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Sample records for 5r-thymine glycol lesion

  1. Association of thymine glycol lesioned DNA with repair enzyme endonuclease III-molecular dynamics study

    The 2 nanoseconds molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been performed for the system consisting of repair enzyme and DNA 30-mer with native thymine at position 16 replaced by thymine glycol (TG) solvated in water environment. After 950 picoseconds of MD the enzyme and DNA associated together to form complex that lasted stable up to 2 ns when simulation was terminated. At the contact area of enzyme and DNA there is glutamic acid located as close as 1.6 A to the C3' atom of phosphodiester bond of TG. Initial B-DNA molecule was bent and kinked at the TG during MD. This distortion caused that phosphodiester bond was easier accessible by amino acids of enzyme. The negative value of electrostatic energy (-26 kcal/mol) discriminates TG from nearly neutral native thymine and contributes to the specific recognition of this lesion. Higher number of close water molecules at TG site before formation of complex (compared with other nucleotides) indicates that glycosyl bond of the lesion is easily approached by repair enzyme during scanning of DNA surface and suggests the importance of specific hydration at the lesion during recognition process. (author)

  2. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. ...

  3. Brisk Demand of Neopentyl Glycol

    2007-01-01

    @@ Neopentyl glycol (NPG) is an important chemical raw material. It is mainly used to produce saturated polyester resin for powder coatings,unsaturated polyester resin, polyester polyols, esters for synthetic lubricants, plasticizers and alkyd resins.

  4. Photorespiratory glycolate-glyoxylate metabolism.

    Dellero, Younès; Jossier, Mathieu; Schmitz, Jessica; Maurino, Veronica G; Hodges, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Photorespiration is one of the major carbon metabolism pathways in oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms. This pathway recycles 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG), a toxic metabolite, to 3-phosphoglycerate when ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) uses oxygen instead of carbon dioxide. The photorespiratory cycle is in competition with photosynthetic CO2 fixation and it is accompanied by carbon, nitrogen and energy losses. Thus, photorespiration has become a target to improve crop yields. Moreover, during the photorespiratory cycle intermediate metabolites that are toxic to Calvin-Benson cycle and RuBisCO activities, such as 2-PG, glycolate and glyoxylate, are produced. Thus, the presence of an efficient 2-PG/glycolate/glyoxylate 'detoxification' pathway is required to ensure normal development of photosynthetic organisms. Here we review our current knowledge concerning the enzymes that carry out the glycolate-glyoxylate metabolic steps of photorespiration from glycolate production in the chloroplasts to the synthesis of glycine in the peroxisomes. We describe the properties of the proteins involved in glycolate-glyoxylate metabolism in Archaeplastida and the phenotypes observed when knocking down/out these specific photorespiratory players. Advances in our understanding of the regulation of glycolate-glyoxylate metabolism are highlighted. PMID:26994478

  5. Glycolate transporter of the pea chloroplast envelope

    The discovery of a glycolate transporter in the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast envelope is described. Several novel silicone oil centrifugation methods were developed to resolve the initial rate kinetics of [14C]glycolate transport by isolated, intact pea chloroplasts. Chloroplast glycolate transport was found to be carrier mediated. Transport rates saturated with increasing glycolate concentration. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) pretreatment of chloroplasts inhibited transport, an inhibition prevented by glycolate. Glycolate distributed across the envelope in a way which equalized stromal and medium glycolic acid concentrations, limiting possible transport mechanisms to facilitated glycolic acid diffusion, proton symport or hydroxyl antiport. The effects of stomal and medium pH's on the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ fit the predictions of mobile carrier kinetic models of hydroxyl antiport or proton symport (H+ binds first). The carrier mediated transport was fast enough to be consistent with in vivo rates of photorespiration. The 2-hydroxymonocarboxylates, glycerate, lactate and glyoxylate are competitive inhibitors of chloroplast glycolate uptake. Glyoxylate, D-lactate and D-glycerate cause glycolate counterflow, indicating that they are also substrates of the glycolate carrier. This finding was confirmed for D-glycerate by studies on glycolate effects on [1-14C]D-glycerate transport

  6. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    Leadon, S A

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing rad...

  7. Drying poly(ethylene glycol)

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Lucas Kinard, Kurtis Kasper & Antonios Mikos ### Abstract This protocol describes the drying of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by a simple 6 step procedure. One can implement this protocol using common lab glass and lab equipment. Water is removed from PEG by azeotropic distillation in toluene. The two components are mixed and toluene and water are distilled off by heating the solution to 170°C. This procedure can be implemented in ~2 h. ### Introduction In many ...

  8. The world of DNA in glycol solution.

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2016-05-23

    The properties of high-molecular-weight DNA are usually investigated in neutral aqueous solutions. Strong acids and strong alkaline solutions are obviously unsuitable, as are corrosive solvents, and DNA is insoluble in most organic solvents; precipitation of DNA from aqueous solution with ethanol or isopropanol is therefore frequently used as a purification step. An exception is the organic solvent glycol (ethylene glycol, 1,2-ethanediol, dihydroxyethane, HOCH2CH2OH) and the similar solvent glycerol. Double-stranded DNA remains soluble in salt-containing glycol, although it precipitates in polyethylene glycol. (DNA also remains soluble in formamide, but the double-helical structure of DNA is much less stable in this solvent than in glycol.) However, DNA in glycol has been little investigated during the last half-century. PMID:27211487

  9. Ethylene glycol, hazardous substance in the household.

    Patocka, Jirí; Hon, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment. PMID:20608228

  10. Review of glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents used in the coating industry.

    Smith, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide-based glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have been used in the coatings industry for the past fifty years. Because of their excellent performance properties (evaporation rate, blush resistance, flow-out and leveling properties, solubility for coating resins, solvent activity, mild odor, good coupling ability, good solvent release) a complete line of ethylene oxide-based solvents of various molecular weights has been developed. These glycol ether and glycol ether ester...

  11. A DNA glycosylase from human lymphoblasts that releases cis-thymine glycol from oxidized DNA

    An endonuclease (termed the UVX endonuclease) partially purified from cultured human leukemic lymphoblasts (CEM-CCRF line) was previously shown to act specifically on DNA irradiated by ionizing radiation, UV light, or treated with osmium tetroxide. This activity is tightly associated with an endonuclease specific for apurinic /apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA, suggesting that the initial attack on the radiation or oxidation induced lesions is by a DNA glycosylase that generates such AP sites. Thymine glycol has been shown to be a product common to γ-irradiated and oxidized DNA and in the present studies the authors have shown that the UVX endonuclease releases free cis-thymine glycol from osmium tetroxide treated DNA. HPLC analysis of the reaction products failed to detect any cis-thymidine glycol or nucleotide material indicating that the activity responsible is truly a DNA glycosylase. This enzyme thus resembles Endonuclease III of E. coli which contains both AP endonuclease and thymine glucol-DNA glycosylase activities

  12. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  13. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    Leadon, S A

    1987-06-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Thymine glycols were detected using a monoclonal antibody against this product in a sensitive immunoassay. We found that thymine glycols were produced in DNA in a dose dependent manner after exposure to the carcinogens and that their production was reduced if either catalase or superoxide dismutase or both were present at the time of treatment. The efficiency of thymine glycol production following exposure to the chemical carcinogens was greater than that following equi-toxic doses of radiation. Thymine glycols were efficiently removed from the DNA of human cells following treatment with either the chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light. PMID:3477281

  14. Ultrasonic studies of liquid mixtures of either water or dimethylsulfoxide with ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and 1,4-butylene glycol at 298.15 K

    Tsierkezos, Nikos; Palaiologou, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2009), s. 447-459. ISSN 0031-9104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : binary mixtures * glycols * thermochemical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2009

  15. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating. PMID:23064775

  16. Periodontal bone lesions

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  17. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO2. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 40C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of [14C] glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability

  18. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    2010-04-01

    ... is generally recognized as safe (except in cat food) when used in accordance with good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  20. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  1. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  2. Anaerobic treatment of glycol contaminated wastewater for methane production

    Agbalakwe, Ekene

    2011-01-01

    Glycols are usually used in the offshore gas industry as hydrate inhibitor in gas pipelines laid deep under the sea. Glycols, in its use, are contaminated by dissolved salts from formation water together with scaling and corrosion products from the pipeline. This results to generation of wastewater containing glycols. Anaerobic treatment may represent an alternative to the aerobic treatment of glycol wastewater. Laboratory-scale studies were carried out to investigate the treatability of glyc...

  3. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Hyunok Choi; Norbert Schmidbauer; John Spengler; Carl-Gustaf Bornehag

    2010-01-01

    Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE) in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samp...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether... REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.4440 Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. (a) Identification of test substance. (1) Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME, CAS No. 112-35-6) shall be tested...

  6. Lesion activity assessment

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  7. Triphasic Computed Tomography Enterography with Polyethylene Glycol to Detect Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastases to the Small Bowel

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Wu, Chin-Chu; Lin, Yu-Min; Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Enteroclysis was first used to diagnose small bowel obstruction in 1996. However, nasojejunal intubation required during enteroclysis causes discomfort to the patient. Triphasic computed tomography (CT) enterography, a noninvasive procedure that does not require intubation, was found to be an efficient method to diagnose small bowel lesions. We describe our experience of using triphasic CT enterography with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the ...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene......

  9. Metabolism of glycolate in mitochondria of Euglena gracilis

    Difference spectra taken at -1960C were given to confirm that glycolate oxidation by Euglena mitochondria is linked to the electron transport system with the production of ATP. In feeding experiments with 1-14C-glycolate on E. gracilis cells having glycolate dehydrogenase only in mitochondria, greater parts of the taken-up radioactivity were excreted as 14CO2 and greater parts of the remaining were distributed to the amino acid and protein fractions, mainly as glycine and serine. Presence of ammonium decreased 14CO2 evolution and augmented incorporation and distribution to protein of label. Exhaustion of nitrogen source stopped glycolate uptake. Deficiency of nitrogen source repressed glycolate hydrogenase most extensively among the enzymes involved in the glycolate pathway. The mechanism of regulation of the glycolate metabolism by nitrogen source is discussed. (auth.)

  10. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  11. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  12. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  13. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  14. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe3O4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g−1 and 131 emu g−1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  15. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spec...

  16. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618. ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  17. Improved streptococcal grouping antisera containing polyethylene glycol.

    George, J R; Ashworth, H; Facklam, R R; Harrell, W K; Palmer, D F

    1981-01-01

    Antisera to streptococcal groups A through G containing 4% polyethylene glycol 6000 were prepared and evaluated. Seventy strains of homologous and heterologous beta- and non-beta-hemolytic streptococci were included in the evaluation. Homologous reactions were determined against extracts prepared by four extraction methods: hot hydrochloric acid (Lancefield) extraction, autoclave extraction, hot formamide extraction, and nitrous acid extraction. Enhancement of the precipitin reaction in the p...

  18. Hydration of polyethylene glycol-grafted liposomes.

    Tirosh, O; Barenholz, Y; Katzhendler, J; Priev, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of polyethylene glycol of 2000 molecular weight (PEG2000) attached to a dialkylphosphatidic acid (dihexadecylphosphatidyl (DHP)-PEG2000) on the hydration and thermodynamic stability of lipid assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry, densitometry, and ultrasound velocity and absorption measurements were used for thermodynamic and hydrational characterization. Using a differential scanning calorimetry technique we showed that each molecule of PEG...

  19. Polyethylene glycolated PAMAM dendrimers-Efavirenz conjugates

    Pyreddy, Suneela; Kumar, Pandurangan Dinesh; KUMAR, PALANIRAJAN VIJAYARAJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The preparation of novel PEGylated PAMAM (poly-amidoamine) dendrimers for delivery of anti-HIV drug Efavirenz is reported. Method and Materials: About 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers are prepared by ethylene diamine core via Michael addition by divergent method. PEGylation is done by polyethylene glycol 600 using epichlorhydrin as linker. PEGylated 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers loaded with Efavirenz (EFV) are evaluated for FTIR, DSC, SEM, drug release, and stability studies. Results and Conclusion: From...

  20. Biocompatible and target specific hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles.

    Yin, Wei; Li, Weiyi; Rubenstein, David A; Meng, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Atherosclerosis is a major cause for cardiovascular diseases. Drugs that treat atherosclerosis usually act nonspecifically. To enhance drug delivery specificity, the authors developed a hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan (HGC) nanoparticle that can specifically target activated endothelial cells. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward red blood cells and platelets was evaluated through hemolysis, platelet activation, platelet thrombogenicity, and platelet aggregation assays. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward vascular endothelial cells was evaluated by their effects on endothelial cell growth, metabolic activity, and activation. The results demonstrated that HGC nanoparticles did not cause hemolysis, or affect platelet activation, thrombogenicity, and aggregation capability in vitro. The nanoparticles did not impair vascular endothelial cell growth or metabolic activities in vitro, and did not cause cell activation either. When conjugated with intercellular adhesion molecular 1 antibodies, HGC nanoparticles showed a significantly increased targeting specificity toward activated endothelial cells. These results suggested that HGC nanoparticles are likely compatible toward red blood cells, platelets, and endothelial cells, and they can be potentially used to identify activated endothelial cells at atherosclerotic lesion areas within the vasculature, and deliver therapeutic drugs. PMID:27126597

  1. Reversible focal splenial lesions

    Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

  2. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  3. POLYMERIZATION OF ETHYLENE METHYL PHOSPHATE IN THE PRESENCE OF SODIUM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)ATE

    Jie Wen; Ren-xi Zhuo; Lu Wang

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ethylene methyl phosphate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene methyl phosphate) triblock copolymers carrying hydroxyl group at both chain ends were synthesized with sodium poly(ethylene glycol)ate as initiator. The effects of the factors such as solvent, amount of the initiator and reaction time were investigated. The copolymers were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 1H{31p}-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P{1H}-NMR, and DSC. High molecular weight of the copolymer and high yield of the polymerization were achieved within 3 min at 25℃. The polymerization process was studied by 31P{1H}-NMR and transesterification was found during longer polymerization time.

  4. Thermodynamics of solvation in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve

    Highlights: • Experimental values of limiting activity coefficients in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve are reported. • Gibbs free energy versus enthalpy of solvation plots show the presence of the solvophobic effects in studied solutions. • The solvophobic effect in propylene glycol is as strong as in methanol. • The solvophobic effect in methyl cellosolve is rather weak and can be compared to that in butanol. - Abstract: Limiting activity coefficients of low-polar substances: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, and halobenzenes in two solvents, propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve, were measured at temperature T = 298.15 K using gas chromatographic headspace analysis technique. The Gibbs free energies of solvation were calculated from these data and analyzed together with the enthalpies of solvation for the same systems. It was shown that the Gibbs free energies of solvation in propylene glycol are significantly lower than in its homologue ethylene glycol, and in methyl cellosolve they are lower than in propylene glycol. This difference is mainly due to the solvophobic effect, which strength is decreasing in the same order: ethylene glycol > propylene glycol > methyl cellosolve. The contribution of the solvophobic effect into the Gibbs free energies of solvation can be determined using a Gibbs free energy versus enthalpy of solvation plot. This contribution is shown to grow up linearly with the molecular volume of a solute in propylene glycol and methyl cellosolve, as well as in ethylene glycol and in monohydric alcohols

  5. Managing Carious Lesions

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L;

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...... caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or...... permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  6. Hypervascular liver lesions.

    Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

    2009-10-01

    Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

  7. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  8. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.

    Dugard, P H; M. Walker; Mawdsley, S J; Scott, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous "receptor" phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by...

  9. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger; Garvey, Lene H

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...... perioperative setting, contained in a wide range of products seldom suspected of causing hypersensitivity reactions and thus rarely documented in surgical/anesthetic records. We suggest routine testing for PEGs after perioperative anaphylaxis because exposure to these polymers often is significant....... Comprehensive brand name documentation on the anesthetic chart of all product exposures is central to identifying the responsible allergen....

  10. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ fra skibsvragene. Kun i overfladen fandtes PEG med molekylvægte 4000, og det blev fastslået, at en såkaldt tailing (forårsaget af lave PEG molekylvægte (

  11. Detection of DNA damage: effect of thymidine glycol residues on the thermodynamic, substrate and interfacial acoustic properties of oligonucleotide duplexes.

    Yang, F; Romanova, E; Kubareva, E; Dolinnaya, N; Gajdos, V; Burenina, O; Fedotova, E; Ellis, J S; Oretskaya, T; Hianik, T; Thompson, M

    2009-01-01

    Thymidine glycol residues in DNA are biologically active oxidative molecular damage sites caused by ionizing radiation and other factors. One or two thymidine glycol residues were incorporated in 19- to 31-mer DNA fragments during automatic oligonucleotide synthesis. These oligonucleotide models were used to estimate the effect of oxidized thymidines on the thermodynamic, substrate and interfacial acoustic properties of DNA. UV-monitoring melting data revealed that modified residues in place of thymidines destabilize the DNA double helix by 8-22 degrees C, depending on the number of lesions, the length of oligonucleotide duplexes and their GC-content. The diminished hybridizing capacity of modified oligonucleotides is presumably due to the loss of aromaticity and elevated hydrophilicity of thymine glycol in comparison to the thymine base. According to circular dichroism (CD) data, the modified DNA duplexes retain B-form geometry, and the thymidine glycol residue introduces only local perturbations limited to the lesion site. The rate of DNA hydrolysis by restriction endonucleases R.MvaI, R.Bst2UI, R.MspR9I and R.Bme1390I is significantly decreased as the thymidine glycol is located in the central position of the double-stranded recognition sequences 5'-CC / WGG-3' (W = A, T) or 5'-CC / NGG-3' (N = A, T, G, C) adjacent to the cleavage site. On the other hand, the catalytic properties of enzymes R.Psp6I and R.BstSCI recognizing the similar sequence are not changed dramatically, since their cleavage site is separated from the point of modification by several base-pairs. Data obtained by gel-electrophoretic analysis of radioactive DNA substrates were confirmed by direct spectrophotometric assay developed by the authors. The effect of thymidine glycol was also observed on DNA hybridization at the surface of a thickness-shear mode acoustic wave device. A 1.9-fold decrease in the rate of duplex formation was noted for oligonucleotides carrying one or two thymidine glycol

  12. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching; Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  13. Relations among traumatic subdural lesions.

    Lee, K. S.; Doh, J. W.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and subdural hygroma (SDG) occur in the subdural space, usually after trauma. We tried to find a certain relationship among these three traumatic subdural lesions in 436 consecutive patients. We included all subdural lesions regardless of whether they were main or not. We evaluated the distribution, age incidence and interval from injury to diagnosis of these lesions, and the frequency of new subdural lesions in each lesion. ASD...

  14. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  15. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  16. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    1997-01-01

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg nanc

  17. Glycolic acid synthesis during dark glucose U14C metabolism, in French Bean and Maize leaves

    Serine, glycerate and glycolate are among the first radioactive compounds when French Bean and Maize leaves are fed with glucose U14C. Failing to detect radioactive glycine suggests that glycolate so synthesized is unavailable for the photorespiration glycolate pool

  18. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Mittal A; Shenoi Shrutakirthi; Kumar K; Sharma PS

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  1. Millimetre wave rotational spectrum of glycolic acid

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Białkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-03-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm-1 have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1 , and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the ν21 mode is close to 100 cm-1. The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 °C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  2. Water potential of aqueous polyethylene glycol.

    Steuter, A A

    1981-01-01

    Water potential (Psiomega) values were determined for aqueous colloids of four molecular sizes of polyethylene glycol (PEG) using freezing-point depression and vapor-pressure deficit methods. A significant third-order interaction exists between the method used to determine Psiomega, PEG molecular size, and concentration. At low PEG concentrations, freezing-point depression measurements result in higher (less negative) values for Psiomega than do vapor-pressure deficit measurements. The reverse is true at high concentrations. PEG in water does not behave according to van't Hoff's law. Psiomega is related to molality for a given PEG but not linearly. Moreover, Psiomega varies with the molecular size of the PEG. It is suggested that the Psiomega of PEG in water may be controlled primarily by the matric forces of ethylene oxide subunits of the PEG polymer. The term matricum is proposed for PEG in soil-plant-water relation studies. PMID:16661635

  3. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  4. Preparation and Separation of Telechelic Carborane-Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Matějíček, P.; Uchman, M.; Lepšík, Martin; Srnec, Martin; Zedník, J.; Kozlík, P.; Kalíková, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2013), s. 528-535. ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GPP208/12/P236 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carboranes * click chemistry * poly(ethylene glycol) * quantum chemistry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  5. Hydrolytically and reductively degradable high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 24 (2007), s. 2642-2653. ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable * drug delivery systems * gene delivery vectors * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2007

  6. Demyelinative chiamal lesions.

    Spector, R H; Glaser, J S; Schatz, N J

    1980-12-01

    To clarify the clinical syndrome of demyelinative chiasmal involvement, six case histories were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. This entitity is characterized by especial predilection for women in the third to fifth decades; visual deficites of a chiasmal pattern that may be modest to marked, with a generallly good prognosis for functional recovery; and other signs and symptoms, not necessarily severe, of scattered lesions of the neuraxis. Neuroradiological studies, especially laminography of the sellar area and computerized tomography, must be employed to rule out a suprasellar mass lesion. The efficacy of systemic corticosteroid therapy is moot, but it seems reasonable to use such agents during acute stages, especially where vision is severely reduced on both sides. PMID:7447764

  7. The localization of glycollate-pathway enzymes in Euglena.

    Collins, N; Merrett, M J

    1975-05-01

    Isolation of organelles from broken-cell suspensions of phototrophically grown Euglena gracilis Klebs was achieved by isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients. 2. Equilibrium densities of 1.23g/cm3 for peroxisome-like particles, 1.22g/cm3 for mitochondria and 1.17g/cm3 for chloroplasts were recorded. 3. The enzymes glycollate dehydrogenase, glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase, serineglyoxylate aminotransferase, aspartate-alpha-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, hydroxy pyruvate reductase and malate dehydrogenase were present in peroxisome-like particles. 4. Unlike higher plants glycollate dehydrogenase and glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase were present in the mitochondria of Euglena. 5. Rates of glycollate and D-lactate oxidation were additive in the mitochondria, and, although glycollate dehydrogenase was inhibited by cyanide, D-lactate dehydrogenase activity was unaffected. 6. Glycollate oxidation was linked to O2 uptake in mitochondria but not in peroxisome-like particles. This glycollate-dependent O2 uptake was inhibited by antimycin A or cyanide. 7. The physiological significance of glycollate metabolism in Euglena mitochondria is discussed, with special reference to its role in photorespiration in algae. PMID:1156408

  8. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  9. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 4. Alternating polyetheresteramides based on glycols (4NTglycol)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Polyetheresteramides (PEEAs) have been synthesised in the melt from 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and ethylene or propylene glycols. The ethylene glycols were ethylenediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol. The propylene glycols were 1,3-propanediol and the mixtures of 1

  10. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo; Rocca, Mara A; Miller, Andrew David; Schmierer, Klaus; Frederiksen, Jette; Gass, Achim; Gama, Hugo; Tilbery, Charles P; Rocha, Antonio J; Flores, José; Barkhof, Frederik; Seewann, Alexandra; Palace, Jacqueline; Yousry, Tarek; Montalban, Xavier; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  11. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A series

  12. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  13. Reduced expression of glycolate oxidase leads to enhanced disease resistance in rice

    Mawsheng Chern

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycolate oxidase (GLO is a key enzyme in photorespiration, catalyzing the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Arabidopsis GLO is required for nonhost defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae and for tobacco Pto/AvrPto-mediated defense responses. We previously described identification of rice GLO1 that interacts with a glutaredoxin protein, which in turn interacts with TGA transcription factors. TGA transcription factors are well known to participate in NPR1/NH1-mediated defense signaling, which is crucial to systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here we demonstrate that reduction of rice GLO1 expression leads to enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo. Constitutive silencing of GLO1 leads to programmed cell death, resulting in a lesion-mimic phenotype and lethality or reduced plant growth and development, consistent with previous reports. Inducible silencing of GLO1, employing a dexamethasone-GVG (Gal4 DNA binding domain-VP16 activation domain-glucocorticoid receptor fusion inducible system, alleviates these detrimental effects. Silencing of GLO1 results in enhanced resistance to Xoo, increased expression of defense regulators NH1, NH3, and WRKY45, and activation of PR1 expression.

  14. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  15. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  16. Synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalkylene glycols

    The results of syntheses of heat carrier oils based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) using suitable additives have been reported. Polyalkylene glycols have been prepared by heating diethylene glycol, propylene oxide, glycols, adipic acid and 2-ethyhexanol in the presence of KOH and stannyl octoate as catalyst in the molar ratio to give proper physical properties and viscosity-temperature index. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, as well as other specifications, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporization at 250 oC, 350 oC and changing the specifications after heating at 300 oC for 10 h have also been investigated. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers

  17. Measurement of diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue

    Genin, Vadim D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied ex vivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue ex vivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  18. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  19. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  20. Study of genital lesions

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  1. Molar heat capacities of some aqueous (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol + glycol) systems

    Highlights: ► The molar heat capacities for several aqueous (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol + glycol) systems were measured. ► The glycols considered were ethylene glycols and propylene glycols. ► The temperature studied was (30 to 70) °C. ► The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. ► The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. - Abstract: A new set of molar heat capacity data for aqueous {2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (TRIS) + glycol} at (30 to 80) °C and different concentrations (4% to 16% by weight TRIS or 56% to 44% by weight water, in a fixed amount of glycol – 40% by weight) were gathered via reliable measurement method and are presented in this report. The glycols considered were diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), tetraethylene glycol (T4EG), propylene glycol (PG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), and tripropylene glycol (TPG). The 198 data points gathered fit the equation, Cp = Cp,a + B1m + B2m2 + B3m3, where Cp and Cp,a are the molar heat capacities of the (TRIS + glycol + water) and (water + glycol) systems, respectively, Bi the temperature-dependent parameters, and m the mole TRIS per kilogram (glycol + water). The overall average absolute deviation (AAD) of the experimental data from the corresponding values calculated from the correlation equation was 0.07%.

  2. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, ...

  3. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Sharad J

    2013-01-01

    Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, posti...

  4. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  5. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  6. Mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants.

    Niessen, Markus; Thiruveedhi, Krishnaveni; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Kebeish, Rashad; Hirsch, Heinz-Josef; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate is an important reaction step in photorespiration. Land plants and charophycean green algae oxidize glycolate in the peroxisome using oxygen as a co-factor, whereas chlorophycean green algae use a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH) with organic co-factors. Previous analyses revealed the existence of a GDH in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGDH). In this study, the contribution of AtGDH to photorespiration was characterized. Both RNA abundance and mitochondrial GDH activity were up-regulated under photorespiratory growth conditions. Labelling experiments indicated that glycolate oxidation in mitochondrial extracts is coupled to CO(2) release. This effect could be enhanced by adding co-factors for aminotransferases, but is inhibited by the addition of glycine. T-DNA insertion lines for AtGDH show a drastic reduction in mitochondrial GDH activity and CO(2) release from glycolate. Furthermore, photorespiration is reduced in these mutant lines compared with the wild type, as revealed by determination of the post-illumination CO(2) burst and the glycine/serine ratio under photorespiratory growth conditions. The data show that mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants. This indicates the conservation of chlorophycean photorespiration in streptophytes despite the evolution of leaf-type peroxisomes. PMID:17595195

  7. A glycolate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Bari, Rafijul; Kebeish, Rashad; Kalamajka, Rainer; Rademacher, Thomas; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2004-03-01

    The fixation of molecular O2 by the oxygenase activity of Rubisco leads to the formation of phosphoglycolate in the chloroplast that is further metabolized in the process of photorespiration. The initial step of this pathway is the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Whereas in higher plants this reaction takes place in peroxisomes and is dependent on oxygen as a co-factor, most algae oxidize glycolate in the mitochondria using organic co-factors. The identification and characterization of a novel glycolate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana is reported here. The enzyme is dependent on organic co-factors and resembles algal glycolate dehydrogenases in its enzymatic properties. Mutants of E. coli incapable of glycolate oxidation can be complemented by overexpression of the Arabidopsis open reading frame. The corresponding RNA accumulates preferentially in illuminated leaves, but was also found in other tissues investigated. A fusion of the N-terminal part of the Arabidopsis glycolate dehydrogenase to red fluorescent protein accumulates in mitochondria when overexpressed in the homologous system. Based on these results it is proposed that the basic photorespiratory system of algae is conserved in higher plants. PMID:14966218

  8. Ethylene- and diethylene glycol metabolism, toxicity and treatment

    Each year numerous men and domestic animals suffer from ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning. The present approach to treating EG poisoning by administering ethanol is aimed at preventing the oxidation of EG to glycolate, the toxic mediator. When treatment is delayed or the amount of EG consumed is large, successful treatment is rarely obtained, since the concentration of glycolate becomes excessive. In an effort to develop a better approach to treating EG poisoning, studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pig liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as a means of enzyme therapy in male rats receiving EG. Pig liver GAO was active in vitro in rat blood, oxidizing glycolate to glyoxylate. When injected intravenously into male rats, GAO had an approximate half-life of twenty five minutes and its elimination followed first order kinetics. Despite activity in vitro, native pig liver GAO did not display detectable activity in vivo. Diethylene glycol (DEG) when ingested also results in toxicity. The metabolism and toxicity of DEG was investigated in male Wistar rats using [14C]-DEG synthesized from [U-14C]-EG and ethylene oxide and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. (2-Hydroxyethoxy)acetic acid (HEAA) was identified as the major product of DEG oxidation. These results suggest that the treatment of DEG poisoning should follow the same regimen as treatment for EG poisoning

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  10. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher

  11. [Determination of ethylene glycol in biological fluids--propylene glycol interferences].

    Gomółka, Ewa; Cudzich-Czop, Sylwia; Sulka, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Many laboratories in Poland do not use gas chromatography (GC) method for determination of ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol in blood of poisoned patients, they use non specific spectrophotometry methods. One of the interfering substances is propylene glycol (PG)--compound present in many medical and cosmetic products: drops, air freshens, disinfectants, electronic cigarettes and others. In Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology and Drug Monitoring in Krakow determination of EG is made by GC method. The method enables to distinguish and make resolution of (EG) and (PG) in biological samples. In the years 2011-2012 in several serum samples from diagnosed patients PG was present in concentration from several to higher than 100 mg/dL. The aim of the study was to estimate PG interferences of serum EG determination by spectrophotometry method. Serum samples containing PG and EG were used in the study. The samples were analyzed by two methods: GC and spectrophotometry. Results of serum samples spiked with PG with no EG analysed by spectrophotometry method were improper ("false positive"). The results were correlated to PG concentration in samples. Calculated cross-reactivity of PG in the method was 42%. Positive results of EG measured by spectrophotometry method must be confirmed by reference GC method. Spectrophotometry method shouldn't be used for diagnostics and monitoring of patients poisoned by EG. PMID:24466683

  12. Sources of propylene glycol and glycol ethers in air at home.

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-12-01

    Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE) in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building's structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-VOCs (SVOCs), including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child's birth, and "newest" surface material in the child's bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m³) additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively. PMID:21318004

  13. Determination of glycols in air: development of sampling and analytical methodology and application to theatrical smokes.

    Pendergrass, S M

    1999-01-01

    Glycol-based fluids are used in the production of theatrical smokes in theaters, concerts, and other stage productions. The fluids are heated and dispersed in aerosol form to create the effect of a smoke, mist, or fog. There have been reports of adverse health effects such as respiratory irritation, chest tightness, shortness of breath, asthma, and skin rashes. Previous attempts to collect and quantify the aerosolized glycols used in fogging agents have been plagued by inconsistent results, both in the efficiency of collection and in the chromatographic analysis of the glycol components. The development of improved sampling and analytical methodology for aerosolized glycols was required to assess workplace exposures more effectively. An Occupational Safety and Health Administration versatile sampler tube was selected for the collection of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and tetraethylene glycol aerosols. Analytical methodology for the separation, identification, and quantitation of the six glycols using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection is described. Limits of detection of the glycol analytes ranged from 7 to 16 micrograms/sample. Desorption efficiencies for all glycol compounds were determined over the range of study and averaged greater than 90%. Storage stability results were acceptable after 28 days for all analytes except ethylene glycol, which was stable at ambient temperature for 14 days. Based on the results of this study, the new glycol method was published in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. PMID:10462779

  14. Mycetoma: Nonvenereal perineal lesions

    Gupta Shweta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma, which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh of mycetoma.

  15. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Gürol Açıkgöz; Çağlayan Çağdaş Demirci; Ercan Arca

    2012-01-01

    Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ...

  16. Cystic lesions of the liver

    Rosado, E.; J Pereira; Bouchaibi, S; Bali, M

    2014-01-01

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To present the CT and MRI features of the cystic liver lesions, with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. BACKGROUND: Cystic liver lesions are a frequent finding in abdominal imaging and may represent a broad spectrum of entities, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant neoplasms. Radiological features of various cystic liver lesions frequently overlap. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate imaging with clinical and laboratorial findings. The most imp...

  17. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Cristiane Tokunaga; Bruno Monguilhott Crozeta; Mariangela Schmitt Bonato; Beatriz Serrato Coelho; Flares Baratto-Filho; Flávia Sens Fagundes Tomazinho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the en...

  18. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  19. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  20. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  1. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    2010-07-01

    ... fixative to ensure that lung structure is maintained (perfusion with the fixative is considered to be an... lesions in control tissue shall also be noted. (ii) Reporting requirements. (A) The subchronic test shall.../day, 5 days/week for a 90-day period. (iii) Clearing and embedding. After dehydration,...

  2. [Secondary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning].

    Monet, C; Richard, E; Missonnier, S; Rebouissoux, L; Llanas, B; Harambat, J

    2013-08-01

    We report the case of a 3-year-old boy admitted to the pediatric emergency department for ethylene glycol poisoning. During hospitalization, he presented dysuria associated with crystalluria. Blood tests showed metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap. A renal ultrasound performed a few weeks later revealed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Urine microscopic analysis showed the presence of weddellite crystals. Secondary nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol intoxication was diagnosed. Hyperhydration and crystallization inhibition by magnesium citrate were initiated. Despite this treatment, persistent weddellite crystals and nephrocalcinosis were seen more than 2years after the intoxication. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the liver by successive oxidations leading to its final metabolite, oxalic acid. Therefore, metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap is usually found following ethylene glycol intoxication. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition may occur in several organs, including the kidneys. The precipitation of calcium oxalate in renal tubules can lead to nephrocalcinosis and acute kidney injury. The long-term renal prognosis is related to chronic tubulointerstitial injury caused by nephrocalcinosis. Treatment of ethylene glycol intoxication is based on specific inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and hemodialysis in the most severe forms, and should be started promptly. PMID:23827374

  3. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  4. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  5. IATROGENIC BILIARY LESIONS

    J. M. Schiappa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic bile duct injury carries a high rate of morbidity. After the introduction of laparoscopiccholecystectomy the incidence of these injuries has at least doubled, and even after the learningcurve, the incidence has remained of about 0.5%. Etiology of the iatrogenic biliary injuries is theresult of the anatomical conditions (biliary or vascular anomalies, pathology (acute cholecystitis,adhesions, technical equipment, surgeon (the lerning curve. The type of the injuries, thediagnostic procedures and therapeutic approach are discussed. Most of the minor bile duct injuries,including cystic duct leaks and bile duct strictures, are well treatable with endoscopic techniques,whereas most of the major injuries require operative treatment, which at optimal circumstancesgives good results. Interdisciplinary cooperation and early referral to an experienced center iscrucial in the management of these iatrogenic lesions. The best „treatment” for this iatrogenicpathology is prevention: surgical access adapted to morphology, good exposure of the hepatoduodenalspace, good identification of structures before tying, appropriate dissection, selectivecholangiography, great care with the use of electrosurgery.

  6. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    Fernandes Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations.

  7. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  8. Stability of glycol nanofluids -- the consensus between theory and measurement

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Witharana, Sanjeeva; Musina, Zenfira; Ding, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    Formulation of stable nanofluids containing ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and 50wt% mixtures of PG and EG in water (WPG, WEG) were investigated, with and without the presence of surfactants. Nanofluid samples of particle concentrations 1-9wt% were prepared by dispersive method. Surfactant presence was in the range of 0-1wt%/wt% of nanoparticles. Visual observation, particle size measurement and zeta potential analysis were performed to evalua...

  9. Green polymer chemistry VIII: synthesis of halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s via enzymatic catalysis.

    Castano, Marcela; Seo, Kwang Su; Kim, Eun Hye; Becker, Matthew L; Puskas, Judit E

    2013-09-01

    Halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) are successfully prepared by the transesterification of alkyl halo-esters with PEGs using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst under the solventless conditions. Transesterifications of chlorine, bromine, and iodine esters with tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether (BzTEG) are quantitative in less than 2.5 h. The transesterification of halo-esters with PEGs are complete in 4 h. (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy with MALDI-ToF and ESI mass spectrometry confirm the structure and purity of the products. This method provides a convenient and "green" process to effectively produce halo-ester PEGs. PMID:23877930

  10. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  11. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  12. Differential diagnosis of sacral lesions

    The authors reviewed the teaching files of Temple University Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and selected the best representative cases of various lesions of the sacrum. They selected the following lesions: metastasis, chondrosarcoma, chrodoma, plasmacytoma, giant cell tumor, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, osteoblastoma, ossifying fibroma, eosinophilic granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, sacrococcygeal teratoma, anterior meningocele, endodermal sinus tumor, and stress fracture. The authors illustrate, for each lesion, the likely age range, sights of predilection, likelihood of occurrence in the sacrum, and radiographic findings helpful in limiting the differential diagnosis. They demonstrate the value of bone scintigraphy in detecting, and CT in confirming, stress fractures of the sacrum

  13. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  14. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  15. Enzymatic remediated biodegradation of propylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate

    Meng, M.; Geelhaar, L.; Speedie, M.K. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans and Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus, which were selected from nitroglycerin (GTN) contaminated soil, have previously been shown to have denitrating ability on nitroglycerin. This abstract presents the investigation of the cell free extracts from both microorganisms for the degradation of another nitrate ester contaminant; propylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate (PGDN). This compound has been previously considered resistant to the biodegradation. In order to probe the pathway, the whole process was monitored by using [1-{sup 14}C]-PGDN as substrate and the intermediates were identified by HPLC and TLC chromatography. Long term biodegradation experiments have shown that the enzymes in the cytoplasm fraction of Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus and the membrane fraction of Enterobacter agglomerans convert PGDN successively into propylene glycol 1-mononitrate (1-PGMN) and propylene glycol 2-mononitrate (2-PGMN), and finally, propylene glycol. The capacity to achieve sequential and complete degradation of PGDN implies that it follows a similar mechanism to that observed in the GTN degradation. Cofactor requirements for PGDN breakdown have been studied, it was found that no dissociable, dialyzable cofactors are required.

  16. A radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens

    An assay capable of detecting circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens in amoebiasis is described. This assay utilised a radiolabelled affinity purified rabbit anti-E. histolytica antibody that had been depleted of antibodies that cross-react with human serum proteins, and a polyethylene glycol precipitation step. (Auth.)

  17. SYNTHESIS OF NiO NANOPARTICLES IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Desheng Ai; Xiaming Dai; Qingfeng Li; Changsheng Deng; Shinhoo Kang

    2004-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles with well-dispersed property were prepared via a wet chemical method in ethylene glycol (EG) without soluble polymer as a protective agent. The mechanism of chemical process was proposed based on color change during the experiment. The dispersion function of EG was discussed.

  18. Radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens

    Pillai, S.; Mohimen, A.; Mehra, S. (Calcutta Medical Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Kothari Centre of Gastroenterology)

    1982-12-17

    An assay capable of detecting circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens in amoebiasis is described. This assay utilised a radiolabelled affinity purified rabbit anti-E. histolytica antibody that had been depleted of antibodies that cross-react with human serum proteins, and a polyethylene glycol precipitation step.

  19. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods. PMID:23741644

  20. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  1. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined

  2. Traumatic lesions of pulmonary parenchyma

    Five cases of post-traumatic pulmonary lesions (contusion, laceration and hematoma) are presented. The pathophysiology, radiological aspects and differential diagnosis are reviewed. The benign evolution showing the absorption in short time, without medical interference is emphasized. (Author)

  3. MRI of Focal Liver Lesions.

    Albiin, Nils

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD). PMID:23049491

  4. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  5. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  6. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  7. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    Altmeyer Peter; Paech Volker; Thrandorf Christina; Sand Daniel; Sand Michael; Bechara Falk G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where su...

  8. Tetraethylene glycol thermooxidation and the influence of certain compounds relevant to conserved archaeological wood

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig; Egsgaard, Helge; Hvilsted, Søren; Shashoua, Yvonne; Glastrup, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was studied at 70 °C under dry air and nitrogen. Degradation products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). They were mono-, di- and tri-ethylene glycol, mono- and di-formates of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-ethylene glycol and...

  9. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  10. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  11. Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels Based on Branched Poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymers

    Velthoen, Ingrid W.; Tijsma, Edze J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Branched poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-PEG) block copolymers were synthesized from trifunctional PLLA and amine functionalized methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)s. The copolymers in water formed hydrogels that showed thermo-responsive behavior. The hydrogels underwent a gel to sol transitio

  12. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol...

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibria for glycols plus hydrocarbons: Data and correlation

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for seven binary glycol-hydrocarbon systems have been measured in the temperature range 32 degreesC to 80 degreesC and at the pressure 1 bar. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + heptane, methyleyclohexane (MCH) + hexane, propylene glycol (PG...

  14. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  15. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  16. Efficient utilization of pentoses for bioproduction of the renewable two-carbon compounds ethylene glycol and glycolate.

    Pereira, Brian; Li, Zheng-Jun; De Mey, Marjan; Lim, Chin Giaw; Zhang, Haoran; Hoeltgen, Claude; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    The development of lignocellulose as a sustainable resource for the production of fuels and chemicals will rely on technology capable of converting the raw materials into useful compounds; some such transformations can be achieved by biological processes employing engineered microorganisms. Towards the goal of valorizing the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulose, we designed and validated a set of pathways that enable efficient utilization of pentoses for the biosynthesis of notable two-carbon products. These pathways were incorporated into Escherichia coli, and engineered strains produced ethylene glycol from various pentoses, including simultaneously from D-xylose and L-arabinose; one strain achieved the greatest reported titer of ethylene glycol, 40g/L, from D-xylose at a yield of 0.35g/g. The strategy was then extended to another compound, glycolate. Using D-xylose as the substrate, an engineered strain produced 40g/L glycolate at a yield of 0.63g/g, which is the greatest reported yield to date. PMID:26711083

  17. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles

    It is shown that a ''nanofluid'' consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol% Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity

  18. Cystic parotid gland lesion evaluation

    We evaluated differential diagnoses of cystic parotid gland lesions and the efficacy of preoperative diagnosis. Of 191 parotid gland nodules resected between January 2003 and October 2008, 167 (87%) were benign and 24 (13%) malignant. Thirty-five parotid gland nodules whose components were almost cystic were enrolled in this study. All cystic lesions were retrospectively evaluated with respect to preoperative diagnostic examinations and histopathological confirmed diagnosis. Cystic components in surgical specimens were also evaluated histopathologically. The relationships with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathological confirmed diagnosis were studied. Of 35 cystic lesions, 11 were complete cystic masses and had no mural nodules, while remaining 24 were incomplete and had mural nodules. Histopathological examinations showed that 5 were nonneoplastic, 27 were cystic degenerations of benign tumors, and 3 were cystic degenerations of malignant tumors. In the 11 complete cysts, preoperative diagnosis could not be made using any modality, whether with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), salivary scintigraphy, or 67-gallium citrate scintigraphy. Of 24 incomplete cysts, only 9 cystic Warthin tumors were diagnosed correctly before surgery. Studies of cystic components in MRI and histopathology suggested that hemorrhagic degeneration of malignant tumors should be kept in mind for cystic lesions showing hemorrhagic portions. Cystic parotid gland lesions are difficult to diagnose correctly before surgery, but the evaluation of cystic components by MRI and FNAC is helpful in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  19. Synthesis and application of glycolic esters in methanol-gasoline as bifunctional additives

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, glycolic esters were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. It was found that the stability of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters' alkoxy group, and hexyl glycolic and octyl glycolic were found to be the most effective in various gasoline-methanol blends. Additionally, the glycolic esters can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively as well, and decyl glycolic is the most effective one. With these data, it can be concluded that the glycolic esters have the great potential to be used as bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. (author)

  20. Polyethylene glycol and contrast-enhanced MRI of Crohn's disease in children: preliminary experience

    To assess the ability of MRI to detect bowel abnormalities in children affected by Crohn's disease (CD). We studied 22 children (age range 8-18 years) referred to us with a known history of CD. MRI was carried out using a 1.5-T unit with a maximum gradient field strength of 16 mT and a phased-array body coil. The sequences performed were breath-hold coronal and axial T2-weighted, express fat saturation, followed by T1-weighted, spoiled gradient, fast fat saturation after IV injection of gadolinium chelate (0.3 mmol/kg) for contrast enhancement of the bowel wall. Bowel distension was achieved using oral administration of isosmotic polyethylene glycol solution. Ileo-colonoscopy was considered the gold standard for evaluation of superficial abnormalities and stenoses of the colon and terminal ileum. MRI findings of bowel-wall thickening, increased vascularisation and extramural involvement were compared with the findings using B-mode and Doppler US. Concordance between MRI and endoscopy, B-mode US and Doppler US findings was determined by the Kappa statistical method. Superficial lesions were not shown by MRI. MR enteroclysis easily detected stenoses, thickening and hyperaemia of bowel wall. Concordance of findings between MRI and endoscopy was 90% (K=0.79, substantial concordance). Concordance of findings between MRI and US concerning bowel-wall thickening and increased vascularisation was 95% (K=0.875, excellent concordance) and 80% (K=0.6, fairly good concordance), respectively. Our initial results show that MRI can detect intra- and extra-mural lesions of CD. The high concordance observed between MRI, endoscopy, US and Doppler US findings suggests that MRI is at least comparable for diagnostic capability with these techniques offering, thanks to multiplanar projections, an improved visualisation of the bowel without ionising radiation. (orig.)

  1. Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Kikuchi, Sakae

    Vapor pressures of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol are measured in the range of temperature from -10 to 60°C and concentration from 20 to 50wt%. In a low concentration range, the measured values of vapor pressure decrease according to the Raoult's law independent of temperature, while in a high concentration range, they show a trend to decrease towards the estimated values of freezing point with decreasing temperature. The following correlation equation is obtained for practical calculations on heating towers and the like. log(p/P0) = 5.351 - 6.4×10-4y + (1817 + 0.008y(y + 10))/(t + 240) where p, vapor perssure of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol [kPa] ; P0, atmospheric pressure [=101.325kPa] ; y, concentration [wt%] ; t, temperature [°C].

  2. Sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols by supported ruthenium catalysts

    Inmaculada Murillo Leo; Manuel Lopez Granados; Jose Luis Garcia Fierro; Rafael Mariscal

    2014-01-01

    Supported Ru catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation to evaluate the role of different oxide supports (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2) in sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols. X-ray diffraction, transmis-sion electron microscopy, hydrogen chemisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption were used to characterize the catalysts, which were active in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. The support affected both the physicochemical properties and cata-lytic behavior of the supported Ru particles. The characterization results revealed that the Ru/Al2O3 catalyst has a high surface acidity, partially oxidized Ru species on the surface, and a higher surface Ru/Al atomic ratio, which gave it the highest selectivity and yield to glycols.

  3. Thermal stability of collagen fibers in ethylene glycol.

    Miles, C A; Burjanadze, T V

    2001-03-01

    The mechanism that renders collagen molecules more stable when precipitated as fibers than the same molecules in solution is controversial. According to the polymer-melting mechanism the presence of a solvent depresses the melting point of the polymer due to a thermodynamic mechanism resembling the depression of the freezing point of a solvent due to the presence of a solute. On the other hand, according to the polymer-in-a-box mechanism, the change in configurational entropy of the collagen molecule on denaturation is reduced by its confinement by surrounding molecules in the fiber. Both mechanisms predict an approximately linear increase in the reciprocal of the denaturation temperature with the volume fraction (epsilon) of solvent, but the polymer-melting mechanism predicts that the slope is inversely proportional to the molecular mass of the solvent (M), whereas the polymer-in-a-box mechanism predicts a slope that is independent of M. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the denaturation temperature of collagen in different concentrations of ethylene glycol (M = 62) and the slope found to be (7.29 +/- 0.37) x 10(-4) K(-1), compared with (7.31 +/- 0.42) x 10(-4) K(-1) for water (M = 18). This behavior was consistent with the polymer-in-a-box mechanism but conflicts with the polymer-melting mechanism. Calorimetry showed that the enthalpy of denaturation of collagen fibers in ethylene glycol was high, varied only slowly within the glycol volume fraction range 0.2 to 1, and fell rapidly at low epsilon. That this was caused by the disruption of a network of hydrogen-bonded glycol molecules surrounding the collagen is the most likely explanation. PMID:11222308

  4. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Grover C; Reddu B

    2003-01-01

    Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%), melasma (36.5%), post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12%) and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%). A final evaluation done at 16 weeks rev...

  5. Micropallet arrays with poly(ethylene glycol) walls†‡

    Wang, Yuli; Salazar, Georgina To'a; Pai, Jeng-Hao; Shadpour, Hamed; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of releasable micropallets with surrounding walls of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were fabricated for the patterning and sorting of adherent cells. PEG walls were fabricated between the SU-8 pallets using a simple, mask-free strategy. By utilizing the difference in UV-transmittance of glass and SU-8, PEG monomer was selectively photopolymerized in the space surrounding the pallets. Since the PEG walls are composed of a cross-linked structure, the stability of the walls is independent of...

  6. Clickable Poly(ethylene glycol)-Microsphere-Based Cell Scaffolds

    Nguyen, Peter K.; Snyder, Christopher G.; Shields, Jason D.; Smith, Amanda W.; Elbert, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Clickable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives are used with two sequential aqueous two-phase systems to produce microsphere-based scaffolds for cell encapsulation. In the first step, sodium sulfate causes phase separation of the clickable PEG precursors and is followed by rapid geleation to form microspheres in the absence of organic solvent or surfactant. The microspheres are washed and then deswollen in dextran solutions in the presence of cells, producing tightly packed scaffolds that ...

  7. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  8. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol)

    Gian Maria Bonora; Francesca Cateni; Marina Zacchigna; Sara Drioli

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  9. Polyethylene glycol-assisted transfection of Streptomyces protoplasts.

    Suarez, J E; Chater, K F

    1980-01-01

    In the presence of polyethylene glycol (concentration optimum 20%), protoplasts of appropriate Streptomyces strains could be transfected by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of five temperate phages (phi C31, VP5, R4, phi 448, and S14) belonging to four different immunity groups. Quantitation of transfection was made possible by plating the transfection mixture with excess uninfected protoplasts in soft agar overlays on protoplast regeneration medium so that plaques were easily detected. Optimum fr...

  10. In vivo imaging of glycol chitosan-based nanogel biodistribution

    Pereira, Paula; Correia, Alexandra; Gama, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The preclinical development of nanomedicines raises several challenges and requires a comprehensive characterization. Among them is the evaluation of the biodistribution following systemic administration. In previous work, the biocompatibility and in vitro targeting ability of a glycol chitosan (GC) based nanogel have been validated. In the present study, its biodistribution in the mice is assessed, using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as a tool to track the nanogel over time, after...

  11. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  12. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    Kenan, S. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Klein, M.J. (Dept. of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Lewis, M.M. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  13. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m−3 for benzene, 3 mg m−3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m−3 for benzene and 6 g m−3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  14. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  15. Flexibilidad y lesiones de futbolistas

    Gocebate, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Cabe destacar que en deporte se requiere de una correcta preparación física y el caso del fútbol no es diferente a cualquier otro. Este es un deporte en equipo que genera un desgaste físico y mental en cada partido en el cual se pueden sufrir diferentes lesiones. Son varios los factores que predisponen a que se produzcan lesiones, por lo que es importante un correcto entrenamiento diario. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los niveles de flexibilidad de la cadena muscula...

  16. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  17. The Essex-Lopresti lesion

    Wegmann, K.; Dargel, J; Burkhart, K. J.; Brüggemann, G. P.; Müller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Essex-Lopresti lesion represents a severe injury of the forearm unit. In the 1940s, it’s pathology and consequences have already been mentioned by several authors. Over the course of time, the pathophysiology of the lesion was displayed in more detail. Therefore, an intensive analysis of the involved anatomic structures was done. The interosseous membrane was shown to play a major role in stabilising the forearm unit, in the situation of a fractured radial head, which is the primary stabi...

  18. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  19. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales

    Doyel, Crevecoer

    2015-01-01

    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  20. Effects of sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on endometrial carcinogenicity in Donryu rats.

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Sakamoto, Yohei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-06-01

    Sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) are known ovarian toxicants that stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion, resulting in hypertrophy of the corpora lutea and increased progesterone (P4) production. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the PRL stimulatory agents affected uterine carcinogenesis and to clarify the effects of PRL on endometrial adenocarcinoma progression in rats. Ten-week-old female Donryu rats were treated once with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (20 mg kg(-1) ), followed by treatment with sulpiride (200 ppm) or EGME (1250 ppm) from 11 weeks of age to 12 months of age. Sulpiride treatment inhibited the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, whereas EGME had no effect on uterine carcinogenesis. Sulpiride markedly prevented the onset of persistent estrus throughout the study period, and EGME delayed and inhibited the onset of persistent estrus. Moreover, sulpiride-treated animals showed high PRL and P4 serum levels without changes in the levels of estradiol-17β, low uterine weights and histological luteal cell hypertrophy. EGME did not affect serum PRL and P4 levels. These results suggest that the prolonged low estradiol-17β to P4 ratio accompanied by persistent estrous cycle abnormalities secondary to the luteal stimulatory effects of PRL may explain the inhibitory effects of sulpiride on uterine carcinogenesis in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26178146

  1. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  2. Ultrasound responsive block copolymer micelle of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol) obtained through click reaction.

    Li, Fayong; Xie, Chuan; Cheng, Zhengang; Xia, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    The well-defined amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) copolymer containing 1, 2, 3-triazole moiety and multiple ester bonds (PEG-click-PPG) was prepared by click reaction strategy. The PEG-click-PPG copolymer can self-assemble into spherical micelles in aqueous solution. It is found that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can open the copolymer PEG-click-PPG micelles and trigger the release of the payload in the micelle. The multiple ester bonds introduced in the junction point of the copolymer chain through click reactions were cleaved under HIFU, and leads to the disruption of the copolymer micelle and fast release of loaded cargo. The click reaction provides a convenient way to construct ultrasound responsive copolymer micelles with weak bonds. PMID:26703197

  3. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  4. Biodegradable mucus-penetrating nanoparticles composed of diblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Schneider, Craig; Zhong, Weixi; Pulicare, Sarah; Choi, Woo-Jin; Mert, Olcay; Fu, Jie; Lai, Samuel K.; Hanes, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Mucus secretions coating entry points to the human body that are not covered by skin efficiently trap and clear conventional drug carriers, limiting controlled drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. To overcome this challenge, we recently engineered nanoparticles that readily penetrate a variety of human mucus secretions, which we termed mucus-penetrating particles (MPP). Here, we report a new biodegradable MPP formulation based on diblock copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(ethy...

  5. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  6. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Gürol Açıkgöz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are classified under the macules/papules, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, physiological hyperpigmentation, melanosis and acanthosis nigricans are classified under the patch/plaque. Dermatoscopic examination, which is increasing recently, is very valuable for avoiding possible cosmetic and functional complications of surgical procedures. However, epidermal pigmentations such as vulvar melanosis and vulvar intraepitelyal neoplazi are dermatoscopically indistinguishable. It may also be difficult to diagnose vulvar melanoma clinically and dermatoscopically. Histological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pigmented vulvar lesions, which are clinically and dermatoscopically indistinguishable. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 39-44

  7. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  8. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  9. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  10. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  11. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  12. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  13. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Dong Wang; Yuhong Fan; Jianjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury.

  14. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  15. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Ethylene Glycol within Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid

    Heyob, K. M.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is a commonly used organic additive in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for shale gas recovery. Under aerobic conditions, this compound readily biodegrades to acetate and CO2 or is oxidized through the glycerate pathway. In the absence of oxygen, organisms within genera Desulfovibrio, Acetobacterium, and others can transform EG to acetaldehyde, a flammable and suspected carcinogenic compound. Acetaldehyde can then be enzymatically degraded to ethanol or acetate and CO2. However, little is known on how EG degrades in the presence of other organic additives, particularly under anaerobic conditions representative of deep groundwater aquifers. To better understand the fate and attenuation of glycols within hydraulic fracturing fluids we are assessing their biodegradation potential and pathways in batch anaerobic microcosm treatments. Crushed Berea sandstone was inoculated with groundwater and incubated with either EG or a synthetic fracturing fluid (SFF) containing EG formulations. We tracked changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), EG, and its transformation products over several months. Approximately 41% of bulk DOC in SFF is degraded within 21 days, with 58% DOC still remaining after 63 days. By comparison, this same SFF degrades by 70% within 25 days when inoculated with sediment-groundwater microbial communities, suggesting that bulk DOC degradation occurs at a slower rate and to a lesser extent with bedrock. Aerobic biodegradation of EG occurs rapidly (3-7 days); however anaerobic degradation of EG is much slower, requiring several weeks for substantial DOC loss to be observed. Ongoing experiments are tracking the degradation pathways of EG alone and in the presence of SFF, with preliminary data showing incomplete glycol transformation within the complex hydraulic fracturing fluid mixture. This research will help to elucidate rates, processes, and pathways for EG biodegradation and identify key microbial taxa involved in its degradation.

  16. Evaluation of an Industrial Byproduct Glycol Mixture as a Carbon Source for Denitrification

    Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet increasingly stringent total nitrogen limits, supplemental carbon must be added to improve the performance of the biological nutrient removal process. An industrial by-product that contained ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was used as a substitute carbon source for methanol in this study. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of using the glycol mixture as carbon source, including the calculation of denitrification rate and yield at two differen...

  17. The Soret effect of mono-, di- and tri-glycols in ethanol

    Klein, M.; Wiegand, S.

    2011-01-01

    We employed thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS) to investigate the chain length dependence of the thermal diffusion behavior of short glycols in ethanol. We studied three glycols, monoethylenglycol (MEG), diethylenglycol (DEG) and triethylenglycol (TEG), in an ethanol solution. In contrast to the polymer polyethylenglycol, the shorter glycols used within the framework of this study are completely soluble in ethanol, at least for low molar fractions. In order to guarantee a go...

  18. Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model

    Curtis, S.B.

    1983-07-01

    A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

  19. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  20. Glycol methacrylate in light microscopy: nucleic acid cytochemistry.

    Cole, M B; Ellinger, J

    1981-07-01

    Techniques utilizing Feulgen, azure B bromide, methyl green-pyronin, gallocyanin chromalum and cresyl violet stains have been modified and adapted for visualizing nucleic acids in 0.5-2.0 micrometer sections of tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate (GMA). Methods for evaluating the stain specificity for DNA and RNA using deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease digestions, aldehyde blocking, and acid extractions are also described. The specificity of the stains in GMA embedded tissues is comparable to that reported for paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:6167720

  1. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functional

  2. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  3. Effect of polyethylene glycol on characteristics of chitosan membranes

    Puthai, W.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG on characteristics of chitosan membranes. Parameters used for membrane characterization were hydraulic permeability (Lp, molecular weight cut off (MWCO, and membrane impedance (Z. The results obtained from LP and Z imply that larger a amount of PEG addition enhances membrane porosity and enlarges the pore size. The prepared membranes were ultrafiltration type, with MWCO slightly greater than 35 kDa. Membranes without PEG additioncould be nanofiltration type with Lp value of 0.4x10-11 m3 N-1 s-1, 10-20 times smaller than the other.

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  5. Implant periapical lesion. Case report

    Gregory Venetis, Fotis Iordanidis, Paraskevi Giovani, Lambros Zouloumis

    2011-01-01

    Ιmplant periapical lesion (IPL) is probably not a uniform entity in all cases presented in the literature. Asseptic bone necrosis may be a cause for some of the IPLs, whilst the presence of microorganisms is not always detectable with conventional methods. A case of IPL in a male patient who underwent an extraction of 12 tooth and an immediate implantation at this site is presented. Eight months postoperatively, an IPL was revealed on radiologic examination. After surgical exploration, the IP...

  6. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered ...

  7. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    Eicke, M.; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days ...

  8. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  9. Radiological diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    Among all the radiological examination techniques, CT is today, besides scintigraphy, the method of choice as far as the detection of functional adrenal lesions is concerned. In primary aldosteronism, CT classification of the syndrome is based on the detection of an adenoma which can be reliably detected in adenoma sizes up to 8-10 mm. Thus, 70 to 80% of Conn's syndromes can be classified. In adrenal Cushing's syndrome, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma of the adrenal gland is up to CT and can usually be easily made due to the characteristic morphology of each type of lesion. In case of a typcial adrenal or juxtaadrenal tumor location, detection of a pheochromocytoma is likewise easy. In ectopic and multiple pheochromocytomas or such as occur as part of a MEN-syndrome, the situation is quite different. If lesions of the adrenal gland are found by accident in examinations otherwise indicated, the question arises whether the process is malignant or benign. In this respect, all the traditional imaging methods, including CT, involve a considerable factor or uncertainity, especially if a malignant tumor is anamnestically known and the question of metastases arises. According to recent information, MR-imaging seems to be advantageous concerning this difficult differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid for bowel preparation in chronic kidney disease.

    Lee, Jae Min; Keum, Bora; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Kim, Myung Gyu; Jo, Sang Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The safety of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid has not been fully investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. High-dose ascorbic acid could induce hyperoxaluria, thereby causing tubule-interstitial nephritis and renal failure. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid in patients with chronic kidney disease.We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (n = 61) and 4 L polyethylene glycol (n = 80). The safety of the 2 groups was compared by assessing the differences in laboratory findings before and after bowel cleansing.The laboratory findings were not significantly different before and after the administration of 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 4 L polyethylene glycol. In both groups, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by the administration of the bowel-cleansing agent. Patients' reports on tolerance and acceptability were better in the 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid group than in the 4 L polyethylene glycol group.The 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid solution is a safe choice for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:27603372

  11. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields. - Highlights: ► Chitosan-g-poly(glycolic acid) copolymer was prepared without using a catalyst. ► Degradation rate of copolymer increased dramatically compared with that of chitosan. ► Degradation rate was controlled by the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. ► In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the copolymer has good biocompatibility. ► The copolymer has a great potential to meet diverse needs in biomedical fields

  12. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Pejić Miljko A.; Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other m...

  13. CLASSIFYING NODULAR LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    Sumit Bhateja

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of many lesions of the oral cavity is challenging to most cliniciansbecause of their uncommon prevalence. A number of cystic, osteodystrophic,microbial, tumor and tumor like lesions of the oral cavity are present withcharacteristic exophytic/raised surface; which makes their diagnosis and studysimpler. The present article is attempted at classifying the common nodular lesions ofthe oral cavity.

  14. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases. (orig.)

  15. Lytic clavicular lesions in fibromatosis colli

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Mochizuki, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Two patients with fibromatosis colli (congenital torticollis) presented with lytic lesions in the clavicle at the insertion of the fibrosed clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Biopsy of one lesion showed intraosseous fibrosis. These lesions are probably not uncommon but radiographs are rarely performed in uncomplicated cases.

  16. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (Td) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH2CH2O)nC18H37, C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. Td increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  17. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Xing-xiang, E-mail: zhangpolyu@yahoo.com.cn [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T{sub d}) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}C{sub 18}H{sub 37}, C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T{sub d} increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs.

  18. Stability of glycol nanofluids -- the consensus between theory and measurement

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Musina, Zenfira; Ding, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    Formulation of stable nanofluids containing ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and 50wt% mixtures of PG and EG in water (WPG, WEG) were investigated, with and without the presence of surfactants. Nanofluid samples of particle concentrations 1-9wt% were prepared by dispersive method. Surfactant presence was in the range of 0-1wt%/wt% of nanoparticles. Visual observation, particle size measurement and zeta potential analysis were performed to evaluate the dispersion stability. In overall the PG-based samples were found to be the most stable suspensions. The effect of base fluid on particle size and the effect of day light on nanofluid stability were also examined as a function of time. TiO2-PG samples showed a colour change when exposed to sunlight. Sunlight also caused the PG based TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluid to increase their particle sizes by up to 45% in the course of 3 days. As for stability, the sedimentation velocity was observed to be a key parameter. Finally b...

  19. Synthesis and properties of copper nanoparticles stabilized by polyethylene glycol

    The composite nanoparticles containing metallic copper and copper (I) oxide were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate with sodium borohydride in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The effect of reactant ratio and reaction time on the morphology and phase composition of the obtained nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis. It was shown that the factor which most greatly influences the particle size is the content of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the reaction mixture – with increasing PEG content average particle size determined by transmission electron microscopy, reduced from 22,0 to 14,0 nm. The reaction time and the ratio of copper sulfate and sodium borohydride have small effect on the average size and coherent scattering dimensions of nanoparticles formed. In accordance with the results of X-ray phase analysis in all cases the biphasic particles containing metallic copper and copper oxide (I) formed regardless of reaction condition. The relative content of Cu2O in samples varies from 11,5 to 44,1 wt. %. Among the samples obtained and researched the sample prepared at an equimolar ratio of copper sulfate and sodium borohydride has a special place. It is characterized by a high content of copper oxide (I), a bimodal distribution of particle size and the largest average particle size. (authors)

  20. Thermophysical properties of ethylene glycol mixture based CNT nanofluids

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Araújo, T. L. C. F.; Salles, G. C.; Santos, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Nanofluids are produced by dispersing nanometer-scale solid particles into base liquids such as water, ethylene glycol, etc. The thermal quadrupole method is utilized to determine the thermophysical properties of materials. By this technique, the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of different nanofluids containing the surfactants humic acid, sodium salt of humic acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated at room temperature and at 75 oC. Values of thermal diffusivity varying in the range from 9.60x10-8 m2s-1 to 1.46x10-7 m2s-1 and thermal conductivity from 0.26 Wm-1K-1 to 41 Wm-1K-1 were obtained. As main conclusions, it was noted that nanofluids exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics than the conventional heat transfer fluid and the thermal conductivity is enhanced by 50% for the nanofluid containing 0.0275 mg/mL of sodium salt of humic acid + ethylene glycol, at the temperature of 25 oC.

  1. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  2. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  3. Contribution to the study of some monoethers of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol: thermal degradation, effect on sodium, application to the destruction of contaminated sodium

    A study was made of the thermal behavior in an inert atmosphere, then in air, of a family of products very much used in industry. These are methyl, ethyl and n-butyl monoethers of ethylene glycol on the one hand and diethylene glycol on the other. Additionally, these compounds were used for studying the destruction of contaminated sodium waste. The study of the destruction of contaminated sodium waste was not restricted to the alcohol-sodium reaction alone, a controllable and non-polluting process was used, permitting the recycling of the organic product used. This study includes a first chapter in which are described the results relating to the pyrolysis and combustion in air of the ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol monoethers quoted and a second chapter in which the various stages of a contaminated metal sodium waste destruction loop are described

  4. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. CONCLUSIONS EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm

  5. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...... professionals, the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) recently proposed a classification of psychodermatological terms in order to establish a coherent use of terms across the medical fields involved. We reviewed current and previous psychodermatological diagnoses in order to clarify how...

  6. CLOUD POINT CURVES OF POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) / POLY(PROPYLENE GLYCOL) MIXTURES AND THEIR THERMODYNAMIC EXPLANATION

    SUN Ruona; CHAI Zhikuan

    1988-01-01

    In the study of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) mixtures not only a bimodal shape but also a reverse trend of the dependence on molecular weight of the cloud point curves were observed.This trend indicates that the miscibility of the studied mixtures decreases as the molecular weight of one component decreases. The excess volumes of the mixtures show that the interaction parameter between two components decreases at first and increases after passing a minimum as the concentration of one component increases. This supports the explanation of Koningsveld on the bimodal shape of cloud point curves. Based on a binary interaction model a formula was derived revealing that the interaction between PPG and the end group of PEG and the hydrogen bonding interaction between ether and hydroxy end group inner or inter PEG molecules are not favorable for mixing. The latter interaction is an "attractive" force in PEG molecules. The two interactions are responsible for the observed abnormal dependence.

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-12-28

    Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations. PMID:24144918

  8. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    Highlights: • γ13∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  9. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    Nagarjuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on the diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of ovarian lesions presented to Niloufer Hospital during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 14 years. The most common presenting symptom was an abdominal or pelvic mass. The most common ultrasound character of the non-neoplastic ovarian lesion was cystic whereas that of a neoplastic ovarian lesion was complex or mixed. Non neoplastic lesions were present in 22 patients. Neoplastic lesions were seen in 14 patients. CONCLUSION: Physiological or functional ovarian cysts are the commonest ovarian lesions seen in the paediatric age group. Ultrasonogram is accurate and very reliable in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic and malignant from benign ovarian lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions can be managed conservatively in about 40% of cases. Neoplastic lesions in children require a less radical approach in order to preserve ovarian function.

  10. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Wagholikar Gajanan D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  11. Mixed Micelles made of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Phosphatidylethanolamine Conjugate and D-α-tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate as Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers for Camptothecin

    Mu, L; Elbayoumi, T.A.; Torchilin, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    Micelles from the mixture of poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphatidyl ethanolamine conjugate (PEG-PE) and D-α-tocopheryl polyetheyene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were prepared loaded with the poorly soluble anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT). The solubilization of CPT by the mixed micelles was more efficient than with earlier described micelles made of PEG-PE alone. CPT-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage and dilution and firmly retained the incorporated drug. The cytotoxicity of the CP...

  12. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  13. Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.

    Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. PMID:16808995

  14. AN EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER: INTERIM FINAL POSITION PAPER

    In order to determine the merit of a petition to remove ethylene glycol ether (EGBE) from the Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) list, EPA has developed an interim final position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, t...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.6180 Section 721.6180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  16. Oxidative phosphorylation during glycollate metabolism in mitochondria from phototrophic Euglena gracilis.

    Collins, N; Brown, R H; Merrett, M J

    1975-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated by gradient centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients from broken cell suspensions of phototrophically grown Euglena gracilis. An antimycin A-sensitive but rotenone-insensitive glycollate-dependent oxygen uptake was demonstrated in isolated mitochondria. The partial reactions of glycollate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase were demonstrated by using Euglena cytochrome c as exogenous electron acceptor/donor. Isolated mitochondria contain glycollate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate-glutamate aminotransferase and oxidize exogenous glycine. A P:O ratio of 1.7 was obtained for glycollate oxidation, consistent with glycollate electrons entering the Euglena respiratory chain at the flavoprotein level. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to photorespiration in algae. PMID:813630

  17. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  18. Detection and quantitative determination of diethylene glycol in ethyl alcohol using gamma- ray spectroscopy.

    Udagani, Chikkappa; Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the toxic diethylene glycol contamination in ethyl alcohol demands a rapid, accurate and reliable method. Diethylene glycol (DEG) ingestion, accidental or intentional, can lead to death. Clinical and analytical methods used to detect diethylene glycol in alcohol require several hours to days due to tedious instrument handling and measurements. Enzymatic assays face difficulty due to analytic problems. As an alternative method of data analysis, we have used γ-ray spectroscopic method to estimate the diethylene glycol contamination in alcohol by monitoring the variation in the linear and mass attenuation coefficients. This method is simple, robust, portable and can provide reliable and quantitative information about the ethyl alcohol adulterated with diethylene glycol which is of broader interest to society. PMID:26243958

  19. Synthesis of Propargyl-Terminated Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol

    Wen Zhong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel propargyl-ended heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol (PEG derivatives with hydroxyl, carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide end groups were synthesized with simplicity yet high efficiency. PEG (Mw = 3500 Da with an α-hydroxyl group and an ω-carboxyl was used as the starting polymer. The carboxyl group of the bifunctional PEG was modified into a propargyl, then carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide groups were introduced to the other end of the bifunctional PEG by modifying the bifunctional PEG’s hydroxyl group with succinic anhydride, cysteamide or tert-butyl carbazate, respectively. This method can be useful to the development of PEG-based bioconjugates for a variety of biomedical applications.

  20. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Microencapsulated Polyethylene Glycol Particles

    2007-01-01

    The microencapsulated polyethylene glycol (PEG)with different molecular weight by a fluidized coating method has been prepared and the crystallization behaviors of PEG particles in three-dimensional confined volume were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement.The results showed that the width of the crystallization peak of PEG increases and its height gradually diminishes in case that the PEG particles are microencapsulated. Compared with the non-microencapsulated PEG particles, the proportion of the first crystallization peak of microencapsulated PEG particle increases, and that of the second one decreases. The reason for the difference maybe is that the crystallization process of microencapsulated PEG particles is uniform and the crystallization ends when the spherulites touch the wall,thus the opportunity of producing the second crystallization peak was relatively reduced.

  1. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  2. The effect of polyethylene glycol on shellac stability

    Khairuddin; Pramono, Edi; Budi Utomo, Suryadi; Wulandari, Viki; A'an Zahrotul, W.; Clegg, Francis

    2016-02-01

    The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) having amolecular weight of 1000 and 2000 on shellac stability has been investigated in this research. The shellac was shellac wax free, and the solvent was ethanol 96%. Shellac films were prepared by solventevaporationmethod. The stability of shellac was investigated using insoluble solid test, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Thermogravimetry Analyzer (TGA), and Water Vapour Transmission Rate (WVTR). The results showed that stability of shellac decreased after heating at 125oC for 10,30,90,and 180 minutes, and storing for 1 month at 27 oC and 85 relative humidity (RH). PEG improved the stability, and the most stable effect was achieved through PEG1000.

  3. Polyethylene glycol diffusion in ex vivo skin tissue

    Genin, V. D.; Tuchina, D. K.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weight 300 and 400 Dalton was studied ex vivo. The collimated transmittance was measured at the wavelength range 500-900 nm. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight, thickness and area of the samples decreased during PEG penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of PEG is discussed. Taking into account the kinetics of volume and thickness of the skin samples, diffusion coefficient of PEGs in skin tissue has been estimated as (1.83±2.22)×10-6 cm2/s and (1.70±1.47)×10-6 cm2/s for PEG-300 and PEG-400, respectively. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  4. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid

  5. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H2 and O2 plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H2 and O2 plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion

  6. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  7. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.; Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Shehee, T. C.; Washington, A. L.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similar to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The

  8. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  10. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  11. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    lone pairs of oxygen. The new association scheme also takes these sites into account. The new parameters of TEG are based on the vapor pressure data, liquid density data, and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data (n-heptane), and they are tested for binary systems (methane, n-octane, n-nonane, n......-decane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and water) and different types of phase equilibria (vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and LLE) and thermodynamic properties (heat of mixing, activity coefficients). A less extensive investigation has also been performed on tetraethylene glycol (TeEG) containing systems....... Similarly, a new seven-site association scheme for the TeEG molecule has been investigated. The new parameters of TeEG are based on vapor pressure data, liquid density data, and LLE data (n-heptane). The performance is similar to that the 4C scheme....

  12. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition...... of OEG thiol to monolayers of PEG thiol was followed using X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which indicated the time point of maximum graft density and beyond this time point there was predominant desorption of OEG thiol as indicated by the C/O ratio. The initial increase in graft density was...

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibria for reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol and reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol plus water

    Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2013-01-01

    The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemicals...... to ensure a constant and safe production. The CPA equation of state has been successfully applied in the past to well defined systems and gas condensates, containing associating compounds. It has also been extended to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals using modified...... correlations for critical temperature, pressure and acentric factor. This work presents new phase equilibrium data for binary MEG/reservoir fluid and ternary MEG/water/reservoir fluid systems, where two reservoir fluids from Statoil operated fields are used. The solubility data are reported over a range of...

  14. Radiologic aspects of the Galeazzi lesion

    In lesions of the forearm that included a fracture of the distal two thirds of the radial shaft, a concomitant disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint was found in 20 out of 38 cases. In 15 cases a typical Galeazzi lesion was present. Dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint frequently goes unrecognized. The clinical significance of a lesion in the distal radio-ulnar joint is related to its prognostic value. (orig.)

  15. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  16. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  17. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  18. EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER AND RELATED WORKERS HABITS IN AN INK FACTORY

    W. C. Lin, H. Y. Chang, F. H. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six workers from an ink factory were included in this study, in which, passive badge sampler and questionnaire interview were used to assess the concentrations of airborne exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether during work shifts and to understand the subjects' working habits. The geometric mean value (95% confidence interval of the airborne ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations was 0.12(0.08-0.19ppm, with a range of <0.02-1.82ppm. The exposure group was exposed to statistically significantly higher ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations than the control group (geometric mean value: 0.14vs. 0.03ppm; P=0.017. Some chromatograms showed that subjects were co-exposed to m-xylene, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. According to the completed questionnaires, subjects might also be exposed to 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, propylene glycol ethers, ethanol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, methanol and diisononyl phthalate. This study also suggests that, the Taiwan occupational time-weighted average level of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether be reconsidered with a view to being lowered.

  19. Evaluation of ElectrochemicalTreatment in Degradation of Wastewater Contaminated by Propylene Glycol

    M.R Talaiekhozani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Propylene glycol is applied in many industries as raw material and can be released to the environment through wastewater of such industries. The biological treatment of solutions containing high concentration of propylene glycol is difficult and some problems can be observed during this process. The main objective of this study was the investigation of electrochemical degradation of propylene glycol and the parameters influencing on improving removal efficiency."nMaterials and Methods: In this study the degradation of propylene glycol was made by passing an electrical current though the synthetic wastewater containing propylene glycol. In order to investigate this process several types of electrode with applied voltage ranging between 5 to 50 V was used. Due to the effect of NaCl concentration on removal efficiency which was mentioned in the literature, the experiment was performed for different NaCl concentrations."nResults: In optimum condition, the maximum removal efficiency of propylene glycol (based onCOD was obtained equal to 90%. The results showed that rising applied voltage, NaCl concentrationand retention time increase the removal efficiency. The optimum retention time was obtained equalto 50 min. The maximum removal was obtained when aluminum electrode was used. It can beattributed to the production of coagulant material such as Al+3 during this process."nConclusion: The results revealed that this process can be useful for treating the industrial wastewatercontaining propylene glycol.

  20. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  1. Vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants (glycols + water + salts)

    The vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants have been studied for temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 343.15) K. The mixed-solvent desiccants investigated were aqueous-organic systems with salt. The studied organic solvents were diethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and dipropylene glycol. The chosen salts were lithium chloride and lithium bromide. Six ternaries (glycol/water/salt) were selected for this study. For each ternary system, four systems of which (4-25) mass% salt mixed with various glycols (50-80) mass% were investigated. Incorporated with the pseudo-solvent approach, a vapour pressure model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions was used to represent the measured vapour pressure of glycol/water/salt systems. A simplified density equation was applied to model the measured density of glycol/water/salt systems. Satisfactory results were obtained for vapour pressure and density calculations. The vapour pressures of the aqueous-organic systems with salt yield smaller values of vapour pressures compared to the conventionally used liquid desiccants. The properties obtained and presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations, such as the design of dehumidifier process using mixed-solvent desiccants as absorbents.

  2. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  3. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  5. Study of Synthesis of Copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) by Direct Melt Polycondensation

    LAN Ping; GAO Qin-wei; SHAO Hui-li; HU Xue-chao

    2005-01-01

    A two steps direct copolymerisation process was developed. The first step is to produce oligomer and then the oligomer of lactic acid/glycolic acid (90/10) is polymerized with binary catalyst tin chloride dihydrate/ptoluenesulfonic acid. In this way, the direct synthesis of copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) without any organic solvent was investigated. The properties and structures of products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that comparatively high molecular weight copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid can be prepared by direct processing under appropriate technological conditions.

  6. Gastrointestinal Polypoid Lesions: The Albanian Reality

    Gentiana Cekodhima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal polypoid lesions are a well-known cause of possible future malignant lesions. Screening for these lesions, especially for colon polyps, has reduced morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors. To our best knowledge, no screening program on gastrointestinal polypoid lesions exists in Albania and no former study has been performed to check the distribution of these lesions. Therefore, our aim was to study the distribution of gastrointestinal polypoid lesions in a symptomatic outpatient population. Methods: This study included five hundred seventy five consecutive patients referred to perform an endoscopic examination, regardless of their specific complains and of their possible diagnosis, to one of the two Endoscopy Centers in Tirana in the period between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2013. At least one polyp was resected and histologically examined in all included patients. Results: A total of 575 patients, of which 345 males (60.0%, aged 51.9 years (standard deviation 16.97 years, were examined and their data inserted in the statistical analysis. In total, 88 cases were identified with malignant pathologies of which 50 cases (56.8% were males. No case of malignancy was diagnosed among the nine esophageal specimens, but among the specimens resected from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine, were respectively diagnosed 21 (20.0%, 9 (40.9% and 58 (13.2% malignant lesions. Patients with malignant lesions were older (57.4 ± 16.8 years old in contrast to those with benign lesions (50.5 ± 17.0 years old (p = 0.004. Conclusion: Our study is the first one to offer figures on the polypoid lesions distribution and characteristics in the Albanian population. Large intestine is the main site where such lesions occur, but anyhow the small intestine presented a larger proportion of malignancy.

  7. Simulating the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions

    Optimization performance of digital image post-processing techniques in mammography requires controlled conditions of data sets permitting quantitative representation of image characteristics of pathological findings. Digital test objects, although objective and quantitative, do not mimic mammographic appearance and clinical data sets do not provide adequate sets of values of the various pathological finding characteristics. This can be overcome by digital simulation of pathological findings and superimposition on mammographic images. A simple method for simulation of mammographic appearance of radiopaque and/or radiolucent circumscribed lesions is presented. Circumscribed lesions are simulated using grey-level transformation functions which shift and compress the range of the initial pixel grey-level values in a region of interest (ROI) of a digitized mammographic image, according to grey-level analysis in 200 ROIs of real circumscribed lesions from digitized mammographic images. Simulation addresses lesion image characteristics, such as elliptical shape, orientation, halo sign for radiopaque lesions and capsule for radiolucent lesions, and is implemented in a user-driven PC-based interactive application. The appearance of the lesions is evaluated by six radiologists on a sample of 60 real and 60 simulated radiopaque lesions with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve, pooling the responses of the observers, was 0.55±0.03 indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated lesions (p>0.05). The method adequately simulates the mammographic appearance of circumscribed lesions and could be used to generate circumscribed lesion data sets for performance evaluation of image processing techniques, as well as education purposes. (orig.)

  8. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  9. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pubmed, Hinari y Medline mediante el localizador de información Endnote, de ellos se utilizaron 52 citas selecciona-das para realizar la revisión, 48 de ellas de los últimos cinco años donde se incluyeron seis libros. Desarrollo: se discuten los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico clínico e imaginológico. Se aborda la clasificación de esta lesión en cuanto a varios aspectos como: tiempo, lesión de ligamentos u ósea, aislada o combinada y parcial o total. Se mencionan los parámetros para obtener resultados satisfac-torios al considerar factores como la edad del enfermo, lesiones asociadas y tiempo de la lesión. Se relacio-nan los requisitos para la selección del implante y se mostró las ventajas y desventajas de cada tipo de in-jerto. Las complicaciones de esta cirugía están relacionadas con la técnica quirúrgica y médicas. Conclusiones: las lesiones del ligamento son entidades traumáticas que afectan por lo general a pacientes jóvenes. Para lograr un resultado satisfactorio en el tratamiento es necesario el conocimiento de su anatomía, clasificación, tipo de injerto a emplear según sus ventajas y desventajas.

  10. Experimental Strategies to Bridge Large Tissue Gaps in the Injured Spinal Cord after Acute and Chronic Lesion.

    Brazda, Nicole; Estrada, Veronica; Voss, Christian; Seide, Klaus; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI) a scar forms in the lesion core which hinders axonal regeneration. Bridging the site of injury after an insult to the spinal cord, tumor resections, or tissue defects resulting from traumatic accidents can aid in facilitating general tissue repair as well as regenerative growth of nerve fibers into and beyond the affected area. Two experimental treatment strategies are presented: (1) implantation of a novel microconnector device into an acutely and completely transected thoracic rat spinal cord to readapt severed spinal cord tissue stumps, and (2) polyethylene glycol filling of the SCI site in chronically lesioned rats after scar resection. The chronic spinal cord lesion in this model is a complete spinal cord transection which was inflicted 5 weeks before treatment. Both methods have recently achieved very promising outcomes and promoted axonal regrowth, beneficial cellular invasion and functional improvements in rodent models of spinal cord injury. The mechanical microconnector system (mMS) is a multi-channel system composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS lumen thus pulling the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. After its implantation into the 1 mm tissue gap the tissue is sucked into the device. Furthermore, the inner walls of the mMS are microstructured for better tissue adhesion. In the case of the chronic spinal cord injury approach, spinal cord tissue - including the scar-filled lesion area - is resected over an area of 4 mm in length. After the microsurgical scar resection the resulting cavity is filled with polyethylene glycol (PEG 600) which was found to provide an excellent substratum for cellular invasion, revascularization, axonal regeneration and even compact remyelination in vivo. PMID:27077921

  11. Evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy as an indicator of hepatic function in domestic pigeons (Columba livia) before and after exposure to ethylene glycol.

    Hadley, Tarah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Rotstein, David S; Avenell, James S; Zagaya, Nancy; Jones, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess liver function in 14 white Carneaux pigeons (Columba livia). Liver scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin was performed and liver function was quantified using deconvolutional analysis and the area under the normalized heart time-activity curve as previously described in the dog and horse. Liver biopsies were performed in all birds before and after toxin-induced liver damage with ethylene glycol. Before the induction of liver disease, all biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of granulomatous inflammation. After ethylene glycol administration, hepatic lesions were scored and compared with scintigraphic findings. Scintigraphic results showed a significant decrease (P = 0.04) in hepatic function using the area under the normalized time-activity curve. There was good correlation between the overall histologic score posttoxin exposure and scintigraphic measures of liver function (P hepatic extraction as a measure of hepatic parenchymal cell function. The results also showed that worsening hepatic cellular function correlated with increased histologic damage to the liver. The use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin to determine liver function in pigeons has not been previously reported. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the application of this technique in clinical patients and to establish the sensitivity of this technique. PMID:17385376

  12. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  13. Transarterial chemoembolization of liver lesions

    Full text: TACE is an image-guided, non-surgical procedure that is used to treat malignant lesions in the liver (mostly hepatocellular carcinoma). the procedure uses a catheter to deliver both chemotherapy medication and embolization materials into the blood vessels that lead to the tumor. This allows doctors to treat tumors that are not accessible using conventional surgery or radiation treatments. TACE derives its beneficial effect by two primary mechanisms. Most tumors within the liver are supplied by the proper hepatic artery, so arterial embolization preferentially interrupts the tumor’s blood supply and stalls growth until neovascularization. Secondly, focused administration of chemotherapy allows for delivery of a higher dose to the tissue while simultaneously reducing systemic exposure, which is typically the dose limiting factor. this effect is potentiated by the fact that the chemotherapeutic drug is not washed out from the tumor vascular bed by blood flow after embolization. Effectively, this results in a higher concentration of drug to be in contact with the tumor for a longer period of time. We are presenting our experience with TACE

  14. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected. PMID:1579669

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON ARP AND MCU OPERATIONS

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Peters, T.; Shehee, T.

    2012-06-04

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similarly to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The presence of glycolate did not change the lack

  16. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna; Gouw, Alida A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Petrovic, Katja; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, Jose M; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Fazekas, Franz; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated samp...

  17. Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.

    Porter, Kristi M; Wieser, Friedrich A; Wilder, Catera L; Sidell, Neil; Platt, Manu O

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue on organs within the peritoneal cavity, causing debilitating abdominal pain and infertility. Current treatments alleviate moderate pain symptoms associated with the disorder but exhibit limited ability to prevent new or recurring lesion establishment and growth. Retrograde menstruation has been implicated for introducing endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity, but molecular mechanisms underlying attachment and invasion are not fully understood. We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26482207

  18. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  19. Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI

    Majed Almotairi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.

  20. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  1. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  2. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADCL/rADCF) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADCL /rADCF ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADCL /rADCF ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  3. Ethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole composite for supercapacitor

    Highlights: ► A novel EG-RGO/PPy composite for supercapacitor application is well constructed. ► The well-soluble GO was dispersed in aqueous polymerisable aniline monomer solution to form stable GO/PPy structure. ► The EG reduced RGO/PPy can retain the PPy conductive conjugative frameworks. ► The EG-RGO/PPy electrode exhibits superior electrochemical capability as supercapacitor electrode. -- Abstract: A promising supercapacitor material based on graphene/polypyrrole (PPy) has been successfully synthesized via in situ oxidation polymerization of pyrrole monomers in aqueous graphene oxide (GO) solutions, followed by chemical reduction using ethylene glycol (EG). Unlike the commonly employed hydrazine reduction, the moderate EG reductant does not destruct the PPy conjugative structures, thus facilitating utilization of the electroactive conductive polymer. The morphologies and the structures of the as-prepared materials are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). And the electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EG-RGO/PPy electrode shows large specific capacitance, high rate performance, and good charge–discharge stability as well. The excellent electrochemical capability is mainly accounted for the sound composite construction that improves the effective utilization of electroactive PPy component, accelerates shuttling the charged carriers, and alleviates the swelling/shrinkage of polymer chains

  4. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review.

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness of PEG's allergenic potential remains low, due to a general lack of suspicion towards excipients and insufficient product labelling. Information on immediate-type reactions to PEG is limited to anecdotal reports, and the potential for PEG sensitization and cross-sensitization to PEGylated drugs and structurally related derivatives is likely underestimated. Most healthcare professionals have no knowledge of PEG and thus do not suspect PEG's as culprit agents in hypersensitivity reactions. In consequence, patients are at risk of misdiagnosis and commonly present with a history of repeated, severe reactions to a range of unrelated products in hospital and at home. Increased awareness of PEG prevalence, PEG hypersensitivity, and improved access to PEG allergy testing, should facilitate earlier diagnosis and reduce the risk of inadvertent re-exposure. This first comprehensive review provides practical information for allergists and other healthcare professionals by describing the clinical picture of 37 reported cases of PEG hypersensitivity since 1977, summarizing instances where PEG hypersensitivity should be considered and proposing an algorithm for diagnostic management. PMID:27196817

  5. Solubility of sulphur dioxide in mixed polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the harmful effects of increased sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere, to select an appropriate solvent for the regenerable removal of sulphur dioxide from tail gas streams, to collect solubility data over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, and to correlate the results for use in the design of these facilities. Excess enthalpy and the partial molar enthalpies of solution/absorption and mixing were also calculated from the solubility data and were examined in the context of solubility enhancement and solvent-solute interactions. The effect of water on the solubility of sulphur dioxide was also investigated with a 6.04 mass per cent water solution. Overall results showed that the best solvents for sulphur dioxide have been those with a good donor ability. DMEPEG, a mixture of dimethyl ether polyethylene glycol has been recommended because it satisfies the criteria for a good sulphur dioxide removal solvent and because of the many other advantageous properties it has for regenerable sulphur dioxide removal. It was concluded that the solubility data, the correlated results and the calculated enthalpies of solution and mixing can be used in evaluating and designing a potential sulphur dioxide removal facility with DMEPEG. 77 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs., 1 appendix

  6. Air dehumidification by triethylene glycol desiccant in a packed column

    The performance of an air dehumidifier using triethylene glycol (TEG) as desiccant under hot and humid conditions was investigated. The performance of the dehumidifier was evaluated and expressed in terms of the moisture removal rate and the dehumidifier effectiveness. A packed bed column (dehumidifier) was employed, with low packing density (77 m2/m3), to provide direct contact between the air and the TEG. Two different structured packings were used, wood and aluminum. The experiments covered a wide range of parameter space that included the air and TEG flow rates, air and TEG inlet temperatures, inlet air humidity and inlet TEG concentration. The liquid flow rate investigated is much less than that covered in previous studies (2 s). The trend of the dehumidifier performance was similar to that reported in the literature using high density and random packing. The results were compared to the Chung and Luo correlation, which over predicted the effectiveness. The Martin and Goswami correlation failed to predict the effectiveness under the conditions of this study. In the present study, it was found that the moisture removal rate increased with increasing inlet TEG concentration, TEG flow rate and air flow rate. This was seen for both the wood and the aluminum packings. In addition, the moisture removal rate is increased with increasing the inlet air temperature for the aluminum packing only. The effectiveness of the column was increased by increasing the TEG flow rate and inlet TEG temperature for the two packings

  7. Air dehumidification by triethylene glycol desiccant in a packed column

    Zurigat, Y.H.; Abu-Arabi, M.K.; Abdul-Wahab, S.A. E-mail: sabah1@squ.edu.om

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an air dehumidifier using triethylene glycol (TEG) as desiccant under hot and humid conditions was investigated. The performance of the dehumidifier was evaluated and expressed in terms of the moisture removal rate and the dehumidifier effectiveness. A packed bed column (dehumidifier) was employed, with low packing density (77 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}), to provide direct contact between the air and the TEG. Two different structured packings were used, wood and aluminum. The experiments covered a wide range of parameter space that included the air and TEG flow rates, air and TEG inlet temperatures, inlet air humidity and inlet TEG concentration. The liquid flow rate investigated is much less than that covered in previous studies (<1 kg/m{sup 2} s). The trend of the dehumidifier performance was similar to that reported in the literature using high density and random packing. The results were compared to the Chung and Luo correlation, which over predicted the effectiveness. The Martin and Goswami correlation failed to predict the effectiveness under the conditions of this study. In the present study, it was found that the moisture removal rate increased with increasing inlet TEG concentration, TEG flow rate and air flow rate. This was seen for both the wood and the aluminum packings. In addition, the moisture removal rate is increased with increasing the inlet air temperature for the aluminum packing only. The effectiveness of the column was increased by increasing the TEG flow rate and inlet TEG temperature for the two packings.

  8. On the Structure of Holographic Polymer-dispersed Polyethylene Glycol

    Birnkrant,M.; McWilliams, H.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic polymerization (H-P) has been used to fabricate polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and pattern inert nanoparticles. In this article, one-dimensional grating structures of Norland resin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using the H-P technique. Both reflection and transmission grating structures were fabricated. The optical properties of the reflection grating structures (also known as Bragg reflectors, BRs) are thermosensitive, which is attributed to the formation and crystallization of PEG crystals. The thermal switching temperature of the BR can be tuned by using different molecular weight PEG samples. The hierarchical structure and morphology of the BR were studied using synchrotron X-ray, polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PEG crystals were found to be confined in {approx}60 nm thick layers in the BR. Upon crystallization, the PEG lamellae were parallel to the BR surfaces and PEG chains were parallel to the BR normal, resembling the confined crystallization behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in PEO-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymers. This observation suggests that the tethering effect in the block copolymer systems does not play a major role in PEG chain orientation in the confined nanoenvironment.

  9. Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks

    Engberg, Kristin; Frank, Curtis W, E-mail: curt.frank@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In this study, protein diffusion through swollen hydrogel networks prepared from end-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) was investigated. Hydrogels were prepared via photopolymerization from PEG-DA macromonomer solutions of two molecular weights, 4600 Da and 8000 Da, with three initial solid contents: 20, 33 and 50 wt/wt% PEG. Diffusion coefficients for myoglobin traveling across the hydrogel membrane were determined for all PEG network compositions. The diffusion coefficient depended on PEG molecular weight and initial solid content, with the slowest diffusion occurring through lower molecular weight, high-solid-content networks (D{sub gel} = 0.16 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) and the fastest diffusion occurring through higher molecular weight, low-solid-content networks (D{sub gel} = 11.05 {+-} 0.43 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). Myoglobin diffusion coefficients increased linearly with the increase of water content within the hydrogels. The permeability of three larger model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G) through PEG(8000) hydrogel membranes was also examined, with the observation that globular molecules as large as 10.7 nm in hydrodynamic diameter can diffuse through the PEG network. Protein diffusion coefficients within the PEG hydrogels ranged from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficients in free water. Network defects were determined to be a significant contributing factor to the observed protein diffusion.

  10. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  11. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Song, Qing-Wen [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). State Key Lab. of Elemento-Organic Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functionalized catalysts for efficient transformation of CO2 and PEG-functionalized absorbents for efficient CO2 capture. Furthermore, they describe carbon capture and utilization strategy as an alternative approach to address the energy penalty problem in carbon capture and storage. Interestingly, the authors also discuss PEG radical chemistry in dense CO2 as rather creative and unusual use of PEG, presumably serves as a reaction medium and a radical initiator for radical chemistry.

  12. Prediction of scale potential in ethylene glycol containing solutions

    Sandengen, Kristian; Oestvold, Terje

    2006-03-15

    This work presents a method for scale prediction in MEG (Mono Ethylene Glycol / 1,2-ethane-diol) containing solutions. It is based on an existing PVT scale model using a Pitzer ion interaction model for the aqueous phase. The model is well suited for scale prediction in saline solutions, where the PVT part is necessary for calculating CO{sub 2} phase equilibria being critical for carbonate scale. MEG influences the equilibria contained in the model, and its effect has been added empirically. Thus the accuracy of the model is limited by the amount of available experimental data. The model is applicable in the range 0-99wt% MEG and includes a wide variety of salts. In addition to the aspects of scale modelling in MEG+water solutions, this work presents new experimental data on CaSO4 solubility (0-95wt% MEG and 22-80 deg.C). CaSO4 solubility is greatly reduced by MEG to an extent that ''Salting-out'' is possible. (author) (tk)

  13. Optical clearing of skin tissue ex vivo with polyethylene glycol

    Tuchina, D. K.; Genin, V. D.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the optical and structural (weight, thickness, and square) parameters of skin caused by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weights of 300 and 400 Da were studied experimentally. The objects of the study were ex vivo skin samples of albino laboratory rats. Collimated transmittance of the skin was measured in the wavelength range 500-900 nm. As a result of exposure to the agents, an increase in the collimated transmittance and a decrease in weight, thickness, and square of skin samples were observed. Analysis of the kinetics of parameters alterations allowed us to measure the diffusion coefficient of the agents in the skin as (1.83 ± 2.22) × 10-6 and (1.70 ± 1.47) × 10-6 cm2/s for PEG-300 and PEG-400, respectively, and the rate of alterations of the structural parameters. The results obtained in this study can be used for the improvement of existing and development of new methods of noninvasive diagnostics and therapy of subcutaneous diseases.

  14. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    2010-04-01

    ... milk or preparations intended for addition to milk, as follows: (1) As a coating, binder, plasticizing... dispersing vitamin and/or mineral preparations. (4) As a coating on sodium nitrite to inhibit hygroscopic... glycol in milk....

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (EGBE) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessme...

  17. Material compatibility evaluataion for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid - literature review

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction: For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 deg C; For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 deg C); For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available; and, For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive

  18. Ethylene glycol aluminum as a novel catalyst for the synthesis of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Bin Xiao; Li Ping Wang; Ren Hao Mei; Gong Ying Wang

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene glycol aluminum was prepared efficiently and characterized by FT-IR and NMR. It exhibited higher catalytic activity and had profitable effect than titanium glycolate and ethylene glycol antimony for the synthesis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). It was only used as polycondensation catalyst because it was sensitive to water. For this catalyst, the degree of esterification of the theoretical amount of water was produced up to 95% at 260 ℃, while the intrinsic viscosity and content of terminal carboxyl groups of the corresponding PET polyester, polymerized at 280℃, 70 Pa for 39 min, was 0.87 dL/g and 23.0 μmol/g, respectively. Ethylene glycol aluminum was a promising catalyst for the synthesis of PET polyester.

  19. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Influence of Ethylene Glycol on the Formation of Calcium Phosphate Nanocrystals

    Yi ZUO; Yubao LI; Jie WEI; Yonggang YAN

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis route of using calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 with ethylene glycol solvent and orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4)as reagents is described. Three ratios of ethylene glycol to distilled water 1:0, 1:1 and 0:1 are used as diluting media for Ca(OH)2. Crystals of different morphology and composition are formed under weak alkaline circumstance at pH 7.0~8.0. Acicular calcium phosphate nanocrystals are prepared in pure ethylene glycol while rod-like calcium phosphate nanocrystals form in pure distilled water. The nanograde size of the former is smaller than that of the latter. Calcium-deficient apatite (CDAP) is obtained with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.66. Therefore, it was deduced that the usage of ethylene glycol solvent could influence the formation of calcium phosphate crystal lattice.

  1. Molecular interactions and structures in ethylene glycol-ethanol and ethylene glycol-water solutions at 303 K on densities, viscosities, and refractive indices data

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Ghatbandhe, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions and structural fittings in binary ethylene glycol + ethanol (EGE, x EG = 0.4111-0.0418) and ethylene glycol + water (EGW, x EG = 0.1771-0.0133) mixtures were studied through the measurement of densities (ρ), viscosities (η), and refractive indices ( n D ) at 303.15 K. Excess viscosities (η E ), molar volumes ( V m ), excess molar volumes ( V {/m E }), and molar retractions ( R M ) of the both binary systems were computed from measured properties. The measured and computed properties have been used to understand the molecular interactions in unlike solvents and structural fittings in these binary mixtures.

  2. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate scaffold

    G. Musumeci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Modern therapeutic methods, including tissue-engineering techniques, have been used to treat mechanical damage of the articular cartilage but to date there is no specific and effective treatment. This study aimed at investigating lubricin immunohistochemical expression in cartilage explant from normal and OA patients and in cartilage constructions formed by Poly (ethylene glycol (PEG based hydrogels (PEG-DA encapsulated OA chondrocytes. The expression levels of lubricin were studied by immunohistochemistry: i in tissue explanted from OA and normal human cartilage; ii in chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogel PEGDA from OA and normal human cartilage. Moreover, immunocytochemical and western blot analysis were performed in monolayer cells from OA and normal cartilage. The results showed an increased expression of lubricin in explanted tissue and in monolayer cells from normal cartilage, and a decreased expression of lubricin in OA cartilage. The chondrocytes from OA cartilage after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA showed an increased expression of lubricin compared with the control cartilage. The present study demonstrated that OA chondrocytes encapsulated in PEGDA, grown in the scaffold and were able to restore lubricin biosynthesis. Thus our results suggest the possibility of applying autologous cell transplantation in conjunction with scaffold materials for repairing cartilage lesions in patients with OA to reduce at least the progression of the disease.

  3. EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER AND RELATED WORKERS HABITS IN AN INK FACTORY

    W. C. Lin, H. Y. Chang, F. H. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Forty six workers from an ink factory were included in this study, in which, passive badge sampler and questionnaire interview were used to assess the concentrations of airborne exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether during work shifts and to understand the subjects' working habits. The geometric mean value (95% confidence interval) of the airborne ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations was 0.12(0.08-0.19)ppm, with a range of

  4. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Krasowski Matthew D; Wilcoxon Rebecca M; Miron Joel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols') often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC), a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2) to de...

  5. Two alanine aminotranferases link mitochondrial glycolate oxidation to the major photorespiratory pathway in Arabidopsis and rice

    Niessen, M; K. Krause; Horst, I.; Staebler, N.; Klaus, S; Gaertner, S.; Kebeish, R.; Araujo, W.; Fernie, A.; Peterhansel, C.

    2012-01-01

    The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that li...

  6. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as g...

  7. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as g...

  8. Characterization of gliclazide-polyethylene glycol solid dispersion and its effect on dissolution

    Moreshwar Pandharinath Patil; Naresh Janardan Gaikwad

    2011-01-01

    The present study was initiated with the objective of studying the in vitro dissolution behavior of gliclazide from its solid dispersion with polyethylene glycol 6000. In this work, a solid dispersion of gliclazide with polyethylene glycol was prepared by the fusion method. In vitro dissolution study of gliclazide, its physical mixture and solid dispersion were carried out to demonstrate the effect of PEG 6000. Analytical techniques of FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and...

  9. Gas Chromatography/Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Oligomeric Polyethylene Glycol Mono Alkyl Ethers

    Adebayo O. Onigbinde; Burnaby Munson; Bamidele M.W. Amos-tautua

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene Glycol Monoalkyl Ethers, CxH2x+1 (OC2H4)n OH, (PEGMAE), are polar compounds like Polyethylene Glycols (PEG) and they undergo microbial degradation which produces toxic substances that are potentially dangerous to the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to carry out proper identification and characterization of these compounds. The Electron Ionization (EI) and Chemical Ionization (CI) spectra of various PEGMAE were obtained by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ...

  10. A simple and robust method for pre-wetting poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres

    Wright, B; Parmar, N.; Bozec, L.; Aguayo, S. D.; Day, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres are amenable to a number of biomedical procedures that support delivery of cells, drugs, peptides or genes. Hydrophilisation or wetting of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid are an important pre-requisites for attachment of cells and can be achieved via exposure to plasma oxygen or nitrogen, surface hydrolysis with NaOH or chloric acid, immersion in ethanol and water, or prolonged incubation in phosphate buffered saline or cell culture medium. The aim o...

  11. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    Yu, Tao; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  12. Evaluating the possibility of desalinization of a saline aqueous solution of diethylene glycol

    Gurbanyazov, O.A.; Khudayberenov, S.; Mamedov, M.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for desalinating a saline aqueous solution of diethylene glycol based on a change in solubility of NaCl. The possibility is evaluated of desalinating the saline aqueous solution of diethylene glycol with the help of this device. Introduction into production of the device will yield a perceptible economic effect. If solar energy is used as the energy source in combination with secondary energy resource of gas production, then the effect will rise.

  13. Two alanine aminotranferases link mitochondrial glycolate oxidation to the major photorespiratory pathway in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Niessen, Markus; Krause, Katrin; Horst, Ina; Staebler, Norma; Klaus, Stephanie; Gaertner, Stefanie; Kebeish, Rashad; Araujo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2012-04-01

    The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that link glycolate oxidation to glycine formation are described. By this reaction, the mitochondrial side pathway produces glycine from glyoxylate that can be used in the glycine decarboxylase (GCD) reaction of the major pathway. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of mitochondrial ALAAT did not result in major changes in metabolite pools under standard conditions or enhanced photorespiratroy flux, respectively. However, RNAi lines showed reduced photorespiratory CO(2) release and a lower CO(2) compensation point. Mitochondria isolated from RNAi lines are incapable of converting glycolate to CO(2), whereas simultaneous overexpression of GlcDH and ALAATs in transiently transformed tobacco leaves enhances glycolate conversion. Furthermore, analyses of rice mitochondria suggest that the side pathway for glycolate oxidation and glycine formation is conserved in monocotyledoneous plants. It is concluded that the photorespiratory pathway from green algae has been functionally conserved in higher plants. PMID:22268146

  14. Effect of glycol-based coolants on the suppression and recovery of platinum fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Garsany, Yannick; Dutta, Sreya; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2012-10-01

    We use cyclic and rotating disk electrode voltammetry to study glycol-based coolant formulations to show that individual constituents have either negligible or significant poisoning effects on the nanoscale Pt/carbon catalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The base fluid in all these coolants is glycol (1, 3 propanediol), commercially available in a BioGlycol coolant formulation with an ethoxylated nonylphenol surfactant, and azole- and polyol-based non-ionic corrosion inhibitors. Exposure of a Pt/Vulcan carbon electrode to glycol-water or glycol-water-surfactant mixtures causes the loss of Pt electrochemical surface area (ECSA), but the Pt ECSA is fully recovered in clean electrolyte. Only mixtures with the azole corrosion inhibitor cause irreversible losses to the Pt ECSA and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. The Pt ECSA and ORR activity can only be recovered to within 70% of its initial values after aggressive voltammetric cycling to 1.50 V after azole poisoning. When poisoned with a glycol mixture containing the polyol corrosion inhibitor instead, the Pt ECSA and ORR activity is completely recovered by exposure to a clean electrolyte. The results suggest that prior to incorporation in a fuel cell, voltammetric evaluation of the constituents of coolant formulations is worthwhile.

  15. Reducing the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys using ethylene glycol for advanced electrochemical imaging

    Highlights: • Corrosion of AM50 was slowed in ethylene glycol solution compared with aqueous. • Water additions to ethylene glycol accelerated corrosion, enabling access to water as an oxidant. • Ethylene glycol exposure lowers corrosion activity at alloy surface enabling application of SECM. • Ferrocenemethanol (a redox active species) was successful in mapping areas of high anodic activity. - Abstract: The corrosion of an AM50 Mg alloy was studied in ethylene glycol using electrochemical and electron microscopy techniques. Switching from H2O to ethylene glycol, it was shown that the corrosion of the AM50 alloy was significantly suppressed thereby slowing H2 evolution. The corrosion of the AM50 alloy was mapped using scanning electrochemical microscopy in the feedback mode. Ferrocenemethanol can be used to expose the reactive anodic areas on the Mg alloy. These studies confirmed that studies in ethylene glycol can be used to elucidate reaction features obscured by rapid corrosion in H2O without significantly altering the mechanism and damage morphology

  16. Separation of polyethylene glycols and amino-terminated polyethylene glycols by high-performance liquid chromatography under near critical conditions.

    Wei, Y-Z; Zhuo, R-X; Jiang, X-L

    2016-05-20

    The separation and characterization of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and amino-substituted derivatives on common silica-based reversed-phase packing columns using isocratic elution is described. This separation is achieved by liquid chromatography under the near critical conditions (LCCC), based on the number of amino functional end groups without obvious effect of molar mass for PEGs. The mobile phase is acetonitrile in water with an optimal ammonium acetate buffer. The separation mechanism of PEG and amino-substituted PEG under the near LCCC on silica-based packing columns is confirmed to be ion-exchange interaction. Under the LCCC of PEG backbone, with fine tune of buffer concentration, the retention factor ratios for benzylamine and phenol in buffered mobile phases, α(benzylamine/phenol)-values, were used to assess the ion-exchange capacity on silica-based reversed-phase packing columns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on separation of amino-functional PEGs independent of the molar mass by isocratic elution using common C18 or phenyl reversed-phase packing columns. PMID:27102303

  17. Mechanical evaluation of newly developed mouthpiece using polyethylene terephthalate glycol for transoral robotic surgery.

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS), performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), has been classified as a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a three-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of two or three robotic arms. At present, however, the da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. The potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury, and mandibular fracture. To prevent such intra-operative tooth injuries, we created a mouthpiece made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) individually shaped for the patient's teeth. We compared the safety and efficacy of the PETG mouthpiece with those of a conventional mouthpiece made of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). To determine the difference in tooth injury resulting from the two types of mouthpiece, we constructed an experimental system to measure load and strain. We measured the dynamic load and the strain from the rod to the tooth using the PETG and EVA mouthpiece. The rod was pressed against the tooth model outfitted with two types of mouthpiece and the dynamic load was measured with a load cell and the strain with a strain gage. The maximum dynamic load was 1.29 ± 0.03 kgf for the PETG mouthpiece and 2.24 ± 0.05 kgf for the EVA mouthpiece. The load against the tooth was thus less for the EVA mouthpiece. The strain was -166.84 ± 3.94 and 48.24 ± 7.77 με, respectively, while the load direction was parallel to that of the tooth axis for the PETG mouthpiece and perpendicular to the tooth axis for the EVA mouthpiece. The PETG mouthpiece reduced the tooth load compared with the EVA mouthpiece and the load direction was in parallel to the tooth axis. The PETG mouthpiece thus enhances tooth safety for TORS. PMID:26530849

  18. Nora's lesion, a distinct radiological entity?

    To describe the radiological findings of ''Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation''(BPOP) - otherwise known as Nora's lesion, to describe the natural evolution of BPOP and to assess radiologically if BPOP is indeed part of a spectrum of reactive lesions including florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. Four experienced musculoskeletal radiologists studied plain radiographs and other imaging documents of histologically-proven Nora's lesions, looking for soft-tissue changes, periosteal reaction/calcification and calcified/ossified pseudotumours, and compared those findings with findings on pathology reviewed by a peer group of pathologists. Twenty-four Nora's lesions originating from a series of 200 consecutive, histologically-verified bone (pseudo)tumours of the hand, seen by the ''Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours'' for review and second opinion. Nora's lesions have a recognised presentation on radiographs without specific MR characteristics. Natural evolution could be assessed retrospectively in four cases. Recurrent lesions were seen in seven cases and are difficult to differentiate from primary Lesions. (orig.)

  19. MRI examination on microcalcification lesions on mammography

    With a recent increase of patients who are pointed out microcalcification on mammography (MMG) but otherwise normal, we have increasingly difficulties in making diagnosis. In this paper we examined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and diagnosis of microcalcification lesions. Out of consecutive patients who visited our hospital for close exploration of calcification on MMG from July 2006 to March 2009, 124 patients who were performed MRI were enrolled in this study. The morphology and enhancement kinetics of their lesions visualized by MRI were classified with reference to the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS)-MRI and were compared with outcomes of histological diagnoses. As a result, all lesions in which no abnormal enhancement was seen on MRI were benign. Malignant lesions accounted for about 80.0% in mass patterns, and about more than half in non-mass like enhancement. About 30% of the lesions were malignant in the Focus/Foci pattern which designates lesions with the size of less than 5 mm. MRI is capable of predicting whether the microcalcification lesion is malignant or benign in some degree in patients with positive findings, and we can omit Stereotactic Mammotome biopsy (ST-MTB) in those with negative findings. Accordingly MRI is considered to be an extremely useful modality. (author)

  20. Sport lesions caused by athletics practice

    José Ernandes Feitoza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a highly physical demanding sports, athletics depends on efficient training to overcome all physical demands without lesions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the types of lesions and their causes. The sample was constituted by forty-three athletes, sixteen males and twenty-seven females, 23.2 years of average age. A questionnaire containing five open questions and five closed questions was used as an instrument to determine the major lesions caused by athletics practice. The results showed that 84% of the athletes had already had some kind of lesions: 77% of which occurred during training and 23% during contest. The most frequent lesions were distension, tendinitis, twisting, contraction and inflammation. Legs were the most affected parts: 85% for jumpers, 85% for runners and 60% for throwers. When the lesions occurred, 76% of the jumpers, 84% of the runners and 85% of the throwers had no other health problem, but 52.7% of the athletes were in a state of anxiety before the contest and 13.8% had difficulties in concentrating on the contest. As for treatment 55.5% went to see a physiotherapist, and 16.6% went to see the medical doctor and the physiotherapist. The consequences of the lesions for the athletes’ performance were the following: 75% missed important contest events and 70% missed training for several months while they recuperated from their lesions. The results led to the conclusion that the best means to prevent lesions is to use adequate sites and equipments, efficient and individualized training coached by qualified specialists.

  1. Macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry

    Our studies of the interaction of densely ionizing particles with macromolecules in the living cell may be divided into four parts: characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the unmodified Bragg ionization curve; characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the spread Bragg curve as used in radiation therapy; elucidation of the cellular radiation chemistry characteristic of high vs. low LET radiation qualities; and the introduction of novel techniques designed to give a better understanding of the fundamental properties of induction of lesions and their repair potentials in high LET radiation

  2. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background....... Automated graylevel mapping is used in combination with a contrast-weighted form of frequency-diversity speckle reduction. In clinical studies, the techniques have yielded mean CNR improvements of 3.2 dB above ordinary frequency-diversity imaging and 5.6 dB over sharper conventional images, with no post...

  3. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.)

  4. Multiple sclerosis with caudate lesions on MRI.

    Hashiguchi, S; Ogasawara, N; Mine, H; Kawachi, Y

    2001-04-01

    A 31-year-old woman displayed sleepiness and impairment of recent memory. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. Although remission was achieved with corticosteroid therapy, she again displayed memory dysfunction and emotional disturbance one year later, at which time MRI disclosed new lesions in the right caudate nucleus and left frontal white matter. Corticosteroid therapy lead to improvement, and she suffered no recurrence on maintenance steroid therapy. These findings suggest that caudate lesions do occur in multiple sclerosis, the manifestations of which can be abulia and memory dysfunction, as in the present case. PMID:11334400

  5. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  6. Pulmonary lesions mimicking pericardial effusion on ultrasonography

    Two children with right middle lobe lesions mimicking pericardial effusion on ultrasonography are presented. They were admitted with fever and chest radiographs showed atelectasis or consolidation of the middle lobe of the right lung along the right heart border. A low-echogenic layer suggesting pericardial fluid was seen on ultrasonography, but with a spatial distribution closely corresponding to the lesions seen on the chest radiographs. If the possibility that a lung lesion adjacent to the heart can simulate pericardial fluid on ultrasonography is kept in mind, the correct diagnosis should not be difficult to make. (orig.)

  7. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department

  8. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... expression. Basal-type oncocytic cells reacted with antibodies against CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 8, CK 13, CK 14, CK 17, CK 18 and CK 19, and suprabasal cells with CK 4, CK 7, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19. Antibodies against CK 1+10 and CK 20 showed no reaction. Conclusions: Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region most...

  9. Myocardial matrix–polyethylene glycol hybrid hydrogels for tissue engineering

    Similar to other protein-based hydrogels, extracellular matrix (ECM) based hydrogels, derived from decellularized tissues, have a narrow range of mechanical properties and are rapidly degraded. These hydrogels contain natural cellular adhesion sites, form nanofibrous networks similar to native ECM, and are biodegradable. In this study, we expand the properties of these types of materials by incorporating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into the ECM network. We use decellularized myocardial matrix as an example of a tissue specific ECM derived hydrogel. Myocardial matrix–PEG hybrids were synthesized by two different methods, cross-linking the proteins with an amine-reactive PEG-star and photo-induced radical polymerization of two different multi-armed PEG-acrylates. We show that both methods allow for conjugation of PEG to the myocardial matrix by gel electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the hybrid materials still contain a nanofibrous network similar to unmodified myocardial matrix and that the fiber diameter is changed by the method of PEG incorporation and PEG molecular weight. PEG conjugation also decreased the rate of enzymatic degradation in vitro, and increased material stiffness. Hybrids synthesized with amine-reactive PEG had gelation rates of 30 min, similar to the unmodified myocardial matrix, and incorporation of PEG did not prevent cell adhesion and migration through the hydrogels, thus offering the possibility to have an injectable ECM hydrogel that degrades more slowly in vivo. The photo-polymerized radical systems gelled in 4 min upon irradiation, allowing 3D encapsulation and culture of cells, unlike the soft unmodified myocardial matrix. This work demonstrates that PEG incorporation into ECM-based hydrogels can expand material properties, thereby opening up new possibilities for in vitro and in vivo applications. (paper)

  10. Hydroxynortriptyline of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxynortriptyline method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (Ea), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increment of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm-1, but after hydroxynortriptyline process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm-1, respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, Ea increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/ mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/ mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10I) disappeared after hydroxynortriptyline process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27 % to 25 % after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increment of the HP-EFBF. (author)

  11. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  12. Lesion Expansion in Experimental Demyelination Animal Models and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

    Große-Veldmann, René; Becker, Birte; Amor, Sandra; van der Valk, Paul; Beyer, Cordian; Kipp, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Gray matter pathology is an important aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and disease progression. In a recent study, we were able to demonstrate that the higher myelin content in the white matter parts of the brain is an important variable in the neuroinflammatory response during demyelinating events. Whether higher white matter myelination contributes to lesion development and progression is not known. Here, we compared lesion size of intra-cortical vs. white matter MS lesions. Furthermore, dynamics of lesion development was compared in the cuprizone and lysophosphatidylcholine models. We provide clear evidence that in the human brain, white matter lesions are significantly increased in size as compared to intra-cortical gray matter lesions. In addition, studies using the cuprizone mouse model revealed that the autonomous progression of white matter lesions is more severe compared to that in the gray matter. Focal demyelination revealed that the application of equal amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine results in more severe demyelination in the white compared to the gray matter. In summary, lesion progression is most intense in myelin-rich white matter regions, irrespective of the initial lesion trigger mechanism. A better understanding of myelin debris-triggered lesion expansion will pave the way for the development of new protective strategies in the future. PMID:26363796

  13. Arthroscopy in the diagnosis of meniscus lesions

    Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Approaches and their specialities in diagnostic arthroscopy have been presented. The things which should be noticed in the inspection of the menisci during arthroscopy have been put formend and indirect signs of meniscus lesion and their importance have been emphasized.

  14. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  15. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  16. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory. PMID:16394461

  17. Common Adult Skin and Soft Tissue Lesions.

    Trost, Jeffrey G; Applebaum, Danielle S; Orengo, Ida

    2016-08-01

    A strong foundational knowledge of dermatologic disease is crucial for a successful practice in plastic surgery. A plastic surgeon should be able to identify and appreciate common dermatologic diseases that may require medical and/or surgical evaluation and management. In this article, the authors describe epidermal/dermal, infectious, pigmented, and malignant cutaneous lesions that are commonly encountered in practice. Descriptions include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and management options for each type of lesion. PMID:27478418

  18. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Lesions

    Heo, Ilyeong; Park, Sunhoo; Jung, Chang Won; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Seol, Hyesil; Choi, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Youn

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions (PLs). Differentiation between a thyroid lesion and a PL is not easy because of their similar features. We reviewed parathyroid aspirates in our institution and aimed to uncover trends in diagnostic criteria. Methods We selected 25 parathyroid aspirates (from 6 men and 19 women) confirmed surgically or immunohistochemically from 2006 to 2011. Results Major archit...

  19. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  20. FNAC ACCURACY IN DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST LESIONS

    Venugopal; Pratap; Nikshita

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignancy of breast imposes significant reduction in life span. The prognosis of breast cancer is primarily dependent on the extent of disease and also early diagnosis in important. FNAC is a widely accepted cytological technique in the early diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. There have been many studies of accuracy of FNAC, which has been shown to be high in many centres. AIMS: To compare cytological and histopathological diagnosis of breast lesions and to ...

  1. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  2. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  3. The enigma of reversible spinal lesions

    Shalendra Kumar Misser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Focal reversible lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum have been described in a number of clinical paradigms. Epilepsy and related conditions are the most commonly reported underlying clinical association. Sudden anti-epileptic therapy withdrawal or seizure activity may be presumed to be the predisposing cause, however an individual susceptibility must also be considered. Herein, we present the findings in two patients with similar, completely reversible splenial lesions.

  4. Photoacoustic Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh ...

  5. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    Nagarjuna; Srinivas,; Ramesh Reddy; Lavanya; Inugala

    2015-01-01

    : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on...

  6. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Verma Rajesh; Das A; Vaishampayan S.; Vaidya Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathol...

  7. Glycol ethers--validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods.

    Langhorst, M L

    1984-06-01

    Methods were developed and validated for personal monitoring of exposures to airborne glycol ethers, both short-term and long-term time-weighted-averages. Either a 600 mg charcoal tube or a 780 mg silica gel tube is recommended for monitoring nine glycol ethers, depending upon the humidity and other organic compounds to be monitored. The charcoal tube allows maximum sensitivity and is unaffected by high humidity conditions. Two-phase solvent desorption with CS2 and water allows aqueous phase recoveries of DOWANOL EM, PM, EE, DM, DPM, and TM glycol ethers. DOWANOL EB, DB and TPM glycol ethers are partitioned between the two layers, necessitating chromatographic analysis of both layers. The silica gel tube method can be used to monitor all nine glycol ethers tested, but is affected by high humidity conditions, resulting in significant breakthrough of the more volatile glycol ethers. The 3M organic vapor monitor can accurately and conveniently determine exposure concentrations for DOWANOL EM, EE, and PM glycol ethers, but sensitivities may be inadequate for sampling periods less than one hour. These methods were validated at levels down to 0.1 times the Dow internal exposure guidelines for those substances with Dow exposure guidelines and well above the current ACGIH and OSHA guidelines. This paper also illustrates validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter methods, allowing good definition of method accuracy and precision. Some screening experiments are described for diffusional dosimeters to check the most important parameters in a minimum of time. This methodology will allow assessment of human airborne exposures relative to the new toxicology data available on animals. PMID:6331145

  8. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound.

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L; Horsch, Karla; Kupinski, Matthew A; Vyborny, Carl J; Mendelson, Ellen B

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the use of a radial gradient index (RGI) filtering technique to automatically detect lesions on breast ultrasound. After initial RGI filtering, a sensitivity of 87% at 0.76 false-positive detections per image was obtained on a database of 400 patients (757 images). Next, lesion candidates were segmented from the background by maximizing an average radial gradient (ARD) index for regions grown from the detected points. At an overlap of 0.4 with a radiologist lesion outline, 75% of the lesions were correctly detected. Subsequently, round robin analysis was used to assess the quality of the classification of lesion candidates into actual lesions and false-positives by a Bayesian neural network. The round robin analysis yielded an Az value of 0.84, and an overall performance by case of 94% sensitivity at 0.48 false-positives per image. Use of computerized analysis of breast sonograms may ultimately facilitate the use of sonography in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:12148724

  9. Texture feature based liver lesion classification

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  10. Skin conditions: benign nodular skin lesions.

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Benign subcutaneous lesions are a common reason that patients visit family physicians. Lipomas are the most common of these lesions; they most often occur on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent data show that as many as half of the fat cells in lipomas are atypical. Ultrasound is used increasingly to confirm lipoma diagnosis, but deep lesions should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging study or computed tomography scan to exclude involvement of underlying structures and/or liposarcoma. Small lesions can sometimes be managed with serial injections of midpotency steroids. Larger lesions (larger than 5 cm), those compressing other structures, or those suspicious for malignancy should be excised using standard surgical excision or, when possible, the newer minimal-scar segmental extraction technique. Ganglion cysts are another common lesion, the presence of which often is confirmed with ultrasound if the diagnosis is not clinically apparent. Management includes splinting, aspiration, and/or injection of steroids, with or without hyaluronidase. Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, typically are asymptomatic unless they become infected. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosis. The only definitive management is surgical excision with complete removal of the cyst wall or capsule, using minimal-scar segmental extraction or conventional surgical removal. PMID:23600336

  11. Papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed using core needle biopsies

    TOKINIWA, HIDEAKI; Horiguchi, Jun; TAKATA, DAISUKE; Kikuchi, Mami; ROKUTANDA, NANA; NAGAOKA, RIN; Sato, Ayako; Odawara, Hiroki; TOZUKA, KATSUNORI; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, from benign papillomas to papillary carcinomas. It is difficult to determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant based on the fragmented material of a core needle biopsy (CNB). This study evaluated patients with papillary lesions examined using CNB. We retrospectively reviewed 31 papillary lesions diagnosed using CNB between 2004 and 2007. The clinical findings of benign and malignant papillary lesions were compared. The...

  12. Design and synthesis of multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s using enzymatic catalysis for multivalent cancer drug delivery

    Seo, Kwang Su

    The objective of this research was to design and synthesize multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s using enzyme-catalyzed reactions for multivalent targeted drug delivery. Based on computer simulation for optimum folate binding, a four-arm PEG star topology with Mn = 1000 g/mol was proposed. First, a four-functional core based on tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was designed and synthesized using transesterification and Michael addition reactions in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst. The four-functional core (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2 core was successfully prepared by the CALB-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl acrylate (VA) with TEG and then Michael addition of diethanolamine to the resulting TEG diacrylate with/without the use of solvent. The functional PEG arms with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and folic acid (FA) were prepared using both traditional organic chemistry and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. FITC was reacted with the amine group of H2N-PEG-OH in the presence of triethylamine via nucleophilic addition onto the isothiocyanate group. Then, divinyl adipate (DVA) was transesterified with the FITC-PEG-OH product in the presence of CALB to produce the FITC-PEG vinyl ester that will be attached to the four-functional core via CALC-catalyzed transesterification. For the synthesis of FA-PEG vinyl ester arm, DVA was first reacted with PEG-monobenzyl ether (BzPEG-OH) in bulk in the presence of CALB. The BzPEG vinyl ester was then transesterified with 12-bromo-1-dodecanol in the presence of CALB. Finally, BzPEG-Br was attached to FA exclusively in the gamma position using a new method. The thesis also discusses fundamental studies that were carried out in order to get better understanding of enzyme catalyzed transesterification and Michael addition reactions. First, in an effort to investigate the effects of reagent and enzyme concentrations in transesterification, vinyl methacrylate (VMA) was reacted with 2-(hydroxyethyl) acrylate (2

  13. Bizarre Parosteal Osteochondromatous Proliferation (Nora’s Lesion) of the Mandible. A Rare Bony Lesion

    Dashti, H. M.; Reith, J. D.; Schlott, B. J.; Lewis, E L; Cohen, D M; Bhattacharyya, I.

    2011-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) also eponymically called “Nora’s lesion”, is a rare benign reactive bone lesion first reported in 1983. BPOP occurs classically on the bones of the hands and feet and long bones. This lesion can easily be confused, both clinically and microscopically, with other benign and malignant lesions of bone, including osteochondroma, parosteal osteosarcoma, myositis ossificans and reactive periostitis. BPOP has been reported to have a high rate...

  14. Construction and molecular analysis of genetically modified C 3 plants expressing a glycolate oxidizing pathway inside the chloroplast

    Kebeish, Rashad Mohamed Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Metabolism of glycolate via the photorespiratory pathway in C3 plants consumes not only ATP and reducing equivalents but results also in approximately 25% loss of the carbon from glycolate. In the present study, a novel biochemical pathway for the metabolism of glycolate was established in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The new pathway aims to increase the CO2 concentration in the vicinity of Rubisco thereby suppressing photorespiration in C3 plants. The pathway is derived fr...

  15. Engineering Poly(ethylene glycol) Materials to Promote Cardiogenesis

    Smith, Amanda Walker

    Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the current costs of treatment put a significant economic burden on our societies. After an infarction, fibrotic tissue begins to form as part of the heart failure cascade. Current options to slow this process include a wide range of pharmaceutical agents, and ultimately the patient may require a heart transplant. Innovative treatment approaches are needed to bring down costs and improve quality of life. The possibility of regenerating or replacing damaged tissue with healthy cardiomyocytes is generating considerable excitement, but there are still many obstacles to overcome. First, while cell injections into the myocardium have demonstrated slight improvements in cardiac function, the actual engraftment of transplanted cells is very low. It is anticipated that improving engraftment will boost outcomes. Second, cellular differentiation and reprogramming protocols have not yet produced cells that are identical to adult cardiomyocytes, and immunogenicity continues to be a problem despite the advent of autologously derived induced pluripotent stem cells. This dissertation will explore biomaterials approaches to addressing these two obstacles. Tissue engineering scaffolds may improve cell engraftment by providing bioactive factors, preventing cell anoikis, and reducing cell washout by blood flow. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used as a coating to reduce implant rejection because it is highly resistant to protein adsorption. Because fibrosis of a material in contact with the myocardium could cause arrhythmias, PEG materials are highly relevant for cardiac tissue engineering applications. In Chapter 2, we describe a novel method for crosslinking PEG microspheres around cells to form a scaffold for tissue engineering. We then demonstrate that HL-1 cardiomyocyte viability and phenotype are retained throughout the fabrication process and during the first 7 weeks of culture. In the third chapter of the

  16. Congenital malformation and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers. Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformations Working Group.

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, M C; Aymé, S; Bianchi, F; Calzolari, E; De Walle, H E; Knill-Jones, R; Candela, S; Dale, I; Dananché, B; de Vigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    1997-07-01

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during pregnancy as part of a multicenter case-control study, conducted in six regions in Europe. The study comprised 984 cases of major congenital malformations and 1,134 controls matched for place and date of birth. Interviews of the mothers provided information about occupation during pregnancy, sociodemographic variables, and other potential risk factors (medical history, tobacco, alcohol, drugs). A chemist specializing in glycol ethers evaluated exposure during pregnancy, using the job description given by the mother, without knowledge of case or control status. We classified malformations into 22 subgroups. The overall odds ratio (OR) of congenital malformation associated with glycol ether exposure was 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.90], after adjustment for several potential confounders. The association with exposure to glycol ethers appeared particularly strong in three subgroups: neural tube defects (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.16-3.24), multiple anomalies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.24-3.23), and cleft lip (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.11-3.73). In this last subgroup, risk, especially of an isolated defect, tended to increase with level of exposure. PMID:9209847

  17. Indirect detection of ethylene glycol oligomers using a contactless conductivity detector in capillary liquid chromatography.

    Takeuchi, Toyohide; Sedyohutomo, Anang; Lim, Lee Wah

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene glycol oligomers were visualized by indirect conductimetric detection based on dilution of the mobile phase due to the analytes. A high electrical conductivity background was maintained by the addition of 5 mM sodium nitrate in the mobile phase, and the analytes were visualized by decreases in the background when they eluted. A capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector was convenient to monitor effluents from the microcolumn with minimum extra-column band broadening. The signals as negative peaks were linear to the concentration of the analytes, and a concentration detection limit of 0.025% was achieved for tetraethylene glycol at S/N=3, corresponding to the mass detection limit of 38 ng for 0.15 microl injection. The logarithm of the retention factor of ethylene glycol oligomers was linear to the degree of polymerization (DP) as well as to the acetonitrile composition in the mobile phase. These situations allowed us to estimate the DP of eluted ethylene glycol oligomers by using a few oligomers with known DP. The dynamic reserve, defined as the ratio of the background to its noise level achieved under the present conditions, was 2.3 x 10(5) which was much larger than that achieved by UV absorption detection. The present method was applied to profile ethylene glycol oligomers contained in commercially available PEG reagents. PMID:19609021

  18. First report of suspected ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs in South Africa : clinical communication

    N. Keller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (E/G is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. It is odourless, colourless and has a sweet taste. As little as 5 mℓ or 20 mℓ is sufficient to kill a cat or a dog, respectively. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the liver to oxalate, which is deposited as calcium oxalate in the kidneys causing irreversible damage. This report describes 2 dogs that were suspected to have ingested ethylene glycol. The report contains a description of the 3 stages of ethylene glycol toxicity as well as a short discussion of the treatment. Public awareness about the dangers of anti-freeze will help in limiting exposure of pets and humans to this potentially fatal toxin. Veterinarians need to be aware of anti-freeze toxicity as delayed recognition and treatment will lead to the death of the patient.

  19. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  20. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes

    Chengdong Piao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  1. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia NR; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists’ management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons. PMID:27217799

  2. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  3. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases

  5. [Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity].

    Brocheriou, C; Kuffer, R; Verola, O

    1985-01-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are of multiple origin. They can be subdivided as follows: non tumoral pigmentations, non melanin pigmented tumors or tumor-like lesions, benign melanin pigmented tumors and malignant melanomas. Among non tumoral pigmented lesions, some of them show melanin deposits: they can be associated with a systemic disease (Peutz Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease) or have a medicamentous origin, or belong to a lichen migricans. Non tumoral and non melanin pigmentations are principally due to a heavy metal accumulation or an accidental tatoo arising after tooth treatment. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, so-called giant cell epulis is the major non pigmented non melanin pseudotumoral lesion; pigmentation is due to hemosiderin deposits. In the oral cavity nevi are principally of the intramucosal type. Blue nevus, the second type in frequency, is usually located on the hard palate. Primary malignant melanomas are rare in the oral cavity, but it is--because its very bad prognosis--the most important lesion. In order to improve the survival it is necessary to do the diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:3833244

  6. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  7. Computer detection of stellate lesions in mammograms

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The three primary signs for which radiologists search when screening mammograms for breast cancer are stellate lesions, microcalcifications, and circumscribed lesions. Stellate lesions are of particular importance, as they are almost always associated with a malignancy. Further, they are often indicated only by subtle architectural distortions and so are in general easier to miss than the other signs. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of stellate lesions in digitized mammograms, and have tested them on image data where the presence or absence of malignancies is known. We extract image features from the known images, use them to grow binary decision trees, and use those trees to label each pixel of new mammograms with its probability of being located on an abnormality. The primary feature for the detection of stellate lesions is ALOE, analysis of local oriented edges, which is derived from an analysis of the histogram of edge orientations in local windows. Other features, based on the Laws texture energy measures, have been developed to respond to normal tissue, and so improve the false alarm performance of the entire system.

  8. Producing Uniform Lesion Pattern in HIFU Ablation

    Zhou, Yufeng; Kargl, Steven G.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a modality for treatment of solid tumors. The temperature at the focus can reach over 65° C denaturing cellular proteins resulting in coagulative necrosis. Typically, HIFU parameters are the same for each treated spot in most HIFU control systems. Because of thermal diffusion from nearby spots, the size of lesions will gradually become larger as the HIFU therapy progresses, which may cause insufficient treatment of initial spots, and over-treatment of later ones. It is found that the produced lesion pattern also depends on the scanning pathway. From the viewpoint of the physician creating uniform lesions and minimizing energy exposure are preferred in tumor ablation. An algorithm has been developed to adaptively determine the treatment parameters for every spot in a theoretical model in order to maintain similar lesion size throughout the HIFU therapy. In addition, the exposure energy needed using the traditional raster scanning is compared with those of two other scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and from the outside to the center. The theoretical prediction and proposed algorithm were further evaluated using transparent gel phantoms as a target. Digital images of the lesions were obtained, quantified, and then compared with each other. Altogether, dynamically changing treatment parameters can improve the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation.

  9. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  10. Rare Infraglottic Lesions in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Primary pathological laryngeal lesions occur rarely in infraglottic space. Modern possibilities of diagnostic imaging of infraglottic space include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). Diagnostic imaging was performed in potential lesions in this area: inflammatory process – cicatrical pemphigoid, benign neoplastic process – chondroma, malignant neoplastic – squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the paper is to present clinical and radiographical characteristics of selected lesions located in infraglottic space in MRI examination. Three patients examined at the Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging of University Hospital No. 1 in Lodz (SPZOZ USK nr 1) from 2010–2011 with a pathological mass in infraglottic space. Standard imaging protocol for MRI of the neck was used in all patients: field of 1.5 T, slice thickness 3 mm, the distance between the scans 10–20%, FOV – 3 mm, sequences: T1 (TR/TE 455/9, 7 ms, T2 (TR/TE 5300/67 ms), T1 + Gd-DTPA (contrast agent Gd-DTPA at 0.2 mmol/kg). 1. It is possible to determine characteristic signal pattern for rare lesions of the infraglottic space in MRI. 2. MRI is a valuable complementary modality for the diagnostics and differentiation of lesions in infraglottic space, the evaluation of their advancement and treatment planning

  11. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  12. Preparation and Thermo-Physical Properties of Fe2O3-Propylene Glycol Nanofluids.

    Shylaja, A; Manikandan, S; Suganthi, K S; Rajan, K S

    2015-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared from ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate by precipitation reaction. Fe2O3-propylene glycol nanofluid was prepared by dispersing Fe2O3 nanoparticles in propylene glycol through stirred bead milling, shear homogenization and probe ultrasonication. The nanofluid was characterized through measurement of viscosity, particle size distribution and thermal conductivity. The interactions between Fe2O3 nanoparticles and propylene glycol on the nanoparticle surfaces lead to reduction in viscosity, the magnitude of which increases with nanoparticle concentration (0-2 vol%) at room temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement for 2 vol% nanofluid was about 21% at room temperature, with liquid layering being the major contributor for thermal conductivity enhancement. PMID:26353708

  13. Analyzing solubility of acid gas and light alkanes in triethylene glycol

    Alireza Bahadori; Had B.Vuthaluru; Saeid Mokhatab

    2008-01-01

    Physical solvents such as ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are commonly used in wet gas dehydration processes with TEG being the most popular due to ease of regeneration and low solvent losses. Unfortunately, TEG absorbs significantly more hydrocarbons and acid gases than EG or DEG. Quantifying this amount of absorption is therefore critical in order to minimize hydrocarbon losses or to optimize hydrocarbon recovery depending on the objective of the process. In this article, a new correlation that fully covers the operating ranges of TEG dehydration units is developed in order to determine the solubility of light alkanes and acid gases in TEG solvent. The influence of several parameters on hydrocarbon and acid gas solubility including temperature, pressure, and solvent content is also examined.

  14. Metabolism and disposition of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME) in male rats

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single oral dose of approximately 1289 mg/kg (8.7 mmol/kg) of [14C]DPGME. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 60% of the administered 14C activity was excreted in urine, while 27% was eliminated as 14CO2 within 48 hr after dosing. DPGME, PGME, dipropylene glycol, propylene glycol, as well as sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of DPGME were identified in urine of animals given [14C]DPGME. Results of the study indicate that DPGME is metabolized via the same routes to the same general types of metabolites as previously identified for propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

  15. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  16. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) - a new contact allergen identified in a spectacle frame

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vestergaard, M. E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2014-01-01

    patient's spectacle frame. Materials and methods. An extract from the temple arms was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a major low molecular weight compound was detected. This compound was isolated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by GC-MS...... and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The purified compound was diluted in ethanol, and a dilution series was prepared for patch testing. Results. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) was identified as the major compound in the extract. Patch testing of the patient proved that triethylene...... glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) was the causative allergen in the spectacle frame. Ten consecutive eczema patients tested as controls were negative. Conclusion. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) is a new, hitherto unreported contact allergen....

  18. Laser processing of polyethylene glycol derivative and block copolymer thin films

    Cristescu, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.C.; Grigorescu, S.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania); Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ionescu, O.S.; Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41A, Iasi (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Material Science, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We report the deposition by MAPLE of: (i) a novel polyethylene glycol derivative with carboxyl functional groups and (ii) a block copolymer: poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether. We used a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns, {nu} = 5 Hz). The laser fluence was set within the 200-700 mJ/cm{sup 2} range. The deposited thin films have been investigated by FTIR and AFM. We have concluded that the main functional groups of starting materials are present in the transferred film. We also examined the influence of laser fluence on both thin film structure and morphology.

  19. Highly conductive polymer electrolyte membranes modified with polyethylene glycol-bis-carbamate

    Fu, Guopeng; Dempsey, Janel; Kyu, Thein

    By virtue of its non-flammability and chemical stability, polyethylene glycol (PEG) networks have shown potential application in all solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM). However, room temperature ionic conductivity of these PEG based PEMs is inherently low. Plasticization of these PEMs is needed to improve the ionic conductivity. It was demonstrated by this group that small-molecule plasticizers such as succinonitrile, ethylene carbonate, or urea-carbamate can boost ionic conductivity of solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes. Polyethylene glycol bis-carbamate (PEGBC) was synthesized via condensation reaction of polyethylene glycol diamine and ethylene carbonate. The PEGBC modified PEM has shown higher ionic conductivity relative to the unmodified PEM. Moreover, PEGBC modified PEM has a better thermal stability relative to ethylene carbonate based liquid electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070, 1502543 and REU 1359321.

  20. Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Based Backbones with High Peptide Loading Capacities

    Aoife O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycols are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies.

  1. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  2. Laser processing of polyethylene glycol derivative and block copolymer thin films

    We report the deposition by MAPLE of: (i) a novel polyethylene glycol derivative with carboxyl functional groups and (ii) a block copolymer: poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether. We used a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 5 Hz). The laser fluence was set within the 200-700 mJ/cm2 range. The deposited thin films have been investigated by FTIR and AFM. We have concluded that the main functional groups of starting materials are present in the transferred film. We also examined the influence of laser fluence on both thin film structure and morphology

  3. Oral White Lesions: Presentation and Comparison of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Other Lesions

    Objective: To compare oral submucous fibrosis with other white oral lesions for presentation and associated factors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Departments of Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from May 2008 to May 2009. Methodology: Patients presenting with oral white lesions were selected by consecutive non-purposive sampling and clinico-demographic data was collected. For patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), additional information like duration of habits, maximal incisal opening (MIO), presence of any other associated lesion were noted. OSF was compared with other white lesions for any association between characteristic of subjects. Chi-square and independent t-tests for determining the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: OSF was present in 59.6% (n = 106) of the 178 patients; other white lesions were 40.4% (n = 72). The mean age of patients with OSF was 34 +- 12.7 years and 45.81 +- 16.2 years in patients with other white lesions, (p < 0.0001). Items containing areca nut were consumed more by patients with OSF, with a significant (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other white lesions. Conclusion: OSF was the predominant white lesion in patients examined at DIKIOHS. Areca nut was found to be chewed more by patients with OSF and still longer by patients with SCC. (author)

  4. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  5. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Highlights: → Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. → Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. → Blends with ≤4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. → Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NOx, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of ≥4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures (≤0 oC). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NOx, both its behaviour and the sequence are opposite to that of CO.

  6. Degradation and miscibility of poly(DL-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) composite films: Effect of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Zhigang Ma; Na Zhao; Chengdong Xiong

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro degradation behaviour of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and its composite films containing poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PDLGA) were investigated via mass loss, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All the films were prepared by solution casting, using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. Since the degradation rate of PDLLA is lower than that of PGA, those of the PDLLA/PGA composite films decreased. As a compatibilizer, PDLGA improved the compatibility and hydrolytic stability of PDLLA/PGA composite films. Changes in the composite films indicate that this kind of PGA-based composite biomaterial may be applicable to device design for clinical application in the future.

  7. Effects of reaction conditions on the grafting percentage of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer

    In the present work, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG) copolymer was synthesized by the ester exchange reaction of PEG-block-PBLG copolymer with PEG chain. Structure and properties of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG copolymer were investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and the chain length of PBLG segments on the grafting percentage of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG copolymer were studied. Experimental results demonstrated that the grafting percentage of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG copolymer increased with the increase of both reaction temperature and reaction time, while the increase of the chain length of PBLG segments in block copolymer decreased the grafting percentage. (author)

  8. Lesions in nerves and plexus after radiotherapy

    Apart from the typical, radiation-induced changes in the skin, common secondary findings were oedemas, radiation-induced ulceration, fibroses of the mediastinum and lungs, pleura adhesions, and osteoradionecroses. In one patient with radiogenic paresis of the plexus brachialis, irradiation of the spinal cord because of epidural metastases of a mammary carcinoma resulted in radiation myelopathy which was verified by laminectomy. Observations of radiogenic lesions of the plexus brachialis show that the usual site of the lesion in the vasomotoric nerve bundle is the axilla. The lesion is assumed to be caused mainly by an overlapping of the axillary, infraclavicular and supraclavicular fields of irradiation which results in a dose peak in the axilla. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO

  9. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management. PMID:25192328

  10. Blue light hazards for ocular lesions

    The blue light range (400-500 nm) of visible radiation stimulates specifically cones and rods of the retina. The carried energy by these wavelengths is absorbed and transferred to specific pigments. Their energy is sufficient to produce free radicals and singlet form of oxygen. Intense sources, rich in blue light radiation, may induce, in the retina, photo-toxic lesions either limited or short-lived or photothermal lesions more or less definitive. Repeated photo-toxic lesions should be the root for the age-related maculo-pathy (A.R.M.) also called late macular degeneration (A.M.D.). As a consequence, the attention should be drawn on the potential risk linked to modern lighting as 'daylight' lamp, compact fluorescent lamps, energy saving (C.F.L.) and light-emitting diodes (L.E.D.) for which a specific vigilance should be enforced. (author)

  11. Endoscopic management of orbital apex lesions.

    Sethi, D S; Lau, D P

    1997-01-01

    Lesions of the orbital apex often present a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical assessment and imaging studies are helpful but a tissue biopsy is often required. The morbidity associated with transcranial approaches to the orbital apex may outweigh the benefits of obtaining a biopsy by these routes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of orbital apex lesions can be performed but there are disadvantages with this method. We describe a transnasal endoscopic technique to biopsy the orbital apex. The technique was used successfully to obtain a tissue diagnosis in six patients with orbital apex lesions. This enabled commencement of definitive treatment. There were no significant complications. The transnasal approach to the orbital apex using the endoscopes is reliable. Endoscopes provide excellent illumination, magnification, and a panoramic view of the operative field. PMID:9438058

  12. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, iso...

  13. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide...

  14. Extraction of cesium and barium by dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol in the presence of alkylammonium cations

    The extraction of cesium and barium cations into nitrobenzene and 60 % (vol.%) nitrobenzene + 40 % CCl4 mixture in the presence of dicarbollide (+Slovafol 909), and primary alkylammonium cations has been studied. Extraction constants determined for three methylammonium cations correlate well with their hydration enthalpies. Reverse order of the hydrophobicity of methylammonium cations (competition with bare Cs+ ion) and for their tendency to enter the polyethylene glycol complex (competition with polyethylene glycol complexed Cs+ and Ba2+ ions) is recorded. The possibility of the regeneration of the organic phase after stripping of Cs+ and Ba2+ ions with methylammonium cations has been investigated. (author) 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Preparation of Iminodiacetic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol for Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Partitioning

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis route was investigated and optimized for the preparation of iminodiacetic acid polyethylene glycol (IDA-PEG) for immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phaze systems. IDA PEG was synthesized from PEG in two steps by the reaction of iminodiacetic acid with a monosubetituted derivative of epichlorohydrin-activated PEG. The Cu2+ content combined with IDA-PEG was determined by atomic absorp tion spectrometry as 0.5 mol.mol-1 (PEG). Furthermore, the affinity partitioning behavior of lactate dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropyl starch aqueous two-phaze systems was studied to clarify the affinity effect of the Cu(Ⅱ)-IDA-PEG.

  16. Mineral induced phosphorylation of glycolate ion--a metaphor in chemical evolution

    Kolb, V.; Zhang, S.; Xu, Y.; Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Bilateral surface-active minerals with excess positive charge concentrate glycolate and trimetaphosphate ion from l0(-3) m aqueous solution to half-saturation of the internal surface sites, and induce phosphorylation of glycolate ion in the mineral with trimetaphosphate, sorbed from l0(-2) m solution. By utilizing reactants from dilute solution at near-neutral pH, and eliminating the need for participating organic nitrogen compounds, the reaction comprises several elements considered necessary for geochemical realism in models for molecular evolution.

  17. Microgels of polyaspartamide and poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives obtained by γ-irradiation

    The copolymer PHG based on α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA) functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate has been exposed in aqueous solution to a γ-ray source at different irradiation doses (2, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy), alone or in combination with poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) or poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). The irradiation produces microgel systems that have been characterized by viscosity measurements. Lyophilization of microgels gives rise to samples able to swell instantaneously in water whereas their treatment with acetone produces swellable microparticles that have been characterized

  18. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉

    2005-01-01

    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  19. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol) chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    Yukio Nagasaki

    2010-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained ha...

  20. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures

    Andres R. Holguín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations the apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution for triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures were evaluated from solubility data determined at temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15 K. The drug solubility was greatest in the mixture with 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol and lowest in neat propylene glycol at almost all the temperatures studied. Non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation is found indicating apparently different mechanisms of the solution process according to the mixtures composition.

  1. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures

    Andres R. Holguín; Daniel R. Delgado; Fleming Martínez

    2012-01-01

    By using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations the apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution for triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures were evaluated from solubility data determined at temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The drug solubility was greatest in the mixture with 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol and lowest in neat propylene glycol at almost all the temperatures studied. Non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation is found indicating...

  2. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions – A Pictorial Review

    Chandrashekhara, S.H.; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  3. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions - A Pictorial Review.

    Chandrashekhara, S H; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  4. Treatment of calcified coronary artery lesions.

    Farag, Mohamed; Costopoulos, Charis; Gorog, Diana A; Prasad, Abhiram; Srinivasan, Manivannan

    2016-06-01

    Heavily calcified coronary plaques represent a complex lesion subset and a challenge to the interventional cardiologist, as they are often resistant to simple plaque modification with conventional balloon angioplasty. Inadequate plaque modification can lead to stent underdeployment, which itself predisposes to in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. Over the years, a number of mechanical devices ranging from modified angioplasty balloons to atherectomy devices have become available in order to tackle such lesions. Here we review these devices concentrating on the evidence behind their use. PMID:26924773

  5. CT diagnosis of cystic ovarian lesions

    CT was undertaken and CT numbers were measured in 47 patients with cystic ovarian lesions. CT features particularly for chocolate cyst revealed the uniform thickness of the whole cystic wall, findings suggesting adhesion to the surrounding organs, circular or oval shape, and higher CT numbers within the cyst than those in the other cystic ovarian lesions. However, because these features are not always observed in cases of chocolate cyst, one should not rely solely on CT findings in the diagnosis of chocolate cyst. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  7. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. PMID:24559568

  8. MR findings of the spinal epidural lesions

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Shin, Myung Jin; Rhim, Seung Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Midicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Tae [Dongguk Univ. College of Midicine, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The spinal canal takes the form of a series of cylinders designated by their relationship to the meninges and is divided by the dura mater into the epidural or extradural space and intradural space. The epidural space is composed of spinal ligaments, connective and areolar tissue, the epidural venous plexus, lymphatic channels and supporting elements, and various pathologic entities are found there. MR imaging can accurately depict the extent and characteristics of lesions, and in some cases specific diagnosis is possible. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a variety of spinal epidural lesions and their MR findings.

  9. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  10. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Serap Erel

    2010-01-01

    Benign breast lesions (BBL) includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly incre...

  11. The wide spectrum of hyperechoic lesions of the breast

    Linda, A., E-mail: annalinda33@gmail.co [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, C.; Lorenzon, M.; Furlan, A.; Londero, V. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Machin, P. [Institute of Pathology, Ospedale De Gironcoli, Conegliano (Italy); Bazzocchi, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Although breast lesions are commonly detected because of their hypoechogenicity, some lesions may present with hyperechogenicity due to their histological components. Hyperechogenicity has been shown to be highly predictive of benignity; however, hyperechoic lesions can occasionally be malignant. This article reviews hyperechoic lesions of the breast, describes the underlying histological causes associated with hyperechogenicity, and the sonographic features useful for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant hyperechoic lesions.

  12. The comparison of excisionel biopsies between wire-guided and radioguided occult lesion localization in nonpalpable breast lesions

    Kağan Karabulut

    2011-01-01

    The development of breast imaging methodsincreased frequent of nonpalpable breast lesions.Consequently, diagnosis of early breast cancer increasedand breast cancer mortality decreased. Several techniqueswere described for excisional biopsy of nonpalpablebreast lesions. Wire guided localization is currentlythe most commonly used localization method for nonpalpablebreast lesions. ROLL is a possible alternative tothe commonly used wire guided localization of non palpablebreast lesions and ROLL i...

  13. The Determination of Polyethylene Glycol in Untreated Urine Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Intestinal Permeability Studies

    Larsen, Elfinn; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Philipsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol in urine samples has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weights ranged from 634 to 1338. The urine samples were applied to the chromatographic system without any pre-treatment. For samples with a concentration of 0.2% polyethylene glycol a...

  14. 76 FR 36349 - Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether (DEGEE); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether (DEGEE); Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether...) 305-5805. II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of July 9, 2008 (73 FR 39291)...

  15. Generation of acetyl free radicals by radiolysis: comparison of free radicals generated from acetaldehyde and ethylene-glycol

    The optical absorption spectra of the intermediates obtained by pulse radiolysis of N2O-saturated solutions of acetaldehyde or ethylene-glycol and the kinetics of their decays have been investigated. Results suggest that the OH· radical reactions with acetaldehyde or ethylene-glycol produce acetyl and formylmethyl radicals. Besides, these radicals are shown to reduce ferricytochrome c

  16. Platelet responses to dynamic biomaterial surfaces with different poly(ethylene glycol) and polyrotaxane molecular architectures constructed on gold substrates.

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Yui, Nobuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2013-11-01

    Four different dynamic biomaterial surfaces with different molecular architectures were prepared using two hydrophilic polymers: poly(ethylene glycol) and polyrotaxanes containing α-cyclodextrin. Either one or both terminals of the poly(ethylene glycol) or polyrotaxanes were immobilized onto a gold substrate via Au-S bonds, resulting in poly(ethylene glycol)-graft, polyrotaxanes-graft, poly(ethylene glycol)-loop, and polyrotaxanes-loop structures. Human platelet adhesion was suppressed more effectively on the graft surfaces than on the loop surfaces for both poly(ethylene glycol) and polyrotaxanes due to the high mobility of graft polymer chains with a free terminal. Moreover, the platelets adhered to the polyrotaxane surfaces much less than the poly(ethylene glycol) surfaces, possibly because of the mobile nature of the α-cyclodextrin molecules that were threaded on the poly(ethylene glycol) chain. Actin filament assembly in adherent platelets was also greatly prevented on the poly(ethylene glycol)/polyrotaxanes-graft surfaces in comparison with the corresponding loop surfaces. A clear correlation between the numbers and areas of adherent platelets on these surfaces suggests that platelet adhesion and activation were dominated by the platelet GPIIb/IIIa-adsorbed fibrinogen interaction. These results indicate that both of the different modes of dynamic features, sliding/rotation of α-cyclodextrin and polymer chain mobility, effectively suppressed platelet adhesion in spite of the similar hydrophilicity. This research affords a novel chemical strategy for designing hemocompatible biomaterial surfaces. PMID:23048065

  17. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Pejić Miljko A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other miscellaneous lesions. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. Cholesterol polyps are the most common pseudotumors of the gallbladder. The polyps can be single or multiple, usually less than 10 mm in size. They have no predilection for any particular gallbladder site, and usually are attached to the gallbladder wall by a delicate, narrow pedicle. No malignant potential has been identified for this type of pseudotumor. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. They have no predilection site in the gallbladder, and may also be associated with gallstones or cholecystitis. The premalignant nature of adenomas remains controversial. Ultrasonography (US has been demonstrated to be significantly better in detecting polypoid lesions of the gallbladder as compared with computed tomography and cholecystography. A mass fixed to the gallbladder wall of normal thickness, without shadowing, is seen in case of gallbladder polyp. Since gallbladder cancers usually present as polypoid lesions, differentiation between benign polypoid lesion and malignant lesion can be very difficult, even with high-resolution imaging techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospectively we have analyzed 38 patients with ultrasonographicaly detected gallbladder polyps during the period from January 1995 to December 2000, who were treated at surgical department of Health Centre in Uzice and at Surgical clinic of Clinical Centre in Nis. We have analyzed

  18. Classification of breast lesions presenting as mass and non-mass lesions

    Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Martel, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    We aim to develop a CAD system for robust and reliable di erential diagnosis of breast lesions, in particular non-mass lesions. A necessary prerequisite for the development of a successful CAD system is the selection of the best subset of lesion descriptors. But an important methodological concern is whether the selected features are in uenced by the model employed rather than by the underlying characteristic distribution of descriptors for positive and negative cases. Another interesting question is how a particular classi er exploits the relationships between descriptors to increase the accuracy of the classi cation. In this work we set to: (1) Characterize kinetic, morphological and textural features among mass and non-mass lesions; (2) Examine feature spaces and compare selection of subset of features based on similarity of feature importance across feature rankings; (3) Compare two classi er performances namely binary Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) for the task of di erentiating between positive and negative cases when using binary classi cation for mass and non-mass lesions separately or when employing a multi-class classi cation. Breast MRI datasets consists of 243 (173 mass and 70 non-mass) lesions. Results show that RF variable importance used with RF-binary based classi cation optimized for mass and non-mass lesions separately o ers the best classi cation accuracy.

  19. DEGENERATED SOFT TISSUE LESION RESEMBLING A CHONDROMA

    Alba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male fisherman presented with a tender mass in the right side groin/root of the thigh. The entire episode followed a trauma. A biopsy specimen revealed a chondroma like lesion with necrosis. The final diagnosis made was Necrosis of Tendon.

  20. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert ...

  1. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first...

  2. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  3. Circumscribed lytic lesions of the thalassaemic skull

    Orzincolo, C.; Corcione, S.; Castaldi, G.; Bariani, L.; Franceschini, F.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-07-01

    Solitary or multiple circumscribed osteolytic areas are described in seven patients, selected from 250 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia (Cooley's anaemia). On X-ray examinations, these areas appear as purely osteolytic lesions with well-defined margins not associated with sclerosis. The possible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  5. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  6. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Oya Gürbüz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  7. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    Aron K Barbey; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Barbey et al. investigate the neurobiology of social problem solving and its relation to psychometric intelligence, emotional intelligence, and personality in 144 patients with focal lesions. Results reveal the neural architecture of social problem solving and provide an integrative framework for understanding the social, psychometric, and emotional foundations of human intelligence.

  8. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  9. Laser treatment of first degree carious lesions

    Rechmann, Peter; Pilgrim, Christian G.; Hennig, Thomas

    2001-04-01

    The therapy of initial carious lesions aims in a minimal invasive removal of infected dental hard tissue. Typically standard preparation instruments bear the risk of removing a big amount of sound structures as a result of access. On the other hand the competence of Er:YAG lasers for caries removal has been repeatedly proven.

  10. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  11. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for...

  12. What affects detectability of lesion-deficit relationships in lesion studies?

    Inoue, Kayo; Madhyastha, Tara; Rudrauf, David; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the brain basis for psychological processes and behavior is a fundamental aim of cognitive neuroscience. The lesion method, using voxel-based statistical analysis, is an important approach to this goal, identifying neural structures that are necessary for the support of specific mental operations, and complementing the strengths of functional imaging techniques. Lesion coverage in a population is by nature spatially heterogeneous and biased, systematically affecting the ability of lesion-deficit correlation methods to detect and localize functional associations. We have developed a simulator that allows investigators to model parameters in a lesion-deficit study and characterize the statistical bias in lesion deficit detection coverage that will result from specific assumptions. We used the simulator to assess the signal detection properties and localization accuracy of standard lesion-deficit correlation methods, under a simple truth model - that a critical region of interest (CR), when damaged, gives rise to a deficit. We considered voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and proportional MAP-3 (PM3). Using regression analysis, we examined if the pattern of outcome statistics can be explained by simulation parameters, factors that are inherent to anatomic parcels, and lesion coverage of the population, which consisted of a representative sample of 351 subjects drawn from the Iowa Patient Registry. We examined the effect of using nonparametric versus parametric statistics to obtain thresholded maps and the effect of correcting for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate or cluster-based correction. Our results, which are derived from samples of realistic lesions, indicate that even a simple truth model yields localization errors that are systematic and pervasive, averaging 2 cm in the standard anatomic space, and tending to be directed towards areas of greater anatomic coverage. This displacement positions the center of mass of the detected

  13. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  14. Supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions: MR imaging features

    Kim, Young Joo; Son, Young Bo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To describe MR findings and differential points of supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the MR findings of 59 patients with supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions, and classified them as follows : tumor-associated cyst, infectious cyst, ex-vacuo type cyst, and congentital/developmental cyst. Among 59 patients, 47 tumor-associated cysts were seen in 17, 42 infectious cysts in 13, 17 ex-vacuo type cysts in 10, and 19 congenital/developmental cysts in 19. In 44 of 47 tumor-associate cysts, increased or inhomogeneous internal signal intensity was seen on T1-weighted image, 37 of 47 showed thick uneven walls ; 37 of 47 had enhancing solid components and there was variable perifocal edema and mass effect. Infectious cysts were multiple (11 of 13). In cases of brain abscess, increased internal signal intensity on T1-weighted image, low signal intensity of abscess wall on T2-weighted image, thick even enhancing wall, and marked perifocal edema (4 of 4) were seen in all four cases. Cysts in cysticercosis were variable in appearance depending on the stage, but were smaller than other cystic lesions. Ex vacuo type cysts were of uniform CSF signal intensity in all pulse sequences and there was no identifiable wall or enhancement associated with enlarged adjacent ventricle and encephalomalacia (17 of 17). Congenital/developmental cysts showed a single lesion (19 of 19), a signal intensity similar to CSF in all pulse sequences (15 of 19), no identifiable wall (16 of 19), no enhancement (17 of 19), and no perifocal edema (19 of 19). MR was used to categorize supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions into four groups on the basis of their number, size, internal homogeneity of signal intensity on T1-weighted image, enhancing pattern, perifocal edema and mass effect, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management.

  15. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  16. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  17. Design, synthesis and hydrolytic behavior of mutual prodrugs of NSAIDs with gabapentin using glycol spacers.

    Mahdi, Monther Faisal; Alsaad, Hiba Najeh

    2012-01-01

    The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88%) in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation. PMID:24281258

  18. A polyether glycol derived from cashew nutshell as a kinetic inhibitor for methane hydrate formation

    Ferreira, Jorge Cesar; Esteves, Pierre M., E-mail: pesteves@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, Adriana [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello, PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The polyether glycol derived from cashew nutshell liquid inhibited the formation of methane hydrate. The polymer proved to be more efficient than the polyvinyl pyrrolidone-poly(N-vinyl) caprolactam (PVP-PVCap) co-polymer under tested conditions (CH{sub 4}, 1470 psi and 4 degree C), being the latter one of the best commercially available hydrate inhibitors. (author)

  19. Osmotic pressure and aggregate shape in BSA/Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Lipid/Dextran solutions

    Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W.; Clifton, Luke. A.; Green, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Osmotic pressure and aggregate shape in BSA/Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Lipid/Dextran solutions correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 113 343 7595; fax: +44 113 343 6551. (Castelletto, Valeria) (Castelletto, Valeria) School of Chemistry--> , Food Biosciences and Pharmacy--> , The University of Reading--> , P.O. Box 226--> , Whiteknights--> , Reading--> - UNIT...

  20. Construction and use of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for the synthesis of toluene cis-glycol.

    Wahbi, L P; Gokhale, D; Minter, S; Stephens, G M

    1996-09-01

    The toluene dioxygenase genes derived from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 11767 were subcloned from a previously constructed recombinant plasmid, pIG, using pUC18 as the cloning vector and E. coli TG2 as the host strain. The resulting strain, E. coli TG2 (p1/1), produced toluene cis-glycol when grown in LB broth or minimal medium in the presence of toluene. Restriction mapping and partial DNA sequencing provided evidence for the presence of ORFs with extensive homology to parts of the tod operon from P. putida F1. The clones exhibited some residual toluene cis-glycol dehydrogenase activity which resulted in the formation of small amounts of 3-methylcatechol. Expression of the dioxygenase was induced by toluene, but was not directed by the lac promoter within the cloning vector. The clones were assessed for toluene cis-glycol production in pH-controlled batch cultures, and the maximum product concentration obtained was 1.02 g l-1. Product formation was dependent upon the presence of glucose in the culture medium. Although the substrate was toxic, the biotransformation was apparently limited by the supply of toluene. The results suggest that it should be possible to improve toluene cis-glycol production by recombinants substantially by improving both the strain and fermentation process. PMID:8987488

  1. Preparation of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate Using a Tubular Reactor

    蔡振云; 卢祖国; 李小波

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEA), an excellent solvent, is prepared with ethylene oxide (EO) and ethyl acetate (EA) in a tubular reactor under suitable reaction condition. The single circulation yield can reach 81%. This technology is not only safe but also makes it possible to continuously produce EGEA in industry,with low content of high boiling point by-products.

  2. Aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol - Role of intermediates in catalyst performance

    Vlieger, de D.J.M.; Mojet, B.L.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid product formation during the aqueous catalytic reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) was studied up to 450 °C and 250 bar pressure. Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid were the main liquid by-products during EG reforming in the presence of alumina-supported Pt and Pt–Ni catalysts. The effect of th

  3. ANTI-CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACID IN WATER-GLYCOL SOLUTIONS

    BASHKIRCEVA N.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium salts of carboxylic acids were investigated to evaluate the corrosion properties of the water-glycol solutions. Corrosion tests were performed by methods of gravimetry and galvanostatic dissolution with metals used in cooling systems. The compositions of anticorrosion systems and their concentration that provide the most effective inhibition of metals were determined.

  4. Increased permeability for polyethylene glycols through skin compromised by sodium lauryl sulphate

    I. Jakasa; M.M. Verberk; A.L. Bunge; J. Kruse; S. Kezic

    2006-01-01

    In this in vivo human study we assessed the influence of skin damage by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on percutaneous penetration of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weights (MW). Percutaneous penetration of PEGs was determined using tape stripping of the stratum corneum (SC). The f

  5. Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate

    Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

  6. Preparation of polystyrene-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymer by "living" free radical polymerization

    Chen, Xianyi; Gao, Bo; Kops, Jørgen;

    1998-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymer containing segments of polystyrene and monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (PS-b-PEG) was synthesised by a novel method. Initially, the adduct (BZ-TEMPO) obtained by reacting benzoyl peroxide, styrene, and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO) was isolated...

  7. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION OF VARIOUS GLYCOL ETHERS ORALLY ADMINISTERED TO FISCHER 344 RATS

    Oral dosing of adult rats F344 rats with the glycol ether 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or its principal metabolite 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA) results in the suppression of the primary plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP_LPS). n the present study,...

  8. Electrochemical preparation of ether ketones from (poly)propylene glycol monoethers

    This invention is a method for preparing an ether ketone comprising electrolyzing a solution containing a (poly)propylene glycol monoether, hydroxyl ions and optionally water in an electrolytic cell having an anode at least partially coated with nickel peroxide, silver peroxide, cobalt peroxide or copper peroxide

  9. Cesium and strontium extraction by solutions of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in diethylene glycol ditetrafluoropropyl ether

    A new solvent (free of nitro groups) is proposed for chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) - diethylene glycol ditetrafluoropropyl ether (D6DE). The D6DE ensures a high CCD solubility and its complex of physical and chemical properties is of interest as a possible industrial solvent

  10. Insights on cryoprotectant toxicity from gene expression profiling of endothelial cells exposed to ethylene glycol.

    Cordeiro, Rui Martins; Stirling, Soren; Fahy, Gregory M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation consists of preserving living cells or tissues generally at -80 °C or below and has many current applications in cell and tissue banking, and future potential for organ banking. Cryoprotective agents such as ethylene glycol (EG) are required for successful cryopreservation of most living systems, but have toxic side effects whose mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of ethylene glycol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model of the vascular endothelium in perfused organs. Exposing cells to 60% v/v EG for 2 h at 4 °C resulted in only a slight decrease in subsequent cell growth, suggesting only modest toxicity of EG for this cell type. Gene expression analysis with whole genome microarrays revealed signatures indicative of a generalized stress response at 24 h after EG exposure and a trend toward partial recovery at 72 h. The observed changes involved signalling pathways, glycoproteins, and genes involved in extracellular and transmembrane functions, the latter suggesting potential effects of ethylene glycol on membranes. These results continue to develop a new paradigm for understanding cryoprotectant toxicity and reveal molecular signatures helpful for future experiments in more completely elucidating the toxic effects of ethylene glycol in vascular endothelial cells and other cell types. PMID:26471925

  11. Poly(L-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymers: Synthesis and Properties

    2002-01-01

    Poly (L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymers with predetermined block lengths were synthesized by polycondensation of PLA diols and PEG diacids. These copolymers presented special properties, such as better miscibility between the two components, low crystallinity and better hydrophilicity, which can be modulated by adjusting the block lengths of the two components.

  12. A new aldehyde oxidase catalyzing the conversion of glycolaldehyde to glycolate from Burkholderia sp. AIU 129.

    Yamada, Miwa; Adachi, Keika; Ogawa, Natsumi; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-04-01

    We found a new aldehyde oxidase (ALOD), which catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde to glycolate, from Burkholderia sp. AIU 129. The enzyme further oxidized aliphatic aldehydes, an aromatic aldehyde, and glyoxal, but not glycolate or alcohols. The molecular mass of this enzyme was 130 kDa, and it was composed of three different subunits (αβγ structure), in which the α, β, and γ subunits were 76 kDa, 36 kDa, and 14 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of each subunit showed high similarity to those of putative subunits of xanthine dehydrogenase. Metals (copper, iron and molybdenum) and chelating reagents (α,α'-dipyridyl and 8-hydroxyquinoline) inhibited the ALOD activity. The ALOD showed highest activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. Twenty mM glycolaldehyde was completely converted to glycolate by incubation at 30°C for 3 h, suggesting that the ALOD found in this study would be useful for enzymatic production of glycolate. PMID:25283808

  13. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  15. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN RATS

    J.Sunitha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the effects of spirulina as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. Rats were induced to produce kidney stone by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol (v/v (EG for 6 weeks. In additiion to this, spirulina extract 20mg/kg, were administered along with ethylene glycol for 6 weeks. On 24 hours after 6 weeks, the blood was collected from individual rats and used for the estimation of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine. The ethylene glycol feeding resulted in an increased level of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea and creatinine, with a decreased level of phosphorus, compared to normal rats. All these conditions were reversed on spirulina treatment. Histopathological analysis also showed that rats treated with ethylene glycol had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, and that deposits were reduced in rats treated with spirulina. These data suggest that spirulina has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  16. Diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol as a novel and efficient catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation

    Wen Ye; Hong Jiang; Xian-Cao Yang

    2011-05-01

    The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene is an efficient reaction for carbon-carbon double bond formation. A rapid, efficient, and ecofriendly protocol for the Knoevenagel condensation of active methylene compounds with aldehydes has been developed with diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as catalyst with good to excellent yields at room temperature without solvent.

  17. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  18. Acrosomal ultrastructure of stallion spermatozoa cryopreserved with ethylene glycol using two packaging systems.

    Alvarenga, M A; Landim-Alvarenga, F C; Moreira, R M; Cesarino, M M

    2000-11-01

    The present experiments aimed to examine the substitution of glycerol (G) by ethylene glycol (E) as a cryoprotective agent for stallion spermatozoa. Two different ethylene glycol concentrations (5% and 10%) and also the association of glycerol (2%) and ethylene glycol (3%) (E/G) were studied (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, two packing systems (0.5 x 4.0 ml) were evaluated using both cryoprotectors. In both experiments, the sperm membrane integrity after freezing was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The mean post-thaw motility was 34.25, 36.5, 29.25 and 34.75% for G5%, E5%, E10% and E/G, respectively. It was observed that the percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly smaller (Pcryoprotector used. The ultrastructural evaluation showed 26.7 and 16.0% of intact acrosomes for sperm frozen in 0.5 ml and 4.0 ml straws, respectively. We concluded that ethylene glycol has similar cryoprotective properties to glycerol and that utilisation of 0.5 ml straws improved the ability of horse sperm cells to withstand damage after the cryopreservation process. PMID:11093629

  19. Electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thermoelectric films from a nonaqueous electrolyte using ethylene glycol

    Nguyen, H.P.; Wu, M.; Su, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol was studied as an electrolyte for the electrodeposition of thermoelectric bismuth telluride films by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring disk electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The reduction of both Bi3+ and Te4+ ions proceeds in one step without the form

  20. TRAPPING FOR MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) WITH TORULA YEAST AND PROPYLENE GLYCOL

    In south Texas, propylene glycol is added to the liquid bait (an aqueous slurry of torula yeast) in surveillance traps for exotic fruit flies to better preserve captured specimens. In a series of tests in Texas and Mexico, overall captures of Mexican fruit flies were roughly the same in traps with ...

  1. Physicochemical properties and applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) for use in bone regeneration

    Lanao, R.P.; Jonker, A.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Hest, J.C. van; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most often used synthetic polymer within the field of bone regeneration owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. As a consequence, a large number of medical devices comprising PLGA have been approved for clinical use in humans by the American Fo

  2. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  3. Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Christina A.J.M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica (Boraginaceae against ethylene glycolinduced urolithiasis in albino rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administrating 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine and low urinary magnesium content. The alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica was administered in 200 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days along with 1% ethylene glycol. Urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine was reduced and urinary magnesium level was elevated. It also increased the urine volume, thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction of lithiasis as microcrystal deposition was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced, however, after treatment with the extract. These observations enable us to conclude that alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica is effective against ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in albino rats.

  4. Glycol methacrylate embedding for light microscopy : Basic principles and trouble-shooting

    Gerrits, PO; Horobin, RW

    1996-01-01

    Acrylic resin mixtures are now widely used as embedding media for the preparation of tissue sections. Most of these mixtures are based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (glycol methacrylate, GMA). Resin embedding preserves tissue components far better than paraffin, celloidin or frozen sections. The pr

  5. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nRadiology (imaging plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Furthermore, they are frequently difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods, due to their small size, and difficult to biopsy percutaneously. Often clinical follow-up is the only recourse for these lesions. "nTo formulate a practical approach to these patients, several factors must be incorporated into a clinical decision-making algorithm (figure below, including: the particular clinical setting (e.g., known co-morbidities, underlying cirrhosis or a known primary neoplasm, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the critical information provided by imaging studies. "nDue to a combination of high spatial resolution and inherent soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and wide availability, ultrasonography (US is frequently the first-line imaging modality for the study of the liver. "nMulti-detector row CT (MDCT has become the most commonly used modality in the preoperative diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with known or suspected hepatic tumors. "nTo maximize the detection and characterization of liver tumors, the CT protocol must be designed according to the diagnostic task. To increase the attenuation difference (i.e., conspicuity between the hepatic parenchyma and liver tumors,3 several injection factors need to be optimized, including the volume and iodine concentration of contrast media, the injection rate (4-5mL/s, and the scanning delay from the start of contrast

  6. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  7. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  8. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  9. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  10. Tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction of insect flight muscle partially relaxed by AMPPNP and ethylene glycol

    Rigor insect flight muscle (IFM) can be relaxed without ATP by increasing ethylene glycol concentration in the presence of adenosine 5′-[β′γ- imido]triphosphate (AMPPNP). Fibers poised at a critical glycol concentration retain rigor stiffness but support no sustained tension (“glycol-stiff state”). This suggests that many crossbridges are weakly attached to actin, possibly at the beginning of the power stroke. Unaveraged three-dimensional tomograms of “glycol-stiff” sarcomeres show crossbridges large enough to contain only a single myosin head, originating from dense collars every 14.5 nm. Crossbridges with an average 90° axial angle contact actin midway between troponin subunits, which identifies the actin azimuth in each 38.7-nm period, in the same region as the actin target zone of the 45° angled rigor lead bridges. These 90° “target zone” bridges originate from the thick filament and approach actin at azimuthal angles similar to rigor lead bridges. Another class of glycol-PNP crossbridge binds outside the rigor actin target zone. These “nontarget zone” bridges display irregular forms and vary widely in axial and azimuthal attachment angles. Fitting the acto-myosin subfragment 1 atomic structure into the tomogram reveals that 90° target zone bridges share with rigor a similar contact interface with actin, while nontarget crossbridges have variable contact interfaces. This suggests that target zone bridges interact specifically with actin, while nontarget zone bridges may not. Target zone bridges constitute only ∼25% of the myosin heads, implying that both specific and nonspecific attachments contribute to the high stiffness. The 90° target zone bridges may represent a preforce attachment that produces force by rotation of the motor domain over actin, possibly independent of the regulatory domain movements

  11. Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions via reversible reaction with aldehydes

    Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A means is proposed for separating propylene glycol and other compounds bearing multiple hydroxyl groups by reversible chemical reaction. Glycols react with aldehydes in cyclic acetalization reactions to form substituted dioxolanes. Propylene glycol reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane and 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane. The reaction is catalyzed homogeneously by strong mineral acids or heterogeneously by cation exchange resins in the acid form. Separation processes utilizing this reaction would include an acetalization step, several distillative separation steps and finally a hydrolysis step in which the reaction is reversed. Both reaction steps must be forced to completion by removing the reaction product simultaneously. The equilibrium and kinetics of the reaction with formaldehyde were studied experimentally in systems catalyzed by Amberlite IR-120 ion exchange resin. A number of solvents were screened for their ability to extract 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane from aqueous solution. Aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited the highest distribution into the organic phase. To achieve an effective separation of propylene glycol from aqueous solution by combined reaction with formaldehyde and distillation, formaldehyde would have to be present in excess and would be difficult and costly to separate from the aqueous solution. In reactive distillation using acetaldehyde as a reactant this is not a problem. A large flow of acetaldehyde would be necessary to recover the propylene glycol sufficiently in a distillative process. In a process combining reaction and extraction into an organic solvent this problem is avoided. Process simulation indicates the energy input of such a process is less than half of the energy required in a triple-effect evaporation process. This benefit is offset by higher capital costs and increased complexity in the reaction/extraction process.

  12. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  13. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  14. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  15. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared......Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used a...... both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  16. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  17. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  18. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  19. Cameron lesion: An unusual cause of anemia

    Jovanović Ivan; Alempijević Tamara; Popović Dragan; Kovačević Nada; Krstić Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cameron lesions are linear gastric ulcers or erosions positioned on the crests of mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression, in patients with large hiatal hernia, and can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Case report. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who was referred to our institution for further investigation after she was examined in gastroenterology emergency room (GER) for signs and symptoms of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia without signs of acute gastr...

  20. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  1. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  2. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    Mann Benno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation.

  3. Cervical premalignant lesions and their management

    Köse, Faruk M.; Naki, Murat M.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer in women in developed countries that have national screening programs, while it is in the second line in underdeveloped countries. According to Ministry of Health registry data, cervical cancer is the eighth most common cancer among female cancers in Turkey. Today, the most effective screening for cervical cancer is to obtain smears from the cervix. Therefore, periodic screening programs are of great importance in identifying preinvasive lesions...

  4. Endometriosis: A Highly Unexpected Skin Lesion

    Tolga Dinc

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis: A highly unexpected skin lesion Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrium in anywhere outside of uterin cavity. This clinical entity is relatively common, that 10-15% of fertile women and 6% of post-menopausal women are affected [1,2] . Cutaneous endometriosis is a form of endometriosis and it usually occurs in the incision scar, after gynecological surgeries, cesarean sections and episiotomies [3]. Cutaneous endometriosis is characterized with painful, bluish ...

  5. The lesioned brain: still a small world?

    Baayen, Johannes C; Martin Klein; Dimitri N Velis; Alpherts, Willem C. J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Cornelis Jan Stam

    2010-01-01

    The intra-arterial amobarbital procedure (IAP or Wada test) is used to determine language lateralization and contralateral memory functioning in patients eligible for neurosurgery because of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. During unilateral sedation, functioning of the contralateral hemisphere is assessed by means of neuropsychological tests. We use the IAP as a reversible model for the effect of lesions on brain network topology. Three artifact free epochs (4096 samples) were selected from each...

  6. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  7. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  8. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C1 AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs

  9. Tendon lesion and VEGF-111 injection

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Janssen, Lauriane; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon lesion is one of the most frequent pathology in sports and by physical workers. This pathology often becomes chronic. For this reason, it is of interest to develop new treatments. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising one by releasing growth factors (GF) locally. Among all the GF released by activated platelets, the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce positive effects on vascular function and angiogenesis, and could b...

  10. Benign focal hepatic lesions; Benigne fokale Leberlaesionen

    Baroud, S.; Bastati, N.; Prosch, H.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [AKH, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Schima, W. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und Bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    A profound knowledge of the various benign focal hepatic lesions and selection of the most suitable radiological examination modality is essential for achieving an accurate characterization of a hepatic lesion and in turn will determine the further patient management. This will avoid unnecessary agitation to both patient and the referring clinician and limits time-consuming, costly and risky biopsies to an absolute minimum. The following article will discuss the typical and atypical appearances of the most frequent and clinically relevant benign focal hepatic lesions with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.) [German] Eine genaue Kenntnis des breiten Spektrums benigner fokaler Leberlaesionen und der geeigneten radiologischen Untersuchungsmethode ist essenziell, um eine sichere Diagnose bzgl. der Dignitaet und damit das weitere Vorgehen bestimmen zu koennen. Damit wird eine unnoetige Verunsicherung des Patienten und des behandelnden Arztes vermieden, und invasive, eventuell mit Komplikationen assoziierte Biopsien sowie zeit- und kostenintensive Verlaufskontrollen koennen reduziert werden. Der folgende Artikel erlaeutert die haeufigsten und klinisch wichtigsten benignen fokalen Leberlaesionen und deren typisches und atypisches Erscheinen in den 3 haeufig verwendeten bildgebenden Verfahren Sonographie, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie. (orig.)

  11. Intracranial lesions in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

    A retrospective analysis of 85 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that underwent complete necropsy, including gross examination of the brain, was conducted. Grossly identifiable intracranial lesions were present in 17 dogs. Twelve of 85 dogs (14.2%) had brain metastases. Four of 85 dogs (4.7%) had hemorrhagic lesions and/or ischemic necrosis without identifiable tumor. One dog had a primary central nervous system tumor. Signs of intracranial disease were present in six of 85 dogs (7.1%) with HSA; four had brain metastases and two had nonneoplastic lesions. Metastases had a propensity for cerebrum and gray matter. Dogs with brain metastases had more widely disseminated disease than dogs without brain metastases (P less than 0.001). Dogs with pulmonary metastases were at greater risk for developing brain metastases than dogs without pulmonary metastases (odds ratio = 8.31). Although thoracic radiography accurately identified ten of 12 dogs (83%) with pulmonary metastases, too few cases were available to assess the applicability/accuracy of thoracic radiography in predicting the presence or absence of brain metastases in dogs with malignancy and signs of intracranial disease

  12. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  13. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  14. CT images of unilateral sinus lesions

    Computed tomographic images of 49 cases of unilateral sinus lesions were examined, and 4 findings were obtained as follows; 1) On the C.T. images of malignant tumors, detection of bone destruction was easy, but its early erosion was difficult. 2) Fungus infections and papilloma of paranasal sinuses demonstrated bone thickness as well as destruction, and this finding would serve as a differential point from malignant diseases. 3) From the C.T. values of soft tissue shadows in the maxillary sinus, it was impossible to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. However, a calcified or non-homogenous soft tissue shadow was seen only in cases of fungus infections and maxillary adenocarcinoma in malignant tumors, and it would be clinically a very important differential point. 4) Many of the unilateral sinus lesions will prove to be indications for surgery, except acute and allergic sinusitis. The paranasal C.T. examinations should be performed if the case does not respond to a conservative therapy over a month, and a case showing bone destruction by the C.T. images would require an exploratory Caldwell-Luc operation. (author)

  15. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  16. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  17. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  18. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  19. Orbital space-occupying lesions in Denmark 1974-1997

    Johansen, Sven; Heegaard, Steffen; Bøgeskov, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion......ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion...

  20. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  1. Demonstration Of The Glycolic-Formic Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells Using Actual Waste

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  3. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Tsun-Hou; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-te...

  4. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensit...

  5. Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee: a case report

    Pitrez, Eduardo Hennemann, E-mail: epitrez@terra.com.b [Clinica Radiologica Osorio Lopes, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Roberto Campos; Silva, Mariana Eltz; Holz, Gustavo Garcia; Hertz, Felipe Teixeira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Hoefel Filho, Joao Rubiao [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Center of Imaging Diagnosis

    2010-09-15

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a degloving injury of the interface between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. This lesion is characterized by the development of a fluid collection that, although originally described in the thigh, it has also been described in other anatomical sites. The authors report the case of a patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee after trauma and describe the main characteristics of the lesion. (author)

  6. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  7. Sonographic Findings of Morel-Lavalle'e Lesions

    Oh, Yu Jin; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Jeh, Su Kyung [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We reviewed the sonographic features of Morel-Lavalle'e lesions by correlating the US image findings with a lesion's age. We obtained the sonography reports of 20 Morel-Lavalle'e lesions of the hip and extremities from 18 patients with a history of trauma. The US images were reviewed to characterize the echogenicity, shape, homogeneity, margins, location and size of the lesions. The results were correlated with the age of the lesions and the clinical histories. All the Morel-Lavalle'e lesions were hypoechoic or anechoic fluid collections located between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. Regarding the shape of the fluid collections, the lobular shaped lesions were all less than 21 days for the lesion's age, and the flat fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. Regarding the homogeneity, the heterogeneous fluid collections were all less than 25 days of age, and the homogeneous fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. A Morel-Lavalle'e lesion is seen as a posttraumatic fluid collection in the potential space between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia on an ultrasound examination. Acute Morel-Lavalle'e lesions tended to be heterogeneous and lobular, and they became more homogeneous and flat in shape as the lesions evolved. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose Morel- Lavalle'e lesions

  8. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  9. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Go, T. [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Nagara (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics; Imai, T. [Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM. (orig.)

  10. Skin lesions in renal transplant recipients: A single center analysis

    George Leni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic use of immunosuppressants in renal transplant recipients (RTRs predisposes them to a variety of skin manifestations. Studies on skin lesions in RTRs from India have been limited. Aim: To study the prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin diseases in RTR in patients attending the Nephrology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: Between October 2002 and June 2003, 365 RTRs were evaluated for skin lesions, including 280 examined after renal transplant (group A and 85 examined once before and then monthly after transplant for a period of 6 months (group B. Results: A total of 1163 skin lesions were examined in 346 RTRs (94.7% including lesions of aesthetic interest (LAI [62.3%] followed by infections [27.3%]. All LAI were drug-related manifestations, making it the most common skin lesion, while fungal (58.7% and viral (29.3% infections constituted majority of lesions caused by infection. Lesions related to neoplasms were relatively uncommon (2.1% and all lesions were benign. Miscellaneous lesions constituted 8.3% of skin lesions, which included vaccine-induced necrobiotic granulomas at the site of Hepatitis B vaccination and acquired perforating dermatoses. Conclusion: Skin lesions among RTRs from India consist predominantly of drug-related LAI and infections and are different from the West in view of the paucity of neoplastic lesions.

  11. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in periapical lesions

    Popović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of TNF-α in tissue homogenates of periapical lesions and analyze its levels in relation to the symptomatology and the size of lesions. Materials and Methods. 93 samples of chronic periapical lesions were obtained after extraction of teeth. Samples were classified according to the clinical presentation as symptomatic and asymptomatic, and according to the size as large and small. The concentration of TNF-α was analyzed using ELISA. Results. The results showed increased production of TNF-α in symptomatic lesions compared to asymptomatic. Higher concentration of TNF-α was demonstrated in large lesions compared to small. Large symptomatic lesions showed greater concentration of TNF-α compared to small symptomatic lesions, while bigger asymptomatic lesions demonstrated higher amount of the cytokines compared to small asymptomatic lesions. Conclusion. Higher concentration of TNF-α in large symptomatic lesions indicates that TNF-α is an important factor responsible for the progression of lesions.

  12. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the...

  13. Isothermal Vapor-liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures of 3-Methylpentane with Ethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Isopropyl Ether

    Hyeong, Seonghoon; Jang, Sunghyun; Kim, Hwayong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Isothermal vapor liquid equilibria for the binary system of 3-methylpentane with ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (C{sub 3}E{sub 1}) and ethylene glycol isopropyl ether (iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}) were measured at 303.15, 318.15, and 333.15K. In our previous work, phase equilibria for the binary system of C{sub 3}E{sub 1} mixtures were investigated according to the chain length of alkane, alcohol or those isomer. But in this study, we discussed the different effect of C{sub 3}E{sub 1} and its isomer, iC{sub 3}E{sub 1}, on the phase equilibria. The measured systems were correlated with a Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) combined with Wong-Sandler mixing rule for the vapor phase, and NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Wilson activity coefficient models for the liquid phase. All the measured systems showed good agreement with the correlation results. And it was found that the phase equilibria showed very little difference between the iC{sub 3}E{sub 1} mixture system and the C{sub 3}E{sub 1} mixture system.

  14. Isothermal Vapor-liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures of 3-Methylpentane with Ethylene Glycol Monopropyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Isopropyl Ether

    Isothermal vapor liquid equilibria for the binary system of 3-methylpentane with ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (C3E1) and ethylene glycol isopropyl ether (iC3E1) were measured at 303.15, 318.15, and 333.15K. In our previous work, phase equilibria for the binary system of C3E1 mixtures were investigated according to the chain length of alkane, alcohol or those isomer. But in this study, we discussed the different effect of C3E1 and its isomer, iC3E1, on the phase equilibria. The measured systems were correlated with a Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) combined with Wong-Sandler mixing rule for the vapor phase, and NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Wilson activity coefficient models for the liquid phase. All the measured systems showed good agreement with the correlation results. And it was found that the phase equilibria showed very little difference between the iC3E1 mixture system and the C3E1 mixture system

  15. Solubility of clonazepam and diazepam in binary and ternary mixtures of polyethylene glycols 400 or 600, propylene glycol and water at 298.2K - experimental data and modeling

    Bastami Zahra; Soltanpour Shahla; Panahi-Azar Vahid; Jouyban Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    Experimental molar solubilities of clonazepam and diazepam in binary and ternary mixtures of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) 400 or 600, propylene glycol (PG) and water (138 data points) along with the density of the saturated solutions at 298.2K were reported. The Jouyban-Acree model was used to fit to the measurements for providing a computational method. Employing the solubilities in the mono-solvents, the measured solubilities in mixed solvents were back-ca...

  16. IONIC CONDUCTIVITY OF EPOXY NETWORK /POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL- LITHIUM PERCHLORATE COMPLEX IPN SYSTEM

    PENG Xinsheng; SONG Yongxian; QI Yuchen; WU Shuyun; LI Lixia; CHEN Donglin

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to prepare a polymeric solid electrolyte with both high ionic conductivity at ambient temperature and adequate mechanical strength, an ionic conducting IPN composed of bisphenol A epoxy resin/polyethylene glycol containing LiClO4 was synthesized. The dependence of conductivity was investigated as a function of salt content, composition and temperature. It has been revealed that a maximum of conductivity appeared when EO/Li=25, where EO denotes the -(CH2CH2O )- unit in polyethylene glycol, and that the temperature dependence of conductivity followed VTF equation,suggesting that the motion of ionic carriers resulted from the segmental motion of the polymer. When glycerol epoxy resin was used instead of bisphenol A epoxy, the ambient temperature (25 ℃ ) conductivity could somewhat further be raised up to 3×10-5 S/cm.

  17. IMMOBILIZATION OF POTENTIALLY BIOACTIVE MOIETIES ONTO POLYETHER WITH POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-SULFONATE SPACER

    JI Jian; FENG Linxian; QIU Yongxin; YU Xiaojie; YANG Shilin

    1997-01-01

    A new reactive graft copolymer, poly(tetramethylene glycol)-graft-ω-propyl sodium sulfonate-poly(ethylene glycol) (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+), was synthesized by the cationic polymerization of α-ω-bifunctional PEG macromonomer ((o)CH2-PEG--CH2CH2CH2SO3Na ) and THF. The obtained copolymer exhibits the expected structure as indicated by the result of characterization. Two amino acids (L-arginine, L-tyrosine) were covalently attached to the copolymer after converting the sulfonate group to sulfonyl chloride. So the new reactive graft copolymer (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+) is expected to be very useful in attachment of potentially bioactive moieties to polymer via a hydrophilic PEG spacer.

  18. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF POLY (LACTIC ACID-CO-GLYCOL TEREPHTHALIC ACID) COPOLYESTER

    GAO Cuili; JI Quan; KONG Qingshan; XIA Yanzhi

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a kind of biodegradable polymer material with satisfactory properties, a new biodegradable copolyester poly(lactic acid-co-glycol terephthalate) (PETA), was synthesized from three monomers of lactic acid, glycol and terephthalic acid. The resulting copolyesters, PETA, were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, DSC, TGA and by the ways of weight loss rate to characterize their biodegradability. The findings in this work indicated that, the TmS and TdS of copolyesters PETA increased with increasing contents of the terephthalic acid units. From the biodegradation tests in natural soil, boiling water, acid buffer solution and alkali buffer solution, it was shown that the biodegradability of copolyesters PETA decreased with increasing contents of the terephthalic acid units.

  19. Density and viscosity of magnesium sulphate in formamide + ethylene glycol mixed solvents

    A Ali; A K Nain; N Kumar; M Ibrahim

    2002-10-01

    Densities () and viscosities () of different strengths of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in varying proportions of formamide (FA) + ethylene glycol as mixed solvents were measured at room temperature. The experimental values of and were used to calculate the values of the apparent molar volume, (), partial molar volume, (°) at infinite dilution, - and $B$-coefficients of the Jones-Dole equation and free energies of activation of viscous flow, ($\\Delta \\mu^{0\\ast}_{1}$) and ($\\Delta \\mu^{0\\ast}_{2}$), per mole of solvent and solute respectively. The behaviour of these parameters suggests strong ion-solvent interactions in these systems and also that MgSO4 acts as structure-maker in FA + ethylene glycol mixed solvents.

  20. Poly(ethylene glycol) grafted chitosan as new copolymer material for oral delivery of insulin

    Ho, Thanh Ha; Thanh Le, Thi Nu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-09-01

    A new scheme of grafting poly (ethylene glycol) onto chitosan was proposed in this study to give new material for delivery of insulin over oral pathway. First, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) amine (mPEGa MW 2000) were grafted onto chitosan (CS) through multiples steps to synthesize the grafting copolymer PEG-g-CS. After each synthesis step, chitosan and its derivatives were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR Then, insulin loaded PEG-g-CS nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking of CS with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Same insulin loaded nanoparticles using unmodified chitosan were also prepared in order to compare with the modified ones. Results showed better protecting capacity of the synthesized copolymer over original CS. CS nanoparticles (10 nm of size) were gel like and high sensible to temperature as well as acidic environment while PEG-g-CS nanoparticles (200 nm of size) were rigid and more thermo and pH stable.