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Sample records for 5u pelletron accelerator

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry programme at Mumbai pelletron accelerator facility

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) programme and the related developments based on the Mumbai Pelletron accelerator are described. The initial results of the measurement of the ratio, 36Cl / Cl in water samples are presented. (author)

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry programme at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator

    Accelerator based mass spectrometry (ABMs) is an ultra sensitive means of counting individual atoms having sufficiently long half life and available in small amount. The 14 U D Pelletron Accelerator is an ideal machine to carry out ABMs studies with heavy isotopes like 36Cl and 129I. Cosmogenic radio isotope 36Cl is widely being detected using ABMs as it has got applications in ground water research, radioactive waste management, atmospheric 36Cl transport mechanism studies of Arctic Alpine ice core etc. As a part of the ongoing ABMs programme at 14UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility at Mumbai, a segmented gas detector developed for identification of 36Cl was tested for performance. Recently a beam chopper required for this measurement has been developed. Further progress made in this programme is discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. New developments in design and applications for Pelletron accelerators

    Greg Norton

    2002-11-01

    Most of the developments over the last several years related to Pelletron accelerator are in the field of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and other low beam current applications with the exception of a very high DC electron recirculation Pelletron. High precision AMS systems based on tandem Pelletrons from 500 kV to 5 MV terminal potential are now in use for routine high precision AMS measurements. Their performance will be reported. In addition, there has been significant advancement in the design of the multi-cathode SNICS source for the use of both gas and solid samples within a single source. The latest performance of these sources will be discussed. New diagnostics is being developed for very low beam currents. The latest design of the low current beam profile monitor (LCBPM) will also be presented.

  4. The target laboratory of the Pelletron Accelerator's facilities

    Ueta, Nobuko; Pereira Engel, Wanda Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    A short report on the activities developed in the Target Laboratory, since 1970, will be presented. Basic target laboratory facilities were provided to produce the necessary nuclear targets as well as the ion beam stripper foils. Vacuum evaporation units, a roller, a press and an analytical balance were installed in the Oscar Sala building. A brief historical report will be presented in commemoration of the 40th year of the Pelletron Accelerator.

  5. The target laboratory of the Pelletron Accelerator's facilities

    A short report on the activities developed in the Target Laboratory, since 1970, will be presented. Basic target laboratory facilities were provided to produce the necessary nuclear targets as well as the ion beam stripper foils. Vacuum evaporation units, a roller, a press and an analytical balance were installed in the Oscar Sala building. A brief historical report will be presented in commemoration of the 40th year of the Pelletron Accelerator.

  6. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given

  7. Design, testing and modifications of the Pelletron accelerator and future uses

    Solutions to various problems in the design of high voltage generator and acceleration units of the Pelletron electron accelerator designed and constructed at ININ are presented. Information on the design of the control system of the electron beams, activities proposed for utilization of sulfur hexafluoride as an accelerator isolating gas as well as some future uses of the Pelletron. (Author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  8. Status report of pelletron accelerator and ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator is completing twenty seven years of round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. Over the years, various developmental activities and application oriented programs have been initiated at Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting into enhanced utilization of the accelerator. We have also been pursuing an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme under XIIth Plan, consisting of an 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting niobium resonator cavities. This talk will provide the current status of Pelletron Accelerator and the progress made towards the ECR based heavy ion accelerator program at BARC. (author)

  9. Status report of 14 UD pelletron accelerator facility

    The BARC- TIFR Pelletron Accelerator facility (PAF) has been working for the last eighteen years. Over the years performance has improved gradually. On an average sixty to seventy experiments of 3-5 days duration are carried out per year. In order to boost the energy of ion beam, a superconducting Linac project with eight modules each having four resonators was taken up. The project is nearing completion. Apart from basic research, accelerator is also being used for various applied programs. In order to keep machine time up various development programs have also been taken up. In this paper we will discuss in detail about present status of accelerator and in brief about future program. (author)

  10. Dummy accelerating tube as a matching lens for 14UD Pelletron Accelerator, BARC-TIFR, Mumbai

    14UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational since 1989. The potential grading in the accelerator column and tube is achieved by corona points. At present column and tube corona points are replaced by resistance. The resistance per module in the column and tube are 36 GΩ and 33 GΩ respectively

  11. Data acquisition system for the Pelletron electron accelerator

    In this work, a system is developed that allows to know and view of immediate manner the conditions occurred during the operation of the Pelletron. This is carried out by means of the design of a data acquisition system which displays in graphic form, in the screen of a computer, the operation conditions like pressure of the tank, current of the electron beam, voltage in the inductors of the elctrostatic generator, level of produced radiation, etc., all of this parameters determine the behavior of the accelerator. The hardware of the system includes the design and construction of conditioning and transmission circuits used to send the information to an interface board that allows th communication between the analog world and the computer. In this case, the utilized board is the AT-MIO-16L-25, that is a high-performance multifunction analog, digital and timing input/output (I/O) board for the IBM PC/AT and compatibles. The software implicates the design of the necessary programs to manipulate the interface board, for the processing and presentation of information in the screen of the computer and also for the storage of the acquired data in a permanent medium. In this case, a relatively new tool, known like Virtual instrumentation is utilized. Concretely, the LabVIEW programming software package is used (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench), which is designed for applications in instrumentation and control. This programming package gives the necessary elements for the analysis and processing of the acquired data. The system is developed in base to the requirements done for the users and designers of the Pelletron. (Author)

  12. Measurement of neutron equivalent dose in a pelletron accelerator facility

    Neutron equivalent dose at various locations of the accelerator room and in the beam hall of the pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneshwar, is measured using Kodak NTA film and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The detectors were exposed for 20 hours and 6 hours respectively to neutron field produced due to the bombardment of 5 MeV and 4 MeV protons, obtained from a cesium sputtered SNICS ion source, on the LiBr2 target. The calculated neutron fluence rate is of the order of 106 n.cm-2.s-1 and the measured neutron equivalent dose is given. The measured neutron fluence rate behind the shielding wall in both the halls is less than 5 n.cm-2.s-1 which is much lower than maximum recommended value based on 30 mSv/y by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, taking 40 working hours a week and flux to dose conversion factor as 3.13 x 10-8 rem/n/cm2. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Pelletron progress report, July 1 1977 - June 30 1978

    The report contains details of work performed by the University of Melbourne Pelletron Accelerator Ground using the 5U Pelletron accelerator. Topics included lifetime determinations of excited nuclear states, measurements of the gyromagnetic ratios of short-lived excited nuclear states, reaction studies and nuclear astrophysics, elemental microanalysis and depth profiling as well as a list of papers produced during the year

  14. Upgrade of the Control System of the IFUNAM's Pelletron Accelerator

    Macias, R; Ortiz, M E; López, K; Huerta, A; Verde, M C

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 a 9SDH-2 Pelletron from NEC was installed at IFUNAM (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico). Two beam lines have been operational since then and two new lines have been built. In order to perform the planned projects in this grown facility, an upgrading of the original manual control system is required. The proposed new control system takes advantage of the existing devices and incorporates the electronics needed for the newer beam lines. The control software from NEC, has been modified to accommodate the larger requirements. It runs on the same dedicated computer but receives commands from a new installed host. Both computers communicate through a local network sharing the accelerator database. The new host computer also handles all parameters related to the new lines. In the future, the old computer will be replaced in order to expand the possibilities of the system and use a friendlier graphical interface. In this work we present the changes made to the control software, the ...

  15. 36Chlorine accelerator mass spectrometry programme at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator. RSP-12

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra sensitive means of counting individual atoms having sufficiently long half life and available in small amount. The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator is an ideal machine to carry out AMS studies with heavy isotopes like 36Cl and 129I. Cosmogenic radio isotope 36Cl is widely being detected using AMS as it has got applications in ground water research, radioactive waste management, atmospheric 36Cl transport mechanism studies of Arctic Alpine ice core etc. As a part of the ongoing AMS programme at 14UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, Mumbai, a segmented gas detector developed for identification of 36Cl was tested for performance. Recently a beam chopper required for this measurement has been developed. 36Cl measurements carried out to detect and measure the ratio of 36Cl to 35Cl in an irradiated sample and dated sample are reported in this paper

  16. Improvement in performance and operational experience of 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, BARC–TIFR

    P V Bhagwat

    2002-11-01

    14 UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility at Mumbai has been operational since 1989. The project MEHIA (medium energy heavy ion accelerator) started in 1982 and was formally inaugurated on 30th December 1988. Since then the accelerator has been working round the clock. Improvement in accelerator performance and operational experience are described.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry programme at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator. PD-1-2

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra sensitive means of counting individual atoms having sufficiently long half-life and available in small amount. The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator is an ideal machine to carry out AMS studies with heavy isotopes like 36Cl and 129I. Cosmogenic radioisotope 36Cl is widely being detected using AMS as it has got applications in ground water research, radioactive waste management, atmospheric 36Cl transport mechanism studies of Arctic Alpine ice core etc . The AMS programme at the 14 UD Mumbai Pelletron Accelerator has taken off with the installation of the state of the art Terminal Potential Stabilizer setup and operation of the accelerator in Generating Volt Meter (GVM) mode. Feasibility studies have been carried out for detection/identification of 14C from a charcoal sample and 3He in natural Helium. As the primary interest of AMS programme at Mumbai Pelletron Accelerator is related to the cosmogenic nuclei, 36Cl and 129I, a segmented gas detector developed for identification of 36Cl was tested for performance. Recently a beam chopper required for this measurement has also been developed

  18. Operation Manual of the high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator

    The first version of a manual to operate the generator of high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator built in the ININ is presented. Since this generator has several components and/or elements, the one manual present has the purpose that the armed one or maintenance of anyone on its parts, is carried out in an orderly and efficient way. (Author)

  19. Exergetic analysis of refrigeration system of the Pelletron-Linac particle accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo

    The Pelletron-Linac accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo will use the existing electrostatic Pelletron accelerator as an injector for the linear superconducting accelerator (Linac), to increase the acceleration of the particles. The Linac uses a forced flow circulation helium system to promote continuous refrigeration for long periods of time, at temperatures below or equal to 4,9 K. This paper shows the exergetic analysis of the Pelletron-linac refrigerator, identifying the main sources of irreversibilities and evaluating energetic consumption of the system. An exergy-enthalpy diagram for the helium shows the thermodynamic processes that take place in the refrigeration plant and the exergy losses. (author)

  20. Operation Manual of the high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator; Manual de operacion del generador de alto voltaje del acelerador de electrones Pelletron

    Hernandez M, V.; Lopez V, H.; Alba P, U

    1988-04-15

    The first version of a manual to operate the generator of high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator built in the ININ is presented. Since this generator has several components and/or elements, the one manual present has the purpose that the armed one or maintenance of anyone on its parts, is carried out in an orderly and efficient way. (Author)

  1. Track etch membranes (TEMs) for separation sciences from BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator

    Track etch membranes (TEMs) program at 14 UD Pelletron accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai, India using 25 micron thick polyethylene terepthalate film is described. Large scale preparation of TEMs by scanning heavy ion beams using a electromagnetic scanner and rolling mechanism using a geared D.C. motor and vacuum rotary feed through are presented. The selection of ions of suitable energy and etching parameters for making various pore sizes were investigated using Rutherford scattered beam from Pelletron accelerator. Pore size and pore density were measured using scanning electron microscope. Scanning width up to 35 cm and irradiation up to 22 m were successfully carried out using this facility. Some applications carried out using these membranes are also mentioned. (author)

  2. The target laboratory of the Pelletron Accelerator's facilities

    Ueta, Nobuko; Pereira Engel, Wanda Gabriel [Nuclear Physics Department - University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    A short report on the activities developed in the Target Laboratory, since 1970, will be presented. Basic target laboratory facilities were provided to produce the necessary nuclear targets as well as the ion beam stripper foils. Vacuum evaporation units, a roller, a press and an analytical balance were installed in the Oscar Sala building. A brief historical report will be presented in commemoration of the 40{sup th} year of the Pelletron Accelerator.

  3. Testing of a low pressure multiwire avalanche counter with heavy ions from the Pelletron accelerator, Mumbai

    The motivation is to investigate eta-nucleus interaction for which the available experimental information is scarce. The new system consists of two multiwire avalanche counters (MWAC) to be operated at low pressure (10-20 mbar) followed by two layers of thin plastic scintillators. The MWACs will provide position information for track reconstruction. The chambers were tested with heavy ions from the pelletron accelerator, Mumbai. The test measurement is reported here

  4. Ultra high vacuum activities and required modification at 14 UD BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator facility

    Full text: The 14 UD pelletron accelerator is working round the clock since 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a tank which is 6 meter in diameter and 25 meter long. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF6 at 80 to 100 PSIG in order to achieve 14MV. In pelletron, ions are extracted from SNICS are pre-accelerated up to 300 keV before being injected into low energy accelerator tube. In the terminal which is at high potential (4MV to 14 MV), the ion beam pass through the stripper and positive ions with high charge states are produced. The high energy beams are focussed and analyzed by 90 deg magnet. The analyzed beam is then transported to the various experimental ports. In order to achieve uniform ultra high vacuum (to reduce the loss of intensity and spread in the energy of ions beams) in more than 100 metre and 100 mm diameter beam lines including magnet chambers and various beam diagnostic devices, combination of getter-ion pumps and turbo pumps are being used at Pelletron Accelerator Facility. The 14 UD pelletron is equipped with a combination of foil and gas stripper in high voltage terminal section. The foil and gas stripper in the terminal section are mainly used for stripping of light and heavy ions respectively. The gas stripper plays a great role for stripping of heavy ions and its efficiency depends on gas stripper parameters and supporting pumps. The gas stripper is originally installed with getter pumps. These pumps required periodic replacement of titanium cartridges and slowly the pumping speed used to diminish with time. A new recirculation turbo molecular pumps based system is being designed to improve good beam transmission. Details of design will be presented. Proton beam of tens of MeV energy and μA range current is in demand to carry out specific radiochemistry experiments in this facility. It is proposed to built and accommodate a proton experimental setup in the tower area of the existing facility. Details of required UHV system for

  5. Refurbishment and retrofitting of SF6 gas storage tanks of the pelletron accelerator

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has completed more than twenty six years of successful round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. The main accelerating structure and associated subsystems are housed in the accelerator tank under SF6 gas medium. During maintenance of the accelerator, the SF6 gas present in the accelerator tank is transferred in the four storage tanks located on the terrace of the building open to outside environment. These four storage tanks (with ∼ 1/4th of the main tank volume each) are ∼ 4.27 m in diameter and ∼ 10 m in height each and are supported on RCC ring beams which are monolithically connected with the RCC structure below. Over the years, the anchor bolts and the base plates of support structure of storage tanks were found corroded and the foundation RCC ring beam indicated a few corrosion cracks. Health assessment of relevant structures and components were carried out. Considering the limitations of existing anchorage and also giving due considerations for reparability and replaceability, a new anchorage system was designed. The entire refurbishment and retrofitting works pertaining to the four SF6 gas storage tanks was executed in a time bound manner to comply with the then PASC (Particle Accelerator Safety Committee) recommendations successfully, without disrupting the operations of the round-the-clock running Pelletron Accelerator facility. In addition, the thickness measurements for the storage tanks were performed. The relief valves and rupture disc assemblies across the storage tanks were replaced and reinstalled after introducing appropriate manual valves as suggested by the PASC. A new test set up was fabricated to perform pneumatic testing at the recommended pressure off-line for these relief valves and rupture disc assemblies prior to reinstallation. This paper describes the comprehensive rehabilitation and retrofitting procedures that were carried out at the

  6. Using a Tandem Pelletron accelerator to produce a thermal neutron beam for detector testing purposes.

    Irazola, L; Praena, J; Fernández, B; Macías, M; Bedogni, R; Terrón, J A; Sánchez-Nieto, B; Arias de Saavedra, F; Porras, I; Sánchez-Doblado, F

    2016-01-01

    Active thermal neutron detectors are used in a wide range of measuring devices in medicine, industry and research. For many applications, the long-term stability of these devices is crucial, so that very well controlled neutron fields are needed to perform calibrations and repeatability tests. A way to achieve such reference neutron fields, relying on a 3 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator available at the CNA (Seville, Spain), is reported here. This paper shows thermal neutron field production and reproducibility characteristics over few days. PMID:26595777

  7. Design, construction and installation of the electromechanical components of the current control of filament of the Pelletron Electron Accelerator

    For the operation of the Pelletron electron accelerator is required to have control of the filament current. For it was designed, built and installed an electromechanical system located in the Acceleration Unit inside the Accelerator tank and operated from the Control console. All the components located inside the tank operated under the following conditions: Pressure: until 7.03 Kg/cm2; High voltage: 106 V (only the insulating arrow); Atmosphere: mixture of N2 and CO2 or SF6. (Author)

  8. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl and 63Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm2 for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm2 for in-vacuum irradiation

  9. Design of a new controller for vacuum interlock system at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational for last twenty two years with progressively increased efficiency. The entire beam transport line is maintained under ultra high vacuum (UHV), Turbo Pumps, Getter and Ion Pumps are being used to maintain UHV in beam transport line. Safety of the pumps is ensured by interlocking operation of gate valves with the safe vacuum level. A new type of controller has been designed using CMOS ICs' for vacuum interlock system. Three pneumatically controlled UHV gate valves can be operated from this unit. This unit is interfaced with a multi cold cathode controller (Pfeiffer make) unit and accordingly generates signal to operate three gate valves. This paper presents the design features of the controller and its utilization. (author)

  10. Safety aspects implemented in 3.0 MV Pelletron accelerator at NCAR, GGV, Bilaspur

    Low energy particle Accelerator has been playing an important role in various fields of Science and Technology including material science. Among Various applications, ion beam processing, ion beam analysis and ion implantation have matured as standard tools. Recently, a 3.0 MV Pelletron Accelerator facility (Model 9SDH-4, NEC, USA) with high current TORUIS ion source ( maximum beam current H+ ion ∼ 50μA @ 6 MeV, He2+ at ∼ 10μA) and SNICS-II for heavy ions has been commissioned as 'National Center for Accelerator Based Research' in the Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya. The facility has been cleared for trial operation by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) , Govt. on the basis of safety analysis report. In this paper, we discuss the passive and radiological safety aspects and user defined interlocking schemes implemented in the facility. The details of λ-, X-ray and neutron radiation detected while accelerating the protons at different terminal voltages are presented and the radiological safety aspects implemented are discussed. Details of the facilities tested and the results obtained so far will be discussed in the paper

  11. Upgrading of the AMS facility at the Koffler 14UD Pelletron accelerator

    Berkovits, D; Bordeanu, C; Ghelberg, S; Hass, M; Heber, O; Paul, M; Shahar, Y; Verri, G; 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.04.033

    2004-01-01

    The AMS facility based on a 14UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been upgraded in recent years to support an active and diversified research program. A new dedicated AMS ion source beam line merging at 45 degrees with the existing injection line through a 45 degrees electrostatic deflector is in operation. The multi-sample high- intensity Cs sputter ion source stands on a separate 120 kV platform and is remote-controlled through a hybrid infrared-fiber-optics link operated either manually or by the accelerator-control computer, ensuring safe and reliable operation. Independent current preamplifiers are used in Faraday cup current readings down to the pA range. The accelerator computer-control system was upgraded to Lab View 6.1, allowing a PC server to control and read out all hardware components while one or more remote PC clients run the AMS software. Ad hoc sequences of commands, written in a script macro language, are run from a client computer to perform an automated AMS measurement. The present capabil...

  12. Upgrading of the AMS facility at the Koffler 14UD Pelletron accelerator

    The AMS facility based on a 14UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been upgraded in recent years to support an active and diversified research program. A new dedicated AMS ion source beam line merging at 45 deg. with the existing injection line through a 45 deg. electrostatic deflector is in operation. The multi-sample high-intensity Cs sputter ion source stands on a separate 120 kV platform and is remote-controlled through a hybrid infrared-fiber-optics link operated either manually or by the accelerator-control computer, ensuring safe and reliable operation. Independent current preamplifiers are used in Faraday cup current readings down to the pA range. The accelerator computer-control system was upgraded to LabView 6.1, allowing a PC server to control and read out all hardware components while one or more remote PC clients run the AMS software. Ad hoc sequences of commands, written in a script macro language, are run from a client computer to perform an automated AMS measurement. The present capabilities of the facility in terms of detected radionuclides and their sensitivities are listed

  13. The Pelletron Accelerator of IFUNAM and its possible applications to the dosimetry

    The Pelletron Accelerator of positive ions 3 MV in the Institute of Physics of UNAM has characteristics that make it useful for the application to the radiations dosimetry. It is ideal for studying the detailed mechanisms of the radiation interaction with matter, therefore it can be applied to know the performance of dosemeters. With this device can be accelerated almost any type of ion, including He, but excepting the others noble gases. The energies of the disposable ions are in the interval 1 MeV until several MeV, depending of the state of charge selected, the energy can be varied continuously with accuracy of some KeV. It can be achieved streams from 104 until 106 ions/cm2, allowing studies of individual events (tracks) or of collective processes. the beam size can be varying from a diameter 1 mm until 5 cm. It is also took in account with detectors and other techniques associated that can be combined for supporting studies, as surface barrier detectors and of other types, as well as the RBS, PIXE, RN techniques and channeling. (Author)

  14. Modification in existing SF6 gas handling system at 14UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator, Mumbai

    BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator facility at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since inception 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a pressure vessel of 6 metre diameter, 25 metre long and 525m3 volume. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF6 at 80 to 100 psig in order to achieve 14MV. The inventory of SF6 gas is about 18,000 Kg (approximately) at 80 psig. SF6 gas can be transported from Accelerator tank to storage tank using gas handling system, which consists of oil free compressor, vacuum pump, dust filters, oil filters, dryers etc

  15. The Pelletron Accelerator of IFUNAM and its possible applications to the dosimetry; El Acelerador Pelletron del IFUNAM y sus posibles aplicaciones a la dosimetria

    Rickards, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, C.U. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The Pelletron Accelerator of positive ions 3 MV in the Institute of Physics of UNAM has characteristics that make it useful for the application to the radiations dosimetry. It is ideal for studying the detailed mechanisms of the radiation interaction with matter, therefore it can be applied to know the performance of dosemeters. With this device can be accelerated almost any type of ion, including He, but excepting the others noble gases. The energies of the disposable ions are in the interval 1 MeV until several MeV, depending of the state of charge selected, the energy can be varied continuously with accuracy of some KeV. It can be achieved streams from 10{sup 4} until 10{sup 6} ions/cm{sup 2}, allowing studies of individual events (tracks) or of collective processes. the beam size can be varying from a diameter 1 mm until 5 cm. It is also took in account with detectors and other techniques associated that can be combined for supporting studies, as surface barrier detectors and of other types, as well as the RBS, PIXE, RN techniques and channeling. (Author)

  16. Setup for thin layer activation at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility

    Layout of drift space above analysing magnet of BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator facility was modified in year 2003 to accommodate an irradiation setup in tower area known as 6M irradiation setup. Proton beam of a few MeV energy having current in range of hundreds of nA can be obtained at this port to carry out specific experiments. Irradiation setup was modified to mount metal samples of different shape and sizes to study wear and corrosion rates using thin layer activation analysis technique. Special jigs were fabricated to irradiate samples i.e. disc gears, balls and rectangular shape coupons. The samples were irradiated by a proton beam of 13 MeV energy having 200 nA beam current. The irradiation resulted in production of a gamma emitting radionuclide Cobalt-56 (half- life:77.3 d, Energy: 847 KeV, 1.24 MeV) by the nuclear reaction 56Fe (p, n) 56Co. The irradiated samples were subjected to wear/corrosion environment under certain experimental conditions and activity loss was monitored periodically using gamma spectrometer. The reduced activity was correlated with thickness loss by generating a calibration curve. Details of setup and activation results will be presented in paper. (author)

  17. Radiochromic film sensitivity calibrations using ion beams from a Pelletron accelerator

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ward, R. J.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is a transparent detector film that permanently changes color following exposure to ionizing radiation. The optical density of the film increases with increasing absorbed dose. RCF is convenient to use because it requires no chemical processing and can be scanned using commercially available document scanners. RCF is used frequently in medical applications, but is also used in a variety of diagnostics in high energy density physics. The film consists of a single or double layer of radiation-sensitive organic microcrystal monomers placed onto a polyester backing. GafchromicTM manufactures a large number of different types of RCF, and new types of film frequently replace older products. In this study, the sensitivity of several types of RCF to ion beams of different energies was measured. Ion beams produced by the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator were directed into a target chamber where they scattered off of a gold foil. A sample of RCF was exposed to the scattered ions. The fluence of incident particles on the film was measured using a surface barrier detector. Results of these calibrations will be presented. This work was funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  18. Mono-Energetic Neutron Fields Using 4 MV Pelletron Accelerator at FRS / JAEA

    Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been developed in the energy range of 8 keV to 19 MeV using a 4MV Pelletron accelerator at the Facility of Radiation Standards in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The neutron fields with the energies of 8, 27, 144, 250, 565 keV and 1.2, 2.5, 5.0, 14.8, 19 MeV are established. Protons or deuterons are accelerated and transported to bombard various targets for neutron production. The targets are prepared by depositing scandium, lithium fluoride or tritiated titanium on the backing disks for 45Sc(p, n)45Ti, 7Li(p, n)7Be and, 3H(p, n)3He and 3H(d, n)4He reactions, respectively. For 2H(d, n)3He reaction, a gas target is prepared by filling a target cell with D2 gas. A pulsed beam can be derived with the pulsing system installed in the high voltage terminal of the accelerator. The minimum pulse width was evaluated to be 2 ns in FWHM. Neutron fluence rates at the irradiation point were measured with a Bonner sphere, a lithium glass scintillation detector, a silicon semi-conductor detector with a polyethylene radiator and a BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector. Though the maximum fluence rates should not be high enough to obtain the nuclear data using an activation method, they can be available to obtain the nuclear data by using the prompt gamma ray analysis. (author)

  19. Dosimetry in the environment of 15 UD pelletron accelerator using plastic track detectors

    In the present work, inhalation dose rates and annual effective dose contribution from the mixed field of radon and thoron present in the atmosphere of the accelerator building mainly due to building material used were measured, as it very much essential from health and hygiene point of view to asses the total radiation dose (gamma, neutron, radon and thoron) received by the radiation workers in the accelerator facility. Though there is no direct link of radon, thoron and their progeny with the Pelletron accelerator, yet it is important to measure them in the premises from the view point of health safety. The average radon concentration, annual effective dose and life-time fatality risk found in concrete block houses is 66.21 ± 7.34 Bq m-3, 1.13±0.10 mSv and (0.88 ± 0.09) '10-4. The source of the radon, thoron and daughters in the accelerator building is the construction materials. The inhalation dose, radon and thoron concentration in the Pelletron building were found to vary from 0.681 mSvY-1 to 1.599 mSvY-1, 19± 2 Bq/m3 to 64± 5 Bq/m3, 1.2±1 Bq/m3 to 62± 4 Bq/m3, respectively. The concentration of radon daughters was found to vary from 2.05 mWL to 6.92 mWL and the concentration of the thoron daughters was found to vary from 0.03 mWL to 2.18 mWL. The annual effective dose from radon and thoron (PAEC) was found to vary from 0.47mSvY-1 to 0.98mSvY-1. The life time fatality risk factor were found to vary from 0.38x10-4 to 0.98x10-4 with average risk factor is 0.57x10-4. In addition, the gamma and neutron radiations are also generated in the accelerator facility. The gamma and neutron radiation dose were measured using the Thermoluminescence badge and CR-39 films respectively. The gamma radiation dose was not found to be significant during the experimental time. The neutron dose were found to vary from 0.20 mSv to 0.50 mSv, and in few cases it had gone u pto 1.85 mSv. The annual neutron dose found in the study period was 26.50 mSv and the average received dose

  20. Development of Facilities or the In Situ Characterization of Materials in the Materials Science Beamline at the IUAC Pelletron Accelerator

    Ion beams play an important role in the characterization and engineering of materials. Two materials science beamlines exist at the Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) facilities (15 MV Pelletron and superconducting LINAC). There are two large area position sensitive gaseous telescope detectors in these two beamlines, which, apart from light elements depth profiling and compositional analysis, are used for the on-line measurement of electronic sputtering. An in situ X ray diffractometer is set up in the LINAC beamline for in situ investigations of phase transitions, growth of embedded nanoparticles in a matrix etc. under swift heavy ion irradiation. An in situ quadrupole mass analyser is installed in the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber of the Pelletron beamline for in situ investigations of the chemistry within the ion track by measurements of evolved gases or molecules under swift heavy ion bombardment. An ionoluminescence set up at the Pelletron beamline is installed and utilized for studies of light emitted during ion irradiation, which is useful for materials characterization. It can also reveal materials modification by ion beam. (author)

  1. Application of a Pelletron accelerator to study total dose radiation effects on 50 GHz SiGe HBTs

    Praveen, K.C.; Pushpa, N.; Naik, P.S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Cressler, John D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tripathi, Ambuj [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total dose effects of 50 MeV Li3+ ion on 50 GHz SiGe HBTs is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ion irradiated results were compared with Co-60 gamma results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 50 MeV Li ions create more damage in E-B spacer oxide when compared to Co-60 gamma radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-60 gamma radiation create more damage in STI oxide when compared to 50 MeV Li ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Worst case total dose radiation effects can be studied using Pelletron accelerator facilities. - Abstract: We have investigated the effects of 50 MeV lithium ion irradiation on the DC electrical characteristics of first-generation silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (50 GHz SiGe HBTs) in the dose range of 600 krad to 100 Mrad. The results of 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion irradiation on the SiGe HBTs are compared with 63 MeV proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation results in the same dose range in order to understand the damage induced by different LET species. The radiation response of emitter-base (EB) spacer oxide and shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide to different irradiation types are discussed in this paper. We have also focused on the efficacy in the application of a Pelletron accelerator to study total dose irradiation studies in SiGe HBTs.

  2. Lifetime of charge stripping foils and transmission of heavy ions in 12UD-pelletron tandem accelerator

    The lifetime of charge stripping foils produced by means of new arc-discharge method developed by Sugai was measured for the bombardment of 10 MeV Au ions. Transmission of Au ions through 12UD-pelletron tandem accelerator was also measured. The lifetime of tested charge stripping foils for 10-15 μg/cm2 thick and 3.8-5.0 μg/cm2 thick, respectively, demonstrated to be longer than that of usual arc-discharge method by more than 30 times and 20 times, meanwhile, the transmission of 3.8-5.0 μg/cm2 thick foils was about 4 times higher than that of 10-15 μg/cm2 thick foils. (orig.)

  3. Development and utilization of various target assemblies for proton beam irradiation setup at 14 UD BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator facility

    Drift space above analyzing magnet is modified to accommodate a proton beam setup at 6 meter level of 14UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility. This setup is capable of delivering proton beam in the energy range of 2 MeV to 26 MeV and current in μA range. The shielding at this level is such that radiation is within permissible limit when high proton beam current is accelerated. (author)

  4. The 6 MV pelletron at Stuttgart - an accelerator for ions, positrons and electrons

    After a short introduction and a description of the accelerator facility the paper surveys the experiments which were performed with the ion and positron beams of this accelerator since its installation in Stuttgart. Selected examples are presented for either characteristic or novel applications in more detail. They comprise: (i) The ion beam analysis of solids by means of RBS (stoichiometry of high-Tc superconductors), NRA (trace analysis by a novel p-γ-coincidence technique), ion channeling (structure of quasicrystals), and high resolution RBS and ERDA of surfaces and near-surface layers with a recently set up electrostatic spectrometer for MeV ions (oxidation of metal surfaces, stoichiometry of multi-layers, high resolution ERDA of hydrogen). (ii) Measurement of the energy dependence of the elastic (Bhabha) scattering of positrons by electrons and of the annihilation-in-flight cross-section of positron-electron pairs (search for resonant neutral particle states), beam-based β+-γ-coincidence positron-lifetime measurements (high-temperature thermal-equilibrium studies on Ge in the solid and molten state and on Si up to the melting point), triple-coincidence β+γΔE Age - Momentum Correlation (AMOC) measurements (positronium formation in fused quartz, time-resolved observation of spin conversion of positronium in a paramagnetic solution (HTEMPO/methanol), trapping of positrons at defects in diamonds and at thermally generated vacancies in aluminium). (orig.)

  5. Theoretical evaluation of the biological shielding sufficiency for the Pelletron NEC Particle Accelerator at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

    Theoretical evaluation of the biological shielding sufficiency provided for 1.7MV Pelletron NEC Particle Accelerator yet to be installed at the Accelerator Research Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) has been done. Using the Beer Lambert law attenuation of radiation dose outside the walls of the facility was made for protons of energy 1.7MeV. Simulation of charged particle-matter interactions leading to bremsstrahlung radiation using Monte Carlo code (MCNP5) have been carried out. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has also been used to identify the composition of the concrete material used during the construction of the Accelerator Research Centre (ARC) building. The NAA analysis revealed that the elemental constituents of the ordinary concrete of density 2.3g/cm3 used for the construction of the walls included Na, Al, and Ca. Background radiation levels within and outside the facility was measured with the aid of a Sodium Iodide (NaI) identifinder and a Rados detector so as to have a practical reference datum. The weekly background radiation measurements yielded an average dose rate value of 0.05μSv/hr from recorded value range of 0.01μSv/hr to 0.07μSv/hr for an eight month period. Modeling and simulation of charged particle-matter interactions at different beam energies using Monte Carlo code (MCNP5) have yielded the dose rate of 1.58E-07μSv/hr, 1.98E-07μSv/h and 2.20E-05μSv/h outside the 22.86cm (9.0 inch) thick wall of the accelerator facility, for the beam energy range of 0.5-3.0MeV for Titanium, iron and Zirconium target samples respectively. From the Beer-Lambert law, the operational energy of 1.7MeV was used to evaluate theoretically the radiation dose rate of 1.178E-05μSv/hr, 2.656E-05μSv/hr and 4.787E-05μSv/hr outside the 22.86cm thick wall of the accelerator facility for Titanium, Iron and Zirconium targets respectively. At the operational energy energy of 3.0 MeV, the dose rate values obtained were 4.382E-05μSv/h, 9

  6. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  7. A brief account of National Centre for Accelerator based Research: 3.0 MV pelletron accelerator (9SDH4) based research facility for interdisciplinary research

    The upcoming National Centre for Accelerator based Research is a flagship programme of the University. The Centre is financially supported by Ministry of Human Resource Development through University Grants Commission (UGC) and Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India through Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS). In addition University has signed a MoU with Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. A brief outline of the experimental facilities being commissioned and the description of its salient features are described

  8. Physical installation of Pelletron and electron cooling system

    Hurh, P.

    1997-09-01

    Bremsstrahlung of 5 MeV electrons at a loss current of 50 microamp in the acceleration region is estimated to produce X-ray intensities of 7 Rad/sec. Radiation losses due to a misteer or sudden obstruction will of course be much higher still (estimated at 87,500 Rad/hr for a 0.5 mA beam current). It is estimated that 1.8 meters of concrete will be necessary to adequately shield the surrounding building areas at any possible Pelletron installation site. To satisfy our present electron cooling development plan, two Pelletron installations are required, the first at our development lab in the Lab B/NEF Enclosure area and the second at the operational Main Injector service building, MI-30, in the main Injector ring. The same actual Pelletron and electron beam-line components will be used at both locations. The Lab B installation will allow experimentation with actual high energy electron beam to develop the optics necessary for the cooling straight while Main Injector/Recycler commissioning is taking place. The MI-30 installation is obviously the permanent home for the Pelletron when electron cooling becomes operational. Construction plans for both installations will be discussed here.

  9. AMS using 14UD Pelletron at TIFR, Mumbai: present status and future prospects

    The AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) is a versatile tool employed in multidisciplinary programmes. The AMS programme at the BARC-TIFR 14UD Pelletron accelerator has been initiated with major emphasis on the determination of 36Cl concentration in environment in general and water samples in particular. Preliminary measurements related to detection of 129I have been carried out in recent past. The system used for AMS measurement is based on a 14 MV Tandem Accelerator. In this paper, the status and future prospects of AMS programme at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility are presented

  10. Ion optics in a 14 UD Pelletron terminal

    The terminal of the Pelletron accelerator in Rehovot was designed so as to transmit freely any beam of a desired charge state through the high energy acceleration tube. Charge selection is accomplished by means of a displaced electrostatic quadrupole triplet. A matching lens further downstream inside the terminal is matching the beam emittance to the high energy tube acceptance. A detailed study of the angular acceptance of the high energy tube was carried out in order to check for possible tube loading. The transmission through the high energy tube is substantially improved by the matching lens both when the charge selector is on and when it is off

  11. Recycler Electron Cooling Project: Mechanical vibrations in the Pelletron and their effect on the beam

    Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Burov, A.; Boffo, C.; Joireman, P.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    The Fermilab's Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to cool stored 8.9 GeV antiprotons [1]. The cooler is based on an electrostatic accelerator, Pelletron [2], working in an energy-recovery regime. A full-scale prototype of the cooler has been assembled and commissioned in a separate building [3]. The main goal of the experiments with the prototype was to demonstrate stable operation with a 3.5 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam while preserving a high beam quality in the cooling section. The quality is characterized, first of all, by a spread of electron velocities in the cooling section, which may be significantly affected by mechanical vibration of the Pelletron elements. This paper describes the results of vibration measurements in the Pelletron terminal and correlates them with the beam motion in the cooling section.

  12. Experiments related to marine environmental science using a tandem Pelletron

    Activities related to marine environmental science, which have been made in our laboratory using a 1.7MV Pelletron 5SDH2 accelerator, are reviewed. One is successful application of proton beams to radiation-induced graft polymerization for making amidoxime-type adsorbents that are very effective for collecting doubly charged ions of metal elements, such as uranium and vanadium, abundantly dissolved in seawater. The other is effective application of accelerator analyses to investigation of interaction of tributyltin (TBT) chloride, which had been used in self-polishing antifouling paints and are endocrine disrupter having mutagenicity, with a TBT resistant marine microorganism newly isolated from sediment of a ship's ballast water tank. (author)

  13. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund Pelletron, and experimental experience

    R Hellborg; K Håkansson; M Faarinen; M Kiisk; P Persson; G Skog; K Stenström

    2002-11-01

    A recirculating terminal pumping system has been installed in the 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator in Lund. An extremly limited space in the high voltage terminal and the absence of electrical power in the terminal, forced us to provide a unique design for the installation and powering of the new pumps. Details of the technical design, as well as experience of the use of the new system for accelerator mass spectrometry, will be given.

  14. Incomplete fusion studies for 12C+175Lu system at 15UD Pelletron energies

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the break up reaction dynamics for an even-even nuclei (12C). An experiment using 12C5++175Lu system at energies ≈ 4-7 MeV/A was carried out at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India using 15-UD Pelletron Accelerator. Further experimental details are similar to our earlier experiments based on off-line gamma-ray spectroscopy

  15. The data monitoring and acquisition for the 8UD Pelletron

    Jorge, Fabio de Oliveira; Schnitter, Udo; Silva, Messias Theodoro da; Sarmento, Vitorio; Silva, Silvio Cesar da; Tromba, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAFN/IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. Aberto de Fisica Nuclear

    2010-07-01

    The data monitoring and acquisition system of the 8UD Pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo was constructed in order to monitor on-line the operational characteristics of the accelerator and also to record these electrical, physical and mechanical properties that characterize the operation of the accelerator. These data are stored in text files that are readable and accessible to the users in the local computer network. This system will also help to optimize the maintenance procedures and ultimately setup the parameters for implementation of an self supervision system to operate the accelerator and to tune the beam from the ion source to the users scattering chambers. These text files contain a daily recording of the variables at regular intervals of 1, 60, 360 seconds. This software includes a 6 channel scope mode for local monitoring. In the present version 13 electric variables are read, including terminal voltage, charging voltage and current, triode current, tube and column current, insulation, radiation level and SF6 pressure. Also being implemented 5 other variables: triode position, pellet chain length increment and vacuum in the accelerating tube at the input and output the accelerator. The acquisition system and data distribution is based on hardware platform and software from the National Instruments Company, specifically the language LABVIEW and also using hardware and software developed by the staff of the accelerator. (author)

  16. Liquid nitrogen distribution for Pelletron LINAC facility, Mumbai

    Low temperature facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai provides liquid helium and liquid nitrogen along with the various other cryogenic support services to many facilities and laboratories of the institute. On the total annual liquid nitrogen consumption over 3,00,000 liters, majority supply is utilized by the Pelletron LINAC Facility, for cooling the thermal shields of the quarter wave resonating cavities, distribution line of the cryostats, precooling of helium refrigerator and for the beam hall experiments. Liquid nitrogen is produced by STIRLIN-8 plant with a liquefaction rate of 110 liter per hour at an elevated pressure of 2 barg. The vacuum jacketed and super-insulated liquid nitrogen transfer line of about 310 meters long interconnects plant and SC LINAC accelerator. The paper present the in depth details about the cryogen distribution, VJ piping and also the technical modifications and various automation carried out by us on the liquid nitrogen plant. (author)

  17. New modifications in 15 UD pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre

    S Chopra; N S Pawar; M P Singh; Rakesh Kumar; J Prasad; V P Patel; Raj Pal; B Kumar; S Ojha; K Devarani; T Nandi; M Sota; P Barua; S Gargari; R Joshi; D Kanjilal; S K Datta

    2002-11-01

    The 15 UD pelletron at NSC has been operational and performed well during the last 11 years. There have been major modifications performed for upgradation of pelletron system over this period. Major upgradations which have been implemented are new resistor network system for voltage gradient, doublet to singlet unit conversion for accelerator units, turbopump based gas stripper system etc. In addition accelerator mass spectroscopy program has also been started. A new multi-cathode source, Wien filter etc. have been procured and will be added soon in the system. An overview of the most significant upgradations undertaken and other activities for the system are being reported in the present paper.

  18. Modification of MC-SNICS ion source for 15 UD Pelletron at N.S.C, New Delhi

    A new multi cathode ion source has been installed for upgradation of 15UD Pelletron facility at NSC, New Delhi. The Multi-Cathode Sputter Negative Ion by Cesium Sputtering (MC-SNICS) ion source was installed to provide beams for the new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility as well as for other regular operation of accelerator. The present paper describes brief details of the MC-SNICS and further modifications for cathode change mechanism performed in this source. (author)

  19. Development of a superconducting LINAC booster for the Pelletron at Mumbai

    M B Kurup

    2002-11-01

    A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) to boost the energy of the heavy ion beams from the 14 UD pelletron accelerator at Mumbai is under development. The booster is based on quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. The operating frequency is 150 MHz. Four resonators each are mounted in a cryostat module built indigenously. A total of seven such modules arranged in two arms with an isochronous and achromatic beam bend in the middle comprises the full LINAC. The transverse focusing of the beam through the LINAC is carried out using periodic quadrupole doublet magnets operating at room temperature. The present status of the project is described.

  20. Long term indoor radon measurements in the pelletron laboratory at the UNAM physics institute

    The results of six months of continuous measurement of the indoor radon concentration levels in the building where the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron particle accelerator is located are presented. This study has three major objectives: a) to know the actual values of the levels of indoor radon in this installation, where personnel spend many hours and sometimes days; b) assess the radiological risk from radon inhalation for personnel working permanently in the laboratory, as well as incidental users; and c) establish, if necessary, time limits for continuous permanence on the location for indoor radon exposure. Passive nuclear track detectors and dynamic systems were employed, covering six months (August, 2009 to January, 2010). For the calculation of internal dose the Radon Individual Dose Calculator was used. The results indicate that the indoor radon levels are below the US EPA recommended levels (400 Bq/m3) in workplaces. The measurements help to establish levels for workplaces in Mexico. (Author)

  1. Fabrication and testing of recoil mass spectrometer at Mumbai Pelletron

    The main motivation for the recoil mass separator, which has been designed and constructed at the Mumbai Pelletron, has been to study the exotic nuclei far off from the line of β-stability, produced through fusion-evaporation reactions. These have very low cross sections, of the order of a few microbarns and the reaction products recoil in the forward direction along with the beam particles. The recoil mass separator enables one to study these reaction products by separating them from the main beam and from each other

  2. A high resolution AMS-injector for the Pelletron in Lund

    R Bellborg; S Bazhal; M Faarinen; K Håkansson; C-E Magnusson; P Persson; G Skog; K Stenström

    2002-12-01

    A high resolution injector system has recently been installed at the Lund 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The new injector, designed mainly for 26Al ions, will increase the experimental potential of the Lund AMS facility considerably. High quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by using a 90° spherical electrostatic analyzer followed by a 90° magnetic analyzer. The injector is equipped with a high intensity sputtering source with a spherical ionizer. A new analytical technique for acceptance calculations as well as PC-based computational methods have been used in the design of the ion optical system of the new injector. Compared to our old injector system which has a magnetic analyzer with a bending angle of only 15°, the new system has a more than ten times better resolution. The beam optics of the new system is also better designed to match the accelerator acceptance. In this way the ion transmission from the ion source to the detector, for different ions of interest in our AMS programme, has been increased.

  3. Damage situation by the Great East Japan Earthquake and post-quake reconstruction project of the Tandem Accelerator Facility at the University of Tsukuba

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba suffered serious damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. On the day, the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was in operation at 8 MV. The electricity supply went out during the earthquake. Fortunately, there were no causalties by the earthquake in the facility. However, all high voltage accelerating columns fell down in the accelerator tank. We decided to shut down the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. At present, we have a plan to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the 2nd target room connecting the beam line to existing facilities at the 1st target room. The construction of the new accelerator system will be completed by spring 2014. (author)

  4. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  5. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    P N Prakash; T S Datta; B P Ajith Kumar; J Antony; P Barua; J Chacko; A Choudhury; G K Chadhari; S Ghosh; S Kar; S A Krishnan; Manoj Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; A Mandal; D S Mathuria; R S Meena; R Mehta; K K Mistri; A Pandey; M V Suresh Babu; B K Sahu; A Sarkar; S S K Sonti; A Rai; S Venkatramanan; J Zacharias; R K Bhowmik; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed sufficiently. Details of the entire accelerator system including the cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indigenously, and present status of the project are presented.

  6. Superconducting Linac and associated accelerator development at NSC

    Amit Roy

    2001-08-01

    There has been significant progress in the programme to develop a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster for the Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre. This paper presents the current status of the development in all the major components of the accelerator.

  7. Construction status of the 6 MV tandem accelerator system at the University of Tsukuba

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. The new accelerator system consists of the 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources, an existing Lam-shift polarized ion source and 12 beam lines. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the accelerator room to the present experimental facilities at the experimental room. The 6 MV tandem accelerator system will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The construction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator system is scheduled in the spring of 2014. Beam delivery will start in September 2014. (author)

  8. Status report of the multi-tandem accelerator facility at the University of Tsukuba

    The University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC) has two accelerators, the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator and the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator. The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was installed at the UTTAC in 1975. A maximum terminal voltage of 12 MV is available for various ion beam applications. The multi-tandem accelerator facility has been used for University's inter-department education research. Also, we have actively advanced collaborative researches with other research institutes and industrial users. Since the Open Advanced Facilities Initiative for Innovation by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology started in 2007, total 17 industrial experiments have been carried out at the UTTAC. By the big earthquake on March 11, 2011, the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator suffered serious damages. 3 ion sources installed at the 9th floor have been broken. In addition, the high voltage accelerating column fell down in the accelerator tank. Fortunately, 1 MV Tandetron accelerator does not have any serious damage and it works properly now. At present, the UTTAC tries to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator since it is difficult to repair the previous one due to some boundaries in the building construction. The present status of the UTTAC is reported in this paper. (author)

  9. Incomplete fusion studies at 15 UD Pelletron energies

    Some of the most debated and outstanding issues related to low energy ICF reactions have been, (i) the effect of entrance channel parameters on the onset and strength of ICF, (ii) the usefulness of ICF to populate high-spin states in final reaction products, (iii) the localization of the angular momentum window, etc. In recent years, high quality data on excitation functions (EFs), spin distributions (SDs), and linear momentum distributions of individual reaction products have been obtained at the Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi in different experiments. A brief description of measurements is presented here

  10. Vacuum leak problem in low energy of pelletron

    During unit wise conditioning of unit 8, the vacuum started deteriorating inside the tube after a spark. The RGA reading was taken and it was found out that residual gas inside tube was sulphur hexafluoride. A leak was detected in second tube of unit number eight in between electrode 6 to 8. Leak was sealed with the sealant. Again leak check was done and no leak was found. The tank was closed and conditioning was started again. During the same unit number eight conditioning, leak developed again followed by a spark. So the damaged tube was replaced with a new accelerator tube. During the installation time the alignment of the machine was taken care. Again leak checking was done and the tube was baked properly. The tank was closed again and this particular unit was conditioned for about four days. The maximum voltage it has attained was 1.1 MV. (author)

  11. The reliability studies of nano-engineered SiGe HBTs using Pelletron accelerator

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in; Praveen, K. C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, Karnataka-570006 (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore-570025 (India); Cressler, John D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of high energy ions on the electrical characteristics of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) were studied in the total dose of ranging from 600 krad to 100 Mrad (Si). The two generations (50 GHz and 200 GHz) of SiGe HBTs were exposed to 50 MeV lithium, 75 MeV boron and 100 MeV oxygen ions. The electrical characteristics of SiGe HBTs were studied before and after irradiation. The SiGe HBTs were exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in the same total dose. The results are systematically compared in order to understand the interaction of ions and ionizing radiation with SiGe HBTs.

  12. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  13. Recent results from digital INGA at BARC–TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility and future plans

    R Palit

    2014-11-01

    An experimental campaign aimed at studying various high spin phenomena using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) at the BARC–TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility has been successfully completed. The array consisting of a large number of Compton-suppressed clover detectors was coupled to a digital data acquisition system with 96 channels. The present system provides higher throughput, better energy resolution and better stability of gain for the multidetector Compton-suppressed clover array compared to its previous conventional system with analog shaping. Selected results from this array are discussed which highlight the exotic shapes, novel excitation modes and interesting isomers of the nuclei. The preliminary results from the experimental efforts to improve the sensitivity and capability of the array by adding ancillary detectors are also described briefly.

  14. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay Pelletron

    S Nagaraj; H C Jain; P K Joshi; S D Paul; R Palit; H V Panchal; B S Naidu; A Chatterjee; A Navin

    2001-07-01

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed at the 15°S beam-line of the Pelletron at TIFR. The RMS consists of a quadrupole doublet just after the target chamber followed by an ‘electrostatic deflector’, a magnetic dipole and a second electrostatic deflector. The recoils produced in the 12C+58Ni reaction using 60 MeV 12C beam were focussed with the help of electric and magnetic fields and detected in a strip detector placed at the focal plane of the RMS. Further testing of the spectrometer to obtain mass resolution and efficiency are in progress.

  15. A new AMS facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chopra, S.; Pattanaik, J. K.; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Joshi, R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-10-01

    Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), a national facility of government of India, is having a 15UD Pelletron accelerator for multidisciplinary ion beam based research programs. Recently, a new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility has been developed after incorporating many changes in the existing 15UD Pelletron accelerator. A clean chemistry laboratory for 10Be and 26Al with all the modern facilities has also been developed for the chemical processing of samples. 10Be measurements on sediment samples, inter laboratory comparison results and 26Al measurements on standard samples are presented in this paper. In addition to the 10Be and 26Al AMS facilities, a new 14C AMS facility based on a dedicated 500 kV tandem ion accelerator with two cesium sputter ion sources, is also being setup at IUAC.

  16. Status of post-quake reconstruction project and scheduled introduction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at the multi tandem accelerator facility, the University of Tsukuba

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. We have mapped out a strategy for the post-quake reconstruction project. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator at the 2nd experimental room instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. A new accelerator system will consist of a horizontal type 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources and the polarized ion source which will be moved from the 9th floor to a new experimental booth on the ground, an accelerator mass spectrometry system and an ion beam analysis system. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the 2nd experimental room to the present experimental facilities at the 1st experimental room. The new AMS system will be capable of measuring environmental levels for long-lived radioisotopes of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I. The new IBA system will be equipped with a high-precision five-axis goniometer. The 6 MV tandem accelerator will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The beam delivery will start on September 2014. (author)

  17. McMaster Accelerator Laboratory annual report, 1983

    The FN tandem accelerator has been upgraded with new spiral inclined field tubes and a pelletron charging system. Terminal voltages of 10 MV are obtained regularly, and improved injection optics allow higher transmission and increased beam currents. Much work has been done on tritium-induced reactions and with polarized deuteron beams. The study of nuclear phenomena at high spin and nuclear temperature using the multiplicity filter continues. Several experiments touch on other areas of physics, engineering, and medicine

  18. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Bemmerer D.

    2015-01-01

    Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  19. History of the electrostatic accelerator in Japan

    Modern Van de Graaff accelerator was first built at Wisconsin University in 1934. After the World War II, High Voltage Engineering Corp. (HVEC) was established and manufactured many Van de Graaff accelerators. The HVEC succeeded in fabricating a Van de Graaff accelerator of tandem type, by which the proton bean with an energy of 20 MeV became available. In 1965 Pelletron was put into practical use. In Japan, development of Van de Graaff accelerator was initiated in 1940's at IPCR, the University of Tokyo, Osaka University, Kyoto University and Kyushu University. After the War, many Van de Graaff accelerators have been supplied mainly from industries. Physicists at Kyushu University developed the accelerator by their own way. (K.Y.)

  20. Designing of shielding and collimator for high-energy X-ray beam: application to 3 MV Tandem Pelletron based HEX-ray spectrometry

    High-energy X-rays (60-1000 keV) or HEX-ray bear unique advantage over conventional X-rays in the field of diffraction and scattering experiments. HEX-ray is an important experimental technique because of its uniqueness to characterize technically challenging samples (liquids, glass, amorphous materials, nanomaterial, thick samples, etc.). In the present paper detail designing of the lead collimator and shielding for the recently developed HEX-Ray spectrometry experiment using characteristic PbK-lines (75-85 keV) emitted due to bombardment of 3 MeV proton beam generated from the Pelletron accelerator has been reported. Attenuation (%), transmission (%), and energy absorption (%) are calculated using the NIST data which is based on X-ray interaction cross sections and material densities. Thickness for Pb-shielding possessing highest attenuation (99.99%) for 75 keV and 85 keV X-rays are 3 mm and 4 mm respectively. Hence, shielding thickness about 5 mm is used to cover the experimental table. Again, introducing a source collimator (diameter = 8 mm, length = 35 mm) between the X-ray target (source) and the sample, the incoherent scattered radiation due to air in the path of the beam and the multiple reflection from the chamber as well as from the detector inserting tube can be suppressed. An extra energetic and intense X-ray line was observed at about 44.5 keV using a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector (Detector Systems GmbH (DSG), Germany). This contamination line is not an escape peak (PbKGeK) and can be suppressed using 8 mm Pb-collimator between X-ray target and sample. The details of the designing, experimental setup, and its applications are discussed in the full paper.

  1. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270 MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRIS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  2. Development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technology at the Comenius University in Bratislava

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Masarik, Jozef; Ješkovský, Miroslav; Kaizer, Jakub; Šivo, Alexander; Breier, Robert; Pánik, Ján; Staníček, Jaroslav; Richtáriková, Marta; Zahoran, Miroslav; Zeman, Jakub

    2015-10-01

    An Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) laboratory has been established at the Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) at the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a MC-SNICS ion source, 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, and an analyzer of accelerated ions. The preparation of targets for 14C and 129I AMS measurements is described in detail. The development of AMS techniques for potassium, uranium and thorium analysis in radiopure materials required for ultra-low background underground experiments is briefly mentioned.

  3. The Dust Accelerator Facility of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    The NASA Lunar Institute's Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies has recently completed the construction of a new experimental facility to study hypervelocity dust impacts. The installation includes a 3 MV Pelletron, accelerating small particles in the size range of 0.1 to few microns to velocities in the range of 1 to 100 km/s. Here we report the capabilities of our facility, and the results of our first experiments.

  4. Installation, tests and start up of the Tandetron positive ions accelerator

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research acquired a Positive ions accelerator type Tandetron 2MV of the Dutch Company High Voltage Engineering, Europe B.V. (H.V.E.E.) which was installed in the building named Irradiator Nave which is occupied by the Gamma irradiator and the Pelletron accelerator. Starting from the accelerator selection it was defined the conditions required for the operation of this as well as: electric feeding, water quality and quantity, air compressed, temperature, humidity, etc.; as well as the necessary modifications of the installation area. (Author)

  5. A 3 MV tandem accelerator at Seville. The first IBA facility in Spain

    The first Spanish tandem accelerator, of the Pelletron type, has recently been installed at the University of Seville. The laboratory has been created with the aim to fulfill the increasing demand for ion beam analysis existing in Spain. The facility mainly consists of a 3 MV accelerator with two ion sources and a capacity of seven beam lines, which will be used for interdisciplinary studies such as material research and modification, arts, archaeology, biology, medicine, environmental sciences and so on. The laboratory and the first tests of the accelerator performance are described. (author)

  6. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    During the academic year of 1978 to 1979, the 12 UD pelletron tandem accelerator has operated successfully. Ion species used were polarized p, polarized d, α(from the polarized ion source), p, d, 16O and 18O (from the direct extraction ion source), and C, O, Cu and Au (from the sputtering ion source). Improvements were made in the detector and data acquisition system. The data handling system 'SHINE' was completed and is in full operation. Research works are reported in individual summaries under the following chapters: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments nuclear physics, atomic and solid-state physics, and biological and medical science and others. (Mori, K.)

  7. Approach to the open advanced facilities initiative for innovation (strategic use by industry) at the University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex

    The University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC) possesses the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator and the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator for University's inter-department education research. We have actively advanced collaborative researches with other research institutes and industrial users. Since the Open Advanced Facilities Initiative for Innovation by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology started in 2007, 12 industrial experiments have been carried out at the UTTAC. This report describes efforts by University's accelerator facility to get industrial users. (author)

  8. Installation, tests and start up of the Tandetron positive ions accelerator; Instalacion, pruebas y arranque del acelerador de iones positivos Tandetron

    Valdovinos A, M.A.; Hernandez M, V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research acquired a Positive ions accelerator type Tandetron 2MV of the Dutch Company High Voltage Engineering, Europe B.V. (H.V.E.E.) which was installed in the building named Irradiator Nave which is occupied by the Gamma irradiator and the Pelletron accelerator. Starting from the accelerator selection it was defined the conditions required for the operation of this as well as: electric feeding, water quality and quantity, air compressed, temperature, humidity, etc.; as well as the necessary modifications of the installation area. (Author)

  9. Recent developments in RF accelerators at IUAC

    The increasing demand for energetic ion beams and large beam currents has been the driving force behind various developments in accelerator technology in the country. Among them, the technology associated with superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities has generated a lot of interest among accelerator physicists in recent times and is witnessing rapid growth. Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) has been engaged in the indigenous development of SRF cavities for almost one and a half decades. During this period IUAC created the necessary infrastructure and successfully developed niobium cavities for its superconducting linac. The proposed high current injector (HCI) at IUAC aims to significantly increase the beam currents available from the HCI-Superconducting Linac combination. In addition, it will also provide beams of noble gases which are not available from the Pelletron accelerator. For the HCI, several room temperature RF structures are being developed. In addition, the HCI will also incorporate a superconducting low beta module, for which a new low beta niobium resonator has been designed and successfully prototyped. Apart from the in-house projects, IUAC has shared its expertise with other Indian laboratories for developing niobium cavities for a wide range of velocities. Recently a single spoke niobium resonator has also been successfully developed at IUAC as part of an international collaboration. This development will have significant impact on the indigenous programs also. This talk will present details of the various developments associated with RF accelerators at IUAC, especially highlighting the significant contributions made in SRF technology. (author)

  10. 9 CFR 102.5 - U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biological Product... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 102.5 U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License. (a) Authorization to produce each biological product shall be specified on a U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License, issued by...

  11. 32 CFR 701.25 - 5 U.S.C. 552, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 5 U.S.C. 552, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). 701.25 Section 701.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY...

  12. Induction charging device for the MGU NIIYaF electrostatic accelerator

    Operation principle for induction-type charging device set on the MGU NIIYaF electrostatic accelerator is presented. Design of units is described and main parameters of induction charging device (ICD) are given. Comparison of ICD with foreign charging devices of induction-type allows to speak about certain advantages of ICD. Current transfered by ICD transport unit is higher by several times than that of pelletron. ICD transport unit is comparable with laddetron according to value of transfered current. Weight of length unit of ICD transport part is however by 2-3 times less than that of laddetron. 6 refs.; 9 figs

  13. Ion beams and material science facilities using high current low energy 3.0 MV particle accelerator at NCAR, Bilaspur

    The national facility for interdisciplinary research using ion beams based on 3.0 MV Pelletron accelerator (9SDH, NEC) with high current TORVIS (for H, He ions) and SNICS (for heavy ions) sources, and two beam lines for ion beam analysis (IBA) and ion implantation/irradiation have been successfully commissioned at NCAR, Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur. The accelerator conditioning was done over a period of time to achieve desired level of terminal voltage and vacuum in the accelerator tank, 3.0 MV terminal voltage was achieved with chain currents 120 A and an applied charging voltage of 13 kV. The vacuum without beam acceleration was lower 10-8 torr on both sides of the Pelletron tank. Finally, the first beam demonstration was achieved when a proton beam accelerated with terminal potential of 0.965 MV was seen at the Au target in Ion Beam analysis (IBA) chamber, the energy at the Faraday cup (FC) just before the chamber was 0.5 eA. Details of the facilities tested and the results obtained so far will be discussed in the paper

  14. Unexpected accumulation of ncm(5U and ncm(5S(2 (U in a trm9 mutant suggests an additional step in the synthesis of mcm(5U and mcm(5S(2U.

    Changchun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfer RNAs are synthesized as a primary transcript that is processed to produce a mature tRNA. As part of the maturation process, a subset of the nucleosides are modified. Modifications in the anticodon region often modulate the decoding ability of the tRNA. At position 34, the majority of yeast cytosolic tRNA species that have a uridine are modified to 5-carbamoylmethyluridine (ncm(5U, 5-carbamoylmethyl-2'-O-methyluridine (ncm(5Um, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-uridine (mcm(5U or 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5s(2U. The formation of mcm(5 and ncm(5 side chains involves a complex pathway, where the last step in formation of mcm(5 is a methyl esterification of cm(5 dependent on the Trm9 and Trm112 proteins. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both Trm9 and Trm112 are required for the last step in formation of mcm(5 side chains at wobble uridines. By co-expressing a histidine-tagged Trm9p together with a native Trm112p in E. coli, these two proteins purified as a complex. The presence of Trm112p dramatically improves the methyltransferase activity of Trm9p in vitro. Single tRNA species that normally contain mcm(5U or mcm(5s(2U nucleosides were isolated from trm9Δ or trm112Δ mutants and the presence of modified nucleosides was analyzed by HPLC. In both mutants, mcm(5U and mcm(5s(2U nucleosides are absent in tRNAs and the major intermediates accumulating were ncm(5U and ncm(5s(2U, not the expected cm(5U and cm(5s(2U. CONCLUSIONS: Trm9p and Trm112p function together at the final step in formation of mcm(5U in tRNA by using the intermediate cm(5U as a substrate. In tRNA isolated from trm9Δ and trm112Δ strains, ncm(5U and ncm(5s(2U nucleosides accumulate, questioning the order of nucleoside intermediate formation of the mcm(5 side chain. We propose two alternative explanations for this observation. One is that the intermediate cm(5U is generated from ncm(5U by a yet unknown mechanism and the other is that cm(5U is formed

  15. Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA)

    A Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) has been established at the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics of the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a tandem laboratory designed for the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). The 3 MV Pelletron accelerator is a key feature of the equipment which will enable to carry out state of the art research in physical, environmental, material, biological and medical sciences in collaboration with leading European and world laboratories. The laboratory is further equipped with two ion sources - Alphatros (RF source for H and He ions) and MC-SNICS source (target wheel with 40 positions for solid targets), and low and high energy analyzers of ions (all equipment of National Electrostatics Corp., USA). We shall discuss in detail development of methods for analysis of 14C around nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice, and present results of temporal 14C variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide and in tree rings collected at the monitoring stations in Zlkovce and in Bratislava. (authors)

  16. Dating of some fossil Romanian bones by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Some fossil bones from Romanian territories have been dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using the pelletron system from Lund University. The preparation of samples has been the classical procedure to produce pure graphite from bones specimens, The Paleolithic site from Malu Rosu, near Giurgiu was thoroughly analyzed. Two human fossil skulls from Cioclovina and Baia de Fier of special archaeological importance have been estimated to be of around 30 000 years old, a conclusion with great implications for the history of ancient Romania. By this physical analysis, a long scientific dispute was settled. The two fossil human skulls are the only ones of this age from Romania. One could advance the hypothesis that the skulls belong to a certain type of a branch of Central European Cro-Magon, the classical western type, considering both the chronological and the anthropological features. They constitute eastern limit of the Cro-Magnon man type. (authors)

  17. The AMS [Accelerator Mass Spectrometer] program at LLNL

    Livermore will have an operational Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by mid-1989 as part of its new Multi-user Tandem Laboratory. The spectrometer was designed primarily for applications in archaeology and the geosciences and was co-funded by the University of California Regents. Radiological control for personnel protection, ion sources and injection systems, the tandem and all beam handling hardware are operated with a distributed processor computer control system. The Tandem is the former University of Washington injector FN which has been upgraded with Dowlish tubes, pelletron charging and SF6 gas. Design goals for the AMS system, computer aided operation, automated measurement capability, initial results and some of our intended applications will be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs

  18. Status of Tsukuba University tandem accelerator center

    Sasa, Kimikazu; Ishii, Satoshi; Oshima, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    Tandem Accelerator Center of Tsukuba University was established on 1974. The 12UD pelletron tandem accelerator started its operation on 1976. In 1999, the operation times of the accelerator and beam use times were 2905 and 2316 hours, respectively. The new electrostatic quadra-pole lens was installed on March 1999. On July 1999, troubles happened in corona needles under 11 MV conditioning. The 25 years old SF{sub 6} compressor was to meet regular overhauling. There were three types of ion sources; those were 1) sputter ion source for hydrogen and deuterium, 2) polarized ion source and 3) AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy) ion source. The operation time of sputter ion source took up 34% of total operation time. The operation time of the AMS ion source was approximately 6%. The time for experiments on nuclear physics took up 60%. However, the experiments on material physics using the AMS ion source were increasing. Developments of {sup 129}I measurement are scheduled on 2000. The 20% of the total operation time was dedicated to on terrestrial science as the higher priority research. There was a use for bachelor students in the summer school. The 1 MV tandetron started its operation on the fiscal year of 1999. We had two type of ion source; those were 1) sputter ion source and 2) duo-plasmatron ion source for He acceleration. There are 5 beam lines, in which RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and PIXE (Photon-Induced X-ray Emission) had been commissioned. The beam-line for micro-PIXE and others are under construction. The beam operation times were 225 hours in 1999, due to many troubles in duo-plasmatron cooling system and so on. On the other hand, many users are expecting experiments on crystal physics using He beams. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  20. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba

    The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was operated very stably through the period covered by this annual report. It was shut down for two weeks to inspect the SF6 gas transfer system. The construction of a heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H structure has been completed, and chlorine ions have been accelerated to 2 MeV per charge. Effort was exerted to develop radiation detectors and a polarimeter. A windowless Si(Li) X-ray detector for PIXE was constructed, and the K X-ray of oxygen was able to be detected with high efficiency. The use of incombustible gas for ionization chambers was tested to detect the heavy ions of low Z and low energy, and nitrogen was available. A time-zero detector for heavy ion mass identification using two microchannel plates and a more elaborate high efficiency gamma detection system with six NaI (Tl) detectors and two Ge(Li) detectors were constructed. VAX 11/750-VAX 11/780 computer system was installed. Most of the research works were conducted, using the beam from the Lamb-shift polarized ion source. The studies on fusion reaction using heavy ions have been continued. The accelerator and experimental facilities, and the researches in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biology and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  2. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  3. A single methyltransferase YefA (RlmCD) catalyses both m5U747 and m5U1939 modifications in Bacillus subtilis 23S rRNA

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Fabret, Céline; Brégeon, Damien;

    2011-01-01

    , YefA that is a COG2265 member. A recombinant version of YefA functions in an E. coli m(5)U-null mutant adding the same two rRNA methylations. The findings suggest that during evolution, COG2265 enzymes have undergone a series of changes in target specificity and that YefA is closer to an archetypical...

  4. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997

    The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam γ ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam {gamma} ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba

    The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated for seven years without serious trouble since the first beam was obtained in February, 1976. In the last year, the tank was opened five times for minor repair, but the operation of 3977 hours has been attained. The construction of a heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H type structure has been continued. The research works described in this report were carried out mainly using the beam from a Lamb-shift type polarized ion source or a sputtering ion source. To the Lamb-shift type polarized ion source, a fast spin-reversal system was newly added, and successfully tested. In the sputtering ion source, the beam intensity was increased. A combination of an ionization chamber and a position-sensitive solid state detector was tested to be used for the study on heavy ion nuclear reaction. The characteristics of avalanche along the anode wire in a gas counter were studied. The accelerator and experimental facilities, the development of experimental equipment, and the researches on nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biological and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba

    This annual report covers the work carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, during fiscal year 1984. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was operated very stably. In addition, the heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H structure has worked well, providing additional energy of 2 MeV per charge for heavy ions. The constructions of a new Lamb-shift polarized ion source, a multi-computer control system for the ion sources of the UTTA, an electrostatic inflection system of incident ions for the UTTA, a new beam bunching system, and a new SF6 gas handling system were under way. The development and performance test of various radiation detector systems were carried out. Two thirds of the research works were performed by using the beam from the Lamb-shift polarized ion source (PIS). A newly constructed fast spin state interchange control system for the PIS made polarization experiment more effective and accurate. The research activities in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biology and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  9. 14 CFR 1212.500 - Exemptions under 5 U.S.C. 552a (j) and (k).

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions under 5 U.S.C. 552a (j) and (k). 1212.500 Section 1212.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY.... 552a (j) and (k). (a) These provisions authorize the Administrator of NASA to exempt certain...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 197 - Explanation of Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Exemptions

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explanation of Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Exemptions A Appendix A to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197,...

  11. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    2010-07-01

    ... passport application with three signed pictures of the child. (2) The soldier may consult a legal... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.5 U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child...

  12. 46 CFR 42.03-5 - U.S.-flag vessels subject to the requirements of this subchapter.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-flag vessels subject to the requirements of this... LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-5 U.S.-flag vessels subject to the... solely Great Lakes voyages. (1) All U.S. flag vessels which engage in foreign voyages or...

  13. Verification of the sputter-generated 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Mane, R. G.; Surendran, P.; Kumar, Sanjay; Nair, J. P.; Yadav, M. L.; Hemalatha, M.; Thomas, R. G.; Mahata, K.; Kailas, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have performed systematic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements at our ion source test set up and have demonstrated that gas phase 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions for all size 'n' can be readily generated from a variety of surfaces undergoing Cs+ ion sputtering in the presence of high purity SF6 gas by employing the gas spray-cesium sputter technique. In our SIMS measurements, the isotopic yield ratio 34SFn-/32SFn- (n = 1-6) was found to be close to its natural abundance but not for all size 'n'. In order to gain further insight into the constituents of these molecular anions, ultra sensitive Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements were conducted with the most abundant 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions, at BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron accelerator. The results from these measurements are discussed in this paper.

  14. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  15. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  16. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  18. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    This annual report includes the research activities from April, 1995 to March, 1996. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully to provide sufficient beam time for experiments. The stable operation of the accelerator brought out steady advances in many investigations continued as long range projects. Those are polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, further refinement of continuum discretized coupled channels theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam γ ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion beams, Moessbauer effect, NMR, and the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE and accelerator mass spectrometry. As the new developments of experimental instruments, an ion source for micro-cluster beams and a pulsing system for low velocity cluster ions have been successfully constructed. A beam line producing proton micro-beam has been constructed. In this report, the accelerator and experimental facilities, the experiments and theories of nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, ion beam applications, publications, theses and seminars, and personnel are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  20. Accelerator mass spectrometry of the heaviest long-lived radionuclides with a 3-MV tandem accelerator

    Christof Vockenhuber; Robin Golser; Walter Kutschera; Alfred Priller; Peter Steier; Stephan Winkler; Vitaly Liechtenstein

    2002-12-01

    A 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator is the heart of the Vienna environmental research accelerator (VERA). The original design of the beam transport components allows the transport of ions of all elements, from the lightest to the heaviest. For light ions the suppression of neighboring masses was sufficient to measure isotopic ratios of 14C/12C and 26Al/27Al as low as 10-15 and 10Be/9Be down to 10-13. To suppress neighboring masses for the heaviest radionuclides in the energy range of 10–20 MeV, the resolution of VERA was increased both by improving the ion optics of existing elements at the injection side and by installing a new high-resolution electrostatic separator at the high-energy side. Interfering ions which pass all beam filters are identified with a Bragg-type ionization detector and a high-resolution time-of-flight system. Two ultra-thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils are used in the start and stop detector, which substantially reduces losses due to beam straggling. This improved set up enables us to measure even the heaviest long-lived radionuclides, where stable isobaric interferences are absent (e.g. 236U and 244Pu), down to environmental levels. Moreover, the advantage of a ‘small’ and well manageable machine like VERA lies in its higher stability and reliability which allows to measure these heavy radionuclides more accurately, and also a large number of samples.

  1. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  2. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  3. Status of tandem accelerator of TONO Earth Science Center

    Itoh, Shigeru; Xu, Sheng; Abe, Masahito; Watanabe, Masato; Ariga, Maki; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Tono Geoscience Center, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    On 1996, Tono Earth Science Center of JNC introduced the mass spectrometer tandem accelerator for isotope analysis of natural samples such as underground water and rocks. Facilities were 15SDH-2 pelletron type system made by NEC (Nihon Electric Company), Japan. Total beam generation times were 949 hours from April 1999 to January 2000. We made measurements on total 795 samples from November 1999 to April 2000 using the ion source for solid samples. Samples were IAEA calibration standards, oxalic acid of NIST (National Institute of Standards), CaCO{sub 3} from shells, BaCO{sub 3} and SrCO{sub 2} from underground water, CO{sub 2} from air, and organic samples from soils. Preliminary tests using the ion source for gaseous samples have been carried out. We have used NIST oxalic acid as a standard and an IAEA C1 sample as background. We have got the lower values in the case of IAEA C2, C3 and C7 samples. Accumulation of the data is needed to confirm accuracy. In addition, we are accepting samples from outside after September 1999. Major troubles are: breaks of pellet chain, sparks near terminals, and damages of rotating shaft. The troubles are already fixed. We are continuing operation to estimate accuracy in relation with careful initial treatment of samples. (Y. Tanaka)

  4. In-terminal ECR Ion Source of the Tandem Accelerator at JAERI

    Matsuda, M; Takeuchi, S

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS)s are able to produce intense beams of highly charged positive ions and used injection system for cyclotron, linac as well as experiments of atomic physics. The tandem accelerator system has been benefiting from use of an electron stripper at the high voltage terminal. The most probable charged state after a foil stripper is, however, much lower than the highest charge state of ions with an intensity of more than several emA from a high performance ECRIS. With respect to beam current, the life time of stripper foils decrease with increasing beam current. Especially for very heavy ions, it is difficult to obtain a stable and intense beam for a long time without foil exchange. Use of an ECRIS in a tandem accelerator is expected to increase beam intensity, beam energy and beam species. A small permanent magnet ECRIS has been installed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institu...

  5. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  7. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  8. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Specificity shifts in the rRNA and tRNA nucleotide targets of archaeal and bacterial m5U methyltransferases

    Auxilien, Sylvie; Rasmussen, Anette; Rose, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    Methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor to catalyze 5-methyl uridine (m(5)U) formation in tRNAs and rRNAs are widespread in Bacteria and Eukaryota, but are restricted to the Thermococcales and Nanoarchaeota groups amongst the Archaea. The RNA m(5)U methyltransferases...... appear to have arisen in Bacteria and were then dispersed by horizontal transfer of an rlmD-type gene to the Archaea and Eukaryota. The bacterium Escherichia coli has three gene paralogs and these encode the methyltransferases TrmA that targets m(5)U54 in tRNAs, RlmC (formerly RumB) that modifies m(5)U......, however, neither of the two P. abyssi enzymes displays RlmD-like activity in vitro. PAB0719 acts in a TrmA-like manner to catalyze m(5)U54 methylation in P. abyssi tRNAs, and here we show that PAB0760 possesses RlmC-like activity and specifically methylates the nucleotide equivalent to U747 in P. abyssi...

  10. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  11. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  12. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  13. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  14. The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats

    The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

  15. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  16. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    This is the fifth annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, as well as the third of the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project at the University of Tsukuba. It contains the short descriptions of the activities during the period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The 12 UD Pelletron has worked well and was utilized over 2900 hours as the time of beam on targets. The performance of the polarized ion source has been quite good, and it produced the beams of polarized protons and deuterons as well as of alpha particles. The sputter ion source (TUNIS) replaced the direct extraction duoplasmatron in most cases, and it produced the beams of isotopes of O, F, Si, Cl, Ni, Cu, etc., without gas injection. The construction of the second measuring room has been completed, and four beam courses are equipped with a general purpose scattering chamber, the devices for perturbed angular correlation, inner and outer shell ionization, and biological studies. The beam pulsing system was installed on the accelerator, and will be in operation soon. Further efforts have been made to develop detection and data processing systems. The examples of the recent researches mainly under the program of the NSSRP in various fields are enumerated. The exchange and collaboration with other institutions were active. (Kako, I.)

  17. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    During the academic year 1980 - 1981, the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator in UTTAC has experienced several troubles. The accelerator tank had to be opened six times including the scheduled overhaul. Due to these troubles, both the beam time and the chain operation time were reduced by 20% as compared with the preceding year. However, the beam pulsing system was completed, and pulsed beam has been in use. The polarized ion source and the sputter ion source have worked well. A heavy ion booster with interdigital H-structure was designed, and has been under construction. Special efforts have been exerted on the detectors and detector systems. The examples of the achievements mainly associated with the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project are enumerated as follows. The complete experiment on d-p system provided the data on nuclear three body problem. The information about the mechanism of two-nucleon transfer reaction (p,t) was obtained. The mechanisms of (p,p) and (p,d) reactions were clarified. The experiment on the measurement of the magnetic moment of β-emitting products with polarized beam began. The properties of very highly excited states were clarified by the study of heavy ion-induced reactions. A new model for heavy ion fusion reaction was proposed. The mechanism of inner shell ionization was clarified by passing heavy ions through solids. (Kako, I.)

  18. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    Salehpour, M.; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2016-03-01

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV 14,13,12C3+ ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the 14C/12C and the 13C/12C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  19. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998

    This report briefly described the investigations performed during the period from April 1997 to March 1998 in Tandem Accelerator Center. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was reconstructed and the first beam test was carried out in Nov. 1997. In nuclear physics, the measurement of total reaction cross sections, the non-resonant breakup of 7Li and 9Be, the investigation of hole states via (p,d) reaction, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam γ ray spectroscopy and the study of the three dimensional cranking model have been performed. In interdisciplinary fields, the development of AMS system has been continued. The trace element analysis of mineral samples has been carried out by means of PIXE with the proton beam which was focused on the sample as narrow as 50 μm2. The hydrogen analysis using H(19F,αγ) reaction has been started aiming at the extension of the measurement of depth profile down to a few tens of μm deep region. (M.N.)

  20. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report briefly described the investigations performed during the period from April 1997 to March 1998 in Tandem Accelerator Center. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was reconstructed and the first beam test was carried out in Nov. 1997. In nuclear physics, the measurement of total reaction cross sections, the non-resonant breakup of {sup 7}Li and {sup 9}Be, the investigation of hole states via (p,d) reaction, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam {gamma} ray spectroscopy and the study of the three dimensional cranking model have been performed. In interdisciplinary fields, the development of AMS system has been continued. The trace element analysis of mineral samples has been carried out by means of PIXE with the proton beam which was focused on the sample as narrow as 50 {mu}m{sup 2}. The hydrogen analysis using H({sup 19}F,{alpha}{gamma}) reaction has been started aiming at the extension of the measurement of depth profile down to a few tens of {mu}m deep region. (M.N.)

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry of ultra-small samples with applications in the biosciences

    Salehpour, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hakansson, Karl; Possnert, Goeran [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    An overview is presented covering the biological accelerator mass spectrometry activities at Uppsala University. The research utilizes the Uppsala University Tandem laboratory facilities, including a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator and two stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers. In addition, a dedicated sample preparation laboratory for biological samples with natural activity is in use, as well as another laboratory specifically for {sup 14}C-labeled samples. A variety of ongoing projects are described and presented. Examples are: (1) Ultra-small sample AMS. We routinely analyze samples with masses in the 5-10 {mu}g C range. Data is presented regarding the sample preparation method, (2) bomb peak biological dating of ultra-small samples. A long term project is presented where purified and cell-specific DNA from various part of the human body including the heart and the brain are analyzed with the aim of extracting regeneration rate of the various human cells, (3) biological dating of various human biopsies, including atherosclerosis related plaques is presented. The average built up time of the surgically removed human carotid plaques have been measured and correlated to various data including the level of insulin in the human blood, and (4) In addition to standard microdosing type measurements using small pharmaceutical drugs, pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data from a macromolecular drug candidate are discussed.

  2. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  3. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Institüt für Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10−7 torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10−10 torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  5. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  6. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  7. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  8. External PIGE-PIXE measurements at the Sao Paulo 8UD tandem accelerator

    An external PIGE-PIXE setup was installed on a beam line of the 8 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the Open Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LAFN). Proton beam energy was chosen in the 8-12 MeV range, sufficient to get an acceptable gamma ray yield but not so high as to prevent us from measuring X-rays. This also allowed the use of a thick aluminum exit window (0.5 mm) instead of the usual thin and sometimes fragile plastic windows. This external PIXE-PIGE system was used to analyze trace element concentrations in the enamel of human and animal teeth. The main interest was to find compatible human teeth substitutes for dentistry laboratory practice and chemical tests. In spite of their morpho-histological similarity, trace element concentrations in human and animal teeth have not yet been compared. Teeth from humans, cattle and swine collected primary at Sao Paulo region were analyzed. The elements Cu, K, Zn, Fe, Ti, Sr, V, Mn and Zr were detected by high energy external beam PIXE technique. Though preliminary, the results showed that the trace element concentrations observed in the enamel of human and swine are more similar to each other than to cattle teeth

  9. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  10. Dating of two paleolithic human fossils from Romania by accelerator mass spectrometry

    In this study, we have dated two human fossil remains from Romania by the method of radiocarbon using the technique of the accelerator mass spectrometry at the Pelletron system of Lund University, Sweden. Two fossil remains appear to be the most ancient human remains ever dated in our country: 1. A skull, a scapula and a tibia found in Baia de Fier in the Women's Cave, in Gorj county in the province Oltenia, by Constantin Nicolaescu-Plopsor in 1952; 2. A skull found in Cioclovina cave, near commune Bosorod, Hunedoara county in Transilvania by a worker at the exploitation of phosphate deposits in the year 1941. The skull was examined by Francisc Rainer, anthropologist, and Ioan Simionescu, geologist, who published a study. The lack of stratigraphic observations made very difficult the cultural and chronological assignments of this skull. These authors advanced the hypothesis that the skull belongs to the man of the type Homo sapiens fossilis. At the same time, a number of archaeologists believed that the skull might belong to a modern man, but there have been doubts about this matter. Under this circumstance, dating of the two skulls by physical analysis methods appears to be decisive. Samples of bone were taken from the scapula and tibia from Woman's cave, Baia de Fier and from the skull from Cioclovina cave. The content of Carbon 14 have been determined in the two samples by using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), performed at the AMS system of Lund University, in Sweden. Usually, the collagen amount sufficient for AMS measurements can be extracted from bone fragments with masses of 1 g or more (what provides 5 to 10% of the original collagen content). But, in the situation of the present studied fossil remains, because of the small quantity of bone samples and because the bones were very old, the determination of radiocarbon in the skulls was not so simple. For the preparation of the bone samples, we have essentially applied the Longin method

  11. The flavoprotein Mcap0476 (RlmFO) catalyzes m5U1939 modification in Mycoplasma capricolum 23S rRNA

    Lartigue, Carole; Lebaudy, Anne; Blanchard, Alain;

    2014-01-01

    Efficient protein synthesis in all organisms requires the post-transcriptional methylation of specific ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) nucleotides. The methylation reactions are almost invariably catalyzed by enzymes that use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as the methyl...... two homologs of trmFO, but surprisingly lacks the m5U54 tRNA modification. We created single and dual deletions of the trmFO homologs using a novel synthetic biology approach. Subsequent analysis of the M. capricolum RNAs by mass spectrometry shows that the TrmFO homolog encoded by Mcap0476...

  12. The direction of acceleration

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  13. High intensity hadron accelerators

    In this paper we give an introductory discussion of high intensity hadron accelerators with special emphasis on the high intensity feature. The topics selected for this discussion are: Types of acclerator - The principal actions of an accelerator are to confine and to accelerate a particle beam. Focusing - This is a discussion of the confinement of single particles. Intensity limitations - These are related to confinement of intense beams of particles. Power economics - Considerations related to acceleration of intense beams of particles. Heavy ion kinematics - The adaptation of accelerators to accelerate all types of heavy ions

  14. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  15. Improved plasma accelerator

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  16. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  17. Dielectric Laser Acceleration

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Wu, Ziran; Qi, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of particle acceleration using dielectric near-field structures driven by infrared lasers, which we refer to as Dielectric Laser Accelerators. Implications for high energy physics and other applications are discussed.

  18. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  19. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  20. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  1. Accelerators at school

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  2. A Solid state accelerator

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  3. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  4. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  5. Determination of 36Cl/Cl ratio in ground water using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) programme using the 14 MV Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has been initiated with major emphasis on the determination of 36Cl in water samples, of interest to hydrology and environment. In order to carry out the AMS measurement, a beam chopper to cut down beam intensity by a factor of 20 has been developed and commissioned. A multi-anode gas -si detector has been built to separate 36Cl from the interfering 36S. A new TPS system has been procured to operate the machine in the GVM mode. Standard and blank samples from Prime lab, Purdue have been employed in these measurements to standardise the technique for 36Cl/Cl ratio determination. The detector was calibrated using the stable 35,37Cl ions. The background 36Cl in the system has been measured using the blank sample from Purdue and it was estimated that the ratio of 36Cl/Cl was of the order of 10-13 in the present setup. Ground water samples collected from South India were converted to AgCl and put in the SNICS ion source for the AMS measurements. These ground water samples, with 14C content estimated to be in the range of 1 to 4 pMC indicate that the samples may be more than 35,000 years old. Using the AMS technique we have determined the 36Cl/Cl ratio values for these ground water samples. They are found to range between 2 to 5 x 10-12. Additional measurements are planned to determine the age of the water samples and to understand the reasons for the observed high values of 36Cl in these samples. (author)

  6. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  7. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  8. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  9. Far field acceleration

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  10. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  11. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  12. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  13. The future of particle accelerators

    Plasma-based accelerators are developing as credible, and compact, accelerators for the future. We review the status and prospects for electron and proton accelerators using laser Wakefield acceleration. (author)

  14. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  15. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  16. Accelerator and radiation physics

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  17. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  18. Accelerator reliability workshop

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  19. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  20. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  1. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  2. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: RF for Accelerators

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-fourth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held in Ebeltoft, Denmark, from 8-17 June, 2010 in collaboration with Aarhus University, with the topic 'RF for Accelerators' While this topic has been covered by CAS previously, early in the 1990s and again in 2000, it was recognized that recent advances in the field warranted an updated course. Following introductory courses covering the background physics, the course attempted to cover all aspects of RF for accelerators; from RF power generation and transport, through cavity and coupler design, electronics and low level control, to beam diagnostics and RF gymnastics. The lectures were supplemented with several sessions of exercises, which were completed by discussion sessions on the solutions.

  3. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  4. The foxhole accelerating structure

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons

  5. Japan Accelerator Conference

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  6. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T. [and others

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author).

  7. Superconducting accelerator magnets

    In the near future, a large number of high quality superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets will be required for construction of the next generation multi-TeV high energy hadron accelerator-colliders. To establish the construction technology of such accelerator- colliders, extensive and world-wide R and D programs are now carrying out at several laboratories. In this paper the important issues in superconducting accelerator magnets such as cables, design, fabrication, testing and cryogenic system are discussed together with some details on coil cross- sectional current configurations, quality control of materials, quench protections, radiation heating and etc. The key technology in superconducting accelerator magnets is summarized

  8. High-intensity accelerators

    The design of high-intensity accelerators is described, using examples of machines being built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major design problem with these accelerators is associated with control of beam loss when accelerator intensity is increased. Beam dynamics, beam loss, and the radio-frequency quadrupole structure are discussed in the first part of the chapter followed by an explanation of plans to achieve high-intensity operation in three projects: the Fusion Material Irradiation Tests (a joint effort with the Hanford Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington), the Proton Storage Ring (an addition to the LAMPF accelerator), and the Racetrack Microtron Project

  9. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  10. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  11. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry and the prehistoric occupation of the coast of rio de janeiro - brazil

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique is a very attractive method for mass spectrometry, since it allows determination of concentrations with sensitivity down to 1 atom of isotope in 1015 atoms, using few milligrams samples. A Tandem accelerator is used as a magnetic and electrostatic analyzer. The determination of these extremely low concentrations of rare isotopes, accelerated to the MeV range, is measured by the direct counting of the atoms by nuclear detection techniques. The AMS technique has been implemented recently in Brazil, at the Pelletron 8UD Tandem accelerator (Sao Paulo), following many improvements on the ion source, VGM control, machine parameters control and detection system. In this contribution we report an important application on AMS on archaeological studies, performed at the Prime Lab (USA), on the dating of ceramics, bones, charcoals, nuts and shells samples of the of the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The main objective of this work is to improve the present knowledge on the occupation of Brazil by the Indians in the prehistoric period, studying archaeological sites located in Rio de Janeiro. Studies show that the Brazilian coast was first occupied in the beginning of the Holocene, with the settlements of the collectors of mollusk, builders of shell mounds, called Sambaquis. The word is of Tupi etymology, tamba meaning shellfish and ki to pile up. The Tupi were a horticultural/potter group who used to live on the Brazilian coast at the time of the European arrivals; they coined the term that describes the main characteristic of the sites - the accumulation of great quantities of mollusk shells. One of objectives of this research is to understand those societies functioning structure, spatial ordering, interaction in the environment and their transformation processes, from the study of their remains. It is intended to analyze the region occupation process dynamics and search for possible links between the pre-pottery population socio

  13. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  14. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  15. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  16. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  17. Racetrack linear accelerators

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  18. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  19. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  20. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  1. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  2. KEK digital accelerator

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  3. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  4. Collinear wake field acceleration

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. Plasma based accelerators

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  6. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  7. Linear induction accelerator

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  8. Accelerator programme at CAT

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  9. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  10. The miniature accelerator

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  11. Collective ion acceleration

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed.

  12. Collective ion acceleration

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  13. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  14. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  15. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  16. The auroral electron accelerator

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  17. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  18. Accelerated simulated tempering

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method

  19. Accelerated simulated tempering

    Li, Yaohang; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Gorin, Andrey

    2004-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method.

  20. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  1. Entropic accelerating universe

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  2. Entropic accelerating universe

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  3. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  4. Auroral electron acceleration

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  5. The particle accelerator

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  6. Vibration control in accelerators

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  7. Acceleration of Logarithmic Convergence

    Gaskin, J. G.; Ford, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we shall give a characterization of all monotonically decreasing sequence of positive terms, whose sum converge and then introduce a Transformation which can be used to accelerate the convergence of a large class of logarithmically convergent series.

  8. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  9. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  10. Applicatons of accelerators

    The great diversity of possible applications of accelerators has been demonstrated in the past few years. Apart from the more familiar uses of accelerators for fundamental particle, nuclear, and solid state physics research, the applications range from microscopic trace analysis through cancer therapy to nuclear power and large volume radiation processing. Accelerators are also being used for applied research in proton radiography, radiation damage studies, laser excitation and materials analysis. The required beam properties vary from an extremely low emittance with very low beam current to megawatt beam power with a low level of beam spill. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories developments are underway on applications of accelerators to nuclear fuel breeding and to cancer therapy. (author)

  11. Non-accelerator experiments

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay

  12. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  13. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  14. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  15. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  16. Designing reliability into accelerators

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed

  17. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.

  18. Entropic Accelerating Universe

    Easson, Damien A.; Frampton, Paul H.; Smoot, George F.

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic...

  19. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Prošek T.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS) test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical p...

  20. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    This conference proceedings represent the results of theThird Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held in PortJefferson, New York. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy, the Office of Navel Research and BrookhavenNational Laboratory. The purpose was to assess new techniques forproduction of ultra-high gradient acceleration and to addressengineering issues in achieving this goal. There are eighty-onepapers collected in the proceedings and all have been abstractedfor the database

  1. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    Brief descriptions are given of DOE and Nuclear Physics program operated and sponsored accelerator facilities. Specific facilities covered are the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System, the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the proposed Continuous Beam Accelerator at Newport News, Virginia, the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory at Duke University, the Bevalac and the SuperHILAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Nuclear Physics Injector at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Texas A and M Cyclotrons, the Tandem/Superconducting Booster Accelerator at the University of Washington and the Tandem Van de Graaff at the A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Included are acquisition cost, research programs, program accomplishments, future directions, and operating parameters of each facility

  2. Multimegawatt cyclotron autoresonance accelerator

    Means are discussed for generation of high-quality multimegawatt gyrating electron beams using rf gyroresonant acceleration. TE111-mode cylindrical cavities in a uniform axial magnetic field have been employed for beam acceleration since 1968; such beams have more recently been employed for generation of radiation at harmonics of the gyration frequency. Use of a TE11-mode waveguide for acceleration, rather than a cavity, is discussed. It is shown that the applied magnetic field and group velocity axial tapers allow resonance to be maintained along a waveguide, but that this is impractical in a cavity. In consequence, a waveguide cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) can operate with near-100% efficiency in power transfer from rf source to beam, while cavity accelerators will, in practice, have efficiency values limited to about 40%. CARA experiments are described in which an injected beam of up to 25 A, 95 kV has had up to 7.2 MW of rf power added, with efficiencies of up to 96%. Such levels of efficiency are higher than observed previously in any fast-wave interaction, and are competitive with efficiency values in industrial linear accelerators. Scaling arguments suggest that good quality gyrating megavolt beams with peak and average powers of 100 MW and 100 kW can be produced using an advanced CARA, with applications in the generation of high-power microwaves and for possible remediation of flue gas pollutants. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Accelerators for America's Future

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  4. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  5. Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, annual report 1998. April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999

    The operation of the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerators was very stable until December 12, 1998. A total beam time for experiments is 2383 hours. This report describes the activities at Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba in fiscal year 1998. The 32 reports are presented in the 4 categories; that are (1) Accelerator and Experimental Facilities (7 reports), (2) Nuclear Physics (12 reports), (3) Atomic and Solid State Physics, and Cluster Science (10 reports), (4) Ion Beam Application (3 reports). New development of experimental instruments were made on a proton polarimeter at very low energies, a detector of atomic cluster at low velocity, a long focal-plane position sensitive detector, and a liquid-helium-free superconducting solenoid for an Ecr ion source. In the field of nuclear physics, progresses were made in proton total-reaction cross sections, the continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) theory, (d, αX) reactions, 7Li breakup reactions, hole states via (p, d) reaction, and nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam γ ray spectroscopy. New approaches were initiated on the precise measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering to search for magnetic monopole, and on perturbed angular correlations to measure nuclear g-factors in the pico second region. The investigation of ion-induced secondary electron is made in the binary-encounter electron emission from crystalline and non crystalline targets. An applicability of ion-induced Auger electrons to structure analysis was also demonstrated. An experiments of Br and I ions opened a new approach to the study of structural defects in amorphous silica. The study of deuteron implantation into silicon single crystal resulted in an interpretation of macroscopic migration. Microscopic migration was investigated on some metals. In atomic cluster physics, angular distributions of several noble-gas ions were measured to derive a new interaction potential. Mass spectra of semiconductor and 3d

  6. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  7. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  9. Relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    There is a growing interest in the scientific community in the use of accelerators to produce relativistic heavy ion beams for a number of purposes. It now appears that relativistic heavy ion collisions may provide an opportunity to study nuclear matter far from equilibrium density, pressure, and temperature. Heavy ion beams can also be used as simulated cosmic rays for astrophysical research and in planning space probes. At present the only relativistic heavy ion accelerator is the Belvalac at LBL. It has been devoted to this use since 1974. The operating experience and capabilities of this machine are reviewed as well as present and planned experimental programs. Designs of accelerators for relativistic heavy ions are discussed. A number of considerations will cause a machine to differ from a proton machine if optimally designed for heavy ion acceleration. A possible set of parameters is presented for an accelerator to produce intense beams of mass 10 to 200 ions, at energies up to 10 GeV/amu

  10. High energy plasma accelerators

    Colinear intense laser beams ω0, kappa0 and ω1, kappa1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 1018 cm-3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed