receive a lower dose of the intervention and subjects with higher adherence rates may be functioning closer to maximum ability before the intervention. Strategies to maximize adherence among subjects at greater risk for low adherence will be important for future trials, especially complementary

  10. A comparison of breastfeeding women's, peer supporters' and student midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes.

    Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E

    2014-05-01

    In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280

  11. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Al-Binali Ali Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such

  12. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. PMID:25293712

  13. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...

  14. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  15. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number of adoptive mothers are interested in breastfeeding their babies through induced lactation. Prescription Medications No ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in many US hospitals do not fully support breastfeeding. Some of the Ten Steps on which hospitals ...

  17. Selecting a Caregiver Who Supports Breastfeeding

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Selecting A ...

  18. Breastfeeding - good for both of us

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This poster promotes breastfeeding and highlights the fact that it has health benefits for both mother and baby. It also provides contact details of local organisations that can offer help and advice on breastfeeding.

  19. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  20. The Importance of Breastfeeding in Holy Quran

    Saeed Bayyenat; Seyed Amirhosein Ghazizade Hashemi; Abbasali Purbaferani; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. More than 14 centuries is that in Islamic teachings with the most comprehensive, most beautiful and most powerful motivation, is raised important points in the form of advice and education about breastfeeding.  Included in Islam recommended every mother to breastfeed her children up to the age of...

  1. The Breastfeeding Mother and the Pediatrician

    Geraghty, Sheela R.; Riddle, Sarah W.; Shaikh, Ulfat

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 70% of mothers in the United States initiate breastfeeding annually. Mothers often discuss breastfeeding problems with their infant’s pediatrician. Pediatricians may feel unsure about their role when assisting the nonpatient, breastfeeding mother. By having practical solutions and support systems in place to anticipate and tend to breastfeeding mothers’ needs, pediatricians can be instrumental in preventing early weaning. The purpose of this article is to provide practical sugges...

  2. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Pietilä Anna-Maija; Ekström Anette; Pölkki Tarja; Laanterä Sari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using ...

  3. A Web-Based Breastfeeding Education Program

    Cheng, Wei-Chen (Phoebe); Thompson, Cheryl B.; Smith, Jackie A.; Pugh, Leigh; Stanley, Claire

    2003-01-01

    Two Web-based breastfeeding programs were developed to provide new parents with necessary information on proper breastfeeding techniques. One version was plain text and the other version combined text with graphics. The computer was viewed as a valuable learning tool. The breastfeeding program that contained graphics was preferred over the text-only program. Educators are encouraged to use Web-based graphic programs to provide breastfeeding education to new parents.

  4. International Breastfeeding Journal: Introducing a new journal

    Amir Lisa H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract International Breastfeeding Journal is a new open access peer-reviewed journal with a multidisciplinary focus. The aim of International Breastfeeding Journal is to contribute to understanding all aspects of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with enormous social and economic implications. In order to help women breastfeed successfully there is a need to understand both the physiology of lactation and the social and cultural context within w...

  5. Media and breastfeeding: Friend or foe?

    Peuchaud Sheila; Brown Jane D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The mass media have the potential to be powerful friends or foes in promoting breastfeeding. The media could help by putting the issue of breastfeeding on policy agendas and by framing breastfeeding as healthy and normative for baby and mother. Currently, however, it looks as if the media are more often contributing to perceptions that breastfeeding is difficult for mothers and potentially dangerous for babies. This paper presents a brief overview of research on the media and breastf...

  6. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  7. Correlates of self-report chronic insomnia disorders with 1–6 month and 6-month durations in home-dwelling urban older adults - the Shih-Pai Sleep Study in Taiwan: a cross-sectional community study

    Chiou, Jing-Hui; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chen, Kuang-Hung; Chou, Pesus

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the correlates of insomnia disorder with different durations in home-dwelling older adults. Methods A cross-sectional survey in the Shih-Pai area of Taipei City, Taiwan (The Shih-Pai Sleep Study). A total 4047 subjects over the age of 65 years completed the study (2259 men and 1788 women). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the duration of insomnia symptoms were used to identify DSM-IV 1–6 month and 6-month insomnia disorders. Results The prevalence of DSM-IV defined...

  8. Representações sociais de mulheres sobre a amamentação: teste de associação livre de idéias acerca da interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo Representaciones Sociales de Mujeres Sobre el Amamantamiento: Prueba de Asociación Libre de Ideas Acerca de la Interrupción Precoz del Amamantamiento Materno Exclusivo Social Representations of Women on Breastfeeding: Free Association of Ideas Test About the Early Interruption of the Exclusive Maternal Breastfeeding

    Cácia Mônica Osório

    2007-06-01

    reconocimiento de la importancia del amamantar materno y de la leche humana. "Salud del bebé" tuvo mayor expresividad en el grupo NTr, sugerido que esas mujeres anclaron el amamantar en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Concluyese que las mujeres reconocen la importancia de amamantar, pero no de su exclusivismo hasta el sexto mes de vida.The early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EB constitutes a problem with biological, psychological and sociocultural characteristics. This paper aims to describe the social representations of women who have early weaned EB. We have interviewed 30 women (15 were housewives HM, 15 were working mothers WM in mixed assited nursering in the Family Health Program in the city of Resende (RJ. From August to September 2005, we have collected data through a Free Association of Ideas test, aiming to emerge associations related to the words exploited at the level of social stereotypes, which was followed by the Bardin's content analyses. The data have shown high frequency of the category "pleasure, love and affection", showing the recognition of the importance of breastfeeding and of human milk. "Baby's health" has been more expressive in the HM group, suggesting that these women anchored breastfeeding in the health-sickness process. In conclusion, our women recognize the importance of breastfeeding but not its exclusiveness up to the sixth month of age.

  9. Adipsia and hypernatraemia in a 6-month-old Staffordshire bull terrier

    Vanessa McClure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 6-month-old female Staffordshire bull terrier cross presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital with lethargy, weakness, decreased appetite, abnormal vocalisation, twitching of the facial muscles and ears, circling, alopecia, pruritus, seborrhoea sicca and erythema. Serum biochemistry revealed severe hypernatraemia (200.4 mmol/L; Reference Interval 140 mmol/L – 155 mmol/L. Treatment required careful administration of intravenous fluids. The electrolytes were monitored to ensure slow and controlled sodium normalisation (the target reduction of Na concentration was by 0.5 mmol/L/h –1 mmol/L/h or 12 mmol/L/24 h – 24 mmol/L/24 h. Despite the careful fluid calculations and close monitoring, the serum sodium levels dropped more than the recommended 0.5 mmol/L/h – 1 mmol/L/h in the first 4 h and the fluids had to be adjusted. The patient’s habitus improved and the central nervous system signs started to resolve after 1 day of fluid treatment. The puppy started eating food mixed with water, but made no attempt to drink water. The pruritus and erythema resolved once the sodium levels normalised and the seborrhoea sicca began to resolve. At a follow up visit 20 days post discharge the skin was normal. A diagnosis of hypernatraemia as a result of pure water loss due to hypodipsia or adipsia was made, as the puppy made no attempt to drink water when her serum sodium levels increased (a strong thirst stimulus. Hypernatraemia recurred if she was not forced to take in adequate amounts of water mixed with her food. Dermatological changes such as seborrhoea, hyperkeratosis and alopecia have been reported in a few other cases of hypernatraemia in dogs and sodium levels should be investigated in dermatological patients when no other cause can be established. This study, supported by another retrospective study done in 2008, suggests that the Staffordshire bull terrier may be a breed that is predisposed to hypernatraemia.

  10. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE POWER 4-TO-6 MONTHS AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Sabrine Souissi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR. Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8 training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week, and a control group (CG, n = 8 training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week. The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect, the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect, and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect. For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ, the counter movement jump (CMJ and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ. On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05. The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training

  11. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months.

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe M; Birch, Sune; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-09-28

    Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo-produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n 109). In general, breast milk arachidonic acid (AA) levels were inversely correlated with the production of IL-10 (r -0.25; P=0.004), IL-17 (r -0.24; P=0.005), IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.014) and IL-13 (r -0.17; P=0.047), whereas EPA was positively correlated with the counts of blood regulatory T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells and decreased T-helper cell counts. The minor FADS alleles were associated with lower breast milk AA and EPA, and infants of mothers carrying the minor allele of FADS SNP rs174556 had higher production of IL-10 (r -0.23; P=0.018), IL-17 (r -0.25; P=0.009) and IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.038) from ex vivo-activated immune cells. We observed no association between T-cell distribution and maternal or infant FADS gene variants. We conclude that increased maternal LCPUFA synthesis and breast milk AA are associated with decreased levels of IL-5, IL-13 (type-2 related), IL-17 (type-17 related) and IL-10 (regulatory immune responses), but not with interferon-γ and TNF-α, which could be due to an effect of the maternal FADS variants on the offspring immune response transferred via breast milk LCPUFA. PMID:26283408

  12. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions: a systematic review.

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p bruxism were associated with Class II [OR = 3.14 (1.28 - 7.66)] and Class III [OR = 2.78 (1.21 - 6.36)] malocclusion in children with permanent dentition, while another study showed that an increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a lower risk of malocclusion in children with both mixed and permanent dentitions (p < 0.001). Three studies did not report any significant association. Risk of bias was high in most selected articles. These findings do not support an association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and the occurrence of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. PMID:27050935

  13. Risk factors for ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children 6 months following mass treatment in Tanzania.

    Luis Carlos Cajas-Monson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world, and for endemic communities, mass treatment with azithromycin reduces the pool of infection. High coverage is essential, especially in children as they are the infectious reservoir. However, infection remains post-mass treatment. We sought to determine risk factors for infection in children post-mass treatment. METHODOLOGY: All children under 9 years in 4 villages in Tanzania were followed from baseline pre-mass treatment to six months post treatment. 1,991 children under nine years were enrolled in the longitudinal study and data on individual and household characteristics was collected at baseline. Clinical trachoma was determined by an ocular exam and infection detected by PCR of an eyelid swab. Azithromycin was offered and infection was reassessed at 6 months. A multilevel logistic regression model was used, accounting for household clustering of children for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection was 23.7% and at 6 months was 10.4%, despite 95% coverage. Infection at baseline was positively associated with infection at 6 months (OR = 3.31, 95%CI 2.40-4.56 and treatment had a protective effect (OR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.25-0.80. The age group 2-4 years had an increased risk of infection at 6 months. The household characteristics predictive of infection at 6 months were increasing number of children infected in the household at baseline and increasing number of untreated children in the household. CONCLUSIONS: While one round of mass treatment with high coverage did decrease infection by over 50%, it appears that it is not sufficient to eliminate infection. Findings that young children (ages 2-4 years and households with increasing numbers of infected and untreated children have a positive association with infection at 6 months suggest that such households could be targeted for more intensive follow up.

  14. Is short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients affected by mean first 6 months C2 level?

    Assari Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International Consensus Conference (ICC has suggested that the whole blood level of Cyclosporine (CsA be kept strictly at a certain level. However, it is not well understood whether failing to maintain these levels will affect the short term outcome in different patient populations or not. We aimed to assess if the short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients will be affected by first 6 months C2 level. In a retrospective cohort, 265 consecutive kidney transplant recipients were categorized as group with mean C2 lower than recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation lower than the recommended ranges; n=213 and group with mean C2 within recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation within the recommended range; n=52. All recipients were negative for panel reactive antibody, and had received their first (living unrelated kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah hospital, between 2002 and 2003. The groups were similar in characteristics and 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years patient and graft survival rates were considered as outcome. No significant difference was observed in patient and graft survival rates between the two groups (P > 0.05. The patient survival rate in group with mean C2 lower than recommended range and group with mean C2 within recommended range were: 6 months: 98% vs. 98, 1 year: 97% vs. 98%, 2 years: 97% vs. 98% and 3 years: 97% vs. 98%. The graft survival rate in the above groups were as follows: 6 months: 93% vs. 91%, 1 year: 92% vs. 91%, 2 years: 92% vs. 77% and 3 years: 89% vs. 69%, respectively. The result of our study showed that lower mean C2 levels was not necessarily accompanied with a worse short term outcome in our patients. This finding suggests that the optimal level of C2 may be different in ethnic populations.

  15. First report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-child with cystic fibrosis

    Abbas Sahami; Nourkhoda Sadeghifard; Alireza Monsef; Hadi Peyman

    2014-01-01

    So far, more than 1800 mutations identified in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In this case report, we presented first report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-old girl with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. A 6-month-old girl with weakness and meconium Ileus referred to the pediatric clinic in Ilam, in the west of Iran. Patient′s skin was dark and suffered from bronchiectasis. The sweat test was performed, and the concentration of chloride and sodium in p...

  16. Prevalência da amamentação em crianças menores de dois anos vacinadas nos centros de saúde escola Breastfeeding prevalence among children less than two years old immunized in primary health care school services

    Daniella Fernandes Camilo

    2004-03-01

    second semester, 36.5% of the children were breastfed, in the third 26.4% and in the fourth semester 13.9%. Children who used public and local health care services were less likely to be weaned than the users of private and non-local health care services (p<0.005. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the need to establish goals for exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age and for total breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or more, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

  17. The Application of Billings for Fertility Regulation Method during the Period of Breastfeeding

    金碧华; 姜国珠; 潘琢如; 颜洁敏; 彭守静; 陆仁康

    1999-01-01

    In order to adopt Billings Method for fertility regulation during the period of breast-feeding,cervical mucus was observed and monitored in 61 breast-feeding mothers.Urine estrogen and/or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast feeding mothers.Observations on cervical mucus during 244 months were collected.The type of dry or no mucus was observed in 75.27% fully breast-feeding mothers.Constant unchanging mucus was ob-served in 69.39% partially breast-feeding mothers.Developmental changing mucus was observed in 79.25% of mothers bottle-feeding their infants.According to the record on cervical mucus within 6months postpartum,97.14% of the cervical mucus was consistent with normal menstrual cycles.Urine estrogen and /or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast-feeding mothers.The level of estrogen in urine averaged 0.08 μmol/24 h in fully breast feeding mothers and 0.14 μmol/24 h in partially breast-feeding mothers.The peak level averaged 0.21 pmol/24 h in bottle-feeding mothers.The pregnanediol level was determined to confirm ovulation in bottle-feeding mothers.The average levels of cut off and the period of ovutation in 6bottle feeding mother were 7 μmol/24 h and 9 μmol/24 h respectively.Measurement of urine estrogen and pregnanediot level all matched with cervical mucus appearances.Conclusion: Billings Method is a simple,scientific method for contraception without side-effects during breast-feeding period.

  18. Breastfeeding duration, age of starting solids and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children.

    Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K

    2013-04-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208

  19. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  20. Breastfeeding profile and practice of Nigerian mothers: a cross-sectional survey

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding patterns in the developing world are still below the recommended levels and the potential to improve child survival remains untapped. This study investigated the breastfeeding profile and practices of Nigerian nursing mothers. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved women at attending selected baby-friendly facilities in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria who had breastfed their most recent baby for a minimum of six months. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, infant-maternal characteristics and breastfeeding practices. 383 mothers volunteered for this study, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of the respondent was 29.0 +/- 4.96 years. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate was 86.2%. Breastfeeding initiation time of less than 1 hour after delivery and 24 hours rooming-in practice rate was 78.3% and 79.1% respectively. Daily breastfeeding time and total breastfeeding duration was 8.06 +/- 2.33 hours and 18.3 +/- 4.82 months respectively. The mean onset time for water supplementation was 4.74 +/- 1.77 months with a rate of 30.3% within 1-3 months. Weaning initiation time was mostly (43.9% within 12 to 18 month of infant's age. There was significant association between EBF practice and each of maternal education (X2 = 6.554; P = 0.038 and Socio-Economic Status (SES (X2 = 19.32; P = 0.031 with most of the respondents in the lower SES (56.1% subscribing to EBF. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate for the first six months among Nigerian mothers attending baby-friendly clinics was high. Breastfeeding initiation time after delivery was early, water supplementation to breastfeeding was before 5 months of the infant's life and weaning practice was late. Maternal educational level and socio-economic status significantly influenced EBF practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet

  1. A Case Report of Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Falciparum and Dengue Co-Infection in a 6 Months Pregnancy

    Pande, A.; Guharoy, D

    2013-01-01

    India being a tropical country, parasitic infections especially with Plasmodium species are very common in this region. The present case report is that of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and dengue co-infection in a 6 months pregnant lady who was timely diagnosed and appropriately treated followed by a complete recovery along with feto-maternal well-being.

  2. Relationship between the behaviour of sows at 6 months old and the behaviour and performance at farrowing.

    Lensink, B J; Leruste, H; Le Roux, T; Bizeray-Filoche, D

    2009-01-01

    Piglet crushing remains a major problem in pig production. Reduced crushing might be obtained through genetic selection on sow behavioural traits. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between behavioural responses at 6 months of age, around farrowing, and sows' reproductive performance including crushing levels. At 6 months of age, behavioural responses of 75 nulliparous sows were observed both during behavioural tests to human presence and to the presence of a novel object in their home pen, and their responses when placed in a weighing device. At first farrowing, nervousness of the sows was observed when placed in the farrowing crate 1 week before and the day of farrowing, as well as their fear responses when approached by a human from behind or at the front of the farrowing crate. At 6 months of age, escape from a human tended to be correlated with the reactivity in the weighing device (rs = 0.21, P = 0.09). Around first farrowing, the withdrawal reaction when a human approached at the front was correlated with the fear response when approached from behind and the nervousness of the sow in the crate (rs = 0.29, P piglets crushed at first farrowing was correlated with the latency to approach a novel object at 6 months and nervousness around farrowing (rs = -0.27, P crushing levels of piglets at farrowing. PMID:22444179

  3. Hepatitis B vaccination in prison with a 3-week schedule is more efficient than the standard 6-month schedule

    Christensen, Peer B; Fisker, Niels; Krarup, Henrik B;

    2004-01-01

    A randomized study of injecting drug users in a Danish prison comparing vaccination at 0, 1 and 3 weeks with the 0, 1 and 6 months schedule (20microg Engerix B i.m.) was conducted. Due to a low participation rate, a second nonrandomized study was conducted in Estonia where all prisoners were...

  4. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  5. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Min-Ji Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results: In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  6. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6...

  7. Neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents 6 months and 12 months after implantation: evaluation by optical coherence tomography

    YAO Zhu-hua; Tetsuo Matsubara; Tsuyoshi Inada; Yasuyoshi Suzuki; Takahiko Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT)is a new imaging modality with resolution of approximately 10 μm and can be employed to visualize intracoronary characteristics.Sirolimus-eluting stents(SES)are susceptible to late thrombosis due to delayed re-endothelialization over the stent struts,which may result in acute myocardial infarction or death.This study was designed to evaluate the re-endothelialization and neointimal coverage of SES with OCT 6 months and 12 months after implantation.Methods A total of 36 patients enrolled in the study underwent OCT examination 6 months(17 patients)and 12 months (19 patients)after SES implantation.The strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts were evaluated by OCT.Results Forty-six SES and 6561 struts were analyzed.At 6 months,3041 struts(98.7%)were well-apposed and 39 struts(1.3%)were malapposed.At 12 months,3434 struts(98.6%)were well-apposed and 47 struts(1.4%)were malapposed.Furthermore,only 4 SES at 6 months(18.2%)and 10 SES at 12 months(41.7%)were fully covered by neointimal growth.The average neointimal thicknesses covering the analyzed struts at 6 months and 12 months were (42±28)μm and (88±32) μm,respectively.There were 1989 struts at 6 months(72.1%)and 1461 struts at 12 months (45.6%)with neointimal thickness <100 μm.Conclusions OCT was able to visualize the strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts.At 6-month and 12-month follow-up examinations most struts were covered with thin neointima,but few of the entire SES showed full coverage.To prevent late-stent thrombosis in the presence of uncovered stent struts,longer dual antiplatelet drugs therapy should be recommended.

  8. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    Patel, Dipen V.; Satvik C. Bansal; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.; Desai, Rajendra G.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5%) started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problem...

  9. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  10. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States. PMID:27111125

  11. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions. PMID:12287930

  12. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  13. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  14. Symptoms of postpartum depression and early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in the first two months of life Sintomas de depressão pós-parto e interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois primeiros meses de vida

    Maria Helena Hasselmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the association between postpartum depression and interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in the first two months of life. Cohort study of 429 infants Avaliou-se a associação entre depressão pós-parto e interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois primeiros meses de vida. Estudo de coorte com 429 crianças < 20 dias de idade em quatro unidades de saúde no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Considerou-se como interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo a introdução de chá, água, suco, leite artificial ou qualquer outro alimento. Na avaliação da depressão pós-parto utilizou-se a Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. Associações foram expressas como razões de prevalências (linha de base e riscos relativos (primeiro e segundo meses de vida e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança estimados via regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Filhos de mulheres com sintomas de depressão pós-parto apresentam maior risco de interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois meses de seguimento (RR = 1,46; IC95%: 0,98-2,17 e RR = 1,21; IC95%: 1,02-1,45, respectivamente. Entre mães que amamentam exclusivamente até o primeiro mês de vida, depressão pós-parto não se associou à interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo (RR = 1,44; IC95%: 0,68-3,06. Esses achados apontam para a importância da saúde mental materna no sucesso do aleitamento materno exclusivo.

  15. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2

  16. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    Kum C Hiong

    Full Text Available The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of

  17. Breastfeeding rates: Is the Ross mother's survey underestimating breastfeeding rates of Hispanic women?

    Among Hispanics in the United States, breastfeeding initiation and duration decrease with acculturation. Therefore, in communities with significant Hispanic immigrant populations, surveys of breastfeeding rates conducted in English will provide a biased picture of feeding behaviors. Three major su...

  18. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. METHODS: Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. PARTICIPANTS: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. TOOLS: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas. OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula; 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2. One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78, p<0.009. Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99, p = 0.04. Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. CONCLUSION: In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  19. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A.; Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Robert D. Steiner; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success.

  20. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres. PMID:22958027