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Sample records for 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat low-fat

  1. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    performed before and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... OGTT, in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a...

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    control diet increased these variables [1.4% (P = 0.014), 21.2% (P = 0.030), and 22.8% (P = 0.015), respectively], as did the LF diet [1.4% (P = 0.090), 13.1% (P = 0.078), and 15.5% (P = 0.095), respectively]. No significant group differences were detected in glucose or insulin concentrations during the......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was...

  3. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice.

  4. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  5. Low fat meat products - An overview

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  6. Peptide Profile of Low-Fat Edam Cheese

    Erdoğan KÜÇÜKÖNER

    1998-01-01

    Low-fat Edam cheese was manufactured using conventional cheese-making procedures using low-fat milk (1.5% fat). The cheese samples were aged for six months at 5 to 6°C. The cheese was analyzed for biochemical characteristics and peptide content. The peptide contents were determined with reverse phase chromatography. The association property of proteins and peptides in the soluble fraction of the cheese was determined using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The overall peptide quantit...

  7. Increasing Stringiness of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese Using Polysaccharides

    Oberg, Erik N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of polysaccharides to function as fat mimetics in low-fat (LF) mozzarella string cheese to improve functionality by acting like fat globules to separate protein fibers during cheese extrusion. Low-fat mozzarella cheese curd made from 273 kg of 0.7% fat milk was salted at a rate of 10 g/kg then divided into 3.6-kg batches that were hand-stretched in 5% brine at 80° C and formed into a homogeneous mass. The hot cheese was hand mixed with a hot 80° polysaccharide slurry, ...

  8. Investigating the Strategies to Improve the Quality of Low-Fat Mozzarella and Cheddar Cheeses

    Wadhwani, Ranjeeta

    2011-01-01

    Low-fat cheese faces great challenges associated with its texture being hard and rubbery, desirable flavors being missing, color being undesirably intense and translucent appearing, and melting being improper. In an effort of improving the quality of low-fat cheeses, several strategies have been tried to accomplish three major objectives, 1) improving the melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese, 2) improving the color of low-fat Cheddar cheese, and 3) investigating the feas...

  9. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  10. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. A low-fat diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Viggers, L;

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  12. Use of Extrusion Technology and Fat Replacers to Produce High Protein, Low Fat Cheese

    Dubey, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of extrusion technology and fat replacers to produce high protein, low fat Cheddar cheese. In chapter 3, four different fat replacers were tested at the highest concentration level of each, as recommended by the manufacturers for low fat cheese, to investigate the change in cheese texture and optimize extruder conditions. In addition, the press time/pressure combinations of the extruded cheeses were optimized. The fat replacers and extruder conditions that w...

  13. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. PMID:27132833

  14. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  15. Light-induced protein and lipid oxidation in low-fat cheeses: whey proteins as antioxidants

    Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Sørensen, John; Bakman, Mette; Nebel, Caroline; Albrechtsen, Rita; Vognsen, Lene; Nielsen, Jacob Holm

    2011-01-01

    Photo-oxidation of cheese products has become an issue due to the fact that packaging of cheeses in transparent materials is very frequently used. The present study aimed to give new aspects of the possible antioxidative activity of whey proteins in photo-oxidation of cheese and the whey proteins were expected to act as scavenger and thereby reduce lipid oxidation. Oxidation was investigated in low-fat model cheese with whey protein isolate (WPI) added and compared to a low-fat control cheese...

  16. Influence of fructooligosaccharides on the fermentation profile and viable counts in a symbiotic low fat milk

    Oliveira, Ricardo P.S.; Casazza, Alessandro A.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of prebiotics on fermentation profile and growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium lactis in co-cultures with Streptococcus thermophilus. Acidification rate and viability were positively influenced by the co-culture with B. lactis and by both inulin or oligofructose in low fat milk. PMID:24294233

  17. Influence of fructooligosaccharides on the fermentation profile and viable counts in a symbiotic low fat milk

    Ricardo P.S. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of prebiotics on fermentation profile and growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium lactis in co-cultures with Streptococcus thermophilus. Acidification rate and viability were positively influenced by the co-culture with B. lactis and by both inulin or oligofructose in low fat milk.

  18. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  19. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  20. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  1. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  2. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... included, of whom 10 completed the cross-over study. Ten non-diabetic, matched control subjects were also examined. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scanning, diet intake was monitored by 7-day dietary record and insulin sensitivity was measured by the...... insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  3. Benefit of Low-Fat Over Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Endothelial Health in Obesity

    Phillips, Shane A.; Jurva, Jason W.; Syed, Amjad Q.; Syed, Amina Q.; Kulinski, Jacquelyn P.; Pleuss, Joan; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Gutterman, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation, a precursor to hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although dieting generally improves cardiovascular risk factors, the direct effect of different dietary strategies on vascular endothelial function is not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a low-fat (LF) diet improves endothelial function compared with an isocaloric low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. Obese (n=20; body mass index: 29 to 39; ...

  4. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological ...

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG"

    Mahnet, Stjepan; Kirin, Slavko; Kos, Blaženka; Frece, Jadranka; Šušković, Jagoda

    2004-01-01

    Various immune responses have been influenced by probiotics and these immunomodulatory effects have been proposed for several potential applications such as the prevention of infectious diarrhoea, alleviation of hypersensitivity reactions and tumour suppression. The new probiotic product from LURA d. d., low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", contains well-known probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). The viable count of L. rhamnosus GG remained stable and has been 1.3x108 CFU/g of l...

  6. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches

    Prestes, R. C.; Silva, L. B.; Torri, A. M. P.; Kubota, E. H.; C.S. ROSA; S.S. ROMAN; Kempka, A. P.; I.M. DEMIATE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded...

  7. Acrylamide formation in low-fat potato snacks and its correlation with color development

    Majcher, Malgorzata A.; Jeleñ, Henryk H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin at Agricultural University of Poznań a recipe and technological process of low-fat potato snacks (7% of fat) production, using a combination of extrusion and a roasting process was developed. Due to the character of the product obtained, the amount of acrylamide was analyzed. At the same time, influence of temperature and time of heating on acrylamide formation was verified as well as correlated with color developmen...

  8. Effect of milk preacidification on low fat mozzarella cheese: II. Chemical and functional properties during storage.

    Metzger, L E; Barbano, D M; Kindstedt, P S; Guo, M R

    2001-06-01

    The effect of milk preacidification on cheese manufacturing, chemical properties, and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella cheese was determined. Four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using no preacidification (control), preacidification to pH 6.0 and pH 5.8 with acetic acid, and preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. This process was replicated four times. Modifications in the typical Mozzarella manufacturing procedures were necessary to accommodate milk preacidification. The chemical composition of the cheeses was similar among the treatments, except the calcium content and calcium as a percentage of protein were lower in the preacidified treatments. During refrigerated storage, the chemical and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella were affected the most by milk preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. The amount of expressible serum, unmelted cheese whiteness, initial unmelted hardness, and initial apparent viscosity were lower with preacidification. The reduction in initial unmelted cheese hardness and initial apparent viscosity in the pH 5.8 citric treatments represents an improvement in the quality of low fat Mozzarella cheese that allows the cheese to have better pizza bake characteristics with shorter time of refrigerated storage. PMID:11417692

  9. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  10. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely. PMID:15779698

  11. The Cost-Effectiveness of 1% Or Less Media Campaigns Promoting Low-Fat Milk Consumption

    Margo G. Wootan, DSc,

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four strategies using components of 1% Or Less to promote population-based behavior change. 1% Or Less is a mass-media campaign that encourages switching from high-fat (whole or 2% to low-fat (1% or skim milk. Using a quasi-experimental design, campaigns were previously conducted in four West Virginia communities using different combinations of 1 paid advertising, 2 media relations, and 3 community-based educational activities. Telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data were used to measure the campaigns’ effectiveness. Methods Using data from the previously completed studies, we analyzed the cost of each campaign. We then calculated the cost per person exposed to the campaign and cost per person who switched from high- to low-fat milk. Results The combination of paid advertising and media relations was the most cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $0.57 per person to elicit a switch from high- to low-fat milk, and the combination of media relations and community-based educational activities was the least cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $11.85 per person to elicit a switch. Conclusion Population-based campaigns using a combination of paid advertising and media relations strategies can be a cost-effective way to promote a behavior change in a community.

  12. Evaluation of low-fat sausage containing desinewed lamb and konjac gel.

    Osburn, W N; Keeton, J T

    2004-10-01

    Ground (GR) or desinewed (DS) lamb trimmings were combined with a konjac flour (KF) gel (0%, 10% or 20%) to produce a low-fat (8%) cured sausage. Physiochemical, sensory and shelf-life analyses were performed to determine the efficacy of the fat mimetic. Desinewing reduced collagen content (2.3 mg/g tissue) and cook yield (0.6%) when compared to GR trimmings. Grinding increased aerobic plate counts (APCs) ∼0.4log(10)/cm(2) more than DS, but APCs were not affected by inclusion of KF. Sausages with 20% KF lowered cook yield ∼1% and slightly reduced sensory panel and texture profile analysis texture values. KF gel incorporated at 10% had similar properties to a control low-fat desinewed lamb sausage, while KF at 20% could reduce "toughening" in low-fat sausage products. Use of konjac gel as a fat mimetic could reduce total caloric energy by replacing a portion of the meat in a sausage formulation. PMID:22062231

  13. [Nutrient intake with low-fat diets in rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease].

    Müller, M J; Wiechmann, M; Helms, C; Wulff, C; Kolenda, K D

    2000-05-01

    We investigated the nutritional value of a very low fat diet (diet I) adapted to nutritional habits in Germany. Data were compared to a low fat diet (diet II) according to the American Heart Association. The study was performed in 37 patients with coronary heart disease (30 males and 7 females, age 45-83 yrs) stratified to the 2 dietary treatments. Daily fat intake was 38 g (24% of energy intake of 6.5 MJ/d) in diet I and 60 g (31% of 7.3 MJ/d) in diet II (p Vit. A, Vit. D and Vit. B12 were all reduced (p Vit. C was increased p < 0.01. The intake of folic acid was low in both groups. Both diets resulted in a decrease in BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Concomitantly plasma triglycerides only decreased in response to diet I but HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged. Reduction of BMI and cholesterol levels were dependent on baseline BMI and cholesterol concentrations, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effect of diet I is in part attributed to the weight lowering effect of the diet. Taking into account the nutritional habits in Germany, very low fat diets seem to be adequate with respect to their nutritional value. Both diets are effective in lowering body weight, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels without affecting HDL cholesterol. These effects are most pronounced in overweight and hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:10900676

  14. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorp...

  15. Manufacturing of low-fat chicken sausage and keeping its quality by gamma irradiation

    The present study was carried out to study the possibility of manufacturing low-fat chicken breast sausage formulated with aged fresh chicken breast meat, 8% beef fat ratio and other ingredients. Thc manufactured sausage was subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy to improve its hygienic quality and extending its shelf-life. The irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4± degree C), and the effects of gamma irradiation and cold storage on their microbiological, chemical and Sensory attributes were studied. Irradiated samples at dose of 2 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, lactic acid bacteria, total molds and yeasts and Bacillus cereus. Irradiation doses of 4 and 6 kGy completely eliminated Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, applied doses gamma irradiation under investigation had no remarkable effects on thc chemical composition, ph values and total volatile nitrogen (TVN), but increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) of these product. irradiation treatments had no effects on sensory properties (appearance, texture and odor) of all fresh sausage samples. Moreover, fried sausage prepared from irradiated raw sausage had high sensory acceptability similar to those prepared from non-irradiated raw sausage. irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy prolonged the refrigeration shelf-life of fresh low-fat chicken breast sausage to 11, 20 and 27 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated samples without any adverse effects on sensory properties. Thus, it can be recommended as a healthy product especially for those who need to low fat and cholesterol foods

  16. Cereal Dietary Fibre - Physicochemical Properties and Suitability for Addition to Low-Fat Meat Products

    Petersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that dietary fibre is good for the health. Cereals, and in particular the outer parts of the cereal kernels, are rich in dietary fibre. Rye bran, wheat bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been investigated regarding their suitability as additives in low-fat meat products. Two types of meat products, frankfurter-type sausages and meatballs have been evaluated in this thesis. In the sausages the meat protein network governs the texture and water-holding properties, whereas the...

  17. Properties of low-fat ultra-filtered cheeses produced with probiotic bacteria

    Miočinović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that in certain numbers may confer a health benefit on the host. Nowadays, there are many dairy products on the market, especially fermented milks, with probiotics, and their popularity is rising. The aim of this article was to investigate the viability of commercial probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI®L10 i Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI®B94, DSM, Netherland as well as their influence on the changes of composition, pH, proteolysis, microbiological status and sensory properties of low-fat ultra-filtered (UF cheeses within 2 months of ripening. Low-fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream, without (control cheese A and with adjunct probiotic culture (cheese B. The compositional parameters (milk fat, proteins and dry-matter content, pH, proteolysis parameters (water soluble nitrogen, nitrogen soluble in 5% PTA, urea and SDS PAG electrophoresis, as well as the numbers of starters and probiotic bacteria, were determined during ripening. In addition, sensory evaluations of cheeses were performed throughout the ripening time. A significant influence of probiotic strains on the composition, pH and primary proteolysis of cheese during ripening was not found. The counts of commercial probiotic bacteria were maintained at high levels (>107 cfug-1 during the overall ripening period, as a prerequisite of their therapeutic effects. The adjunct probiotic cultures enhanced the rate of secondary proteolysis, which was shown by the significantly higher levels of PTAN/TN of experimental compared to the control cheeses. The sensory evaluation showed that the overall aroma of low-fat cheeses was remarkably improved by the addition of the probiotic cultures used. Based on the results it can be concluded that the low-fat UF cheeses differ in good dietetic and functional properties as well as very acceptable

  18. Adherence to a Low-Fat versus Low-Carbohydrate Diet Differs by Insulin Resistance Status

    McClain, Arianna D.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Hekler, Eric B.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women (age= 41.9±5.7 yrs; BMI= 32.6±3.6 kg/m2). This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a...

  19. Stress induced martensite transformation in Co–28Cr–6Mo alloy during room temperature deformation

    The phase transformation and texture change of two Co–28Cr–6Mo alloys during room temperature deformation were studied by using the in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is found that a slight difference in chemical compositions can significantly change the phase constitutions and the mechanical properties. For the material with less Ni, C and N (lower α-phase stability), increasing the grain size promotes the athermal martensite transformation during cooling. The kinetics of the Stress Induced Martensite (SIM) phase transformation may be more affected by the athermal martensite instead of the grain size of the α-phase. After deformation, similar textures are produced in samples regardless the differences in the initial structures such as the phase constitution and the grain size; while a relatively strong {111} texture and a weak {100} texture are produced in the α-phase, a {101¯1} fiber texture is gradually developed in the ε-phase during uniaxial tension

  20. Stress induced martensite transformation in Co–28Cr–6Mo alloy during room temperature deformation

    Cai, S., E-mail: song_cai@fwmetals.com [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Avenue, Fort Wayne, IN 46809 (United States); Daymond, M.R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Nicol Hall, 60 Union Street, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Ren, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, 433/D008, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The phase transformation and texture change of two Co–28Cr–6Mo alloys during room temperature deformation were studied by using the in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is found that a slight difference in chemical compositions can significantly change the phase constitutions and the mechanical properties. For the material with less Ni, C and N (lower α-phase stability), increasing the grain size promotes the athermal martensite transformation during cooling. The kinetics of the Stress Induced Martensite (SIM) phase transformation may be more affected by the athermal martensite instead of the grain size of the α-phase. After deformation, similar textures are produced in samples regardless the differences in the initial structures such as the phase constitution and the grain size; while a relatively strong {111} texture and a weak {100} texture are produced in the α-phase, a {101"¯1} fiber texture is gradually developed in the ε-phase during uniaxial tension.

  1. Monitoring the Chemical and Microbiological Changes During Ripening of Iranian Probiotic Low-Fat White Cheese

    N. Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this experiment was to manufacture an Iranianlow fat probiotic cheese. Approach: Iranian white brine cheeses (4 trials were made by varyingprocesses, i.e., lowering the fat content and use of probiotic adjunct culture on separate days. All types of cheeses were ripened at 13°C for 2 weeks and at 6°C to the end of ripering period. Cheeses were analyzed for the compositional, microbiological, color and sensory characteristics and also lipolysis and organic acid profile. The Cheese of each trial was sampled at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days during ripening. Results: Decreasing the fat level resulted in significant increases (p0.05 between the concentration of L. acidophilus of cheese groups when the fat content of samples was reduced. The rate and extent of lipolysis in the full-fat cheese was higher than in the low-fat control cheese (pConclusion: Therefore the results of this study showed that the Iranian probotic low fat cheese is a functional food. It has better flavor and odor than normal cheese and can be used in many cases like as heart disease and obesity.

  2. Chemical composition of water buffalo milk and its low-fat symbiotic yogurt development

    Xue Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water buffalos are the second most widely available milk source in countries around the world. While typical average milk compositions are readily available, information on seasonal variation in chemical composition of buffalo milk is limited -especially in the Northeastern region of the United States. Data collected in this study can be useful for the manufacture of a wide variety of specialty dairy products such as symbiotic buffalo milk yogurt. To analyze functionality, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Methods: During a one-year cycle, physicochemical and mineral contents of buffalo milk were analyzed. Prototype yogurts were manufactured commercially and samples of the yogurt prototypes were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties and for the survivability of probiotics during ten weeks of storage.Results: Average contents of total solids, fat, lactose, crude protein, ash, specific gravity, and conjugated linoleic acid in the milk ranged from 16.39-18.48%, 6.57-7.97%, 4.49-4.73%, 4.59-5.37%, 0.91-0.92%, 1.0317-1.0380%, and 4.4-7.6 mg/g fat, respectively. The average mineral contents of calcium, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in the milk were 1798.89, 1216.76, 843.72, 337.20 and 7.48 mg/kg, respectively, and remained steady throughout the year. The symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurts evaluated in this study contained higher amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and calcium than similar yogurts manufactured with cows’ milk. During refrigerated storage, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was viable (>1×106CFU/g for the first two weeks, while Bifidobacterium spp.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:86-106 and Lactobacillus casei remained viable during the entire ten weeks. Reducing the acidity and enhancing the flavor of the yogurts could improve the overall acceptability

  3. Effect of hemicellulose from rice bran on low fat meatballs chemical and functional properties.

    Hu, Guohua; Yu, Wenjian

    2015-11-01

    The paper study the functional properties of hemicellulose B (RBHB) and rice bran insoluble dietary fibre (RBDF) to develop an acceptable low fat meat product enriched with high content fibre from defatted rice bran. Meatballs were produced with three different formulations including 2%, 4% and 6% RBHB or RBDF addition. The total trans fatty acids were lower and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids was higher in the samples with added RBHB than in the control meatballs. Meatballs containing RBHB had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Sensory evaluations revealed that meatballs with 2%, 4% and 6% RBHB were overall acceptable. This confirms that the RBHB preparation from defatted rice bran has great potential in food applications, especially in development of functional foods including functional meat products. PMID:25976816

  4. Low-fat mozzarella as influenced by microbial exopolysaccharides, preacidification, and whey protein concentrate.

    Zisu, B; Shah, N P

    2005-06-01

    Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in texture profile analysis, cheese melt, stretch, and on pizza bake performance were investigated over 45 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Preacidified cheeses without EPS (control) had the lowest moisture content (53.75%). These cheeses were hardest and exhibited greatest springiness and chewiness. The meltability and stretchability of these cheeses increased most during the first 28 d of storage. The moisture content in cheeses increased to 55.08, 54.79, and 55.82% with EPS starter (containing 41.18 mg/g of EPS), coculturing (containing 28.61 mg/g of EPS), and WPC (containing 44.23 mg/g of EPS), respectively. Exopolysaccharide reduced hardness, springiness, and chewiness of low-fat cheeses made with preacidified milk in general and such cheeses exhibited an increase in cohesiveness and meltability. Although stretch distance was similar in all cheeses, those containing EPS were softer than the control. Cocultured cheeses exhibited the greatest meltability. Cheeses containing WPC were softest in general; however, hardness remained unchanged over 45 d. Cheeses made with WPC had the least increase in meltability over time. Incorporation of WPC did not reduce surface scorching or increase shred fusion of cheese shreds during pizza baking; however, there was an improvement in these properties between d 7 and 45. Coating of the cheese shreds with oil was necessary for adequate browning, melt, and flow characteristics in all cheese types. PMID:15905427

  5. Ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

    Titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace and offshore industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratio sustained at elevated temperatures, their fracture-resistance features and exceptionally good corrosion-resistance properties. However, poor thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity of these alloys to tool materials severely impair their machinability. As a result the machining processes of titanium alloys are typically characterized by low cutting feeds and speeds making production of components uneconomical. Recently, a non-conventional hybrid machining technique, namely, ultrasonically assisted turning has been shown to significantly improve the machinability of intractable alloys with a concomitant improvement in material removal rates, thus improving machining economics. In the current work, a 3D finite element model of turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo is developed in the commercial software, MSC Marc/Mentat. A constitutive behaviour of the workpiece material under large deformations and elevated temperatures is adequately represented by a Johnson-Cook material model. For validation of the developed numerical model, experimental tests were carried out. The numerical and experimental results were found to be in good agreement.

  6. Ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

    Muhammad, R.; Maurotto, A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace and offshore industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratio sustained at elevated temperatures, their fracture-resistance features and exceptionally good corrosion-resistance properties. However, poor thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity of these alloys to tool materials severely impair their machinability. As a result the machining processes of titanium alloys are typically characterized by low cutting feeds and speeds making production of components uneconomical. Recently, a non-conventional hybrid machining technique, namely, ultrasonically assisted turning has been shown to significantly improve the machinability of intractable alloys with a concomitant improvement in material removal rates, thus improving machining economics. In the current work, a 3D finite element model of turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo is developed in the commercial software, MSC Marc/Mentat. A constitutive behaviour of the workpiece material under large deformations and elevated temperatures is adequately represented by a Johnson-Cook material model. For validation of the developed numerical model, experimental tests were carried out. The numerical and experimental results were found to be in good agreement.

  7. Effects of Starch Addition on Low Fat Rennet Curd Properties and Their Partitioning Between Curd and Whey

    Larsen, Kelly Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of starches on the properties of low fat rennet curd as measured by microstructural and instrumental analysis. In experiment 1, 17 starches were initially screened for swelling power, impact of curd yield at 5 g/L and 10 g/L in milk, and settling in rennet-induced partially acidified low fat curd. Starches examined were narrowed down to five in experiment 2; they included: modified waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, dextrin, and a mod...

  8. Aging behavior and strengthening mechanisms in Tl--6Al--2Sn--4Zr--6Mo alloys

    In Ti--6Al--2Sn--4Zr--6Mo alloys, beta transforms to orthorhombic martensite when quenched from a temperature of 9150C or above. X-ray analysis showed that aging at 500 or 6000C gradually reduces the degree of orthohombicity until a hexagonal structure equivalent to alpha, but having the morphological characteristics of the prior martensite, is produced. The orthorhombicity is reduced by solute rejection to beta which forms as particles both homogeneously and heterogeneously with the martensite structure. The structure at maximum hardness is a fine distribution of Burger's oriented beta particles in a matrix of martensite of greatly reduced orthorhombicity. Overaging appears to occur as a result of coarsening of the homogeneous beta particles. Aging at temperatures from 600 to 8100C results in growth of one particular variant of the beta which is located at the interface between twin related regions composing a martensite lath. This beta along with similarly oriented beta at lath interfaces forms a continuous beta matrix by a gradual growth process. It is shown that this matrix has the identical orientation and shape of the original beta grain prior to quenching. A mechanism is proposed to account for this memory effect. When quenched from 8500C, the resulting structure is a mixture of eqiaxed alpha + retained beta phases. Slip was found to be the only deformation mode and was extremely heterogeneous in nature for the as-quenched structure. Dislocations were found at the leading edge as well as in the vicinity and inside the precipitated alpha. With aging a plate-like alpha structure gradually transforms the retained β into a basket weave structure and the slip characteristics change from heterogeneous to homogeneous both in the primary alpha and the aged beta structure

  9. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  10. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M; Verdich, C; Toubro, Søren; Macdonald, I; Rössner, S; Stich, V; Guy-Grand, B; Langin, D; Martinez, J A; Pedersen, O; Holst, C; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high-fat...... group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  11. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  12. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products. PMID:26139901

  13. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat.

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-11-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties. PMID:24804055

  14. Role of nitrogen addition in stabilizing the γ phase of Biomedical Co–29Cr–6Mo alloy

    Highlights: ► 3-D atomic probe observation + thermodynamic calculations. ► N addition does not change the Gibbs energy of alloy system greatly. ► Generate the energy barrier by formation of N–Cr cluster. ► N addition stabilizes the γ phase of Co–Cr–Mo alloy. ► Phase transition slows down but the transition point does not change with N addition. - Abstract: Three-dimensional atom probe observations and thermodynamic calculations revealed that the mechanism of γ-phase stabilization by N addition in the Co–29Cr–6Mo alloy is different from that in stainless steel: N addition does not lower the free energy of the γ phase in Co–29Cr–6Mo but increases the energy barrier and thus lowers the kinetic rate of the γ → ε transition through the formation of Cr–N short range order.

  15. 19F spin-lattice relaxation in WF6, MoF6, and UF6 gases

    Spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured for the fluorine nuclei in gaseous WF6, MoF6 and UF6 as a function of temperature in the dilute gas region. The measured temperature dependences are as predicted for relaxation resulting from a spin-rotation interaction. Effective cross sections for the transfer of angular momentum to molecular rotation during collisions are deduced. (author)

  16. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  17. Fabrication, tribological and corrosion behaviors of ultra-fine grained Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy for biomedical applications.

    Ren, Fuzeng; Zhu, Weiwei; Chu, Kangjie

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and carbides free Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was fabricated by combination of mechanical alloying and warm pressing. The microstructure, mechanical properties, pin-on-disk dry sliding wear and corrosion behavior in simulated physiological solution were investigated. The produced Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy has elongated ultra-fine grained (UFG) structure of ε-phase with average grain size of 600nm in length and 150nm in thickness. The hardness and modulus were determined to be 8.87±0.56GPa and 198.27±7.02GPa, respectively. The coefficient of friction upon dry sliding against alumina is pretty close to that of the forged Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy. The initial ε-phase and UFG microstructure contribute to reduce the depth of severe plastic deformation region during wear and enable the alloy with excellent wear resistance. The corrosion potential of such UFG Co-Cr-Mo alloy has more positive corrosion potential and much lower corrosion current density than those of ASTM alloy. PMID:26807770

  18. Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria on the proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat UF cheeses during ripening

    Dragana Pesic Mikulec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of commercial bacteria Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (cheese A and combinations of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei 08, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 656, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 653 (cheese B and C on composition, proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat cheeses during ripening was investigated. Low fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream. Significant influence of different LAB strains on composition, primary proteolysis and microstructure was not found. Cheeses made with autochthonous LAB showed a higher rate of secondary proteolysis, as well as higher flavour scores, and were more acceptable than control cheese.

  19. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from......-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen together with enteral feeding is well tolerated and may be used in reversing liver disease in PN-dependent infants without compromising growth....

  20. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Anderson Gregory J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet ( Case presentation A 23 year-old gravida 1 woman with primary lipoprotein lipase deficiency was seen at 7 weeks of gestation in the Lipid Clinic for management of severe hypertriglyceridemia that had worsened with pregnancy. While on her habitual fat intake of 10% of total calories, her pregnancy resulted in an exacerbation of the hypertriglyceridemia, which prompted further restriction of fat intake to Conclusions An extremely low fat diet in combination with topical sunflower oil and gemfibrozil administration was safely implemented in pregnancy associated with the severe hypertriglyceridemia of lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

  1. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Anderson Gregory J; Veldee Megan Y; Brown Judy A; Tsai Elaine C; Chait Alan; Brunzell John D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet (< 10% of calories) is the primary treatment modality for the prevention of acute pancreatitis, a rare but potentially serious complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Since pregnancy can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia in the genetic absence of lipoprotein lipase, a further reduction of dietary fat intake to < 1–2% of tota...

  2. A social marketing campaign to promote low-fat milk consumption in an inner-city Latino community.

    Wechsler, H; Wernick, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed the Lowfat Milk Campaign, a multifaceted social marketing campaign to promote the use of low-fat milk in the Washington Heights-Inwood neighborhood of New York City, a low-income, inner-city, Latino community. The campaign was designed for implementation by the Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program, a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention agency. The first phase of the campaign began in November 1990. A followup phase for the period 1991-92 is in progress. The campaign focuses on a clear, relatively easily accomplished behavioral change, a switch by consumers of whole milk to low-fat milk, which may significantly reduce the fat consumption of persons in such a population, particularly children. The campaign strategy featured a mix of traditional health education methods, intensive local information media publicity, and innovative marketing techniques. In addition to increasing consumer demand for low-fat milk, the campaign successfully promoted institutional changes that are expected to facilitate healthy dietary choices in the future by members of the study population. Schools and other institutions that serve milk have been persuaded to begin offering low-fat milk in addition to, or instead of, whole milk. An essential component of campaign strategy was building support from key community organizations and leaders. Significant assistance was provided by the local school district, parents associations, churches, newspapers, radio stations, fraternal organizations, and a coalition of child care agencies. The campaign demonstrates a cost effective and culturally sensitive approach to promoting important cardiovascular health behavior changes by an underserved population. PMID:1561304

  3. Role of nitrogen addition in stabilizing the {gamma} phase of Biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy

    Li, Y.P., E-mail: lyping@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Yu, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan (China); Kurosu, S.; Koizumi, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Matsumoto, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan (China); Chiba, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D atomic probe observation + thermodynamic calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N addition does not change the Gibbs energy of alloy system greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generate the energy barrier by formation of N-Cr cluster. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N addition stabilizes the {gamma} phase of Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transition slows down but the transition point does not change with N addition. - Abstract: Three-dimensional atom probe observations and thermodynamic calculations revealed that the mechanism of {gamma}-phase stabilization by N addition in the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy is different from that in stainless steel: N addition does not lower the free energy of the {gamma} phase in Co-29Cr-6Mo but increases the energy barrier and thus lowers the kinetic rate of the {gamma} {yields} {epsilon} transition through the formation of Cr-N short range order.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 and its upconversion properties

    Di, Qiu-Mei; Sun, Yu-Mei; Xu, Qi-Guang; Han, Liu; Xue, Bing; Sun, Jia-Yue

    2015-06-01

    Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 phosphors with different morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method. The dendrites present different morphologies (including hexagonal prisms, spindles, and spheres) after changing the pH value and edetate disodium (EDTA) usage. It is found that each of the two factors plays a crucial role in forming different morphologies. The up-conversion (UC) luminescence is studied. Under 980-nm semiconductor laser excitation, relatively strong blue emission and weak red emission are observed. Finally, the effect of pumping power on the UC luminescence properties and the level diagram mechanism of Gd6MoO12:Yb3+/Tm3+ phosphor are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20976002), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2122012), the Key Projects for Science and Technology of Beijing Education Commission, China (Grant No. KZ201310011013), and the Education and Research Fund of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011B090400100).

  5. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process for dental applications.

    Takaichi, Atsushi; Suyalatu; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Joko, Natsuka; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Migita, Satoshi; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2013-05-01

    The selective laser melting (SLM) process was applied to a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy, and its microstructure, mechanical properties, and metal elution were investigated to determine whether the fabrication process is suitable for dental applications. The microstructure was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile test. Dense builds were obtained when the input energy of the laser scan was higher than 400 J mm⁻³, whereas porous builds were formed when the input energy was lower than 150 J mm⁻³. The microstructure obtained was unique with fine cellular dendrites in the elongated grains parallel to the building direction. The γ phase was dominant in the build and its preferential orientation was confirmed along the building direction, which was clearly observed for the builds fabricated at lower input energy. Although the mechanical anisotropy was confirmed in the SLM builds due to the unique microstructure, the yield strength, UTS, and elongation were higher than those of the as-cast alloy and satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO22764. Metal elution from the SLM build was smaller than that of the as-cast alloy, and thus, the SLM process for the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy is a promising candidate for fabricating dental devices. PMID:23500549

  6. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort

    Jordi Merino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemic (HTG includes a well-balanced diet, although the association of dietary components with triglyceride (TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients is not fully understood. Objective: To describe the main dietary patterns in a cohort of hypertriglyceridaemic patients and to evaluate the association between dietary components and TG levels. Methods: This multicentre cross-sectional study included subjects (n = 1.394 with HTG (TG > 2.25 mmol/L visiting lipid units affiliated with the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society. A validated 14-item food questionnaire was performed to assess diet. Clinical, anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also obtained. Results: Two dietary patterns were defined a posteriori by cluster analysis. Patients following the "prudent dietary pattern" (predominantly fish, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and legumes had lower TG levels than those with the "western dietary pattern" (predominantly red and processed meat products, alcohol, cakes and pastries and sugar (3.51 ± 2.41 vs. 3.96 ± 3.61 mmol/L, P = 0.002. In a multivariant test, low-fat dairy products (B: -0.089; 95% IC: -16.1, -3.1, P = 0.004 and alcohol intake (B: 0.070; 95% IC: 1.1, 13.1, P = 0.022 were significantly associated with TG concentrations independently of potential confounders. Conclusions: Mediterranean dietary pattern including low-fat dairy products and abstaining from alcohol intake is highly associated with lower TG concentration in hypertriglyceridaemic patients even under lipid-lowering treatment. The reinforcement in nutritional counselling mainly in these food groups should be done and further specifically studies about the direct association of these and other dietary groups should be carried out to the development of more effective nutritional recommendations.

  7. Effect of a low-fat diet combined with IGF-1 receptor blockade on 22Rv1 prostate cancer xenografts

    Konijeti, Ramdev; Koyama, Satomi; Gray, Ashley; Barnard, R. James; Said, Jonathan W; Castor, Brandon; Elashoff, David; Wan, Junxiang; Beltran, Pedro J.; Calzone, Frank J; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette; Aronson, William J.

    2012-01-01

    In pre-clinical models, both dietary fat reduction and IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) blockade individually inhibit prostate cancer xenograft growth. We hypothesized that a low-fat diet combined with IGF-1R blockade would cause additive inhibition of prostate cancer growth and offset possible untoward metabolic effects of IGF-1R blockade antibody therapy. Fifty SCID mice were injected with 22Rv1 cells subcutaneously. Ten days post-injection, the animals were randomized to four groups: 1) high fat di...

  8. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet

    Martin, C. K.; Rosenbaum, D.; Han, H.; Geiselman, P.; Wyatt, H; Hill, J.; Brill, C; Bailer, B.; Miller, B. V.; R. Stein; Klein, S; Foster, Gard D.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n=134) or a LFD (n=136) for two years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated d...

  9. Clinical trial evaluating cholestyramine to prevent diarrhea in patients maintained on low-fat diets during pelvic radiation therapy

    A prospective randomized trial to determine the value of a low fat diet with or without cholestyramine in the treatment of acute intestinal complications of pelvic irradiation is presented. A total of 35 patients receiving pelvic irradiation were entered in the study and all patients had received a 40 gm fat diet. The group was then randomized to receive either placebo (17 patients) or cholestyramine (18 patients). Diarrhea occurred in six out of 16 evaluable patients in the control group and only one of the 17 evaluable patients in the cholestyramine group. The frequency of diarrhea and the diarrhea scale remained high in the placebo group in the entire observation period. Statistical analysis had revealed better diarrhea control in the cholestyramine group. In this report mechanism by which diarrhea occurs following pelvic irradiation is discussed. The adverse effects associated with the use of cholestyramine have been presented. It was concluded that cholestyramine is effective in preventing acute diarrhea induced by pelvic irradiation in patients receiving a low fat diet but is associated with side effects

  10. Low-fat Angiomyolipoma of the Liver Studied with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Multidetector Computed Tomography

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with persistent pain at the right hypochondrium, relapsing fever, and normal serum tests. Ultrasound showed a hyperechoic inhomogeneous mass; following sulfur hexafluoride injection, uniform enhancement at 14-16 s and rapid wash-out at 26 s was found. Multidetector computed tomography showed an inhomogeneously hypodense mass, with no detectable negative density values, characterized by inhomogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase and wash-out at the portal phase. Histopathology demonstrated a hepithelioid angiomyolipoma with a poor fatty component. This diagnosis should always be considered in the presence of a very rapid wash-out after intravenous contrast injection. However, a hepatocellular carcinoma cannot be excluded and the final diagnosis of low-fat angiomyolipoma must be pathologically proved based on immunohistochemistry

  11. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. PMID:27258146

  12. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (Pfermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (Pproducts did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable. PMID:23756569

  13. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Seon-Young; Min, Hyesun

    2013-01-01

    We compared the preventive capacity of high intakes of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats received the low fat (10% of total calories) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group, 36% of total calories) or ethanol in combination with VC (Alc + VC group, 40 mg VC/100 g body weight) or VE (Alc + VE group, 0.8 mg VE/100 g body weight). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid di...

  14. Physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat cupuaçu and açaí nectar: characterization and changes during storage

    Eneide Taumaturgo Macambira Braga FERNANDES; Maciel, Vlayrton Tomé; Maria Luzenira de SOUZA; Cydia de Menezes FURTADO; Lucia Helena de Oliveira WADT; Clarissa Reschke da CUNHA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar, as well as changes in these parameters during storage. Nectars were prepared with açaí pulp previously defatted by centrifugation on a pilot scale. The study consisted of two steps. In the first step, the physicochemical characteristics, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the nectar prepared with low-fat açaí pulp were evaluated and compared with t...

  15. Long-term corrosion investigation of AISI 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in simulated body solutions

    The long-term weight loss, ion release and surface composition of AISI 316L, the Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated in phosphate buffered solutions (PBS) with various bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentrations. All the samples lost weight up to 14 weeks and then started to gain weight. This can be explained by precipitation of dissolved ions on the surface after 14 weeks of immersion. The quantities of the dissolved ions were measured in immersed solution for 8, 14 and 22 weeks by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The amounts of Fe released from 316L, and Co and Mo released from the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy decreased after 14 weeks of immersion in PBS and BSA solutions. This observation coincides with the weight change of the samples. The oxide layer composition and concentration of the specimens exposed to solutions for 22 weeks were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The XPS results revealed that chromium is the main component of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The high Cr concentration of the 316L and Co-Cr-Mo oxide layer corresponds with the slow dissolution rate of Cr compared to other alloying elements of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

  16. Weight loss on an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet in overweight sedentary men.

    Drummond, Sandra; Dixon, Kathryn; Griffin, Jane; De Looy, Anne

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom, the search for an effective weight reducing diet is a priority in helping to reverse this trend. A 12-week dietary intervention study was carried out to test the effectiveness of an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet on weight loss in sedentary overweight men. The study also aimed to assess eating behaviour, to measure change in attitude towards sugar-containing foods and to measure the impact of the study on perceived quality of life. Subjects were recruited from three UK cities; Edinburgh, Birmingham and London. Seventy-six men, aged between 25 and 60 years, completed the study. Baseline diets were assessed by a 7-day diet diary. Compliance to the subsequent dietary advice was measured on four occasions post intervention, by 4-day diaries. Measures of body weight status were also monitored. Eating behaviour, attitudes towards sugar-containing foods and quality of life were assessed by questionnaire. Significant reductions in body weight (5.2%), body fat (11.2%) and waist:hip ratio (3%) were observed following reported dietary changes that included a reduction in reported energy intake of 3.2 MJ/day (770 kcal/day), a reduction in the percent energy from fat (from 38.1% to 26.2%), an increase in the percent energy from total carbohydrate (from 44.4% to 54%) and from protein (from 17.3% to 20.6%). Subjects scored relatively highly for dietary restraint and emotional eating, and were strongly influenced by external eating cues. On completion of the 12-week study, subjects had a more positive attitude towards sugar-containing foods and perceived an improved quality of life. It is concluded, therefore, that including sugar-containing foods in a weight-reducing diet may be an effective strategy to achieve a palatable, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, which promotes weight loss in overweight individuals. PMID:15369982

  17. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  18. Low-fat dietary pattern and change in body-composition traits in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial123

    Carty, Cara L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley; Howard, Barbara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley AA; Snetselaar, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Allison, Matthew; Budrys, Nicole; Prentice, Ross; Peters, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (≤20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.

  19. A Low-fat Liquid Diet Increases Protein Accretion and Alters Cellular Signaling for Protein Synthesis in 10-day-old Pigs

    Previous research shows that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine if a high-(25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet ...

  20. Analyzing Serum-Stimulated Prostate Cancer Cell Lines After Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet and Exercise Intervention

    Sherry Soliman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum from men undergoing a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise intervention has previously been shown to decrease growth and increase apoptosis in serum-stimulated, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells associated with a reduction in serum IGF-I. Here we sought to determine the underlying mechanisms for these anticancer effects. Again, the intervention slowed growth and increased apoptosis in LNCaP cells; responses that were eliminated when IGF-I was added back to the post-intervention samples. The p53 protein content was increased and NFκB activation reduced in the post serum-stimulated LNCaP cells. Similar results were observed when the IGF-I receptor was blocked in the pre-intervention serum. In androgen-independent PC-3 cells, growth was reduced while none of the other factors were changed by the intervention. We conclude that diet and exercise intervention might help prevent clinical PCa as well as aid in the treatment of PCa during the early stages of development.

  1. Effect of whey protein coating on quality attributes of low-fat, aerobically packaged sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Shon, J; Chin, K B

    2008-08-01

    Whey protein-based edible coating was used to reduce oxidative degradation and microbial growth of low-fat sausages (LFSs) stored at 4 degrees C for 8 wk, under aerobic package. Whey protein coating reduced (P<0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) formation compared to control sausages. The percent inhibition of TBARS and PV for whey protein-coated sausages, compared to the control, was 31.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The ability of the whey protein coating to provide a moisture barrier for the sausages was reduced (P<0.05). In addition, a reduction of moisture loss by 36.7% compared to the control was achieved by whey coating. However, whey protein coating of LFSs did not inhibit the growth of either the total number of aerobic bacteria or of Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicated that whey protein coating had an antioxidative activity in LFSs under aerobic package during refrigerated storage. PMID:19241536

  2. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts. PMID:25857984

  3. Value of T2-weighted MR imaging in differentiating low-fat renal angiomyolipomas from other renal tumors

    Background: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of fat scanty angiomyolipomas is an important clinical issue. By evaluating the low signal intensity of angiomyolipomas in MR T2-weighted images the diagnostic accuracy can be elevated. Purpose: To retrospectively assess the usefulness of T2-weighted MR imaging for differentiating low-fat angiomyolipomas (AMLs) from other renal tumors. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 71 patients with surgically proven renal masses (10 AMLs, 57 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs], and four oncocytomas), all of which showed no visible fat as well as gradual enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced CT. Signal intensity was measured in each renal mass and in the spleen on T2-weighted images, and each signal intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated; SIR values were then compared in the AML and non-AML groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the two parameters for differentiating the two groups. Results: The SIR values (77 ± 24% vs. 162 ± 79%, p = 0.002) were significantly lower in the AML than in the non-AML group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.926 for SIR. The sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of AMLs were 90% and 90.2%, using SIR cut-off of 92.5%. Conclusion: Signal intensity measurements on T2-weighted MR images can differentiate AML from non-AML in the kidney

  4. Characterization of the Alpha-Beta and Martensitic Transformations en the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo Alloy

    Tarín Remohí, Pascual; Alonso, I.; García Simón, Antonio; Badía Pérez, José María; Martín Piris, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    A Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–6Mo (wt.%) alloy has been subjected to different thermal treatments of solution and aging leading to different amounts and distribution of untransformed _-phase, _-phase and martensite. In order to study the _-phase transformation, and thus to evaluate its kinetic behaviour, its characteristics and its influence in subsequent transformations, dilatometric analysis tests, metallographic studies, hardness, and conductivity measurements have been performed.

  5. The determination of the equations of state of gaseous UF6, MoF6, WF6, ClF3 with dielectric method

    The technique for measuring dielectric constants was used to determine the molar polarization, non ideality and dipole moment of UF6, MoF6, WF6, CIF3. Comparisons are made between these non-ideality parameters and those obtained by Magnuson and volumetric method. It is demonstrated that dielectric non-ideality parameters of these gases are unsettled by an adsorption phenomena on the electrodes. (author)

  6. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  7. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  8. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  9. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets improve wound healing and increase protein levels in surgically stressed rats.

    Nirgiotis, J G; Hennessey, P J; Black, C T; Andrassy, R J

    1991-08-01

    The specific effects of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on wound healing, nutrition status, or immune function are controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fatty acid supplementation on wound healing and nitrogen retention in a surgically stressed rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250 g) were placed into three isocaloric, isonitrogenous feeding groups (controls [standard Vivonex]; 30% safflower oil [omega 6]; or 30% fish oil [omega 3]) for 8 days prior to receiving subcutaneous vascular graft wound cylinders in their dorsal midline. Nitrogen balance was monitored daily. Wounds healed for 10 days, animals were then euthanized, serum was drawn, and wound cylinders were harvested for analyses. The low-fat, high-carbohydrate control group had higher serum albumin levels at 10 days than either fatty acid-supplemented group (3.5 +/- 0.4 g/dL v 2.9 +/- 0.3 g/dL and 2.7 +/- 0.2 g/dL, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively; both P less than .05) and had better nitrogen balance (8.6 +/- 0.8 mg N/d v -2.6 +/- 0.9 mg N/d and 0.8 +/- 1.2 mg N/d, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively; both P less than .05). They also had better healed wounds at 10 days (450 +/- 290 micrograms 5-hydroxyproline [OHP]/cm of wound cylinder v 150 +/- 40 micrograms OHP/cm and 145 +/- 90 micrograms OHP/cm, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively). Surgically stressed rats had higher protein levels, better nitrogen balance, and improved wound healing when fed a diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat. PMID:1919985

  10. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation

    Delgado Pando, G.; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, C.; Solas, M. Teresa; Triki, M.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Oil (healthier lipid combination of olive, linseed and fish oils)-in-water emulsions stabilized with different protein systems (prepared with sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein isolate (SPI), and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)) were used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat frankfurters. Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation of frankfurters were analyzed and found to be affected by the type of oil-in-water emulsion and by chil...

  11. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

    Elba Mauriz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Methods: A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study involving 9 participants, 5 of them assigned to the intervention group (low-fat diet and antioxidant supplementation and the other 4 to the placebo group (low-fat diet. The effect of the dietary intervention, involving diet modification and antioxidant supplementation, was examined for 42 days by measuring anthropometric, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in blood at baseline (day 0, intermediate (day 15 and end (day 42 stages of the treatment. Results: The intervention group obtained C reactive protein levels significantly lower than those observed in the corresponding placebo group at the end of the study. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and interleukine IL-6 values also diminished after dietary intervention in the intervention group. Catalase activity increased significantly in the intervention group prior antioxidant supplementation. No significant differences were observed in other oxida-tive stress markers. Conclusions: The results suggest that diet and dietary supplements are involved in cell metabolism modulation and MS-related inflammatory processes. Consequently, low fat diets and antioxidant supplements may be used as complementary therapies for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  12. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

    Elba Mauriz; A. Laliena; Vallejo, D.; M. J. Tuñón; J. M. Rodríguez-López; R. Rodríguez-Pérez; M. C. García-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized pat...

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract with Daily Consumption of a Low-Fat Probiotic Spread▿

    Dommels, Yvonne E. M.; Kemperman, Robèr A; Zebregs, Yvonne E. M. P.; Draaisma, René B; Jol, Arne; Wolvers, Danielle A. W.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Albers, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, probiotic strains should be able to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Human gastrointestinal tract survival of probiotics in a low-fat spread matrix has, however, never been tested. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study was to test the human gastrointestinal tract survival of Lactobacillus...

  14. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Sacks Frank M; Vollmer William M; Svetkey Laura P

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat) or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pr...

  15. The Effect of Strict Adherence to a High-Fiber, High-Fruit and -Vegetable, and Low-Fat Eating Pattern on Adenoma Recurrence

    Leah B. Sansbury; Wanke, Kay; Albert, Paul S.; Kahle, Lisa; Schatzkin, Arthur; Lanza, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in dietary intake are thought to account for substantial variation in cancer incidence. However, there has been a consistent lack of effect for low-fat, high-fiber dietary interventions and risk of colorectal cancer. These inconsistencies may reflect the multistage process of cancer as well as the range and timing of dietary change. Another potential reason for the lack of effect is poor dietary adherence among participants in these trials. The authors examined the effe...

  16. Postprandial de novo lipogenesis and metabolic changes induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal in lean and overweight men

    I. Marques-Lopes; D. Ansorena; Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); L. Forga; J. A. Martinez

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjustments of carbohydrate intake and oxidation occur in both normal-weight and overweight individuals. Nevertheless, the contribution of carbohydrates to the accumulation of fat through either reduction of fat oxidation or stimulation of fat synthesis in obesity remains poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the postprandial metabolic changes and the fractional hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat...

  17. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  18. o-ZrWl.6Mo0.408: A Novel Orthorhombic Intermediate Phase Formed During the Synthesis of the Negative Thermal Expansion Cubic ZrWl.6Mo0.4O8 Material by the Precursor Dehydration Route

    赵新华; 黄令; 刘鹏辉; 马辉

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of the precursor dehydration route was revealed for the synthesis of NTE c-ZrW1.6Mo0.4O8. The hydrate precursor was dehydrated at 473 K and transformed to a NTE cubic compound above 800 K. A novel intermediate phase o-ZrWl.6Mo0.4O8 occurs between the temperature range of 573-800 K. The XRD pattern of novel intermediate was refined with the structural model of LT-ZrMo2O8 by using Rietveld method.The residuals are Rwp=7.80% and Rp=5.79%. The space group is Pmn21 and the lattice parameters are α=0.5917(4)nm, b=0.7273(4) nm, c =0.9148(6) nm, and Z=2.

  19. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet.

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Seon-Young; Min, Hyesun

    2013-04-01

    We compared the preventive capacity of high intakes of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on oxidative stress and liver toxicity in rats fed a low-fat ethanol diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats received the low fat (10% of total calories) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group, 36% of total calories) or ethanol in combination with VC (Alc + VC group, 40 mg VC/100 g body weight) or VE (Alc + VE group, 0.8 mg VE/100 g body weight). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with the Alc group. Ethanol administration induced a modest increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated dienes (CD), and triglycerides but decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) in plasma. VE supplementation to alcohol-fed rats restored the plasma levels of AST, CD, and TRAP to control levels. However, VC supplementation did not significantly influence plasma ALT, AST, or CD. In addition, a significant increase in plasma aminothiols such as homocysteine and cysteine was observed in the Alc group, but cysteinylglycine and glutathione (GSH) did not change by ethanol feeding. Supplementing alcohol-fed rats with VC increased plasma GSH and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, but plasma levels of aminothiols, except GSH, were not influenced by either VC or VE supplementation in ethanol-fed rats. These results indicate that a low-fat ethanol diet induces oxidative stress and consequent liver toxicity similar to a high-fat ethanol diet and that VE supplementation has a protective effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver toxicity. PMID:23610603

  20. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products. PMID:27478213

  1. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiova...

  2. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  3. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    Tang, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Jin-Zhang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (...

  4. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  5. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    Hu, Tian; Mills, Katherine T.; Yao, Lu; Demanelis, Kathryn; Eloustaz, Mohamed; Yancy, William S; Kelly, Tanika N.; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate diets (≤45% of energy from carbohydrates) versus low-fat diets (≤30% of energy from fat) on metabolic risk factors were compared in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-three trials from multiple countries with a total of 2,788 participants met the predetermined eligibility criteria (from January 1, 1966 to June 20, 2011) and were included in the analyses. Data abstraction was conducted in duplicate by independent investigators. Both low-carb...

  6. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul; Delgado-Suarez, J. Enrique; Gutierrez-Pabello, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum p...

  7. Use of microparticulated whey protein concentrate, exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus, and adjunct cultures for making low-fat Italian Caciotta-type cheese

    Di Cagno, R.; De Pasquale, I.; De Angelis, M.; Buchin, Solange; Rizzello, C. G.; Gobbetti, M

    2014-01-01

    Low-fat Caciotta-type cheeses were manufactured with partially skim milk (fat content of similar to 0.3%) alone (LFC); with the supplementation of 0.5% (wt/vol) microparticulated whey protein concentrate (MWPC) (LFC-MWPC); with MWPC and exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus ST446 (LFC-MWPC-EPS); and with MWPC, EPS-producing strain ST446, and Lactobacillus plantarum LP and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRA as adjunct cultures (LFC-MWPC-EPS-A). The non-EPS-producing isogenic v...

  8. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Xing-chun Zhu; Jia Lin; Qian Wang; Hui Liu; Li Qiu; Ding-zhi Fang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein...

  9. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Shuichi Ohtomo; Yuko Izuhara; Masaomi Nangaku; Takashi Dan; Sadayoshi Ito; Charles van Ypersele de Strihou; Toshio Miyata

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poor...

  10. Low-fat pork liver pâtés enriched with n-3 PUFA/konjac gel: dynamic rheological properties and technological behaviour during chill storage.

    Delgado-Pando, G; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2012-09-01

    Low-fat pork liver pâtés enriched with n-3 PUFA/konjac gel were formulated by replacing (total or partially) pork backfat by a combination of healthier oils (olive, linseed and fish oils) and konjac gel. Dynamic rheological properties and technological behaviour of pâtés during chill storage (2 °C, 85 days) were analysed. Cooking yields were affected (Pkonjac gel could provide a mixture of ingredients that effectively mimics the normal animal fat content in pâtés. PMID:22542074

  11. Preparation on the low-fat ice cream of pumpkin%南瓜低脂冰淇淋的生产工艺研究

    马川兰; 崔惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Fresh mellow pumpkin was chosen as the raw material of producing low-fat ice cream, while part milk fat was replaced by artificial butter. At the same time, with the sensory quality and expansion rate as evaluation targets, the best formula of the healthy low- fat ice cream was obtained by the orthogonal experiment method: which was the whole milk powder 12%, the pumpkin pulp 20%, CMC 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.10%, artificial butter 3.5%, the white sugar 13%.%选取新鲜成熟南瓜为原料,以人造奶油代替部分乳脂,依据感官质量及膨胀率作为评价指标,通过正交实验获得南瓜保健冰淇淋的最佳配方为:全脂乳粉12%,南瓜浆20%,CMC0.15%,黄原胶0.10%,人造奶油3.5%,白砂糖13%。

  12. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and κ-carrageenan by a mixture design approach.

    García-García, Elizabeth; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2008-04-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt did not allow complete starch granule gelatinization and swelling, which negatively affected water retention, cohesiveness and lightness. Locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan improved cooking yield and reduced expressible moisture in formulations containing higher proportions of potato starch. The presence of other ions could have enhanced κ-carrageenan functionality and its synergistic interaction with locust bean gum, improving texture and water retention, with only minor effects on sausage color. At the lower tested proportions starch can be used as an extender in low-fat cooked meat products if κ-carrageenan and locust bean gum are included in similar proportions. PMID:22062459

  13. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 [69 to 304] mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress

  14. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  15. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. Objective: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weightloss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle....... Conclusion: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. Design: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...

  16. Kinetics of volatile fluoride desorption from granular sodium fluoride. Part II. Desorption of WF6, MoF6, and HF

    Desorption of tungsten hexafluoride, molybdenum hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride sorbed on granulated sodium fluoride was studied in the temperature ranges 563-583 K, 463-483 K and 460-490 K respectively. It was ascertained that the process of WF6 and MoF6 desorption is limited by diffusion of the sorbate molecules from the bulk of sodium fluoride granules and it takes place in two stages. Chemical reaction of NaF · HF complex decomposition is the limiting stage of HF desorption. The values of apparent activation energy of WF6, MoF6 and HF desorption amounted to 95200 ± 2000 J/mol, 55000 ± 2500 J/mol and 88500 ± 1500 J/mol, respectively

  17. Infrared spectra of UF6, WF6, MoF6, and SF6 complexes with hydrogen fluoride in solid argon

    UF6, WF6, MoF6, and SF6 have been codeposited with hydrogen fluoride in excess argon at 12 K. The FTIR spectra of UF6 and HF revealed a strong UF6-HF complex absorption at 3,848 cm-1 along with a weak, broad band at 3,903 cm-1 due to the UF6-FH complex. Only one 1:2 complex with a UF6-HaF-HbF arrangement was detected at higher HF concentrations and sample annealings. Similarly, the HF interaction with tungsten hexafluoride formed two 1:1 complexes. However, the 3,884-cm-1 band due to the anti-hydrogen-bonded complex WF6-FH was considerably stronger than the WF6-FHb-FHa structure. The band positions and relative intensities for the MoF6 complexes with HF and DF were very comparable to their WF6 counterparts

  18. Molecular beam study of the reactions of K and Cs with UF6, WF6, MoF6, TeF6, and SeF6

    The reactions of K and Cs with UF6, WF6, MoF6, TeF6, SeF6, and SF6 at thermal energies have been investigated using crossed molecular beams. Except for SF6, these hexafluorides have remarkably high electron affinities. In fact, the electron affinities of MoF6, WF6, and UF6 exceed the ionization potentials of K and Cs so that spontaneous ion pair formation is energetically possible. In no case was a significant ion current observed. Instead, exchange reactions to form MF (and possibly MAF5) are observed. The measured product angular distributions were in all cases found to be consistent with the model of complex formation. However, substantial differences in the nature of the complex disintegration were noted

  19. Evaluation of HIP-plus-forged Ti--6Al--2Sn--4Zr--6Mo discs made from REP power preforms

    An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the forgeability, the structural characteristics, and the mechanical properties of Ti--6Al--2Sn--4Zr--6Mo disk forgings processed from rotating electrode process-hot isostatic pressing (REP-HIP) powder preforms. It was shown that the powder preforms exhibited excellent forgeability in both (α+β) and β ranges. Among various processing conditions examined, the as (α+β) forged powder preforms gave the best room temperature and high temperature tensile properties. However, the optimum combination of tensile properties, creep strength and stability, and fracture toughness was obtained for as β-forged disks. The results also demonstrated that the powder forgings are very sensitive to heat treatment, and the tensile ductility varies significantly with specimen orientation. Additional observations are made on the die-chilled surface layers in the β-processed forgings

  20. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  1. Enriched n-3 PUFA/konjac gel low-fat pork liver pâté: lipid oxidation, microbiological properties and biogenic amine formation during chilling storage.

    Delgado-Pando, G; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2012-12-01

    Low-fat pork liver pâtés enriched with n-3 PUFA/konjac gel were formulated by replacing (totally or partially) pork backfat by a combination of healthier oils (olive, linseed and fish oils) and konjac gel. Lipid oxidation, microbiological changes and biogenic amine (BA) formation were studied in healthier-lipid pâtés during chill storage (85 days, 2 °C). Increasing unsaturated fatty acid levels favoured lipid oxidation, although the levels reached were low throughout the storage period, ranging from 0.113 to 0.343 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample. Neither the formulation nor the time in storage affected the microbial load. Biogenic amine contents of products (the sum of initial concentrations and amines formed during storage) varied according to the type of BA but were far below levels that could constitute a consumer health hazard. PMID:22795631

  2. Physicochemical and textural properties of ultrasound-degraded konjac flour and their influences on the quality of low-fat Chinese-style sausage.

    Lin, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Chiu-Ying

    2008-08-01

    Physical and textural properties of varying molecular-weight konjac gels made by ultrasonic degradation were compared and gels were processed into low-fat Chinese-style sausages for the evaluation of textural and sensory characteristics. Results showed that as molecular weights decreased, storage modulus and loss modulus of konjac gels of varying molecular weights declined, indicating more elastic and viscous konjac gels. Shear values and textural springiness and cohesiveness of Chinese sausage were similar among all treatments. All treatments were found to have similar juiciness and overall acceptability scores. Results indicated that konjac gels with varying molecular weights could be used to partially replace pork fat to achieve similar textural properties. Incorporation of konjac gels with varying molecular weights at the current levels showed similar textural and sensory quality characteristics to the high-fat control, and contained less fat than traditional Chinese sausage. PMID:22063022

  3. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  4. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (PLSAT diet (PLSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  5. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  6. Supramolecular assembly based on a heteropolyanion: Synthesis and crystal structure of Na3(H2O)6[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Samar K Das

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a polyoxometalate compound Na3(H2O)6 [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O (1) have been described. Compound 1 exhibits three-dimensional network structure in the solid state, which is assembled by Anderson-type heteropolyanions, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$_n^{3n-}$, as building blocks sharing sodium cations. 1 possesses ``sinuous" channels occupied by supramolecular water dimers as guests. Anderson anions, sodium-coordinated water and crystal water are additionally involved in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the crystal of 1.

  7. Structure and Tensile Properties of 32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N Austenitic Cryogenic Steel%32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N奥氏体低温钢的组织和拉伸性能

    付瑞东; 任一宾; 郑炀曾

    2001-01-01

    用材料试验机、SEM、TEM和X-射线分析研究了32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N奥氏体钢的组织和从室温到77K的拉伸性能。结果表明:随着温度的降低,屈服强度(σ0.2)和抗拉强度(σb)显著上升,延伸率(δ5)和断面收缩率(Ψ)略有减少;77K温度变形前后均为单相奥氏体组织,韧窝断口占主导并混有少量准解理小刻面的韧性断裂特征。%The tensile properties from 293K to 77K and structure ofaustenitic cryogenic steel 32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N by tensile test, SEM, TEM and X-ray analysis have been studied. The results showed that with the temperature decreasing, the yield and tensile strength increased appreciably, and the elongation and reduction of area decreased slightly. The structure of steel was single austenitic phase in deforming at 77K, and the fracture at 77K was tough feature with minor quasi-cleavage plane.

  8. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Sanaz Mehrabani; Amin Salehi-Abargouei; Mehdi Asemi; Sepideh Mehrabani; Awat Feizi; Seyyed Morteza Safavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two...

  9. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling;

    2008-01-01

    monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped......BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... changes in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Diet composition had no major effect on preventing weight regain. However, both the LF and MUFA diets produced less body fat regain than did the control diet, and the dropout rate was lowest in the LF diet group, whereas fasting insulin decreased and the homeostasis...

  10. Effects of surface friction treatment on the in vitro release of constituent metals from the biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.16N alloy.

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Yunping; Hou, Yuhang; Bian, Huakang; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Due to the ignorance by many researchers on the influence of starting microstructure on the metal release of biomedical materials in human body after implant, in this study, the effect of surface friction treatment on the in vitro release of the constituent elements of the biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.16N (CCM) alloy is investigated for the first time by immersion test in lactic acid solution combined with electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-EOS). The results indicate that friction treatment on the as-annealed CCM alloy sample surface leads to a planar strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) on sample surface; this greatly accelerates the release of all the constituent elements and, in particular, that of Co as indicated by the ICP-EOS analysis. This increase can be ascribed to a localized deformation that occurred over the entire sample surface, with the dislocation density being high within the SIMTed phase and low in the alloy matrix. PMID:27127052

  11. Effects of Withdrawal Rate and Temperature Gradient on the Microstructure Evolution in Directionally Solidified NiAl-36Cr-6Mo Hypereutectic Alloy

    Shang, Zhao; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Wang, Lei; Qin, Ling; Fu, Heng-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of withdrawal rate and temperature gradient on the microstructure and growth interface morphology in directionally solidified Ni-29Al-36Cr-6Mo(at.%) hypereutectic alloy were investigated. Under the temperature gradient of 250 K/cm, well-aligned eutectic microstructure with lamellar morphology was obtained at the withdrawal rate of 6 μm/s. When the withdrawal rate was 10 μm/s, the microstructure changed to Cr(Mo) dendrites + eutectic lamellae. With the increasing withdrawal rate, the interdendritic eutectic growth interface changed from planar to cellular, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites became greater, and the microstructure was refined. When the temperature gradient increased to 600 K/cm, the coupled eutectic growth zone of NiAl-Cr(Mo) alloy was expanded; a well-aligned eutectic microstructure could be obtained at higher rate of 10 μm/s. Furthermore, the planar/cellular transition rate of the interdendritic eutectic growth interface increased. Even at the same withdrawal rate, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites was less and the microstructure was finer under the temperature gradient of 600 K/cm.

  12. QUESO PROCESADO LAMINABLE REDUCIDO EN GRASA ELABORADO DE CHANCO Y QUESILLO SLICEABLE LOW FAT PROCESSED CHEESE ELABORATED USING CHANCO AND FRESH CHEESES

    Carmen Brito C

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido al advenimiento explosivo de la comida rápida como pizzas, sandwiches y otros, el procesado laminable ha adquirido gran preponderancia en el mundo, Chile produce principalmente queso fundido untable. Considerando además, los riesgos sobre la salud derivados del consumo excesivo de grasas saturadas, amerita estudiar la factibilidad de producción de fundido laminable de reducida grasa. El objetivo del estudio fue desarrollar un producto con aproximadamente 300g/Kg menos de grasa que el normal, usando Chanco y quesillo. Las materias primas y productos fueron caracterizados física, química y sensorialmente, por métodos estandarizados. Las formulaciones incorporaron Chanco joven, madurado y quesillo, en proporciones 70/30 y 50/30/20, además de goma Guar/Xanthan (G/X y concentrado proteico de suero (CPS. Se logró elaborar queso procesado laminable reducido en grasa, con los tres quesos estudiados, reemplazando 300g/Kg de grasa del producto grasa normal, usando G/X y CPS, donde esta última presentó mejor calidad sensorialDue to the explosive increase of fast food such as pizzas, sandwiches, and others the "sliceable" processed cheese (block has become very important in the world, Chile produces spreadable processed cheese mainly. Futhermore, taking into account the health risks due to the excessive consumption of saturated fat, to study the possibility to produce sliceable low fat processed cheese is higly important. The objective of this study was to produce a cheese with 300g/Kg less fat matter than normal elaborated from Chanco and fresh cheeses. Natural and processed cheeses obtained were characterized according to their physical, chemical and sensorial aspects using standardized methods. Mixtures included young and ripened Chanco and fresh cheeses in the following proportions 70/30 y 50/30/20 and hydrocolloids: Gum Guar/Xanthan (G/X mix and whey protein concentrate (WPC. It is possible to make sliceable low fat processed cheese

  13. Nutritional regulation of cholesterol synthesis and apolipoprotein B kinetics: studies in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and normal subjects treated with a high carbohydrate, low fat diet.

    Stacpoole, P W; von Bergmann, K; Kilgore, L L; Zech, L A; Fisher, W R

    1991-11-01

    High carbohydrate, low fat diets decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) mass in normal subjects and in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). To investigate the mechanisms for these effects, four normal, four FH heterozygous, and one FH homozygous subjects were studied on a basal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat) diet and during continuous nasogastric infusion of Vivonex (90% carbohydrate, 1% fat). For the entire group, the mean changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides were -90, -95, -14 (all P less than 0.01) and +114 (P less than 0.02) mg/dl, respectively. Fecal sterol balance measurements demonstrated a 24% decrease in whole body cholesterol synthesis in normals, from 8.4 +/- 4.4 (mean +/- SD) to 6.4 +/- 1.3 mg/kg per day and in FH subjects, a 58% decrease, from 11.4 +/- 5.6 to 4.8 +/- 1.7 mg/kg per day (both P less than 0.05). ApoB kinetic studies were performed using a [3H]leucine tracer in two normals and three FH heterozygotes on both basal and Vivonex regimens, and the results were analyzed by compartmental modeling using the SAAM program. Total apoB production was not altered in a consistent manner by carbohydrate feeding. ApoB secretion, however, was shifted from the production of small VLDL/IDL-like particles to large VLDL by Vivonex, with an accompanying increase in intrahepatic assemblage time before secretion. In the two normal subjects, Vivonex induced an increase in apoB loss as VLDL/IDL; however, in the FH patients no such loss occurred. A decrease (P less than 0.05) in the residence time of LDL-apoB occurred for all subjects and was the primary determinant of the fall in plasma LDL concentration, since LDL-apoB transport did not change consistently. Thus, in FH patients, a high carbohydrate, low fat diet results in suppression of cholesterol synthesis and a fall in plasma LDL concentration due to an increased plasma clearance rate for

  14. Use of microparticulated whey protein concentrate, exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus, and adjunct cultures for making low-fat Italian Caciotta-type cheese.

    Di Cagno, R; De Pasquale, I; De Angelis, M; Buchin, S; Rizzello, C G; Gobbetti, M

    2014-01-01

    Low-fat Caciotta-type cheeses were manufactured with partially skim milk (fat content of ~0.3%) alone (LFC); with the supplementation of 0.5% (wt/vol) microparticulated whey protein concentrate (MWPC) (LFC-MWPC); with MWPC and exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus ST446 (LFC-MWPC-EPS); and with MWPC, EPS-producing strain ST446, and Lactobacillus plantarum LP and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRA as adjunct cultures (LFC-MWPC-EPS-A). The non-EPS-producing isogenic variant Streptococcus thermophilus ST042 was used for making full-fat Caciotta-type cheese (FFC), LFC, and LFC-MWPC. Cheeses were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, biochemical, texture, volatile components (purge and trap, and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sensory analyses. Compared with FFC and LFC (51.6 ± 0.7 to 53.0 ± 0.9%), the other cheese variants retained higher levels of moisture (60.5 ± 1.1 to 67.5 ± 0.5%). The MWPC mainly contributed to moisture retention. Overall, all LFC had approximately one-fourth (22.6 ± 0.8%) of the fat of FFC. Hardness of cheeses slightly varied over 7d of ripening. Microbial EPS positively affected cheese texture, and the texture of LFC without MWPC or microbial EPS was excessively firm. Free amino acids were at the highest levels in LFC treatments (2,705.8 ± 122 to 3,070.4 ± 123 mg/kg) due to the addition of MWPC and the peptidase activity of adjunct cultures. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, sulfur compounds, and short- to medium-chain carboxylic acids differentiated LFC variants and FFC. The sensory attributes pleasant to taste, intensity of flavor, overall acceptability, and pleasant to chew variously described LFC-MWPC-EPS and LFC-MWPC-EPS-A. Based on the technology options used, low-fat Caciotta-type cheese (especially ripened for 14 d) has promising features to be further exploited as a suitable alternative to the full-fat variant. PMID:24183686

  15. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  16. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids in rats fed various high fat diets or a low fat/high sucrose diet.

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Haug, A; Eilertsen, E

    1989-03-01

    The effect of feeding various diets on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and on fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was studied in rats fed for 7 wk diets containing 42% of energy as either coconut oil (CO), sunflower seed oil (SO), fish body oil (FBO), cod liver oil (CLO), or a low fat/high sucrose diet (SU). Triacylglycerols (TG) in whole plasma and VLDL + LDL were lower in rats fed high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than in those fed the CO diet. Plasma HDL2 components in FBO and CLO groups were generally lower than in the other groups. Percentages of liver and heart linoleic and arachidonic acid were higher in the SO group, but lower in groups fed marine oils, than in the CO group. There was a high relative amount of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in liver and heart of rats fed marine oils. Fecal excretion of bile acids was lower in the PUFA groups than in the CO group, whereas the sum of neutral sterols was similar in all groups. Plasma HDL2 (and VLDL + LDL) correlated positively, but HDL3 negatively, with fecal bile acid excretion. Accordingly, increased bile acid excretion does not seem to account for hypolipemia following intake of PUFA diets. PMID:2921639

  17. Study on preparing nutritious low-fat bread%低脂型营养面包的制备研究

    陈凤莲; 于晶

    2015-01-01

    To prepare nutritious low-fat bread by wheat bran fat substitute taking the place of fat in formula, applied single factor and orthogonal test method to analyzed sensory and physical characteristics of finial products.The optimal formula and process were:60% fat simulation ( grease) , 45%water, 12%sugar, fermentation time of 3 h.%采用小麦麸皮脂肪模拟品部分代替面包配方中的油脂制备营养低脂型面包,应用单因素和正交试验方法,通过对面包成品进行感官及物理特性的分析,确定最佳制作配方及工艺:脂肪模拟品添加量60%(占油脂)、水添加量45%、糖添加量12%、发酵时间3 h.

  18. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850

  19. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum packed and stored at 4°C and analyzed (moisture, total moisture, expressible moisture, CIE-Lab color, and texture at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. Sensory evaluation was performed at day 1. Results shown that when more cactus pear peel flour was employed, color differences were more marked between treatments, also reflected during sensory evaluation. The other parameters evaluated were not significantly different. As conclusion, cactus pear peel flour can be employed at 2.5% with no effect on sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

  20. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447. PMID:27100182

  1. Effect of high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering

    Wu, Yan [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Research Inst.; Li, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Tong, Lu; Zhao, Xiang [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of a high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering was investigated. The applied high magnetic field promoted the precipitation of M{sub 6}C-type carbides at boundaries and in the grain interior, but maximum spheroidization and refinement occurred for those carbides precipitated at boundaries. Compared with M{sub 6}C-type carbides, the effect of high magnetic field on the precipitation behavior of MC-type carbides is much weaker. The high magnetic field hindered M{sub 2}C-type carbide precipitation by affecting the Gibbs free energy and increased the microhardness of W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel at low tempering temperature.

  2. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y6-xMxMoO12+δ (where M Si4+ or Pr4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si4+ for Y3+ in Y6MoO12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O2p-Mo4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr4+ for Y3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f1 electron energy level of Pr4+ between the valence

  3. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways. PMID:24169960

  4. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  5. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Naval Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions.

  6. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  7. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  8. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  9. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  10. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Volek JS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean s.e.m.: age 33.2 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in men and women

  11. Single crystal structures of pure inorganic nanocomposite [GaO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12][Al(OH)6Mo6O18]2(OH)·30H2O

    Single crystals of nanocomposite [GaO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12][Al(OH)6Mo6O18]2(OH)·30H2O, 2, were obtained by the reaction between [GaO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ and [Mo7O24]6- cluster in an aqueous solution, analogously to the [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12][Al(OH)6Mo6O18]2(OH)·29.5H2O nanocomposite, 1. The crystal structure of 2 was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction; space group C2/c (No.15), a = 27.418(2) A, b = 15.647(2) A, c = 23.960(4) A, β = 102.850(9) .deg. , V = 10,021.5(20) A3, Z = 4. Detailed analysis of the structural data show that the clusters are held by intimate hydrogen bondings of the surface O2- and OH- groups of the clusters as well as the ionic interactions between the oppositely charged cluster ions

  12. In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss

    Guldbrand, Hans; Dizdar, B.; Bunjaku, B.; Lindström, Torbjörn; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Fredrikson, Mats; Östgren, Carl Johan; Nyström, Fredrik H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The study aimed to compare the effects of a 2 year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), based on four group meetings to achieve compliance. Methods This was a prospective randomised parallel trial involving 61 adults with type 2 diabetes consecutively recruited in primary care and randomised by drawing ballots. Patients that did not speak Swedish could not be recruited. The primary outcomes in this non-blinded study were weight and HbA1c. Pa...

  13. Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Guldbrand, Hans; Lindström, Torbjörn; Dizdar, B.; Bunjaku, B.; Östgren, Carl Johan; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD. Methods Prospective, randomized trial of 61 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SF-36 questionnaire was used at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients on LFD aimed for 55–60 energy percent (E%)...

  14. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests. No...... difference in body weight, energy intake or appetite ratings were observed between diets. Both the LF and MUFA diets compared to CTR diet reduced postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia and lowered fasting insulin from month 0 to month 6. Following the 8-week LED period lower levels of the appetite...

  15. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  16. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  17. Molho cremoso à base de extrato de soja: estabilidade, propriedades reológicas, valor nutricional e aceitabilidade do consumidor Soy - based low fat emulsion: stability, rheology, nutritional value and consumer acceptance

    Denise Carvalho Pereira Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na preparação de molhos de salada substitutos da maionese, para reduzir a quantidade de ovos e de óleo são utilizados emulsificantes e espessantes associados ou não à proteína de soja. Neste trabalho, o extrato de soja integral homogeneizado foi utilizado como base para a preparação de emulsão cremosa para substituir a maionese. O extrato de soja foi elaborado com teor de sólidos totais de 6 a 12%, após cozimento em água com bicarbonato, trituração e homogeneização a alta pressão. A emulsão preparada com diversas proporções de extrato de soja e óleos de soja e girassol foi também submetida à homogeneização a alta pressão variando de 1000 a 4000 psi. Na formulação do molho cremoso foram utilizados: açúcar, sal, ácido cítrico e diferentes hidrocolóides como estabilizantes. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto às características nutricionais, sensoriais, reológicas e de estabilidade. As condições mais favoráveis quanto à estabilidade e comportamento reológico para obtenção de molho cremoso foram atingidas quando se utilizou extrato de soja com 10% de sólidos, pressão de homogeneização de 3000 psi e relação extrato:óleo de 70:30, condição que apresentou redução de calorias de até 60%, em relação à maionese. Não foi observada diferença significativa (p The salad dressing preparation, which replaces for replacing the mayonnaise, uses utilizes emulsifiers and thickeners related or not to the soy protein in order to reduce the egg and oil quantity. In the The present work, used homogenized whole soymilk was used to prepare a creamy low-fat emulsion to replace traditional mayonnaise. The whole soymilk was elaborated with 6-12% of solids after cooking with bicarbonate, grinding and homogenizing it under high pressure. The emulsion was prepared with several proportions of soymilk and sunflower and soybean oils and was also submitted to high-pressure homogenization, under high pressure, which varied

  18. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25 adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS; versus control (CON. Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19 were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10, EX (n = 14 or EXFS (n = 14. EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively; EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2 and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10. Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p p p p p p 2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p 2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001. Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8% but was significantly less (p p p Conclusion Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, provision of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate and -fat, nutrient-dense food supplement significantly, 1 modified ad libitum macronutrient and energy intake (behavior effect, 2 improved physiological adaptations to exercise (metabolic advantage, and 3 reduced the variability of individual responses for fat mass, muscle mass and time-to-exhaustion – all three variables improving in 100% of EXFS subjects.

  19. Population Growth of the Generalist Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida) Following Adaptation to High- or Low-Fat and High- or Low-Protein Diets and the Effect of Dietary Switch.

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is a cosmopolitan generalist feeder that prefers foodstuffs of high-fat and high-protein content. Our aim was to investigate the population growth of T. putrescentiae after long-term nutritional adaptation to two distinct diets that are commonly infested in the synanthropic environment. Crushed dry dog food kernels provided a high-fat, high-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, whereas wholemeal spelt flour provided a low-protein, low-fat, and high-carbohydrate diet. After >6 mo of nutritional adaptation, each of the two populations were used in two 28-d population growth tests: one that mites remained on their adaptation diet (homogenous diet treatment) and one that mites underwent a dietary switch (dietary switch treatment). Dietary treatment, nutritional adaptation, and their interaction all significantly influenced population growth. The homogenous diet treatment showed 7.5 times higher growth on the dog food diet than on flour. In the dietary switch, flour-adapted mites switching to dog food experienced five times greater population growth than the flour-adapted mites remained on flour, whereas the dog food-adapted population showed a 2.8-fold decrease in population growth when transferred to the flour. A comparison of means between the two dietary switch treatments showed a 1.9-fold higher population growth after flour-adapted mites were shifted to dog food than when the dog food-adapted mites were shifted to flour. We demonstrated that T. putrescentiae is able survive and reproduce for many generations on dry dog food and flour with different levels of success. High-fat and -protein food accelerated T. putrescentiae population growth compared with the high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:26314031

  20. A novel organic–inorganic hybrid based on Anderson-type polyoxometalate: H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O

    Safa Thabet; Brahim Ayed; Amor Haddad

    2014-10-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound, H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR, UV–Vis spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group -1, with = 8.033(5) Å, = 9.960(4) Å, = 16.797(7) Å, = 73.43(3)°, = 87.85(1)°, = 81.47(1)° and = 1. The crystal structure can be described by infinite polyanions [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3- organized in layers parallel to the -direction alternating with organic cations associated in ribbons spreading along the -direction. Multiple hydrogen bonds originating from amine, hydroxyl groups and water molecules connect different components of the lattice.

  1. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  2. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  3. 骨钙素对高糖低脂饮食引起的糖尿病新西兰兔胰腺的影响%Influence of Osteocalcin on the Pancreas of Diabetic Rats Caused by High Glycemic/Low Fat Diet

    王晓艳; 刘亚林; 朱琳; 陈志刚; 彭耀金

    2012-01-01

    目的:基于一贯性高血糖症能导致胰岛素抵抗的假说,我们研究了高糖低脂饮食导致的非胰岛素依赖糖尿病大鼠的生理功能和组织学改变.方法:取正常新西兰兔24只,随机分为正常组、糖尿病(DM)组、糖尿病骨钙素干预(DM+OCGY)组.采用高唐低脂饮食喂养新西兰兔,建立非胰岛素依赖糖尿病模型.建立模型后,DM+OCGY组腹腔注射骨钙素(2.5 mg/kg·d),DM组腹腔注射相等量生理盐水.一个月后处死新西兰兔.用HE染色方法检测新西兰兔胰腺形态改变.结果:高糖低脂饮食能有效引起新西兰兔血糖的升高,尿糖阳性,HE染色表明胰腺细胞发生相应改变,DM+OCGY组空腹血糖的浓度明显降低,能逆转胰腺的相关改变.结论:高糖低脂饮食能诱导非胰岛素依赖糖尿病的发生,骨钙素对非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病血糖浓度有一定的调节作用.%Objective: Based on the hypothesis that consistent hyperglycemia can result in insulin resistance, we explored the induction of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using diet of high glycemic/low fat index and compared the effects on the physiology and histology of the rats. Methods: The 24 normal New Zealand rats were randomly divided into three groups, the normal group, the diabetes mellitus group(DM) and the osteocalcin treated diabetes mellitus group(DM+OCGY). After the non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model were established by using diet of high glycemic/low fat, DM+OCGY group were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of osteocalcin 2.5mg/kg·d, and the DM group were intraperitoneally injected with equal normal saline. The rats were sacrificed one month later. HE staining method was used to detect the pancreas changes of the rats. Results: The high glycemic/low fat diet could cause the increase of blood sugar level of New Zealand rat. The glycosuria presented to be positive, and the HE staining results showed there were corresponding

  4. Cinética de las Características Físicas de Mantecadas Bajas en Grasa Almacenada en dos tipos de Material de Empaque durante su Vida de Anaquel Kinetics of the Physical Characteristics of Low Fat Muffins Stored in two types of Packing Material during its Shelf Life

    Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la vida de anaquel de mantecadas bajas en grasa y se ha comparado los resultados con los obtenidos para mantecadas con contenido completo de grasa (testigo. Las mantecadas bajas en grasa y las testigo se almacenaron bajo tres condiciones: sin material de empaque, en caja de poliestireno y en bolsa de polipropileno, durante un período de 168 horas, bajo las mismas condiciones de temperatura y de humedad relativa (Tamb = 23º C, HR = 46%. Las variables evaluadas fueron: el peso, el contenido de humedad y el volumen y se obtuvo las curvas de cinética para cada unas de las variables de respuesta. El producto se mantuvo fresco durante 24 h sin material de empaque, 96 h en cajas de poliestireno y 168 h en bolsas de polipropileno, estos resultados fueron corroborados a través de las curvas de cinética obtenidas. La vida de anaquel de las mantecadas empacadas bajas en grasa resultó igual a las de las mantecadas testigo, bajo las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento.The storage life of low fat muffins have been studied and results compared to those obtained for whole muffins, with total fat content (standard. The low fat muffins and the standard ones were stored under three conditions: without packing materials, in polystyrene boxes, and in polypropylene bags at the same temperature and relative humidity (T amb= 23ºC, HR = 46%. The following response variables were evaluated during the storage period: weight, water content and volume of the muffins and the kinetics of such variables was evaluated. Results showed that muffins maintained their freshness during 24 hours without packing material, 96 h in polystyrene boxes and 168 h in polypropylene bags. These results were also observed by the kinetic curves of the response variables. The storage live of the muffins with low and standard fat content were the same under the same storage conditions and packing material.

  5. Nestle: A marketing plan for a healthy low fat yogurt

    Nunes, Filipa de Sena Campas

    2009-01-01

    For a company who aims to be the “world’s leading nutrition, health and wellness company”, Nestlé reveals a surprising weak presence in the health segment in the Portuguese yogurt market. Today consumers are looking for products aligned with a healthy lifestyle while maintaining taste and pleasure. Nutraceutical food industry is growing as health awareness rises, especially on the dairy sector. Therefore, it is crucial for Nestlé to position itself in the fastest growing seg...

  6. 低脂高糖膳食对不同体质量指数的健康青年生理生化指标的影响%Effects of a Low-fat and High-carbohydrate Diet on the Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Healthy Youth with Different Body Mass Index

    宋永燕; 龚仁蓉; 张荣荣; 张珍; 李元昊; 胡敏珊; 李蓉晖; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低脂高糖(low-fat and high-carbohydrate,LF-HC)膳食对不同体质量指数(BMI)的健康青年生理指标及糖脂代谢指标的影响.方法 给予7名超重青年[BMI=(27.82±1.64)kg/m2]和49名年龄匹配的正常对照[BMI=(20.06±2.41)kg/m2]7 d平衡膳食和6 d LF-HC膳食.平衡膳食含31.1%脂肪和54.1%碳水化合物,LF-HC膳食含14.8%脂肪和70.1%碳水化合物.于膳食干预的第1d、第8d和第14d清晨进行体检,测量各项生理指标;同时抽取12 h空腹静脉血,制备血L清并测定糖脂代谢相关指标,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 基础值时,正常组体质量(P=0.000)、BMI(P=0.000)、腰臀比(P=0.000)、收缩压(P=0.001)、舒张压(P=0.016)和甘油三酯(TG)(P=0.006)均低于超重组;高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)高于超重组(P=0.005).LF-HC膳食后,总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均降低,胰岛素(P<0.05)和HOMA-IR(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均升高;TG仅在正常组升高(P=0.000);HDL-C仅在超重组升高(P=0.018).结论 在健康青年中,LF-HC膳食对血清TG和HDL-C的影响与体质量指数有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of a low-fat and high-carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet on the physiological and biochemical indexes in healthy youth with different body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven overweight participants [BMI= (27. 82+1. 64) kg/m2 ] and 49 age-matched controls CBMI= (20. 06 ± 2. 41) kg/ m2] were given a washout diet for 7 d, followed by a LF-HC diet for 6 d. The washout diet contained 31. 1% fat and 54. 1% carbohydrate, and the LF-HC diet contained 14. 8% fat and 70. 1% carbohydrate of total energy. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on the mornings of the first, eighth and fourteenth days. Serum samples were prepared from twelve-hour fasting venous blood. Biochemical indexes including lipids, glucose and insulin were measured with routine methods. The

  7. The Role of CD14 Promoter-159 C-> T Polymorphism on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by Highcarbohydrate/Low-fat Diets in Healthy Chinese Han Youth%脂多糖受体CD14基因启动子-159位点C/T基因多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the tole of CD14 promoter - 159 C-> T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interaction on the ratios with a high-earbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in a young and healthy Chinese Han population. Methods After a washout diet for seven daye, fifty six healthy young subjects (22. 89± 1. 80 years) were given the HC/LF diet for six days. Twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples were collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The serum lipid profiles and the CD14-159 C->T polymorphism were analyzed. The ratios of triglyceride/high density lipoproteln-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c), log (TG/HDL-c), total cholesterol/high density llpoproteincholesterol (TC/HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c/HDL-c) were calculated. Results The male carriers of the C allele had significantly higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher TC/HDL-c at baseline and after the washout diet, and higher LDL- c/HDL-c only after the washout diet. The female subjects with the TT genotype had higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers of the C allele at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher LDL-c/HDL-c at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, and higher TC/HDL-c only after the washout diet. Compared with that before the HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-c was significantly decreased after the HC/LF diet regardless of gender and the genotype of the CD14-159 polymorphism. LDL-c/HDL-c was significantly decreased in both the male and female carriers of the C allele. TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) were significantly increased only in the female carriers of the C allele. Conclusion In the subjects with C allele, the HC/LF diet is a minor factor and its effects on the lipid ratios can be masked by the effects of the C allele at CD14-159. The interaction between the HC/LF diet and the C

  8. Spectrometric analysis of a gas mixture of UF6, MoF6, and WF6

    A device for filling a gas cell was developed for the measurement of the infrared spectra of binary and ternary mixtures of UF6 with WF6 and MoF6. Suitable analytical bands were chosen and the analysis was tested by artificial mixtures within the pressure range of 3.5-10 kPa. The mean error in determining a component in the binary mixture was 5-10 relative %. (author)

  9. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low...

  10. Quality of low-fat meatballs containing Legume flours as extenders.

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Yıldız-Turp, Gülen; Abrodímov, Kiyalbek

    2005-05-01

    Meatballs were extended with blackeye bean flour (BBF), chickpea flour (CF), lentil flour (LF) and rusk (R) at level of 10%. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein and ash content. Cooking properties and colour parameters were evaluated. BBF and LF resulted in greater cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention values. Meatballs extended with LF were lighter than other samples. Meatballs formulated with BBF had the lowest reduction in diameter. Meatballs with BBF and CF had higher water holding capacity (WHC) than other treatment groups. All meatballs incorporating legume flours were tougher (lower penetration values) than the R treatment. According to sensory evaluation results all meatball treatments had high acceptability and received high scores (6.8 and above). Meatballs with BBF and CF had lower TBA values than meatballs with LF and R at 3rd month of frozen storage at -18°C. PMID:22063285

  11. Properties of low-fat ultra-filtered cheeses produced with probiotic bacteria

    Miočinović Jelena; Radulović Zorica; Paunović Dušanka; Miloradović Zorana; Trpković G.; Radovanović Mira; Puđa P.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that in certain numbers may confer a health benefit on the host. Nowadays, there are many dairy products on the market, especially fermented milks, with probiotics, and their popularity is rising. The aim of this article was to investigate the viability of commercial probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI®L10 i Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI®B94, DSM, Netherland) as well as their influence on the changes of comp...

  12. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    ... International Vital and Health Statistics Reports Series 6. Cognition and Survey Measurement Series 10. Data From the ... non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and "other," which includes Asian and multiracial. The "other" category is included in ...

  13. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  14. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  15. Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength

    Massimo Negro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat, providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0 and at the end (week 8 of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: −1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05 and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01. No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  16. Direct Quantification of Carotenoids in Low Fat Baby Foods Via Laser Photoacoustics and Colorimetric Index *

    Dóka, O.; Ajtony, Zs.; Bicanic, D.; Valinger, D.; Végvári, Gy.

    2014-12-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for *, = 0.9925 and = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene's presence in the test samples.

  17. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could...

  18. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  19. Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo.

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Alvarez, J O; Wahed, M A; Islam, M A; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A or placebo with each of three DPT/OPV (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus/oral polio vaccine) immunizations at monthly intervals. Sixty-two received vitamin A and 58 received placebo. One month after the third supplementation dose, the response to the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test [multitest cell-mediated immunity (CMI) skin evaluation] for tetanus, diphtheria, and tuberculin (purified protein derivative, PPD) was the same in the vitamin A and placebo infants. The number of anergic infants was 17 (27%) and 19 (33%) in the vitamin A and placebo groups, respectively. The number of positive tests among well-nourished infants was significantly higher than that in malnourished infants irrespective of supplementation (P 0.7 mumol/L) after supplementation, the vitamin A-supplemented infants had a significantly higher proportion of positive CMI tests than the placebo infants (chi-square test: 8.99, P = 0.008). Among the infants with low serum retinol concentrations ( 0.7 mumol/L) at the time of the CMI test. CMI was consistently better in well-nourished infants irrespective of supplementation. PMID:8988926

  20. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.;

    2011-01-01

    AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...... fatty acid metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis were regulated differently by the LCD in WM and WR subjects. Conclusion: This study suggests that LCD-induced changes in insulin secretion and scAT gene expression may have the potential to predict successful short...

  1. Intergranular pitting and abrasive corrosion of duplex 25Cr-5Ni-6Mo stainless cast steels with nitrogen

    The corrosion and corrosion-erosion resistance of duplex steels 22-25% Cr, 6% Ni, 3-5% Mo, 0.1-0.2% N have been investigated in aqueous chloride solutions. The investigated alloys showed very good resistance against pitting and intergranular corrosion in the passive range of temperature up to 50oC. Anodic polarisation measurements performed in aqueous 1M H2SO4 + 1M NaCl solutions show that the morphology and content of ferrite influence the dissolution rate of alloys in the active range - range of potentials were passivation of alloys does not occur. (author)

  2. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.; Pelloux, V.; Marquez-Quinones, A.; Holst, C.; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Babalis, D.; Baak, M. A. van; Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Walker, C. G.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W. H. M.; Langin, D.; Viguerie, N.; Zucker, J. D.; Clement, K.; DiOGenes Project

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sc......AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...... studied in all individuals before and after the LCD. Energy intake was estimated by using 3-d dietary records. Results: No differences in body weight and fasting insulin were observed between WMs and WRs at baseline or after the LCD period. The LCD resulted in significant decreases in body weight and in...

  3. Effect of Potato Flakes as Fat Replacer on the Quality Attributes of Low-Fat Beef Patties

    Rehab F.M. Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of lowfat beef patties formulated by replacing different levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of fat with hydrated potato flakes. Uncooked and cooked beef patties formulated with potato flakes had higher (p#0.05 moisture, carbohydrate and ash content and lower (p#0.05 fat contents than that of the control. Caloric values of beef patties was lower (p#0.05 than control by between 7 and 57%, cholesterol content of patties decreased as level of potato flakes increased. Cooking yield, Water Holding Capacity (WHC as well as moisture and fat retention were increased significantly (p#0.05 with increasing the levels of potato flakes. Overall acceptability values for beef patties formulated with potato flakes were higher (p#0.05 than the control samples. Beef patties formulated with 75% potato flakes as fat replacer had significantly (p#0.05 the highest score of overall acceptability. Hydrated potato flack could be an excellent replacement for fat in beef patties maintaining acceptable and desirable sensory properties.

  4. [Effects of a low-fat diet including vegetables on total blood cholesterol levels in the aged].

    Pentimone, F; Bertoncini, P; Laghi, G; Del Corso, L; Giuliano, G

    1990-11-30

    High total serum cholesterol and low HDL levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease before the age of 65. Currently in older populations their role has not yet been defined. In the elderly a low-cholesterol diet is therefore preferable to pharmacological treatment, in view of the absence of collateral effects. In this study 40 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia were divided at random into two groups. They were respectively fed their usual diet and a legume-supplemented normal caloric diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased in the latter group from the 2nd week onward. PMID:2150025

  5. Investigation on characteristics of low-fat Mozzarella cheese%低脂Mozzarella干酪的品质研究

    文旭娟; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    通过设定不同脂肪质量分数,研究了低脂Mozzarella干酪的蛋白水解、TPA质构、功能特性和微观结构.结果表明,低脂Moz-zareUa干酪的各个指标较全脂Mozzarella干酪均有所降低.其中, 脱脂Mozzarella干酪的品质明显降低,接受性差;中脂Mozzarella干酪品质接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪介于脱脂和中脂Mozzarella干酪之间,也有一定的可接受性.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW-FAT MOZZARELLA CHEESE%低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的研究

    文旭娟; 李永青; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    通过设定不同脂肪含量,研究低脂Mozzarella干酪的蛋白水解、TPA质构、功能特性和微观结构.结果表明,低脂Mozzarella干酪的各个指标较全脂Mozzarella干酪均有所降低.其中,脱脂Mozzarella干酪的品质明显降低,接受性差;中脂Mozzarella干酪品质接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪介于脱脂和中脂Mozzarella干酪之间,具有可接受性.

  7. Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice.

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José; Swanson, Steven M; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice developed mammary tumors compared with GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared with diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status. PMID:25085903

  8. Avocado Low-Fat Spreads Producing%油梨低脂涂抹物的研制

    王志国; 李枚秋

    2002-01-01

    通过各种乳化剂、增稠剂、稳定剂种类及量的复配实验表明,涂抹性能与屈服应力有显著负相关.回归方程分析表明,0.47%复合乳化剂(HLB=6.92)、0.57%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)、0.13%琼脂(Agar)能使制品有较好的涂抹性能,加入0.3%黄原胶,可以提高制品的热稳定性.

  9. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks....

  10. Effects of low-fat and high-fat meals on steady-state pharmacokinetics of lapatinib in patients with advanced solid tumours

    Devriese, Lot A; Koch, Kevin M; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Matthys, Gemma M; Ma, Wen Wee; Robidoux, Andre; Stephenson, Joe J; Chu, Quincy S C; Orford, Keith W; Cartee, Leanne; Botbyl, Jeff; Arya, Nikita; Schellens, Jan H M

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the effect of food on the systemic exposure of lapatinib at steady state when administered 1 h before and after meals, and to observe the safety and tolerability of lapatinib under these conditions in patients with advanced solid tumours. METHODS: This was a three-treatment, randomi

  11. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  12. 低脂低糖曲奇饼的研制%Development of low-fat and low-sugar cookies

    刘钊; 谢浩鹏

    2016-01-01

    以蔗糖酯和菊粉混合物代替部分油脂,以甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇混合物代替部分白砂糖,以降低曲奇本身的油脂量和糖量。研究结果表明,当面粉100 g,白砂糖15 g,黄油48 g,油脂替代物12 g,蔗糖替代物7 g,得到的曲奇饼干质量最佳,口感和风味与传统曲奇接近,其中油脂替代物中菊粉和蔗糖酯的混合物比例为4∶6,蔗糖替代物中甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇的混合物比例为1∶30。%In this paper,using the mixture of sucrose ester and inulin to replace part of fat, stevioside and erythritol to replace part of sugar, in order to reduce the amount of fat and sugar in the cookies. The results show: it will get the best quality of cookies when 100 g flour adding 15 g sugar,48 g butter,12 g fat substitutes,7g sucrose substitutes,the taste and flavor of cookies are close to the traditional one. The ratio of the inulin and sucrose ester is 4∶6 in the fat substitutes , the ratio of stevioside and erythritol is 1∶30 in the sucrose substitutes.

  13. Ulcerative Dermatitis in C57BL/6NCrl Mice on a Low-Fat or High-Fat Diet With or Without a Mineralized Red-Algae Supplement.

    Hampton, Anna L; Aslam, Muhammad N; Naik, Madhav K; Bergin, Ingrid L; Allen, Ron M; Craig, Ronald A; Kunkel, Steve L; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Patterson, Kathleen A; Rothman, Edward D; Hish, Gerald A; Varani, James; Rush, Howard G

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a spontaneous idiopathic disease that often affects C57BL/6 mice or mice on a C57BL/6 background. UD is characterized by intense pruritus and lesion formation, most commonly on the head or dorsal thorax. Self-trauma likely contributes to wound severity and delayed wound healing. Histologically, changes are nonspecific, consisting of ulceration with neutrophilic and mastocytic infiltration and epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Diet appears to have a profound effect on the development and progression of UD lesions. We investigated the incidence and severity of UD in C57BL/6NCrl mice on a high-fat western-style diet (HFWD) compared with a standard rodent chow. In addition, we examined the protective effects of dietary supplementation with a multimineral-rich product derived from marine red algae on UD in these 2 diet groups. HFWD-fed mice had an increased incidence of UD. In addition, mice on a HFWD had significantly more severe clinical and histologic lesions. Dietary mineral supplementation in mice on a HFWD decreased the histologic severity of lesions and reduced the incidence of UD in female mice in both diets. In conclusion, a high-fat western-style diet may potentiate UD in C57BL/6NCrl mice. Insufficient mineral supply and mineral imbalance may contribute to disease development. Mineral supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of UD. PMID:26424246

  14. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Mahshid Sirjani; Foroogh Azam Taleban; Azita Hekmatdoost; Zohreh Amiri; Michael Pellizzon; Mehdi Hedayati; Katayoon Bidad; Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti; Zahra Pourpak

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflamm...

  15. Highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk by field-enhanced sample injection based CE in bubble cell capillary

    DENG, YAN; Gasilova, Natalia; Qiao, Liang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics with a broad activity spectrum against mycoplasma, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Due to the extensive use of fluoroquinolones in farming and veterinary science, there is a constant need in the analytical methods able to efficiently monitor their residues in food products of animal origin, regulated by Commission Regulation (European Union) no. 37/2010. Herein, field-enhanced sample injection for sample stacking prior the CZE se...

  16. An extensive outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning due to low-fat milk in Japan: estimation of enterotoxin A in the incriminated milk and powdered skim milk.

    Asao, T; Kumeda, Y; Kawai, T; Shibata, T; Oda, H; Haruki, K; Nakazawa, H; Kozaki, S

    2003-02-01

    An extensive outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning occurred in Kansai district in Japan. As many as 13,420 cases frequently ingested dairy products manufactured by a factory in Osaka City. The main ingredient of these dairy products was powdered skim milk manufactured by a factory in Hokkaido. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) (milk and approx. 3.7 ng/g in powdered skim milk. The total intake of SEA per capita was estimated mostly at approx. 20-100 ng. The assumed attack rate was considerably lower than those reported in previous outbreaks. SEA exposed at least twice to pasteurization at 130 degrees C for 4 or 2 s retained both immunological and biological activities, although it had been partially inactivated. The present outbreak was unusual in that the thermal processes had destroyed staphylococci in milk but SEA had retained enough activity to cause intoxication. PMID:12613743

  17. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  18. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  19. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...... composition was confirmed by measurements of urinary nitrogen excretion. SUBJECTS: 65 healthy, overweight and obese (25<34 kg/m2). RESULTS: Dietary protein intake changed from 91.1 g/d to a 6 months intervention average of 70.4 g/d (P<0.05) in the LP group and from 91.4 g/d to 107.8 g/d (P<0.05) in the HP...

  20. Beneficial effect of CLOCK gene polymorphism rs1801260 in combination with low-fat diet on insulin metabolism in the patients with metabolic syndrome

    Genetic variation at the Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) locus has been associated with lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, it has been suggested that the disruption of the circadian system may play a causal ro...

  1. Does social support really help to eat a low-fat diet? : Main effects and gender differences of received social support within the Health Action Process Approach

    Scholz, Urte; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Knoll, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most theories of health-behavior change focus exclusively on individual self-regulation without taking social factors, such as social support, into account. This study's first aim was to systematically test the added value of received instrumental and emotional social support within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in the context of dietary change. In the social support literature, gender effects emerge with regard to the effectiveness of social support. Thus, a second ai...

  2. A healthier oil combination and konjac gel as functional ingredients in low-fat pork liver pâté.

    Delgado-Pando, G; Cofrades, S; Rodríguez-Salas, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-06-01

    Healthier lipid pâtés were formulated by reducing the fat content and/or replacing the pork backfat by a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils) and konjac gel (0-15%). The reformulation results were evaluated by composition (proximate analysis and fatty acid profile), technological properties (emulsion stability, colour, and texture), microbiological and sensory parameters of the pâtés. Pâtés with partial or total replacement of pork backfat had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (27.4% and 21.3%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (49.8% and 42.5%), and higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (22.4% and 35.6%) compared with control pâtés (32.2%, 58.2% and 9.04% respectively). The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was decreased from 6.78 (in control pâtés) to 0.79 and 0.48 when partial and total pork backfat respectively was replaced by a healthier oil combination. Although emulsion stability was affected by the formulation, in general all pâtés had good fat and water binding properties. The fat reduction produced a softer and more spreadable pâté, although no effect on penetration parameters was observed after by pork fat replacement by a healthier oil combination. The addition of 15% of konjac gel produced stiffer structures (as compared with 0 and 7%) which are very close to those of the control samples. No microbiological limitations were produced by the reformulation process, obtaining pâtés with acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to the control sample. PMID:21239120

  3. Effects of High and Low Fat Dairy Food on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies

    Jocelyne R Benatar; Karishma Sidhu; Stewart, Ralph A H

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Clear guidelines on the health effects of dairy food are important given the high prevalence of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and increasing global consumption of dairy food. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of increased dairy food on cardio metabolic risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Searches were performed until April 2013 using MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google,Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of ...

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in Low-fatted Milk by Multiplex PCR

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Rhim, Seong-Ryul; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and specific PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in foods was developed to reduce the detection time and to increase sensitivity. Multiplex PCR developed in this study produced only actA, fliC, hbl, invA, ileS amplicons, but did not produce any non-specific amplicon. The primer sets successfully amplified the target genes in the multiplex PCR without any non-specific or additional bands on the other strains. The multiplex PCR assays also amplified some target genes from five pathogens, and multiplex amplification was obtained from as little as 1 pg of DNA. According to the results from the sensitivity evaluation, the multiplex PCR developed in this study detected 10 cells/mL of the pathogens inoculated in milk samples, respectively. The results suggested that multiplex PCR was an effective assay demonstrating high specificity for the simultaneous detection of five target pathogens in food system. PMID:26761507

  5. 微波/磷钨钼酸催化下的无溶剂合成查尔酮%Synthesis of Chalcones Catalyzed with H3PW6Mo6O4O without Solvent under Microwave Irradiation

    武文斌; 朱荣鑫; 赵菲; 王小燕; 金永生

    2011-01-01

    首次报道了一种采用微波及二氧化钛负载的磷钨钼酸在无溶剂条件下催化合成查尔酮的方法,反应收率达到文献报道水平.该反应条件温和,反应时间短,易与产品分离、对环境污染小.

  6. Technological and sensory quality of restructured low-fat cooked ham containing liquid whey Características tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados com baixo teor de gordura elaborados com soro de leite

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid whey to replace water (at 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% in a restructured cooked ham formulation was studied and several technological and sensory quality properties were determined. The test results showed no statistically significant differences (P 0.05 less reddish (a* value reduction and more grayish and yellowish (lesser C* and higher h values with higher whey additions. A lower (P 0.05. These results suggest that up to 38% natural fresh liquid whey can be added to a restructured cooked ham formulation with similar results to products cured with a conventional formulation.As propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados elaborados com soro de leite em substituição à água de formulação (0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% foram avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos testes de perda de peso (cozimento, refrigeração, reaquecimento e ciclo de congelamento e na textura objetiva (teste TPA. No entanto, para a cor objetiva (CIELAB, as amostras se apresentaram (P 0,05 afetada. Esses resultados sugerem que até 38% de soro de leite natural e fresco pode ser adicionado a uma formulação de apresuntado com resultados similares aos produtos curados com uma formulação convencional.

  7. 稳定剂和乳化剂对低脂冰淇淋品质的影响%Influence of Stabilizer and Emulsifier on Quality of Low Fat Ice Cream

    袁博; 许时婴; 冯忆梅

    2003-01-01

    实验研究了一种稳定剂和两种乳化剂对低脂冰淇淋品质的影响.通过测定冰淇淋浆料的流变性质和脂肪失稳能力,以及冰淇淋的膨胀率和抗融化性,得出在低脂冰淇淋中稳定剂的添加量最佳质量分数为0.45%,由单甘酯和吐温80复配乳化剂的添加量最佳质量分数为0.1%.

  8. Study on production process of low-fat chicory dietary fiber set yogurt%低脂菊苣膳食纤维凝固型酸奶的生产工艺

    云月英; 韩铖铖; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    以菊苣膳食纤维和脱脂乳粉为原料,通过乳酸菌发酵生产一种低脂凝固型酸奶.通过单因素试验和均匀设计试验,初步确定最佳发酵工艺条件为:菊苣膳食纤维2.08%,脱脂乳粉12.7%,蔗糖7.06%,发酵剂接种量为0.8 g/L,发酵温度为42.8℃,发酵时间为7.5 h.%A low-fit set yoghurt was prepared with mixture of chicory dietary fiber and skimmed milk powder and by fermentation with Lac-tobacillus starter. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined by single factor and uniform design, which were as follows: chicory dietary fiber 2.08%, skimmed milk powder 12.7%, sugar 7.06%, Lactobacillus starter inoculum by 5%, fermentation under 42.8 ℃ for 7.5 h.

  9. 富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠配方研究与优化%Research and formula optimization of oatmeal sausage with rich dietary fiber and low fat

    王凯凯; 张丽萍; 井雪莲

    2015-01-01

    将不同处理的燕麦辅料添加到传统香肠中,以加工一种富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠.研究燕麦整粒米、破碎米、粉3种添加形态及其添加量对香肠感官品质的影响,探讨了加工技术及最佳配方.以燕麦香肠的感官品质为检测指标,针对燕麦、淀粉、蛋白及脂肪的添加量进行单因素实验,并对结果进行响应面优化,最终确定燕麦香肠的配方(以100 9肉计)为:燕麦破碎米添加量15.8%、马铃薯淀粉添加量3%、大豆蛋白添加量2.2%,脂肪(猪肉肥膘)添加量13%.制得的燕麦香肠比传统香肠脂肪含量降低了15.5%,膳食纤维质量分数达2.01%.

  10. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  11. Molho cremoso à base de extrato de soja: estabilidade, propriedades reológicas, valor nutricional e aceitabilidade do consumidor Soy - based low fat emulsion: stability, rheology, nutritional value and consumer acceptance

    Denise Carvalho Pereira Campos; Rosemar Antoniassi; Rosires Deliza; Sidinéa Cordeiro de Freitas; Ilana Felberg

    2009-01-01

    Na preparação de molhos de salada substitutos da maionese, para reduzir a quantidade de ovos e de óleo são utilizados emulsificantes e espessantes associados ou não à proteína de soja. Neste trabalho, o extrato de soja integral homogeneizado foi utilizado como base para a preparação de emulsão cremosa para substituir a maionese. O extrato de soja foi elaborado com teor de sólidos totais de 6 a 12%, após cozimento em água com bicarbonato, trituração e homogeneização a alta pressão. A emulsão p...

  12. Effect of hydrolysis whey protein on quality of low-fat Mozzarella cheese%改性乳清蛋白对低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的影响

    徐乙文; 刘会平; 李艳霞

    2010-01-01

    将自制脂肪替代品-改性乳清蛋白加入到经标准化的牛奶中,采用无盐渍新工艺方法代替传统方法制作低脂Mozzarella干酪,通过干酪品质测定,确定改性乳清蛋白的最适添加量以及对低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的影响.结果表明:脂肪替代品的最适添加量为1.5%.与全脂组相比.虽然低脂组在风味上存在-定差距.但可满足人们追求健康的现实需要,并且脂肪替代品的加入可增加干酪的亮度值.降低黄度值,对褐变性影响不大,但结构比较致密.

  13. Effects of Irradiation on Volatile Compounds of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese During Ripening%辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟过程中挥发性风味物质的影响

    马玲; 郝教敏; 杨华; 朱迎春; 杨珍平

    2014-01-01

    采取0、1、3、5 kGy不同剂量辐照低脂Mozzarella干酪,研究不同剂量辐照对其成熟过程中的理化指标和挥发性风味化合物的影响.结果表明:辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟过程中脂肪的含量、pH值4.6 SN、12% TCA SN有显著的影响(P<0.05),对其它理化指标的影响均不显著(P<0.05).不同成熟期内,不同剂量辐照处理后对低脂Mozzarella干酪中挥发性风味化合物的影响不同,辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪中的酮类、酸类、醇类、酚类、酯类的种类和含量影响较大,5kGy辐照后的影响大于其它辐照剂量处理的,对其它挥发性化合物的影响较小,不同辐照剂量与挥发性化合物形成之间没有特定的影响规律.

  14. 脂肪质量分数对低脂Mozzarella干酪微观结构的影响%Influence of fat contents on microstructure of low-fat Mozzarella cheese

    文旭娟; 孟德勇; 李永青; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    使用扫描电子显微镜观察了不同脂肪质量分数低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟0 d及30 d的微观结构.结果表明,以全脂Mozzarella干酪为对照,成熟0 d时,脱脂及部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪蛋白结构致密,中脂Mozzarella干酪网络结构较明显,且有一定数量的孔洞;成熟30 d时,脱脂Mozzarella干酪变化较小,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪仅光滑度提高,中脂Mozzarella干酪则接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪.

  15. 豌豆、大豆蛋白适度改性在低脂植脂奶油中的应用%Application of moderate modified pea protein and soybean protein in low-fat whipped cream

    王宇; 蒋将; 刘元法

    2013-01-01

    研究了酸、碱处理豌豆、大豆蛋白的添加对植脂奶油乳状液的表观黏度、搅打后奶油脂肪部分聚集率、搅打起泡率、泡沫稳定性以及流变性质、感官品质的影响.结果表明:豌豆、大豆蛋白适度改性有利于其乳化性、起泡性的提高.酸处理的大豆蛋白和碱处理的豌豆蛋白替代部分脂肪,可增加界面膜的黏弹性,一定程度促进脂肪球的部分聚集,提高泡沫的稳定性,并获得较好的流变性质、感官品质.考虑到风味因素的影响,最终选择用碱处理豌豆蛋白替代2%脂肪制作低脂植脂奶油,其搅打起泡率为351.9%,泡沫稳定性为90 min,屈服应力为130.3 Pa,脂肪部分聚集率为80.3%.

  16. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  17. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women.

  18. Diurnal trends in responses of blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide following high- and low-fat meals and their relation to fat metabolism in healthy middle-aged volunteers

    Frape, D. L.; Williams, N. R.; Scriven, A J; Palmer, C. R.; OSullivan, K.; Fletcher, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in twelve healthy middle-aged volunteers, six of each sex, with a mean BMI of 27 kg/m(2) to detect differences between morning and afternoon in postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations. These responses were measured following the consumption of isoenergetic meals that were high or low in fat content, at breakfast and at lunch. Over 4d each subject received the high-carbohydrate (L, 5.5 g mixed fat/meal) and moderately high-fat (M, 33 g mixed...

  19. Smarter snack ideas

    ... Mini-bagels with tomato sauce and low-fat cheese (low-fat version of a pizza) Whole grain flavored rice cakes (like caramel or apple cinnamon) Air-popped popcorn (without added butter) Veggies with low-fat or fat-free dip Low-fat cottage cheese topped with fruit or spread on whole-wheat ...

  20. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. Connie W. Bales, ... 3 cups of low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, or other milk products; and no more ...

  1. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora; José Arturo García-Macías; Eduardo Santellano-Estrada; América Chávez-Martínez; Lorenzo Antonio Durán-Meléndez; Ramón Silva-Vázquez; Armando Quintero-Ramos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0); low fat control (T1); low fat with 15% inulin (T2); low fat with 30% inulin (T3); low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4); and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5). The addition of fibers increased the yield (...

  2. 为糖尿病人用的肠内营养%Enteral nutrition for patients with diabetes

    2001-01-01

    abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.Inclusion of fiber blone,in liquid formulas does not improve the glycemic response.Options for improving the metabolic response to liquid diets include the replacement of some carbohydrate with protein,MUFA or slowly digested carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.Studies conducted throughout the 1980's demonstrated that high carbohydrate liquid enteral formulas result in poor metabolic control in diabetic patients.These studies showed that reduced carbohydrate levels,increased dietary MUFA,and solid food could improve metabolic control and reduce risk factors for macrovascular disease.Garge A et al studied the effects of high carbohydrate solid food diets on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus1.The subjects were randomly assigned to receive first one diet and then the other,each for 28 days,in a metabolic ward.The high-carbohydrate diet had 25 percent of calories from fat and 60 percent from carbohydrate.The high-monounsaturated-fat diet was 50 percent fat(33 percent of the total calories were from monounsaturated fatty acids)and 35 percent carbohydrate.As compared with the high-carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower mean plasma glucose levels and reduced insulin requirements;urinary glucose losses were higher for subjexts consuming the high-carbohydrate diet (table 1).As compared with the high carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower levels of plasma triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;they were lower by 25 and 35 percent,respectively.The high-MUFA-fat diet also resulted in higher levels of high-density lipoprotein choleterol.Levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differsignificantly between subjects on the two diets.These investigators concluded that partial replacemtn of complex carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty acids in the diets of people with type

  3. Efecto de la disminución de la grasa de la leche de oveja sobre el contenido de colesterol en el queso

    Ordóñez, A. I.; Torre, P.; Ibáñez, F. C.; Larráyoz, P.; Castiella, M.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular problems among the population have caused the presence of numerous low fat products in the dairy market, however no low fat ewe's milk cheeses have been commercialized. The effect of the reduction in the fat content of ewe's milk destined for cheese making on the fat, dry matter and cholesterol contents of cheeses ripened for 60, 90 and 120 days has been studied. Cheeses elaborated from low fat milks retained less water at the final stage of ripening. The cholesterol content ex...

  4. Separation of volatile fluorides by selective desorption from granular inorganic fluorides

    Problems posed by the theory of gas mixtures separation by the method of selective desorption of components as applied to purification of uranium hexafluoride from some volatile impurity fluorides, i.e. WF6, MoF6, HF, are stated. Examples of calculation of WF6 - MoF6 mixture separation factor, as well as of composition of MoF6 stripping, depending on the composition of the initial WF6 - MoF6 mixture, are provided

  5. Calcium

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  6. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel ra...

  7. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  8. Pregnancy Quiz

    ... can build and maintain cells, tissues, and organs. Healthy food choices like fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and pastas, non-fat or low-fat milk products, and low-fat protein sources, such as lean red meat, poultry without ...

  9. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  10. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  11. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  12. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.; Tholstrup, T.; Bruun, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    /d of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, on inflammatory markers. Methods and results: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 22) completed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Women consumed daily a Low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 weeks, separated by a 6-week......, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were found between the lignan complex intervention period and placebo period. Conclusion: Daily consumption for 6 week of a low-fat muffin enriched with a lignan complex may reduce CRP concentrations compared to a low-fat muffin with no lignans added....

  13. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Full Text Available ... the bowel absorption and can lead to stone formation. The gallbladder is not stimulated to empty as ... Jenny Craig or Nutrisystem being associated with gallstone formation because low fat diets don’t stimulate the ...

  14. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and ... like a turkey or chicken sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with ...

  15. After Cancer Treatment

    ... grains, and a moderate amount of low-fat meat and dairy products. Limit the fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  16. Chronic cholecystitis

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  17. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... protein. This usually means protein from animal origin, lean meats, fish, eggs, and you want to include ...

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. Connie W. Bales, Ph. ... or fat-free milk, yogurt, or other milk products; and no more than the equivalent of 6 ...

  19. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    ... wrong” kinds of fats can trigger additional health hazards. “Some fats are better for our bodies than ... ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found ...

  20. Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge

    ... potatoes, and cream of wheat Applesauce Low-fat ice cream, yogurt, sherbet, and popsicles Smoothies Scrambled eggs Cool ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  1. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... about deep colors, the deep yellow and dark green leafy vegetables. The deep color advice also applies ...

  2. 'Business Diet' a Bad Deal for The Heart

    ... news/fullstory_160529.html 'Business Diet' a Bad Deal for the Heart Unhealthy eating on the road ... grains, low-fat dairy products, skinless chicken and fish, and nuts. For this study, Fuster's team looked ...

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    ... Espanol Image Library Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease ... on how to choose and cook low-fat foods, get more physical activity, and achieve a healthy ...

  4. Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits: 10 Tips for Making Healthy Food Choices More Fun for Children

    ... as the crust. Have tomato sauce, low-fat cheese, and cut-up vegetables or fruits for toppings. Let kids choose their own favorites. Then pop the pizzas into the oven to warm. walnuts, or sunflower ...

  5. Weight Control

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  6. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that calorie for ... Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, ...

  7. Understanding Side Effects of Drug Therapy

    ... by drug therapy. Low-fat dairy products like milk, cottage cheese and yogurt also supply a good amount of protein and calcium, along with other important vitamins and minerals. People living with cancer have different nutrition goals ...

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, you need a whole bunch of other vitamins and minerals that do everything from help you access energy ...

  9. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    ... low-fat or nonfat hard cheeses, cottage cheese, milk, and yogurt. After gastric bypass surgery, your body will not absorb some important vitamins and minerals. You will need to take these vitamins and ...

  10. Heart disease and women

    ... it will help control some of your heart disease risk factors. Eat a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Choose lean proteins, such as chicken, fish, beans, and legumes. Eat low-fat dairy ...

  11. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that ... calories. Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk ...

  12. Building a Healthy Vegetarian Meal: Myths and Facts

    ... to plant-based diets. Myth #1: Vegetarians and Vegans Have a Hard Time Getting Enough Protein As ... low-fat or fat-free dairy and eggs. Vegans should consume more protein than their meat- and ...

  13. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    ... percent lowfat milk; fat-free or low-fat yogurt; part skim, reduced fat, and fatfree cheese; low- ... American, cheddar, Colby, Swiss, cream cheese; whole-milk yogurt Meats, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Beans, and Nuts Trimmed ...

  14. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy ... but may have lots of fat, salt, or sugar. Narrator: Protein helps build and maintain muscle, bones, ...

  15. Polyp Prevention Trial

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  16. Prediabetes

    ... provider will likely suggest certain lifestyle changes: Eat healthy foods: This includes whole grains, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Watch portion sizes, and avoid sweets and fried ...

  17. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... requirements decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means ... foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. ...

  18. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook

    ... Adults burn calories being office workers, kindergarten teachers, construction workers, stay-at-home parents, and everything in ... or low-fat milk and milk products. • Including lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. • Cutting ...

  19. Lactose Intolerance

    ... cottage cheese, low fat, 1 cup 206 mg ice cream, vanilla, 1/2 cup 84 mg Source: Adapted ... lactose intolerance based on medical, family, and diet history, including a review of symptoms; a physical exam; ...

  20. School Lunches

    ... eat. In addition to old standbys, such as peanut butter and jelly, try pitas or wrap sandwiches stuffed ... crackers filled with low-fat cream cheese or peanut butter and jelly) peanut butter and celery sticks veggie ...

  1. Protein in diet

    ... ½ cup cooked beans or lentils 1 Tbsp peanut butter Low fat dairy is also a good source ... and seeds, including almonds, hazelnuts, mixed nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, or walnuts (just watch how much ...

  2. Yağı Azaltılmış Et Ürünleri Üretim Tekniği

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU; Tömek, Sumru

    1995-01-01

    Recently food consumption patterns have changed and consumers reduce the fat and caloric content of their diets and they select food products contain less fat. The reduction of fat would be the most effective method for producing low-fat meat products. However the quality aspects of meat products are related to fat content. Production of low-fat meat products would result in substantial decrease in product palatability. Numerous non-meat ingredients are available today as fat replacement and...

  3. Lack of efficacy of a salience nudge for substituting selection of lower-calorie for higher-calorie milk in the work place.

    Wilson, Amy L; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message "Pick me! I am low calorie" was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  4. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  5. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  6. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  7. B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-01-01

    Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. F...

  8. Recommendations of the GARIN group for managing non-critically ill patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition Recomendaciones del grupo GARIN para el manejo de pacientes no críticos con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y nutrición artificial

    G. Olveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: By means of this update, the GARIN working group aims to define its position regarding the treatment of patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition. In this area there are many aspects of uncertainty, especially in non-critically ill patients. Methods: Bibliographical review, and specific questions in advance were discussed and answered at a meeting in the form of conclusions. Results: We propose a definition of stress hyperglycaemia. The indications and access routes for artificial nutrition are no different in patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycaemia than in non-diabetics. The objective must be to keep pre-prandial blood glucose levels between 100 and 140 mg/dl and post-prandial levels between 140 and 180 mg/dl. Hyperglycemia can be prevented through systematic monitoring of capillary glycaemias and adequately calculate energy-protein needs. We recommend using enteral formulas designed for patients with diabetes (high monounsaturated fat to facilitate metabolic control. The best drug treatment for treating hyperglycaemia/diabetes in hospitalised patients is insulin and we make recommendations for adapt the theoretical insulin action to the nutrition infusion regimen. We also addressed recommendations for future investigation. Conclusions: This recommendations about artificial nutrition in patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia can add value to clinical work.Introducción y objetivos: En el tratamiento de los pacientes con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y la nutrición artificial existen muchas áreas de incertidumbre, sobre todo en pacientes no críticos. El grupo de trabajo GARIN tiene como objetivo definir su posición en este campo. Material y métodos: Revisión bibliográfica previa y reunión presencial en la que se discutieron y contestaron preguntas específicas sobre el tema. Resultados: Proponemos una definición de hiperglucemia de estrés. Las indicaciones y las

  9. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  10. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively. PMID:23572690

  11. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0; low fat control (T1; low fat with 15% inulin (T2; low fat with 30% inulin (T3; low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4; and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5. The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%, and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3. Moisture (61.14% and ashes (6.96% of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5, while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5 were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2 increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75. Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products.

  12. [Research on polarized three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of milk solution].

    Lan, Xiu-Feng; Gu, Chun-Feng; Yu, Yin-Shan; Lu, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    Polarized three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of different kinds of milk were measured, including pure milk, milk with high calcium, and milk with high calcium but low fat produced by YiLi and MengNiu. It was found that the fluorescence intensity is stronger when excitation and emission polarizer orientation is parallel. The angle between excitation dipole and emission dipole of all kinds of milk equivalent chromophore was estimated by a simple model, indicating that they all less than 40 degrees. The angle for milk with high calcium but low fat is less than that of pure milk and milk with high calcium. And in the experiment, the polarized fluorescence intensity of milk with high calcium but low fat is significantly greater than the others, which fitted with the model estimation. PMID:23427552

  13. Healthy Option Preferences of Rural Restaurant Customers

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2009-01-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults. PMID:19515859

  14. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2015-01-01

    and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean...... with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153.......BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...

  15. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  16. Food effects on abiraterone pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Chi, Kim N; Spratlin, Jennifer; Kollmannsberger, Christian; North, Scott; Pankras, Catherine; Gonzalez, Martha; Bernard, Apexa; Stieltjes, Hans; Peng, Lixian; Jiao, James; Acharya, Milin; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas W; Yu, Margaret K; Chien, Caly; Tran, Nam Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Food effect on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety on abiraterone acetate coadministration with low-fat or high-fat meals was examined in healthy subjects and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Healthy subjects (n = 36) were randomized to abiraterone acetate (single dose, 1000 mg) + low-fat meal, + high-fat meal, and fasted state. mCRPC patients received repeated doses (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + 5 mg prednisone twice daily; days 1-7) in a modified fasting state followed by abiraterone acetate plus prednisone within 0.5 hours post-low-fat (n = 6) or high-fat meal (n = 18; days 8-14). In healthy subjects, geometric mean (GM) abiraterone area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased ∼5- and ∼10-fold, respectively, with low-fat and high-fat meals versus fasted state (GM [coefficient of variation], 1942 [48] and 4077 [37] ng · h/mL vs 421 [67] ng · h/mL, respectively). In mCRPC patients, abiraterone AUC was ∼2-fold higher with a high-fat meal and similar with a low-fat meal versus modified fasting state (GM [coefficient of variation]: 1992 [34] vs 973 [58] ng · h/mL and 1264 [65] vs 1185 [90] ng · h/mL, respectively). Adverse events (all grade ≤ 3) were similar, with high-fat/low-fat meals or fasted/modified fasting state. Short-term dosing with food did not alter abiraterone acetate safety. PMID:26096139

  17. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    Imène Felfoul; Salwa Bornaz; Wiem Belhadj Hmida; Ali Sahli; Hamadi Attia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2) multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsi...

  18. Fat deposition and flesh quality in seawater reared, triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary fat levels and starvation

    Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Cardinal, Mireille; Laroche, M; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2001-01-01

    Three isoproteic (crude protein content: 56%) diets with different fat levels (11%, 20%, and 26%) were fed to triplicate groups of triploid brown trout (initial average body weight of 1.5 kg), reared in seawater. At the end of 3 months of feeding, fish fed the high-fat (HF) diet were split into two groups: a triplicate group of fish received the low-fat diet and another triplicate group was kept unfed for a further 2-month period. Fish initially fed the low-fat diet during the first period we...

  19. Empleo de surimi liofilizado en emulsiones cárnicas con bajo contenido en grasa

    M. A. Leyva Mayorga; Ramírez, J. A.; M.O. Martín Polo; H. G. Hernández; Vázquez, M

    2002-01-01

    Meat industry is highly interested in developing low-fat meat emulsions, without modifying the organoleptic and textural attributes of the final product. The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of employing freeze-dried surimi obtained from Tilapia nilotica as a functional additive in the formulation of low-fat frankfurters. Model systems of meat emulsions were obtained with two levels of fat, 10 and 20%, and three levels of freeze-dried surimi, 0, 1.5 and 3%. Changes on chemica...

  20. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Yan Zhen; Li Wenjun; Mao Ting; You Jia; Zhao Feng; Qi Qibin; Shao Mengle; Li Shoufeng; Huang Ping; Liu Yong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR) and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat), low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR), high-fat diet (HC, ...

  1. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.; Tholstrup, T.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    ) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Women consumed daily a low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 wk, separated by a 6-wk washout period. Serum ENL concentration, urinary ENL excretion, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol.......001) and ENL urinary excretion (P <0.001) were significantly higher after the lignan complex intervention period compared with placebo. Plasma concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG, lipoprotein oxidation lag time, TEAC and FRAP were not affected. Daily consumption for 6 wk of a low-fat muffin enriched...

  2. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF WEANED LITTER

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was an evaluation of carcass slaughter value of fi rst farrowing gilts depending on the number of weaned piglets. The number of born and weaned piglets did not have a negative infl uence on gilt’s slaughter value. Carcasses of fi rst farrowing gilts characterised with a low fatness, large loin eye area and high lean content. Results of ham dissection of first farrowing gilts point high usefulness of this material to long maturing hams production in a view of the fact they have required weight, appropriate lean content and low fatness.

  3. 高脂肪食および高砂糖食のラット脂肪細胞におけるインスリン結合およびインスリン作用におよぼす影響

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To clarify on a cellular basis the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of the westernized diet, insulin binding, insulin stimulated 3-o-methylglucose uptake and glucose oxidation were studied in isolated adipocytes from rats fed experimental diets : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the westernized diet), low fat-high sugar diet (10% fat, 50% starch, 20% s...

  4. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

    S Mishra; Xu, J.; Agarwal, U; Gonzales, J; Levin, S.; Barnard, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. Subjects/methods: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2 and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks. Dietary intake, body weight, plasma...

  5. Progeny production by Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on maize previously infested by Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Weston, P A; Rattlingourd, P L

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of infestation of maize by Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) on progeny production by two common secondary colonizers of grain, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Adults of both secondary pest species were allowed to oviposit for 3 wk on intact kernels of 'DeKalb 689', mechanically split kernels, kernels that had been infested for 3 mo by S. cerealella, and kernels that had been infested for 6 mo. Progeny of both species reached highest numbers on 6-mo infested maize. Prior infestation for 6 mo by S. cerealella makes maize a more suitable medium for reproduction by T. castaneum and O. surinamensis, much more than can be accounted for by mere disruption of kernel integrity resulting from larval feeding. The results highlight the importance of limiting establishment by S. cerealella on maize in storage. PMID:10826210

  6. Super austenitic stainless steels - a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for flue-gas desulphurization plant

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S. [University of Madras, Madras (India). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    1996-12-15

    Potentiodynamic anodic cyclic polarization experiments on type 316L stainless steel and 6Mo super austenitic stainless steels were carried out in simulated flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) environment in order to assess the localized corrosion resistance. The pitting corrosion resistance was higher in the case of the super austenitic stainless steel containing 6Mo and a higher amount of nitrogen. The accelerated leaching study conducted for the alloys showed that the super austenitic stainless steels have a little tendency for leaching of metal ions such as iron, chromium and nickel at different impressed potentials. This may be due to surface segregation of nitrogen as CrN, which would, in turn, enrich a chromium and molybdenum mixed oxide film and thus impede the release of metal ions. The present study indicates that the 6Mo super austenitics can be adopted as a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for FGD plants.

  7. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  8. The effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of flavor and texture attributes of semi-solids

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of texture and flavor attributes. A trained panel assessed 21 texture and flavor attributes in one high-fat and one low-fat product of two semi-solids: custard dessert and mayonnaise. The products were evaluated at 10,

  9. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  10. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia;

    2014-01-01

    , potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets...

  11. Alirocumab Injection

    ... feeding. If you become pregnant while using alirocumab injection, call your doctor. ... Eat a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary ... at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/chol_tlc.pdf.

  12. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... Department of Agriculture recommend that a person eating 2,000 calories a day should have 2 to 2½ cups of fruit; 2 to 2½ cups of vegetables; 7 to 8 ... grains; 5½ ounces of protein; the equivalent of 2 to 3 cups of low-fat or fat- ...

  13. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome

    Brader, Lea Johanne; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    2014-01-01

    beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Subjects/methods:In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy...

  14. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects tw

  15. Fun with Foodella: A Pilot Study for Determining the Efficacy of a 2nd Grade Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum

    Winter, Elizabeth M.; Stluka, Suzanne; Wells, Karlys; Wey, Howard; Kemmer, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Fun with Foodella is a nutrition and physical activity workbook designed for elementary-aged youth. The objective was to determine if the Fun with Foodella program increased participant preference for fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and physical activity. Four intervention (53 students) and four control (68 students) schools…

  16. Parametrial fat tissue from high fat diet-treated SKH-1 mice stimulates transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 cells

    Bernard, Jamie J.; Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Vakil, Priyal R.; Ding, Ning; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Dong, Zigang; Conney, Allan H.; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that decreasing visceral adipose tissue by surgical removal of the parametrial fat pads inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), but not a low fat diet (LFD) indicating that the parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD played a role in skin carcinogenesis.

  17. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... D.: In order to get a lot of fiber in your diet, you need to focus on unrefined foods, so ... apples and leave the skin on for the fiber. Narrator: Include plenty of milk or dairy products in your diet as well. Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese ...

  19. The Healthy K Club: Promoting a Healthy Start for Kindergartners

    Phillips, Chip; Kreiling, Rich

    2005-01-01

    It's no secret that America's youth are now more out of shape than ever before. Study after study documents the sad saga of childhood obesity. Quick-fix remedies such as "Atkins for Kids" and child-friendly aerobics classes are proliferating. There are fat camps for kids and low-fat "candy." Still, an inescapable fact remains: As a nation, and…

  20. Successful management of congenital chyloperitoneum with fibrin glue.

    Antao, Brice; Croaker, David; Squire, Roly

    2003-11-01

    Chylous ascites in children has been treated in a variety of ways, including a low-fat diet, medium chain triglycerides, diuretics, total parental nutrition, surgical exploration, and internal peritoneo-venous shunting. The authors describe a child with persistent congenital chyloperitoneum treated successfully with the application of fibrin glue and recommend this as an effective alternative to traditional approaches. PMID:14614734

  1. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  2. 5 Ways to Reach (and Maintain!) a Healthy Weight

    ... portions) and go for water or low-fat milk instead of soda. Eat 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. Fruits and veggies are about more than just vitamins and minerals. They're also packed with fiber, which means ...

  3. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    ... and minerals. Calcium and iron are two important minerals for athletes: Calcium helps build strong bones to resist breaking and stress fractures. Calcium-rich foods include low-fat dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese, as well as leafy green ...

  4. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... Gradually switch to fat-free or low-fat milk and reduce servings of soda or other sweetened beverages. Choose whole grain foods, such as whole wheat bread or whole grain cereals to get added nutrients, such as minerals and fiber. When shopping, read the Nutrition Facts ...

  5. Holidays Are Coming! Time to Start Planning for Healthy Holiday Meals

    ... Gradually switch to fat-free or low-fat milk and reduce servings of soda or other sweetened beverages. Choose whole grain foods, such as whole wheat bread or whole grain cereals to get added nutrients, such as minerals and fiber. When shopping, read the Nutrition Facts ...

  6. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  7. Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Struijk, E.A.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625 D

  8. Understanding consumer preference for functional tortillas including whole barley flour using sensory and demographic/behavioral data

    The U.S. population has failed to incorporate sufficient amounts of whole grains and soluble fiber into their diet. The main objectives of this study were to investigate consumer acceptance of soluble fiber-enriched and low-fat tortillas made with blends of different particle size whole barley flour...

  9. Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults.

    Brown, T; Avenell, A; Edmunds, L D; Moore, H; Whittaker, V; Avery, L; Summerbell, C

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the effectiveness of long-term lifestyle interventions for the prevention of weight gain and morbidity in adults. Prevention of weight gain is important in adults who are of normal weight, overweight and obese. A systematic review of controlled trials of lifestyle interventions in adults with a body mass index of less than 35 kg m(-2) with at least 2 years of follow-up was carried out. Eleven of 39 comparisons produced significant improvement in weight between groups at 2 years or longer with mean difference weight change ranging from -0.5 to -11.5 kg. Effective interventions included a 600 kcal/day deficit diet deficit/low-fat diet (with and without meal replacements), low-calorie diet, Weight Watchers diet, low-fat non-reducing diet, diet with behaviour therapy, diet with exercise, diet with exercise and behaviour therapy. Adding meal replacements to a low-fat diet (with and without exercise and behaviour therapy) produced significant improvement in weight. Head-to-head interventions failed to show significant effect on weight with the exception of a Mediterranean diet with behaviour therapy compared with low-fat diet. Diet with exercise and/or behaviour therapy demonstrated significant reduction in hypertension and improvement in risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes compared with no treatment control. Lifestyle interventions demonstrated significant improvement in weight, reduction in hypertension and reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19754634

  10. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159217.html Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight Vegetable oils, nuts can ... groups, though less so in those on the healthy fat diets. The low-fat group had an increase of ...

  11. Low carbohydrate/high-fat diet attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, remodeling, and altered gene expression in hypertension

    The effects of dietary fat intake on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and accompanying structural and molecular remodeling in response to hypertension are not understood. The present study compared the effects of a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on development of left ventricular hype...

  12. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in ...

  13. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  14. The Effect of Knowledge, Risk Factors and Intent to Modify Diet on Fat Consumption.

    Hunt, Alice E.; Pope, Janet F.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 94 men and 116 women aged 35-55 revealed that only 18% were aware of dietary recommendations and only 23% correctly estimated their daily fat intake. Those with a history of heart disease or previous nutrition counseling were more likely to have low fat intake. A focus on eating behavior rather than fat intake recommendations was…

  15. Nutrition training for chefs: taste as an essential determinant of choice.

    Palmer, J; Leontos, C

    1995-12-01

    The primary objective of Project LEAN (Low-fat Eating for Americans Now), a social marketing initiative of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, is to help Americans reduce their fat intake to less than 30% of total energy. In Las Vegas, Nev, one of the 10 community sites selected to implement this goal, Las Vegas LEAN acted to change the food environment for restaurant patrons. This program empowered chefs to use their culinary expertise in developing good-tasting, low-fat menu items. The literature shows that consumers, despite verbalizing health concerns, choose food on the basis of taste. This ambivalence between belief and behavior demonstrates the need for innovative culinary techniques to develop food dishes that consumers will not only accept, but will enjoy and order repeatedly. Entrepreneurial dietitians, thus, have an opportunity to market nutrition skills to restaurants and hotels wishing to implement low-fat cuisine with good taste. Our intervention demonstrated that nutrition education for chefs is the key to long-term and successful menu changes. If taste is what consumers are seeking in low-fat items, and improved taste will finally get ambivalent consumers to change their eating behavior, enlisting the expertise of chefs is key. PMID:7594145

  16. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in com...

  17. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of

  18. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  19. 乳化剂产品在欧美市场的应用%Application of emulsifier products in European and the US markets

    2005-01-01

    Emulsifier has been widely used in the European and the US food markets, undertakes the task of the valueadded additive. Many food processing can not be without emulsifier, which is used especially in low-fat,low-calorie food at which the consumers are concerned.

  20. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  1. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...

  2. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...

  3. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    ... meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced-sodium frozen dinners, peanut ... Canned and pickled vegetables, vegetable juice l Cottage cheese l Frozen ... chips, crackers, salted nuts l Salt and salt seasonings, like garlic salt ...

  4. Gelling properties of tyrosinase-treated dairy proteins

    The crosslinking of milk protein and food gums increases their viscosity and forms the base for various foods such as ice cream, milk based beverages and caramel candies. Protein-based viscous gels are needed to replace carbohydrate-based ones for reduced calorie or low-fat food applications. In t...

  5. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  6. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... Dr. Connie W. Bales, Ph.D., R.D.: Well, in the vegetable category, it’s good to think ... milk or dairy products in your diet as well. Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese can be ...

  7. Stop the Cravings!

    ... your cravings. Yearn for potato chips? Buy a brand that's low-fat or fat-free. Desire something crunchy? Skip the chips: try fruit or a salad packed with crisp greens and veggies. Want something sweet? How about baking an apple or even roasting some veggies? Roasting brings out ...

  8. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    /sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by...

  9. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  10. THE EFFECT OF GENERIC DAIRY ADVERTISING ON THE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR MILK AND CHEESE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Chung, Chanjin; Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.; Gould, Brian W.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent two-step censored estimation is applied to household demand equations for disaggregated milk and cheese products. The long-run advertising elasticity for total milk was positive, largely due to low fat milk; however the elasticity for cheese was not significant, and only shredded cheese had a positive, significant response.

  11. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  12. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Full Text Available ... have salad for lunch, and I put some cheese in it. And with my diet, an ounce of cheese is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older ... diet as well. Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese can be a good source of calcium and ...

  13. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer. PMID:23932139

  14. Study Cites the Fats That Could Shorten Your Life

    ... based diet with less meat and more alternative protein sources -- such as fish, beans, eggs, and low-fat dairy foods -- can also reduce levels of unhealthy fats," Webb said. And healthy eating doesn't mean having to skimp on ...

  15. Fiber and Your Child

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Serve whole-grain rolls with dinner ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Offer air-popped popcorn — ...

  16. Fiber

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  17. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. PMID:22118069

  18. Complications and treatment of migrated biliary endoprostheses: A review of the literature

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure. It is especially successful in treating postoperative biliary leaks, and may prevent surgical intervention. A routine change of endoprostheses after 3 mo is a common practice but this can be prolonged to 6 mo. We reported a colonic perforation due to biliary stent dislocation and migration to the rectosigmoid colon, and reviewed the literature.

  19. Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury

    Hansen, Trine S; Engberg, Aase W; Larsen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    study. SETTING: Subacute rehabilitation department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients age 16 to 65 years (N=173) with severe TBI (posttraumatic amnesia from 7d to >6 mo) admitted over a 5-year period. Patients are transferred to the brain injury unit as soon as they ventilate spontaneously...

  20. Effect of Duration of Breastfeeding on Neuropsychological Development at 10 to 12 Years of Age in a Cohort of Healthy Children

    Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Chiarotti, Flavia; D'elia, Lidia; De Mei, Barbara; Romano, Mariateresa; Gesualdo, Francesco; Salmaso, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to explore the effect of duration of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development. Method: The long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment was examined through a battery of neuropsychological tests in 1403 children (693 females, 710 males; mean age 11y 9mo [SD 6mo], range: 10y 3mo-12y 8mo) who were…

  1. Associations of Perfusate Biomarkers and Pump Parameters With Delayed Graft Function and Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft Function.

    Parikh, C R; Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Ficek, J; Abt, P L; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Lin, H; Bimali, M; Murray, P T; Rao, V; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Reese, P P

    2016-05-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality. PMID:26695524

  2. Cyclosporine treatment of perianal gland adenoma concurrent with benign prostatic hyperplasia in a dog

    Park, Chul; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Lim, Chae-Young; Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Im; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old, intact male, mixed-breed dog was evaluated for multiple intradermal nodules around the anus. The nodules were diagnosed as perianal gland adenoma based on histopathologic examination. After therapy with cyclosporin A for 5 wk, the perianal masses were moderately shrunken. The dog’s condition has remained stable over 6 mo.

  3. Adherence to exercise programs and determinants of maintenance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Paw, M.J.M.C.A.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercis

  4. Coordination of lanthanide cation to an Anderson type polyoxometalate anion leads to isomorphous metal-oxide based one-dimensional inorganic solids: Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopy

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Tanmay Chatterjee; Samar K Das

    2014-09-01

    One-dimensional isomorphous inorganic polymers containing Anderson type heteropoly anion as a basic building unit, namely [La(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (1), [Gd(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (2), [Gd(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (3), and [Eu(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (4) have been synthesized and studied by the powdered X-ray diffraction, TGA, IR, electronic and ESR spectroscopy, and unambiguously by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Isomorphous compounds 1-4 are crystallized in orthorhombic system with 21 space group. The crystal structure analysis reveals a one-dimensional extended chain in which the Anderson type heteropolyanion, acting as the building unit, is linked by rare earth metal ions in a zig-zag fashion. In the crystal structure, all types of oxygens of the heteropolyanion, lattice waters, lanthanum coordinated waters are extensively involved in O—H…O hydrogen bonding interactions. Compounds are additionally characterized by UV-visible and ESR spectroscopy.

  5. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  6. Does calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade affect platelet function and fibrinolysis to a varying degree?

    Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of isradipine and atenolol on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity were studied in 10 male patients with mild untreated hypertension. After a 2-week placebo run-in period, the volunteers were randomized to either isradipine 2.5 mg twice daily or atenolol 100 mg daily for a 6-mo...

  7. The use of an angularis oris axial pattern flap in a dog after resection of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate

    Dicks, Naomi; Boston, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male boxer was presented for treatment of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate. The mass was surgically resected and the hard palate defect was reconstructed using an angularis oris axial pattern buccal mucosal flap. No local recurrence was reported 6 mo after surgery.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes related to gestational weight gain in women defined by their body mass index, parity, height, and smoking status

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer L;

    2009-01-01

    ). Population-based registers provided information about birth outcomes. GWG-specific absolute adjusted risks for emergency cesarean delivery, birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant, and postpartum (6 mo) weight retention (PPWR) were compared across different types...

  9. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  10. Drooling in cerebral palsy: hypersalivation or dysfunctional oral motor control?

    Erasmus, C.E.; Hulst, K. van; Rotteveel, L.J.C.; Jongerius, P.H.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Roeleveld, N.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether drooling in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in general and in CP subtypes is due to hypersalivation. METHOD: Saliva was collected from 61 healthy children (30 males, mean age 9y 5mo [SD 11mo]; 31 females, mean age 9y 6mo [1y 2mo]) and 100 children with CP who drooled (5

  11. Insulin sensitivity in calves decreases substantially during the first 3 months of life and is unaffected by weaning or fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation

    Pantophlet, A.J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Priebe, M.G.; Vonk, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Veal calves at the age of 4 to 6 mo often experience problems with glucose homeostasis, as indicated by postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. It is not clear to what extent the ontogenetic development of calves or the feeding strategy [e.g., prolonged milk replacer (M

  12. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  13. Preclinical evaluation of a two-dose vaccination schedule of recombinant Hansenula Polymorpha hepatitis B vaccine in animals

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Deyou; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xuqin; Wang, Xi; Li, Caimei; Zhang, Sucai; Xue, Hesheng; Zhao, Kai; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The current 3-dose regimen of hepatitis B vaccination for infants requiring over 6 mo period may pose the poor rate of compliance and later protection from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of reducing the number of doses of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine.

  14. CD40 ligand is pivotal to efficient control of virus replication in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard;

    1998-01-01

    internal organs approximately 6 mo after virus inoculation. Since the impairment of immune function seems to be more pronounced in CD40L-deficient mice than in mice lacking either CD4+ cells or B cells, these results indicate that CD40L is pivotal to sustain efficient antiviral immune surveillance...

  15. Autoimmune Diseases in Parents of Children with Infantile Autism: A Case--Control Study

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were screened through the nationwide Danish National…

  16. HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis.

    Clement Zeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nevirapine and lamivudine given to mothers are transmitted to infants via breastfeeding in quantities sufficient to have biologic effects on the virus; this may lead to an increased risk of a breastfed infant's development of resistance to maternal antiretrovirals. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS, a single-arm open-label prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT trial, assessed the safety and efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir given to HIV-infected women from 34 wk gestation through 6 mo of breastfeeding. Here, we present findings from a KiBS trial secondary analysis that evaluated the emergence of maternal ARV-associated resistance among 32 HIV-infected breastfed infants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All infants in the cohort were tested for HIV infection using DNA PCR at multiple study visits during the 24 mo of the study, and plasma RNA viral load for all HIV-PCR-positive infants was evaluated retrospectively. Specimens from mothers and infants with viral load >1,000 copies/ml were tested for HIV drug resistance mutations. Overall, 32 infants were HIV infected by 24 mo of age, and of this group, 24 (75% infants were HIV infected by 6 mo of age. Of the 24 infants infected by 6 mo, nine were born to mothers on a nelfinavir-based regimen, whereas the remaining 15 were born to mothers on a nevirapine-based regimen. All infants were also given single-dose nevirapine within 48 hours of birth. We detected genotypic resistance mutations in none of eight infants who were HIV-PCR positive by 2 wk of age (specimens from six infants were not amplifiable, for 30% (6/20 at 6 wk, 63% (14/22 positive at 14 wk, and 67% (16/24 at 6 mo post partum. Among the 16 infants with resistance mutations by 6 mo post partum, the common mutations were M184V and K103N, conferring resistance to lamivudine and nevirapine, respectively. Genotypic resistance was detected among 9/9 (100% and 7/15 (47% infected infants

  17. Indomethacin administered early in the postnatal period results in reduced glomerular number in the adult rat.

    Kent, A L; Koina, M E; Gubhaju, L; Cullen-McEwen, L A; Bertram, J F; Lynnhtun, J; Shadbolt, B; Falk, M C; Dahlstrom, J E

    2014-11-15

    Indomethacin and ibuprofen are administered to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) during active glomerulogenesis. Light and electron microscopic glomerular changes with no change in glomerular number were seen following indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment during glomerulogenesis at 14 days after birth in a neonatal rat model. This present study aimed to determine whether longstanding renal structural changes are present at 30 days and 6 mo (equivalent to human adulthood). Rat pups were administered indomethacin or ibuprofen antenatally on days 18-20 (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen) or postnatally intraperitoneally from day 1 to 3 or day 1 to 5 (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen). Control groups received no treatment or normal saline intraperitoneally. Pups were killed at 30 days of age and 6 mo of age. Tissue blocks from right kidneys were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, while total glomerular number was determined in left kidneys using unbiased stereology. Eight pups were included in each group from 14 maternal rats. At 30 days and 6 mo, there were persistent electron microscopy abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane in those receiving postnatal indomethacin and ibuprofen. There were no significant light microscopy findings at 30 days or 6 mo. At 6 mo, there were significantly fewer glomeruli in those receiving postnatal indomethacin but not ibuprofen (P = 0.003). In conclusion, indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol. PMID:25186294

  18. The effects of the mediterranean diet on biomarkers of vascular wall inflammation and plaque vulnerability in subjects with high risk for cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial.

    Rosa Casas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. However, how the MD exerts its effects is not fully known. AIM: To assess the 12-month effects of two enhanced MDs compared to a low-fat diet on inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability in a subcohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study. METHODS: A total of 164 participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized into three diet groups: MD supplemented with 50mL/d of extra virgin olive oil (MD+EVOO or 30 g/d of nuts (MD+Nuts and a low-fat diet. Changes in classical cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability were measured after 12 months of intervention. RESULTS: Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, those receiving MD+EVOO and MD+Nuts showed a higher decrease in systolic (6mmHg and diastolic (3mmHg blood pressure (P = 0.02; both, as well as a reduction of 10% and 8% in LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.04, respectively. Patients in the MD+Nuts group showed a significant reduction of 34% in CD40 expression on monocyte surface compared to low-fat diet patients (P = 0.03. In addition, inflammatory biomarkers related to plaque instability such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were reduced by 45% and 35% and 95% and 90% in the MD+EVOO and MD+Nuts groups, respectively (P<0.05; all compared to the low-fat diet group. Likewise, sICAM and P-selectin were also reduced by 50% and 27%, respectively in the MD+EVOO group (P = 0.04 and P-selectin by 19% in MD+Nuts group (P = 0.04 compared to the low-fat diet group. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the MD is associated with an increase in serum markers of atheroma plaque stability which may explain, at least in part, the protective role of MD against ischemic heart disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN

  19. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2006-01-01

    . Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements......Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased...

  20. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;

    2006-01-01

    . DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements......OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation...

  1. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  2. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  3. Difficulties in the diagnostics of renal tumor in a child with tuberous sclerosis - case report

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most common renal tumor in tuberous sclerosis (TS) patients. However, these patients also face an increased risk of malignant kidney neoplasms. A 7-year-old boy with a diagnosis of TS was sent for abdominal CT due to a single isoechoic tumor in the lower pole of left kidney, which was revealed in US. CT exam confirmed the presence of a hiperdense tumor which exceeded margins of the left kidney. The tumor was homogeneously enhanced after contrast administration. The absence of regions of negative attenuation in CT and the isoechogenisity in US suggested rather malignant lesion than AML. Partial nephrectomy was performed. Subsequent pathologic examination classified the tumor as a low-fat AML. Radiological diagnosis of low-fat AML is difficult and requires a careful differentiation from other lesions. (author)

  4. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Vaag, A.

    2006-01-01

    analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased......Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  5. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (psausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  6. Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and milk and body size at age 7 years

    Jensen, C B; Gamborg, M; Berentzen, T L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal vitamin-D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Using two national vitamin-D fortification programs as the setting for a societal experiment, we investigated whether exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and low-fat milk...... of 7 years of 54 270 children, who were measured during the mandatory Copenhagen School Health examination, we compared children according to whether the mothers were pregnant during the fortification programs or not. The comparisons were performed for children born just before and after initiation...... overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortification of margarine and low-fat milk showed no association with body size at 7 years....

  7. Multi-criteria and econometric evaluation of dairy products

    Karmen Pažek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multi-criteria assessment of four dairy products: “Pomursko mlejko” (Pomurje milk, “Lejko mleko” (light milk, “Fyto mleko” (Fyto milk and “Posneto mleko v prahu” (dried milk. The research was executed by using a multi-criteria methodology, DEX, which was complemented by an econometric analysis for light milk to estimate the trends in production and consumption before analyzed dairy products were implemented on the market. DEXi computer program results indicated that all analyzed milk products were ‘above average’. The econometric model was applied to examine changes in the demand for low-fat milk (light milk. Empirical results showed significant consumer re¬sponse to the increase in the prices of low-fat milk demonstrating income elasticity (1,15 unit.

  8. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  9. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik;

    2010-01-01

    counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P......) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK......Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to...

  10. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human...... behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and...

  11. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....... were collected. The high-fat test was associated with an increase in plasma triglyceride and kallikrein concentrations and postprandial FVII activation (p<0.001). Plasma kallikrein was strongly associated with triglycerides in fasting and non-fasting samples (r2=0.74-0.87, p<0.0001), suggesting that...

  12. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  13. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided...

  14. Ostrich meat shows nutritional advantages

    Naseva, Dijana; Pejkovski, Zlatko; Kuzelov, Aco

    2013-01-01

    Having been faced with the fact that the mankind feeds less healthy and the number of people with cancer and cardiovascular diseases increases as a result of inappropriate diet, the nutritionists’ advice is to decrease the fat and cholesterol in the nutrition, and as for the meat, they suggest low fat meat rich in protein. The World Health Organization is the cheerleader in emphasizing the slogan “healthy food”. Taking into consideration the healthy meat alternatives, this paper determines th...

  15. Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?

    Johannes Scholl

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its...

  16. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Joshua Siglin; Lianjin Jin; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carboh...

  17. Probucol prevents early coronary heart disease and death in the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI/apolipoprotein E double knockout mouse

    Braun, Anne; Zhang, Songwen; Miettinen, Helena E.; Ebrahim, Shamsah; Holm, Teresa M.; Vasile, Eliza; Mark J Post; Yoerger, Danita M.; Picard, Michael H.; Joshua L. Krieger; Andrews, Nancy C.; Simons, Michael; Krieger, Monty

    2003-01-01

    Mice with homozygous null mutations in the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B, type I) and apolipoprotein E genes fed a low-fat diet exhibit a constellation of pathologies shared with human atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD): hypercholesterolemia, occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarctions, cardiac dysfunction (heart enlargement, reduced systolic function and ejection fraction, and ECG abnormalities), and premature death (mean a...

  18. Role of Sphingolipid Mediator Ceramide in Obesity and Renal Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat DietS⃞

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD)...

  19. Accounting for Product Substitution in the Analysis of Food Taxes Targeting Obesity

    Zhen Miao; John C. Beghin; Jensen, Helen H.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. This ...

  20. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactissingle-strain starter

    Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Brighton, C; McMahon, D. J.; Farkye, N.; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-01-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese ...

  1. Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions, and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    Satre, Derek; Nancy P. Gordon; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between drinking patterns, medical conditions and behavioral health risks among older adults. Methods: Analyses compared survey participants (health plan members ages 65 to 90, N = 6,662) who drank moderately to those who drank over recommended limits or did not drink. Results: Over-limit drinking was associated with smoking; not trying to eat low fat foods (in men), and lower BMI (in women). Predictors of not drinking during the prior 12 months included...

  2. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  3. Cultured gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate adiposity and metabolic phenotypes in mice

    Ridaura, Vanessa K.; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Rey, Federico E.; Cheng, Jiye; Duncan, Alexis E.; Kau, Andrew L.; Griffin, Nicholas W.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Funai, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the USA. Increased total body and fat mass, as well as obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes were transmissible with uncultured fecal communities, and with their corresponding ...

  4. The Effects of Olive and Pumpkin Seed Oil on Serum Lipid Concentrations

    Landeka, Irena; Đikić, Domagoj; Radišić, Iva; Teparić, Renata; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Rogić, Dunja

    2011-01-01

    Low-fat diets increase serum triacilglycerol and decrease HDL-cholesterol concentrations, thereby potentially adversely affecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study compared the CVD risk profi le of a high-MUFA diets (olive oil) and high-PUFA diets (pumpkin seed oil). The most signifi cant difference between the two groups was that the atherogenic index in groups given olive oil was significantly lower (for approximately 60 %) than atherogenic index recorded in control group...

  5. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias

    Steenhuis, I H M; van Assema, Patricia; Breukelen, Gerard van; Glanz, K; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEnvironmental interventions as labeling of healthy foods and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias along with an educational program. The aim of the interventions was to reduce fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake. In the 'Labeling Program', low fat products were labeled. The 'Food Sup...

  6. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  7. Hypercholesterolemia Promotes an Osteoporotic Phenotype

    Pelton, Kristine; Krieder, Jaclynn; Joiner, Danese; Freeman, Michael R.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    A role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis has been suggested in published reports. However, few studies contain direct evidence of a role for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in bone health. Using isocaloric high-fat/high-cholesterol and low-fat/no-cholesterol diets in a 4-month feeding study combined with micro computed tomography analysis, we demonstrated in two different mouse strains that mice with hypercholesterolemia lose cortical and trabecular bone in th...

  8. Is it possible to dissociate 'liking' and 'wanting' for foods in humans? A novel experimental procedure.

    Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil; Blundell, John E

    2007-01-30

    Berridge's model (e.g. [Berridge KC. Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:1-25.; Berridge KC, Robinson T E. Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 2003;26:507-513.; Berridge KC. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav 2004;81:179-209]) outlines the brain substrates thought to mediate food reward with distinct 'liking' (hedonic/affective) and 'wanting' (incentive salience/motivation) components. Understanding the dual aspects of food reward could throw light on food choice, appetite control and overconsumption. The present study reports the development of a procedure to measure these processes in humans. A computer-based paradigm was used to assess 'liking' (through pleasantness ratings) and 'wanting' (through forced-choice photographic procedure) for foods that varied in fat (high or low) and taste (savoury or sweet). 60 participants completed the program when hungry and after an ad libitum meal. Findings indicate a state (hungry-satiated)-dependent, partial dissociation between 'liking' and 'wanting' for generic food categories. In the hungry state, participants 'wanted' high-fat savoury>low-fat savoury with no corresponding difference in 'liking', and 'liked' high-fat sweet>low-fat sweet but did not differ in 'wanting' for these foods. In the satiated state, participants 'liked', but did not 'want', high-fat savoury>low-fat savoury, and 'wanted' but did not 'like' low-fat sweet>high-fat sweet. More differences in 'liking' and 'wanting' were observed when hungry than when satiated. This procedure provides the first step in proof of concept that 'liking' and 'wanting' can be dissociated in humans and can be further developed for foods varying along different dimensions. Other experimental procedures may also be devised to separate 'liking' and 'wanting'. PMID:17052736

  9. 'Doctor, How Can I Lose Weight?'

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Millions of Canadians are trying to lose weight. According to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's recently released height and weight tables, some of them don't need to lose weight from a health standpoint. For those who would benefit from weight loss, a good program includes a balanced, low fat, high fiber diet; exercise; behavior modification and moral support. Few of the popular books and self-help groups offer all these essential components.

  10. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  11. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... shares some of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....

  12. 'Doctor, how can I lose weight?'.

    Bright-See, E

    1983-11-01

    Millions of Canadians are trying to lose weight. According to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's recently released height and weight tables, some of them don't need to lose weight from a health standpoint. For those who would benefit from weight loss, a good program includes a balanced, low fat, high fiber diet; exercise; behavior modification and moral support. Few of the popular books and self-help groups offer all these essential components. PMID:21283478

  13. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from

    Stjepan Mahnet; Slavko Kirin; Blaženka Kos; Jagoda Šušković

    2004-01-01

    Various immune responses have been influenced by probiotics and these immunomodulatory effects have been proposed for several potential applications such as the prevention of infectious diarrhoea, alleviation of hypersensitivity reactions and tumour suppression. The new probiotic product from LURA d. d., low fat fresh cheese "BioAktiv LGG", contains well-known probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). The viable count of L. rhamnosus GG remained stable and has been 1.3x108 CFU/g of l...

  15. Kvalita pštrosího masa a jeho postavení na našem trhu

    LIBÍNSKÁ, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis solves a question of ostrich breeding and carcass processing of ostrich meat. Furthermore the quality of ostrich meat and its position on today market. Ostrich is the biggest living bird on earth whose meat is red and very similar to beef composition but properties are more similar to poultry meat. Ostrich meat, compared to other animal meat, contain low percentage of fat, cholesterol and proteins. For most kind of meat with low fat reflected at the expense of subtlety, but ostric...

  16. Are the consensus screening criteria for a positive 12-lead ECG valid in competitive professional football (soccer) players? A genetic analysis and magnetic resonance imaging correlations

    González Caballero, Eva; Cabrera Rodríguez, José Ángel; Machado, J C; Luna, A.; Caro, P.; Fuertes Suárez, Beatriz; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Bayona, S.; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a significant burden to individuals and society. Diet could potentially improve blood pressure and other metabolic abnormalities secondary to enhanced insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the effects of the Paleo-diet– composed of meats, fruits, vegetables and nuts and excluding high fat dairy products and refined grains –compared to a standard diet based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition guidelines (including low fat dairy products and grains) on cardiova...

  17. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Dedin FR1); Dedi Fardiaz1,3); Anton Apriyantono2); Nuri Andarwulan3)

    2006-01-01

    Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The ...

  18. Nutrition intervention for migraine: a randomized crossover trial

    Bunner, Anne E.; Agarwal, Ulka; Gonzales, Joseph F; Valente, Francesca; Barnard, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited evidence suggests that dietary interventions may offer a promising approach for migraine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet intervention on migraine severity and frequency. Methods Forty-two adult migraine sufferers were recruited from the general community in Washington, DC, and divided randomly into two groups. This 36-week crossover study included two treatments: dietary instruction and placebo supplement. Each treatment...

  19. Psychoreologie pomazánkových emulgovaných tuků

    Štern, Petr; Pokorný, J.; Jedelská, M.; Panovská, Z.; Seifert, P.; Svoboda, Z.; Novák, B.

    Nelahozeves : UNILEVER ČR, 2004, s. 13-20. ISBN 80-86238-41-5. [Mezinárodní konference z technologie a analytiky tuků /42./. Stachy (CZ), 12.05.2004-14.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : rheometry * sensory analysis * low- fat spreads Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. Mediterranean diet reduces senescence-associated stress in endothelial cells

    Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ramirez, Rafael; Carracedo, Julia; Caballero, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco Miguel; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena Maria; Tinahones, Francisco; Malagon, Maria del Mar; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of the oxidative stress induced by quality and quantity of dietary fat on cellular senescence. Twenty elderly subjects consumed three diets, each for 4 weeks: a saturated fatty acid diet (SFA), a low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (CHO-ALA), and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) enriched in monounsaturated fatty acid following a randomized crossover design. For each diet, we investigated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS), cellular apoptosis and t...

  1. Increased uncoupling protein 3 content does not affect mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    Hesselink, M.K.C.; Greenhaff, P L; Constantin-Teodosu, D.; Hultman, E; Saris, W. H. M.; Nieuwlaat, R.; Schaart, G.; Kornips, C.F.P.; P. Schrauwen

    2003-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensitive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle PCr stores. Exercise was performed following 7 days consumption of low-fat (L...

  2. The effects of exercise and diet on olfactory capability in detection dogs*

    Angle, Craig T.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.; Gillette, Robert L.; Steury, Todd; Haney, Pamela; Barrett, Jay; Fisher, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    A previous work suggests that dietary fat may influence canine olfaction. The present study evaluated whether olfactory performance could be influenced by forms of dietary fat and exercise. Seventeen certified detection dogs were fed three different diets (high fat, low fat or high polyunsaturated fat) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, olfactory testing was performed using a scent wheel in an olfaction laboratory using three explosive materials. The dogs completed eight to twelve scent trials bef...

  3. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats

    Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy ...

  4. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota

    Cox, Laura M.; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A.; Anderson, W. H. Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J.; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Methé, Barbara A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared ...

  5. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones during a comprehensive residential three month kriya yoga training and vegetarian nutrition.

    Schmidt, T; Wijga, A; Von Zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G; Wagner, T O

    1997-01-01

    In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels. Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, aldosterone, as well as serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were reduced, while cortisol excretion increased significantly. PMID:9401632

  6. Kan et nordisk kosthold forebygge utvikling av risikofaktorer for hjerte- og karsykdommer?

    Berild, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Several studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect on cardiovascular risk factors. High intake of vegetables, fruits, olive oil, fish, cereals, low fat dairy products and a moderate consumption of alcohol characterize the Mediterranean diet. However, cultural differences may limit the adherence to the Mediterranea...

  7. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885

  8. Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat

    Lee, Y.; Birch, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that gi...

  9. Association between yogurt consumption and the risk of Metabolic Syndrome over 6 years in the SUN study

    Sayon-Orea, C. (Carmen); Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Marti, A; Pimenta, A.M. (Adriano Marçal); Martin-Calvo, N. (Nerea); Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of yogurt consumption in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not fully understood and the available epidemiologic evidence is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the association between total, whole-fat, or low-fat yogurt consumption and the risk of developing MetS. Methods: Yogurt consumption was assessed at baseline through a 136-item validate...

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Wang, Huifen; Livingston, Kara A.; Fox, Caroline S; Meigs, James B.; Jacques, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    The evidence-based Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increasing the intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. However, yogurt, a nutrient-dense milk product, has been understudied. This cross-sectional study examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile among adults (n = 6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionna...

  11. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; P. Chauhan; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed f...

  12. Goat meat quality. Effects of salting, air-drying and ageing processes

    Teixeira, A; Gonçalves, I.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Goat meat is one of the most consumed meats in the World and according to Teixeira (2003) Portugal traditionally consume specially kid meat in Easter and Christmas. Goat meat is also an important part of food consumption and the main product of several traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet. As referred by Teixeira et al. (1995), consumers value low-fat, highquality products and therefore, there is an increasing potential development of the goat meat market since the demand f...

  13. Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties

    Parfait, Berthe; Aurore, Guylène

    2009-01-01

    Banana has an important place in human nutrition all over the world. It is interesting to analyse banana health preservation potentialities. The medicinal properties of banana are part of the folk medicine of all tropical countries. Bananas are used in special diets where ease of digestibility, low fat, minerals and vitamins are required. These special diets are used for babies, the elderly and patients with stomach problems, gout, and arthritis. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of banana are repo...

  14. Market Strategies in Branded Dairy Product Markets

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Haller, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents the extent of cooperative penetration into branded dairy product markets and presents case study evidence on competitive strategies in the skim/low fat milk, whole milk, cottage cheese, butter, margarine, and ice cream markets. We employ data for 51 local market areas from the Information Resources, Inc. "Supermarket Review" data base for 1988 and 1989. Using national data, we identify the twenty top brands (by volume sales) and all cooperatives that market one or more br...

  15. Integrative responses of pig adipose tissues to high-fat high-fiber diet: towards key regulators of energy flexibility

    Gondret, Florence; Vincent, Annie; Houee, Magalie; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Siegel, Anne; Causeur, David; Louveau, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The competition between food and feed challenges the use of alternative resources such as fibrous feedstuffs in diets for pigs. Adding fat to high fiber diets appears as a relevant strategy to improve dietary energy value and feed efficiency, but this changes the nutrients and energy source compared to a standard low fat diet. This study aimed to elucidate the transcriptional mechanisms involved in variations of adiposity when pigs were fed a high fat high fiber diet. Growing b...

  16. Dietary factor VII activation does not increase plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with stable angina pectoris and coronary atherosclerosis

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Münster, A M; Marckmann, P; Keller, N; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    angiographically verified coronary atherosclerosis. They were served a low-fat (5% of energy from fat) breakfast and lunch and a high-fat (40% of energy from fat) breakfast and lunch on 2 different days. Venous blood samples were collected at 8:15 AM (fasting), 12:30 PM, 2:00 PM, 3:30 PM, and 4:45 PM and analyzed...

  17. A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report

    Westerlund Per; Nielsen Jørgen; Bygren Per

    2006-01-01

    Abstract An obese patient with type 2 diabetes whose diet was changed from the recommended high-carbohydrate, low-fat type to a low-carbohydrate diet showed a significant reduction in bodyweight, improved glycemic control and a reversal of a six year long decline of renal function. The reversal of the renal function was likely caused by both improved glycemic control and elimination of the patient's obesity. Insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients usually leads to weight increase which ...

  18. Nutrients Utilization in Obese Individuals with and without Hypertriglyceridemia

    Tiziana Montalcini; Theodora Lamprinoudi; Attilio Morrone; Elisa Mazza; Carmine Gazzaruso; Stefano Romeo; Arturo Pujia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low fat utilization is linked to weight gain and to the presence of certain atherosclerosis markers. It is not clear whether the presence of hyperlipidemia can further affect nutrients utilization. The main objective of this study was to investigate the fasting fuel utilization of obese subjects suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, and to compare it with that of individuals that are solely obese. Method: We recruited 20 obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 20 matched in...

  19. The Food Additive Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (E-476): Structure, Applications, and Production Methods

    Josefa Bastida-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    The food additive named polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and identified with the code E-476 (PGPR) is used as emulsifier in tin-greasing emulsions for the baking trade and for the production of low-fat spreads. However, the main application of PGPR is in the chocolate industry, where, besides its action as an emulsifier, it also has important properties as a viscosity modifier and thus improves the moulding properties of the molten chocolate. An additional property of PGPR in chocolate is ...

  20. Special Foods

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  1. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    McFarlane Samy I; Arora Surender K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by ...

  2. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatgoat milk yogurts contain respectively 0.128-1.501, 0.405-1.250 and 0.433-0.976 g CLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  3. A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Effect of Food Intake on Absorption of Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects.

    Suri, Ajit; Pham, Theresa; MacLean, David B

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of orteronel, an investigational nonsteroidal, reversible selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase. In this open-label, randomized crossover study, healthy subjects received single doses of orteronel 400 mg with a low-fat meal, a high-fat meal, and under fasting conditions in a randomized sequence. Plasma concentrations of orteronel and its primary M-I metabolite were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using mixed-effects analysis of variance model. Compared with fasting conditions, the oral bioavailability of orteronel was increased under fed conditions. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after a low-fat breakfast was 135% (90% confidence interval [CI], 126%-145%) compared with fasting conditions. Similarly, after a high-fat breakfast, the corresponding value was 142% (90%CI, 132%-152%). No unexpected safety concerns were raised with orteronel 400 mg administered in the fasted state or after either a high-fat or a low-fat meal; mild adverse events were experienced by 36% of the healthy male subjects. PMID:27163497

  4. Feasibility of obtaining breast epithelial cells from healthy women for studies of cellular proliferation.

    Miller, N A; Thomas, M; Martin, L J; Hedley, D W; Michal, S; Boyd, N F

    1997-05-01

    Increased dietary fat intake and rate of breast epithelial cell proliferation have each been associated with the development of breast cancer. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a low fat, high carbohydrate diet on the rate of breast epithelial cell proliferation in women at high risk for breast cancer. Women were recruited from the intervention and control groups of a randomized low fat dietary intervention trial, breast epithelial cells were obtained by fine needle aspiration, and cell proliferation was assessed in these samples using immunofluorescent detection of Ki-67 and PCNA. The effects of needle size and study group on cell yield and cytologic features of the cells were also examined. Fifty three women (20 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group) underwent the biopsy procedure. Slides from 38 subjects were stained for Ki-67 and from 14 subjects for PCNA. No cell proliferation (fluorescence) was detected for either Ki-67 or PCNA in any of the slides. Epithelial cell yield and number of stromal fragments were greater with a larger needle size. Numbers of stromal fragments and bipolar naked nuclei were greater in the low fat as compared to the control group but no differences in epithelial cell yield were observed between the two groups. This study confirms that fine needle aspiration biopsy is a feasible method of obtaining epithelial cells from women without discrete breast masses, but suggests that cell proliferation cannot be assessed using Ki-67 and PCNA in such samples. PMID:9150899

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  7. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMImeals per d under ad libitum conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental labelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label. PMID:26439975

  8. Xanthan gum as a fat replacer in goshtaba-a traditional meat product of India: effects on quality and oxidative stability.

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2015-12-01

    Goshtaba is a restructured meat product of Kashmiri wazwan prepared from meat emulsion with added fat (20 %), salt, spices and condiments and cooked in the curd. The present study was undertaken for the development of low fat goshtaba with the addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer and was evaluated for proximate composition, pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory properties. Low fat goshtaba formulations containing xanthan gum were higher in protein and moisture contents but, lower in fat content and pH value than the high fat control (p xanthan gum (p xanthan gum (0.5-1.5 %) and was higher in low fat product containing 1.5 % xanthan gum. SEM results indicate that xanthan gum lead to formation of an additional gel network which holds more water. Sensory evaluation revealed that goshtaba product with 0.5 % xanthan gum had quality characteristics that were similar to the control product containing 20 % fat. PMID:26604383

  9. Mechanical evaluation of linear friction welds in titanium alloys through indentation experiments; Evaluacion mecanica mediante tecnica de indentacion de soldaduras por friccion lineal en aleaciones de titanio

    Corzo, M.; Casals, O.; Alcala, J.; Mateo, A.; Anglada, M.

    2005-07-01

    This article shows the results of a project that focuses on the characterization of the weld interface region of dissimilar joints between titanium alloys for aeronautical applications, specifically Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. The uniaxial flow stress and hardening response of the material containing the weld were analyzed following the finite elements simulations and mathematical formulations to correlate hardness and the amount of pile-up and sinking-in phenomena around sharp indenters with uniaxial mechanical properties. This allows to accurately stablishing the influence that welding process has on the mechanical response of the parts. Tests performed on these friction-welded specimens showed that the fine grained microstructures in the welds exhibited better properties than the base materials. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the adrenergic and insulin-mediated regulation of lipolysis during different phases of a 6-mo dietary intervention. Eight obese women underwent a 6-mo dietary intervention consisting of a 1-mo very low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by a 2-mo...... low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined at...... baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during...

  11. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study. The...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect was....... The best and the worst sires differed by about 8% in their estimated breeding values of mortality in the first 180d. Based on the results obtained in this study, genetic selection for reducing calf mortality should be possible....

  12. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  13. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    Vilpas, M. [VTT Manuf. Technol. (Finland); Haenninen, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Eng. Mater.

    1999-07-01

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  14. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM. In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as well as bone cell ingrowth. Implications for the fabrication of patient-specific, monolithic, multifunctional orthopaedic implants using EBM are described along with microstructures and mechanical properties characteristic of both Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy prototypes, including both solid and open-cellular prototypes manufactured by additive manufacturing (AM using EBM.

  15. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated with...... antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo...... of ATT. However, children who received micronutrients had a faster gain in height over 6 mo than did those who did not receive micronutrients (height-for-age z score Δ = 0.08; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient supplementation did not modify the weight gain or clearance of lesions on CXR in...

  16. Theater-Based Community Engagement Project for Veterans Recovering From Substance Use Disorders.

    Wasmuth, Sally; Pritchard, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-wk, interdisciplinary, occupation-based theater project for facilitating community engagement and substance use disorder (SUD) recovery in veterans. All data were collected at baseline, postintervention, and 6-wk and 6-mo follow-up intervals. Of the invited veterans, 24% consented to participate (n = 14), and 50% were retained (n = 7). Average attendance was 91%. Considerable improvements in social and occupational participation were noted at postintervention and at 6-wk follow-up but were not retained at 6 mo. No important change in self-efficacy was noted. Of the participants, 86% remained abstinent for 6 wk following the intervention. Theater provides a feasible and acceptable resource for potentially facilitating SUD recovery. Larger controlled effectiveness studies of theater are needed to examine whether robust and notable recovery outcomes in people with SUDs can be linked to participation in theater. PMID:27294989

  17. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living. PMID:23791321

  18. Optical filtering and luminescence property of some molybdates prepared by combustion synthesis

    Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, RCOEM, Nagpur (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    As an important class of lanthanide inorganic compounds, rare earth ions doped molybdates have gained much attention due to their attractive luminescence and structural properties, supporting various promising applications as phosphor materials in the fields such as white light-emitting diodes, optical fibers, biolabel, lasers, and so on. The molybdate family has promising trivalent cation conducting properties and most of the optical properties result from electron transitions of the 4f shell, which are greatly affected by the composition and structures of rare-earth compounds. In this paper we report the molybdate CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} for red SSL and Bi{sub 1.4}Y{sub 0.6}MoO{sub 6}, Y{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} for optical filtering, prepared by one step combustion synthesis.

  19. Mycobacterium asiaticum infection in a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Isaza, Ramiro; Fiorello, Christine; Reinhard, Mary

    2006-09-01

    A 4-yr-old, intact male red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas) was evaluated because of a 6-mo history of an enlarging axillary mass. Diagnostic findings included a positive intradermal tuberculin test, persistent severe leukocytosis, and hyperglobulinemia. A nontuberculous mycobacterium species isolated from the mass was identified as Mycobacterium asiaticum using 16s ribosomal DNA sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:17319146

  20. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  1. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    Murr, Lawrence E; Gaytan, Sara M.; Edwin Martinez; Frank Medina; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM). In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components) of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as w...

  2. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived 6 mo. In contrast, 9.3 percent of transplanted laboratory seedlings survived 15 mo. To repopulate trees, we recommend transplanting laboratory-grown seedlings, as large as practically possible, to ...

  3. Nutrient supply from organic amendments applied to unvegetated soil, lettuce and orchardgrass

    Hammermeister, A.M.; Astatkie, T.; Jeliazkova, E.A.; Warman, P.R.; Martin, R C

    2006-01-01

    Organic sources of nutrients are increasingly being used in horticultural and certified organic production. The nutrient-supplying potentials of poultry manure compost (PM), feather meal (FM), alfalfa meal (AA) and vermicastings (VC) and an unamended control were measured in a growth room experiment. The amendments were applied at rates equivalent to 200, 400 and 800 kg total N ha-1 to a soil of low fertility. Nitrogen supply rates and concentrations were measured over 6 mo in unvegetated pot...

  4. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  5. Influence of microstructural modifications induced by ultrasonic impact treatment on hardening and corrosion behavior of wrought Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy.

    Petrov, Yu N; Prokopenko, G I; Mordyuk, B N; Vasylyev, M A; Voloshko, S M; Skorodzievski, V S; Filatova, V S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, biomedical Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy is subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). XRD, TEM and SAED analyses show that the plastic deformation induced by the UIT process results in a complex microstructural formation in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The peculiar feature observed in the alloy structure by TEM is the formation of Lomer-Cottrell locks originated by simultaneous sliding of Shockley partial dislocations in intersecting planes. At the beginning of the UIT process (till the strain extent e ≈ 0.2), dislocation pile-ups are gathered in front of the Lomer-Cottrell locks stimulating the formation of a great number of chaotic stacking faults (SFs) packets (incompletely transformed martensite), which are predominant with regard to the occurrence of ε-martensite and micro-twins. The incompletely transformed martensite hinders the shear translation through the twin boundaries and suppresses grain subdivision in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy at the UIT process used. On-going deformation to e ≈ 0.4 leads to further modification of microstructure in the micron-scale γ-grains, which consists of numerous Lomer-Cottrell locks, chaotic subtraction SFs, intersected nano-twins and fine lathes of ε-martensite with average size of approx. 50-100 nm. The observed structural features (at e ≈ 0.4) allow adequately explaining noticeable increase in microhardness without any cracks/cleavages in surface layer. Enhanced corrosion resistance of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which manifests itself with less negative corrosion potential and lower corrosion and passivity currents in potentiodynamic curve, is promoted by the UIT induced oxide films and the following structural features: the CSL type of γ/ε interfacial boundaries, uniformly distributed fine carbides, and high fraction of the grains oriented with close packed (111)γ and (0002)ε planes parallel to the surface of the UIT-processed specimen. PMID:26478400

  6. Sex-specific alterations in mRNA level of key lipid metabolism enzymes in skeletal muscle of overweight and obese subjects following endurance exercise

    Smith, Ira J.; Huffman, Kim M.; Durheim, Michael T.; Duscha, Brian D.; Kraus, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Endurance exercise (EE) leads to beneficial alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in overweight and obese individuals; however, the mechanisms of these improvements are poorly understood. The primary goal of the current investigation was to test the hypothesis that long-term EE training (6 mo) leads to alterations in the mRNA abundance of key lipid metabolism enzymes in skeletal muscle of overweight and obese middle-aged women and men. A secondary aim of this study was to investigat...

  7. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Shroff C; Deodhar K; Patkar V; Fonseca J

    1981-01-01

    Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 mo...

  8. Corrosion Behaviour of Annealed Cnx/Tiny Multilayers

    ZHANG Guo-dong; PAN Chun-xu; FU Qiang; ZHANG Fu-ju; ZOU Yang; ZHANG Shao-hua

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers have been investigated using potentiodynamic test in a 0.5MH2SO4 solution. The coating has been deposited on W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at different temperature. The annealed multilayers showed superior corrosion resistance as compared to the as-deposited coating. The corrosion model of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers has been set up.

  9. Corrosion Behaviour of Annealed Cnx/Tiny Multilayers

    ZHANGGuo-dong; PANChun-xu; FUQiang; ZHANGFu-ju; ZOUYang; ZHANGShao-hua

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers have been investigated using potentiodynamic test in a 0.5MH2SO4 solution. The coating has been deposited on W6MoSCr4V2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at different temperature. The annealed multilayers showed superior corrosion resistance as compared to the as-deposited coating, The corrosion model of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers has been set up.

  10. Impact of Giardia vaccination on asymptomatic Giardia infections in dogs at a research facility

    Anderson, Kirsten A.; Brooks, Andrew S.; Morrison, Annette L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Martin, S. Wayne; Benn, Denna M.; Peregrine, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Feces were collected from 107 asymptomatic dogs at a research facility in Guelph, Ontario. The prevalence of Giardia infection was 11% (12/107). To assess the effectiveness of Giardia vaccination for treatment of Giardia carriage, 9 additional asymptomatic Giardia antigen-positive dogs were brought into the facility. The Giardia antigen-positive dogs were then randomly allocated to receive either vaccine (n = 10) or a saline placebo (n = 10). Feces were then monitored monthly for 6 mo for Gia...

  11. Turn Off the TV and Dance! Participation in Culturally Tailored Health Interventions: Implications for Obesity Prevention among Mexican American Girls

    Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7–11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 mo...

  12. The Changes in Corneal Astigmatism after Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Patients with Blepharospasm

    Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Hyeon IL; Kim, Jae Chan

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the involuntary contractions of eyelids may have any effects on the development of corneal astigmatism, we performed this prospective study which includes 19 patients with either essential blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. In hemifacial spasm, the degree of corneal astigmatism was evaluated between two eyes. Then the topographic changes were checked using vector analysis technique before and after passively opening the eyelids. They were also measured before and at 1 and 6 mo...

  13. Impact of Intensive Upper Limb Rehabilitation on Quality of Life: A Randomized Trial in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Sakzewski, Leanne; Carlon, Stacey; Shields, Nora; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than bimanual training in improving the quality of life of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Sixty-three children (mean age 10y 2mo [SD 2y 6mo]; 33 males, 30 females) with CP of the spastic motor type (n = 59) or with…

  14. A Survey of the Tardive Dyskinesia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Naser tabibi; Firouzeh Sajedi; Roshanak Vameghi; Farin Solemani; Ali Nazeri Astaneh; Sahel. Hemmati

    2010-01-01

    "nObjective: Tardive Dyskinesia (TD), is one of the important problems of the patients with schizophrenia. The emergence of these side effects depends on so many factors such as the patients' age and the duration of antipsychotic treatment. By discovering new drugs (Atypical), there has been an outstanding decrease in the emergence of these side effects. The present study investigates the symptoms of TD in the Patients with schizophrenia who were under  treatments for more than 6 mo...

  15. The use of vascular access ports for blood collection in feline blood donors

    Aubert, Isabelle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.; Sylvestre, Anne M.; Dyson, Doris H.; Allen, Dana G.; Johnstone, Ian B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vascular access ports for feline blood donation. Eight cats were anesthetized for conventional blood collection by jugular venipuncture at the beginning and end of the study. In-between conventional collections, vascular access ports were used for collection with or without sedation every 6 to 8 wk for 6 mo. Ports remained functional except for one catheter breakage, but intermittent occlusions occurred. Systolic blood pressure was lower during conventional collection. Behavio...

  16. Depression bei Hochnutzern

    Hartwich, Astrid Constance

    2012-01-01

    The amount of high utilisers of medical care suffering from depression is about 25%. Many of these patients are relatively undiagnosed or undertreated. US-american studies found intervention programmes including systematic screening, education of primary care physicians and of patients and their relatives plus instructions for antidepressive therapy to decrease the usage of medical ressources in these patients. In this randomized trial high utilizers of primary care where treated in a 6 mo...

  17. Selective and sequential transarterial chemoembolization: Survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Purpose: To assess the survival time of patients with HCC following transarterial chemoembolization performed in a highly selective and sequential way. Patients and methods: 124 HCC patients (102 male, 22 female; mean age 63 ± 11 years) treated with selective and sequential chemoembolization at a single center were included. Selective chemoembolization was performed through a coaxially introduced microcatheter in a segmental or subsegmental hepatic artery. Treatment was stopped after complete stasis of the blood flow in the tumor-feeding vessel. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: The median overall survival of the entire patient population was 27.2 months (mo) (±8.9 mo, 95% CI 9.8 mo, 44.6 mo). When stratified according to liver function the median survival was 46.1 mo (±9.0 mo; 95% CI 28.5 mo, 63.7 mo) for Child-Pugh A and 11.1 mo (±4.3 mo; 95% CI 2.7 mo, 19.5 mo) for Child-Pugh B (p < .001). The median survival was 46.1 mo (±16.6 mo; 95% CI 13.5 mo, 78.7 mo) for BCLC stage A, 19.7 mo (±2.6 mo; 95% CI 14.6 mo, 24.8 mo) for BCLC stage B, and 14.4 mo (±5.0 mo; 95% CI 4.5 mo, 24.3 mo) for BCLC stage C (p < .01). Conclusion: Selective and sequential chemoembolization offers long survival times in patients with HCC. Those patients with preserved liver function benefit more than patients with limited liver reserve

  18. Selective and sequential transarterial chemoembolization: Survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Roelle, Grit; Ladd, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Heusner, Till A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Sotiropoulos, Georgios C. [Department of General Surgery and Transplantation, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Hilgard, Philip [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Verhagen, Ruediger [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the survival time of patients with HCC following transarterial chemoembolization performed in a highly selective and sequential way. Patients and methods: 124 HCC patients (102 male, 22 female; mean age 63 ± 11 years) treated with selective and sequential chemoembolization at a single center were included. Selective chemoembolization was performed through a coaxially introduced microcatheter in a segmental or subsegmental hepatic artery. Treatment was stopped after complete stasis of the blood flow in the tumor-feeding vessel. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: The median overall survival of the entire patient population was 27.2 months (mo) (±8.9 mo, 95% CI 9.8 mo, 44.6 mo). When stratified according to liver function the median survival was 46.1 mo (±9.0 mo; 95% CI 28.5 mo, 63.7 mo) for Child-Pugh A and 11.1 mo (±4.3 mo; 95% CI 2.7 mo, 19.5 mo) for Child-Pugh B (p < .001). The median survival was 46.1 mo (±16.6 mo; 95% CI 13.5 mo, 78.7 mo) for BCLC stage A, 19.7 mo (±2.6 mo; 95% CI 14.6 mo, 24.8 mo) for BCLC stage B, and 14.4 mo (±5.0 mo; 95% CI 4.5 mo, 24.3 mo) for BCLC stage C (p < .01). Conclusion: Selective and sequential chemoembolization offers long survival times in patients with HCC. Those patients with preserved liver function benefit more than patients with limited liver reserve.

  19. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  20. Environmental protection of titanium alloys in centrifugal compressors at 500°C in saline atmosphere

    Béguin, Jean-Denis; Faure, Pierre; Adrian, Denise; Alexis, Joël; Petit, Jacques-Alain; Belaygue, Philippe; Fournier, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The use of the titanium alloy Ti-6246 (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo, wt-%) for gas turbine compressors allows an increase in working temperature and stress level. Under severe service conditions, the material experiences combined high temperature and high mechanical stress and, in saline atmospheres, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can occur, leading to catastrophic mechanical failure. The present study was performed to evaluate the potential of several surface treatments to protect Ti-6246 alloy, afte...

  1. The interaction of metal carbonyl compounds with organic polymers and monomers

    Lyons, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    The photochemistry of W(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and Cr(CO)6 in the presence of monomeric and polymeric triphenylphosphine ligands was investigated in toluene solution, using laser flash photolysis with 355nm excitation. The mechanism and kinetics of interaction of the primary photoproducts M(CO)5(toluene) (M = W, Mo, or Cr) with the various monomeric ligands were investigated. Interaction of the metal carbonyl photofragments with various homopolymers is also discussed. The polymerisation methods used ...

  2. Cytokines regulate postnatal hematopoietic stem cell expansion: opposing roles of thrombopoietin and LNK

    Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Qian, Hong; Månsson, Robert; Luc, Sidinh; Zandi, Sasan; Anderson, Kristina; Takaki, Satoshi; Nygren, Jens M.; Jensen, Christina T.; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

    2006-01-01

    The role of cytokines as regulators of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion remains elusive. Herein, we identify thrombopoietin (THPO) and the cytokine signaling inhibitor LNK, as opposing physiological regulators of HSC expansion. Lnk−/− HSCs continue to expand postnatally, up to 24-fold above normal by 6 mo of age. Within the stem cell compartment, this expansion is highly selective for self-renewing long-term HSCs (LT-HSCs), which show enhanced THPO responsiveness. Lnk−/− HSC expansion ...

  3. Habitual rapid food intake and ineffective esophageal motility

    Kong-Ling Li; Ji-Hong Chen; Qian Zhang; Huizinga, Jan D.; Shawn Vadakepeedika; Yu-Rong Zhao; Wen-Zhen Yu; He-Sheng Luo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) in relation to ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) and rapid food intake. METHODS: NCCP patients with a self-reported habit of fast eating underwent esophageal manometry for the diagnosis of IEM. Telephone interviews identified eating habits of additional IEM patients. Comparison of manometric features was done among IEM patients with and without the habit of rapid food intake and healthy controls. A case study investigated the effect of 6-mo gum ...

  4. Age-Dependent Reductions in Mitochondrial Respiration are Exacerbated by Calcium in the Female Rat Heart

    Hunter, J. Craig; Machikas, Alexandra M.; Korzick, Donna H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality increases rapidly following menopause by poorly defined mechanisms. Since mitochondrial function and Ca2+ sensitivity are important regulators of cell death following myocardial ischemia, we sought to determine if aging and/or estrogen deficiency (ovx) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in ventricular mitochondria isolated from adult (6mo; n=26) and aged (24mo; n=25), intact or ovariectomized female rats using the ...

  5. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania

    2012-03-01

    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany. PMID:22448527

  6. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes...

  7. Variation of contrast sensitivity after femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis in changes environments

    Jing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the difference of contrast sensitivity(CSin photopic and scotopic environments in eyes with myopia and myopic astigmatism operated with femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis(femto-LASIKand laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK.METHODS: In a prospective study 160 myopia and myopic astigmatism patients' eyes were involved, which accepted femto-LASIK or LASIK in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2012. The myopia degree was -1.50~-10.00D, the astigmatism degree ≤-6.0D. Eighty eyes were treated with femto-LASIK in group A, and 80 eyes were treated with LASIK in group B, All patients in the treatment group completed the final 6mo of follow-up. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity(BSCVA, objective and manifest refractions, results of slit-lamp examination, the side effects, intraocular pressure, corneal topography, CS in photopic and scotopic environments were noted.RESULTS: All of operations on 160 cases were successful without severe complication after 6 mo follow-up. CS of femto-LASIK group(group Aat each spatial frequency environment were higher than that of LASIK group(group B. In group A, after 1mo the photopic CS, after 3mo of scotopic CS recovered to the preoperative level, 6mo after surgery improved than before the operation. In group B, after 3mo photopic CS to the preoperative level, scotopic CS at 6mo after operation was still not recovered to the preoperative level.CONCLUSION:Femto-LASIK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism, in improving the postoperative contrast sensitivity under shade environment has more advantages than LASIK.

  8. Migrated endoclip and stone formation after cholecystectomy: A new danger of acute pancreatitis

    2007-01-01

    Endoclip migration into the common bile duct following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an extremely rare complication. Migrated endoclip into the common bile duct can cause obstruction, serve as a nidus for stone formation, and cause cholangitis. We report a case of obstructive jaundice and acute biliary pancreatitis due to choledocholithiasis caused by a migrated endoclip 6 mo after LC. The patient underwent early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction.

  9. Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems

    Meier, Thomas R.; Maute, Carrie J; Cadillac, Joan M.; Lee, Ji Young; Righter, Daniel J; Hugunin, Kelly MS; Deininger, Rolf A; Dysko, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The use of automated watering systems for providing drinking water to rodents has become commonplace in the research setting. Little is known regarding bacterial biofilm growth within the water piping attached to the racks (manifolds). The purposes of this project were to determine whether the mouse oral flora contributed to the aerobic bacterial component of the rack biofilm, quantify bacterial growth in rack manifolds over 6 mo, assess our rack sanitation practices, and quantify bacterial b...

  10. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Jaroslaw Pobereżny; Elzbieta Wszelaczyńska; Dorota Wichrowska; Dariusz Jaskulski

    2015-01-01

    Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of stora...

  11. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  12. Feasibility of computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training after traumatic brain injury

    Matthew S. Lebowitz, AB; Kristen Dams-O’Connor, PhD; Joshua B. Cantor, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the feasibility and utility of using a computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training (BPCT) program as an intervention for community-dwelling individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a pre-post pilot study, 10 individuals with mild to severe TBI who were 6 mo to 22 yr postinjury were asked to use a computerized BPCT intervention—designed to improve cognitive functioning through a graduated series of structured exercises—at their homes in an urb...

  13. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…

  14. A novel and an efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions

    Javad Safari; Shiva Dehghan Khalili; Sayed Hossein Banitaba

    2010-05-01

    (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O has been used as an efficient catalyst for an improved and rapid synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by a three-component, one-pot condensation of benzil, aryl aldehydes and ammonium acetate in good yields under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation. The reactions in conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions.

  15. Postirradiation examination of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    Two irradiation test vehicles, designated RERTR-2, were inserted into the Advanced Test reactor in Idaho in August 1997. These tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels, including U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru and U-10Mo-0.05Sn: the intermetallic compounds U2 Mo and U-10Mo-0.-5Sn; the intermetallic compounds U2 Mo and U3 Si2 were also included in the fuel test matrix. These fuels are included in the experiments as microplates (76 mm x 22 mm x 1.3mm outer dimensions) with a nominal fuel volume loading of 25% and irradiated at relatively low temperature (∼100 deg C). RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 were discharged from the reactor in November 1997 and July 1998, respectively at calculated peak fuel burnups of 45 and 71 at %-U235 Both experiments are currently under examination at the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago. This paper presents the postirradiation examination results available to date from these experiments. (author)

  16. The thermodynamic stability of gaseous molybdenum pentafluoride

    The heterogeneous reaction equilibrium (5/6)MoF6(g) + (1/6)Mo(s) = MoF5(g) was studied by mass spectrometry over the range 460 to 525 K, and values of Δsub(r)H0/R at 298.15 K derived by the second-law and third-law procedures are in close agreement. From the preferred second-law result, Δsub(f)H0/R of MoF5(g) at 298.15 K is found to be -(149.3 +- 0.5) kK, in good agreement with a value obtained previously from gaseous equilibrium measurements in the Mo + S + F system. Another value for MoF5(g) derived from the vapor pressure of MoF5(l) appears to be in error because of an incorrect evaluation of the partial pressure of monomer. The primary bond-dissociation function is found to be 47.6 kK, compared with the average value of 53.8 kK in MoF6. Gas-solid equilibrium in the MoF6 + MoF5 + Mo system is attained rapidly at the low temperatures and pressures of these experiments, once a 'clean' Mo surface is generated. (author)

  17. Uremia-Associated Premature Aging of T Cells Does Not Predict Infectious Complications After Renal Transplantation.

    Dedeoglu, B; Meijers, R W J; Klepper, M; Hesselink, D A; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have prematurely aged T cell systems. We tested whether T cell aging parameters were associated with the risk of infections after renal transplantation (RTx). We studied 188 patients over 1 year. Peripheral T cells were analyzed before and at 3 and 6 mo after RTx for frequency of recent thymic emigrants, relative telomere length and differentiation status. These parameters were related to the occurrence of opportunistic and serious infections. Overall, 84 patients developed an infection. In this group, 50 developed an opportunistic infection and 53 developed a serious infection. T cell aging parameters assessed before RTx were not associated with infection risk. The memory T cells showed a decrease within the first 3 mo in both groups (p < 0.001). The CD4(+) memory T cells increased between 3 and 6 mo within the infection group (p = 0.015). The number of CD8(+) memory T cells increased in both groups (p < 0.001) but reached baseline levels only in the infection group. In the infection group, the CD8(+) CD28(null) T cell percentage increased between 3 and 6 mo (p = 0.024), tending to be higher than at baseline (p = 0.061). These differences in post-RTx dynamics resulted from infections. Parameters of uremia-associated premature aging of peripheral T cells do not predict posttransplant infections. PMID:26914971

  18. Study on Drying Equipment and Technology of Traditional Fermented Rice Noodles%传统发酵米粉烘干设备及工艺的研究

    肖勇生; 汤锋; 张良; 包珍; 江军山

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高米粉生产效率,使米粉的生产周期不受天气限制,促进传统米粉由手工生产向规模化生产的转变.[方法]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备对传统发酵米粉进行烘干,以烘干后水分含量、米粉风味等为指标,通过比较不同烘干温度、烘干时间和烘干速率等参数,确定了最优烘干工艺.[结果]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备进行传统发酵米粉的烘干,具体烘干温度应在35 ~ 38℃自动控制,烘干速度为转速9.0 Hz,烘干时间为:第1阶段38℃,3h;第2阶段34 ℃,3h.[结论]生产的产品质量稳定,不龟裂,断条率低,具有传统发酵米粉的特殊风味.%The effect of inulin replacing fat on the quality of low-fat yogurt was studied, which will provide basis for the application of inulin in low-fat yogurt. Using traditional production process of low-fat yogurt, 0, 20% , 40% , 60% , 80% and 100% inulin were added to replace fat of yogurt. The optimum fat replacement rate of inulin in yogurt is 40% by the sensory score. The microstructure of yogurt containing inulin has uniform, loose, and a higher degree of openness by scanning electron microscope. The changes trend of various indicators ( hardness, co-hesiveness, springiness and gumminess) of inulin addition on the quality of low-fat yogurt by the texture profile analysis (TPA) texturometer was also analyzed. Taking into account sensory evaluation, the optimum fat replacement rate of inulin is 40% (the optimal dosage of inulin 2.208% ) in low-fat yogurt.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrids constructed by Anderson-type polyoxoanions and copper coordination complexes

    Four organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions, namely, {[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)3]2[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)Cl][Cu(2,2'-bpy) (H2O)(NO3)][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.18H2O (1), [Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2Cl]{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.4H2O (2), (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]3.36H2O (3), and (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3.33H2O (4), were isolated by conventional solution method, and crystal structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among them, compound 1 displays a discrete supramolecular structure, compound 2 shows a chainlike structure with chloro-copper complexes as counteranions, and compounds 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice water molecules residing in the channels. The compounds 3 and 4 represent the first example of 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compounds in the TMs/2,2'-bpy/POMs system. Investigation of the reaction conditions reveals that the geometry and size of the anions together with its coordinating abilities to the metal centers have a decisive influence on both the composition and the dimensionality of the final compounds. - Graphical Abstract: Four organic-inorganic hybrids based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions have been synthesized. Compound 1 displays a discrete structure, 2 shows a chainlike structure, 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice waters residing in the channels. The different structures suggest that the overall structures of the compounds are influenced by the nature of the acidic anions

  20. Buddy Study: Partners for better health in adolescents withtype 2 diabetes

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether assigning young, healthyand motivated lay volunteer partners ("buddies") toadolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c).METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a "buddy" or to conventionaltreatment. During the initial screening visit,which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetesclinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwenta physical examination, detailed medical history,laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed twoquestionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory andChildren's Depression Inventory) to assess their overallquality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms.Patients were then randomized to the intervention (thebuddy system) or conventional treatment (standardcare). All patients were scheduled to return for followupat 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c wasdetermined at all visits (i.e. , at screening and at the3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life anddepressive symptoms were evaluated at the screeningvisit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit.RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool ofapproximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a twoyeartime period, leading to premature termination ofthe study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated layvolunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initialto the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small samplesize limited systematic assessment of this outcome.Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failedto conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely broughttheir glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores(72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previouslyreported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight(81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youthswithout diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents withtype 1 diabetes

  1. Identifying efficient dairy heifer producers using production costs and data envelopment analysis.

    Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Gray, S M; Heinrichs, P A; Cornelisse, S A; Goodling, R C

    2013-01-01

    During November and December 2011, data were collected from 44 dairy operations in 13 Pennsylvania counties. Researchers visited each farm to collect information regarding management practices and feeding, and costs for labor, health, bedding, and reproduction for replacement heifers from birth until first calving. Costs per heifer were broken up into 4 time periods: birth until weaning, weaning until 6 mo of age, 6 mo of age until breeding age, and heifers from breeding to calving. Milk production records for each herd were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement. The average number of milking cows on farms in this study was 197.8 ± 280.1, with a range from 38 to 1,708. Total cost averaged $1,808.23 ± $338.62 from birth until freshening. Raising calves from birth to weaning cost $217.49 ± 86.21; raising heifers from weaning age through 6 mo of age cost $247.38 ± 78.89; raising heifers from 6 mo of age until breeding cost $607.02 ± 192.28; and total cost for bred heifers was $736.33 ± 162.86. Feed costs were the largest component of the cost to raise heifers from birth to calving, accounting for nearly 73% of the total. Data envelopment analysis determined that 9 of the 44 farms had no inefficiencies in inputs or outputs. These farms best combined feed and labor investments, spending, on average, $1,137.40 and $140.62/heifer for feed and labor. These heifers calved at 23.7 mo of age and produced 88.42% of the milk produced by older cows. In contrast, the 35 inefficient farms spent $227 more on feed and $78 more on labor per heifer for animals that calved 1.6 mo later and produced only 82% of the milk made by their mature herdmates. Efficiency was attained by herds with the lowest input costs, but herds with higher input costs were also able to be efficient if age at calving was low and milk production was high for heifers compared with the rest of the herd. PMID:24054291

  2. Comparison scoring model of severe viral hepatitis and model of end stage liver disease for the prognosis of patients with liver failure in China

    Li Zhou; Pei-Ling Dong; Hui-Guo Ding

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prognosis of patients with liver failure using a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) and a model of end stage liver disease (MELD)to provide a scientific basis for clinical decision of treatment.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with liver failure due to severe viral hepatitis were investigated with SMSVH established. Patients with acute, subacute,and chronic liver failure were 40, 46 and 34, respectively.The follow-up time was 6 mo. The survival rates of patients with liver failure in 2 wk, 4 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between SMSVH and MELD was made using ROC statistic analysis.RESULTS: The survival curves of group A (at low risk,SMSVH score ≤ 4) and group B (at high risk, SMSVH score ≥ 5) were significantly different (The 4-wk, 3-mo, 6-mo survival rates were 94.59%, 54.05%, 43.24% in group A,and 51.81%, 20.48%, 12.05% in group B, respectively,P < 0.001). The survival curves of group C (SMSVH scores unchanged or increased), group D (SMSVH scores decreased by 1) and group E (SMSVH scores decreased by 2 or more) were significantly different .The survival rates of groups C, D and E were 66.15%, 100%, 100% in 2-wk; 40.0%, 91.18%, 100% in 4-wk; 0%, 58.82%,80.95% in 3-mo and 0%, 38.24%, 61.90% in 6-mo,respectively, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of SMSVH scores at baseline and after 2 wk of therapy was significantly higher than that under the ROC curve of MELD scores (0.804 and 0.934 vs 0.689, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: SMSVH is superior to MELD in the estimation of the prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis within 6 mo. SMSVH may be regarded as a criterion for estimation of the efficacy of medical treatment and the decision of clinical treatment.

  3. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  4. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  5. Adipocyte (Pro)Renin-Receptor Deficiency Induces Lipodystrophy, Liver Steatosis and Increases Blood Pressure in Male Mice.

    Wu, Chia-Hua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Thompson, Joel; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Nguyen, Genevieve; Yiannikouris, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of PRR increased systolic blood pressure and the concentration of soluble PRR in plasma. To determine whether adipocyte-PRR was involved in the development of obesity-induced hypertension, mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Both high-fat- and low-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice had elevated insulin levels. Interestingly, adipocyte-PRR deficiency improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In response to feeding either low-fat or high-fat diets, systolic blood pressure was greater in PRR(Adi/Y) mice than in control mice. High-fat feeding elevated soluble PRR concentration in control and PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In vitro knockdown of PRR by siRNA significantly decreased mRNA abundance of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), suggesting an important role for PRR in adipogenesis. Our data indicate that adipocyte-PRR is involved in lipid homeostasis and glucose and insulin homeostasis, and that soluble PRR may be a predictor of metabolic disturbances and play a role in systolic blood pressure regulation. PMID:27185751

  6. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  7. Longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure and the risk of incident hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Wang, Huifen; Fox, Caroline S; Troy, Lisa M; Mckeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F

    2015-12-14

    We aimed to examine the longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure (BP) and the risk of incident hypertension (HTN) among adults. This study included 2636 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort members who participated in the 5th through 8th examinations (1991-2008) and were free of HTN at their first examination during the follow-up. Data collected at each examination included dietary intake (by a validated FFQ), BP (following standardised procedures) and anti-hypertensive medication use (by physician-elicited self-report). HTN was defined as systolic BP (SBP)≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP (DBP)≥90 mmHg or anti-hypertensive medication use. We used repeated-measure and discrete-time hazard regressions to examine the associations of dairy consumption with the annualised BP change (n 2075) and incident HTN (n 2340; cases=1026), respectively. Covariates included demographic, lifestyle, overall diet quality, metabolic factors and medication use. Greater intakes of total dairy foods, total low-fat/fat-free dairy foods, low-fat/skimmed milk and yoghurt were associated with smaller annualised increments in SBP and a lower risk of projected HTN incidence. However, with the exception of total dairy foods and yoghurt, these inverse associations with HTN risk were attenuated as the follow-up time increased. For yoghurt, each additional serving was associated with 6 (95 % CI 1, 10) % reduced risk of incident HTN. Total dairy and total low-fat/fat-free dairy intakes were found to be inversely related to changes in DBP. Dairy consumption, as part of a nutritious and energy-balanced diet pattern, may benefit BP control and prevent or delay the onset of HTN. PMID:26395861

  8. Effect of a 1-week, eucaloric, moderately high-fat diet on peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women

    Branis, Natalia M; Etesami, Marjan; Walker, Ryan W; Berk, Evan S; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women. Design/setting/participants 23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design. Main outcome measures Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period. Results Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10−1) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African–American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05). Conclusions We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women. PMID:26203360

  9. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Cullen Karen W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.

  10. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  11. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  12. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  13. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  14. A Mineral-Rich Red Algae Extract Inhibits Polyp Formation and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas), could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. Sixty C57bl/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat “Western style” diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Autopsies were performed at the time of death or at the completion of the study. To summarize, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in mice on the HFWD during the 15 month period (55%) than in mice from the low-fat diet or the extract-supplemented high-fat diet groups (20% and 30%, respectively; p<0.05 with respect to both). Autopsies revealed colon polyps in 20% of the animals on the HFWD and none in animals of the other two groups (p<0.05). In addition to the grossly visible polyps, areas of hyperplasia in the colonic mucosa and inflammatory foci throughout the gastrointestinal tract were observed histologically in animals on the high-fat diet. Both were significantly reduced in animals on the low-fat diet and animals on the extract-supplemented HFWD. These data suggest that the mineral-rich algae extract may provide a novel approach to chemoprevention in the colon. PMID:20150219

  15. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  16. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings. PMID:26392152

  17. IGF-I activity may be a key determinant of stroke risk--a cautionary lesson for vegans.

    McCarty, M F

    2003-09-01

    IGF-I acts on vascular endothelium to activate nitric oxide synthase, thereby promoting vascular health; there is reason to believe that this protection is especially crucial to the cerebral vasculature, helping to ward off thrombotic strokes. IGF-I may also promote the structural integrity of cerebral arteries, thereby offering protection from hemorrhagic stroke. These considerations may help to explain why tallness is associated with low stroke risk, whereas growth hormone deficiency increases stroke risk--and why age-adjusted stroke mortality has been exceptionally high in rural Asians eating quasi-vegan diets, but has been declining steadily in Asia as diets have become progressively higher in animal products. There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. Vegans are thus well advised to adopt practical countermeasures to minimize stroke risk--the most definitive of which may be salt restriction. A high potassium intake, aerobic exercise training, whole grains, moderate alcohol consumption, low-dose aspirin, statin or policosanol therapy, green tea, and supplementation with fish oil, taurine, arginine, and B vitamins--as well as pharmacotherapy of hypertension if warranted--are other practical measures for lowering stroke risk. Although low-fat vegan diets may markedly reduce risk for coronary disease, diabetes, and many common types of cancer, an increased risk for stroke may represent an 'Achilles heel'. Nonetheless, vegans have the potential to achieve a truly exceptional 'healthspan' if they face this problem forthrightly by restricting salt intake and taking other practical measures that promote cerebrovascular health. PMID

  18. The effect of diet and litter size on the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-[14C]hexachlorobiphenyl from lactating mice

    It was shown that 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) administered to adult female mice accumulated in their nursing offspring more rapidly than a dose administered to weanling mice when treated animals were bred at equivalent ages. This suggested that the PCB was eliminated from the maternal animal relative to its time of sequestration into storage depots. Using a model which more closely approximates conditions during human lactation, the influence of a high-fat diet and decreased litter size on this phenomenon was examined. Female ICR mice were treated with 4 mg/kg [14C]-6-CB as 13-g weanlings (dW) at 3 weeks of age or as adults (dA) at 11 weeks of age. All animals were mated at 11 weeks of age. On Day 1 of pregnancy, mice were placed on a low-fat (11.5% of the total calories) or high-fat (43.8% of total calories) diet. At parturition, litters were adjusted to either two or eight within each diet group. Elimination of maternal 6-CB was determined by assessing radioactivity in offspring carcasses on Day 15 of gestation or Day 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 postpartum. Consumption of a high-fat diet significantly extended the t1/2 of elimination of 6-CB from mothers nursing a litter of two in the dW group (low fat = 7.3 days; high fat = 12.4 days) and in both the dW and dA groups nursing litters of eight (dW: low fat = 4.6 days; high fat = 6.8 days; and dA: low fat = 1.8 days; high fat = 3.0 days). Within diet and group, reducing litter size to two also significantly decreased the rate of elimination of 6-CB from maternal animals. 6-CB was eliminated to offspring more rapidly from the dA group when compared to the dW group regardless of diet in animals nursing litters of eight. This relationship was not observed in maternal animals nursing litters of two. In general, exposure to a high-fat diet increased the t1/2 of elimination of 6-CB from maternal animals

  19. Spiser vindrikkere sundere end øldrikkere?

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    In a cross sectional study based on information on the number, type of item and total charge of 3(1/2) million transactions over a period of 6 months in various supermarkets in Denmark we examined whether people who buy wine also buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. We found that win...... buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cocking oil and low fat cheese, milk and meat than beer buyers who bought more ready cooked meals, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb and soft drinks than wine buyers....

  20. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... mortality and 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for COPD-related mortality. FFMI was also a predictor of overall mortality when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions: FFMI provides information in addition to BMI and assessment of fat free mass should be considered in the routine assessment of COPD....