WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5p governance strategy

  1. 76 FR 29195 - National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop

    2011-05-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace... Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop to be held on Thursday, June 9, 2011, 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. and Friday.... DATES: The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop will...

  2. HUD Digital Government Strategy Report

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD Digital Strategic Plan clearly articulates the goals of openness and transparency, furthering the innovation economy and meeting more global government wide...

  3. Governing urban finance: changing budgetary strategies in British local government

    P L Pinch

    1995-01-01

    The restructuring of local government finance in Britain is increasingly being viewed as part and parcel of a broader transformation in the capacity for local welfare provision and scope of local governance. The ways in which local authority budgetary processes and strategies have been affected by these changes are examined. It is suggested that, despite strong elements of continuity, significant new developments in local budgeting behaviour are emerging. However, such changes are not univers...

  4. Emerging Strategies for Private-Sector Governance.

    Gibson, Cristina

    This report delineates five governance strategies in U.S. corporations that have emerged over the last 20 years: (1) reform of corporate boards, which includes the role of boards and implementation approaches; (2) organizational improvement, which details employee involvement, total quality management, and reengineering; (3) developing team-based…

  5. Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    the bureaucratic culture of public administration and the marketing culture adopted by private tourism firms (Palmer 1996). This regional coordinating role must be undertaken in spite of limited ownership, budget or power to control how individual firms deliver (D’Angella & Go 2007). Furthermore, various actors...... Organisations (DMOs). These conditions lead to ambiguity and conflicts regarding strategic planning, authoritative decision making, development of a clear destination brand identity and unanimous support during destination brand delivery. Lacking the predictability of corporate organisational structures, DMOs...... on a comparative analysis of Convention Bureaus (CVBs) and the network around them in the two cities, the study sheds light on governance strategies adopted by the convenors in order to mobilize meetings industry stakeholders across cultural, institutional and political borders. Conceptual approach The theoretical...

  6. How does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization.

  7. How does corporate governance affect bank capitalization strategies?

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of

  8. Tax Limitations and Revenue Shifting Strategies in Local Government

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The literature on tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) shows how limiting the freedom of local governments to levy taxes may have considerable unexpected effects. Entities subjected to such limitations may, as their proponents hope, react by cutting expenditures and revenue, but they may also...... strategically change their revenue structure and increase reliance on income sources not subjected to limitations. However, these findings are overwhelmingly based on studies of state and local governments in the USA. Their relevance outside this empirical setting remains unclear. A study of Denmark, where the...... subjected to tax limitations employ revenue-shifting strategies. In Denmark, however, these strategies are contingent on the specifics of the Danish intergovernmental system, which render central government grants an attractive object of revenue-shifting strategies. Our analysis thus helps identify the...

  9. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  10. Sustainable Development Strategy: A Tool for Strategic Governance?

    Zuzana Drhová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In a historical overview, the preparation process of the Sustainable Development Strategy in the Czech Republic is illustrated as continuous learning by all stakeholders, on the one hand, facing institutional and personal limits of public administration’s capacity for strategic governance, on the other hand. The main positive output of preparing the SDS in the Czech Republic has been the strengthening of the institutional and individual capacities for strategic governance among all involved stakeholders (including ministries. These capacities are then applied in agendas such as the cohesion policy and preparation of the National Strategic Framework 2014–2020.

  11. Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) transition strategy

    Laxen, Mark R.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis analyzes the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) and the requirements of the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 146-1. It begins by examining the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) architecture and protocol suites and the distinctions between GOSIP version one and two. Additionally, it explores some of the GOSIP protocol details and discusses the process by which standards organizations have developed their recommendations. Implementation considerations from both government and vendor perspectives illustrate the barriers and requirements faced by information systems managers, as well as basic transition strategies. The result of this thesis is to show a transition strategy through an extended and coordinated period of coexistence due to extensive legacy systems and GOSIP product unavailability. Recommendations for GOSIP protocol standards to include capabilities outside the OSI model are also presented.

  12. National climate strategy. Finland. Government report to Parliament

    At the session held in Kyoto in 1997, the Parties to the Climate Convention agreed on legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Under the so- called Kyoto Protocol, the Member States of the European Community and the European Union shall reduce their annual emissions by eight per cent annually during the years 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level. Within the Community, the targets have been allotted among the Member States so that Finland's annual greenhouse gas emissions may amount on average to no more than the 1990 level during the commitment period 2008-2012. This National Climate Strategy, submitted to Parliament in the form of a Government report, contains the principles, targets and measures that the Government finds necessary in order to meet our national target. The background material for the strategy consists of sector-specific reports made by the various ministries. The ministerial working group has coordinated the preparation of the strategy. For the strategy, the ministries have carried out and commissioned numerous separate analyses and studies, the reports of which have been published in the course of preparing the strategy. Based on these end the sector-specific reports, a background report to the National Climate Programme entitled 'The Need for and Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Finland' was compiled for the ministerial working group. The report was co-ordinated by the Kyoto contact network composed of civil servants from the various ministries. The report describes in more detail the factors influencing economic growth, energy consumption and production, and other elements affecting the development of greenhouse gases, which were used as underlying assumptions when determining the recommendations for action under the strategy. The economic and other effects of alternative courses of action were also analysed and described in the above-mentioned background study. It has been published in the Internet on

  13. Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25398640

  14. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  15. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Adriano Maia dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table. The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of

  16. 2004 Rose Site 5P

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  17. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  18. 2000 Johnston Site 5P

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 2, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  19. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions....

  20. Research on the Relationship among Government Regulations, Strategy Preference and Manufacturing Performance

    Wei Wang,; Fa-Xin Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the environment-strategy-performance paradigm, the paper constructs a theoretical framework on the rela- tionship among government regulations, manufacturing strategy and performance. Using structural equation model and a sample of 135 SME of Jiangsu Province, this paper examines the relationship among government regulations, manu- facturing strategy and performance, the result of which shows that government regulations have a significant positive effect on cost, quality and innovati...

  1. The Flexible Management Strategy of E-Government

    Xiaohe Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In reaction to the phenomenon that the social demand varies rapidly along with the difficulty in the perfection of e-government system in one step in the course of the construction of E-government in China; the goal of the establishment of flexible e-government system should be achieved by means of the flexible reforms both on the government structure and administration mode.

  2. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Jamilah Asha’ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  3. The new government strategy for higher education in the Netherlands: an analysis

    Vught, van F.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new government strategy for higher education is emerging. This new strategy is presented by the Ministry of Education and Science as a development of more institutional self-regulation and a distancing of government from day to day higher education affairs. This article asks whe

  4. A New Fuzzy MCDM Framework to Evaluate E-Government Security Strategy

    Syamsuddin, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring security of e-government applications and infrastructures is crucial to maintain trust among stakeholders to store, process and exchange information over the e-government systems. Due to dynamic and continuous threats on e-government information security, policy makers need to perform evaluation on existing information security strategy as to deliver trusted e-government services. This paper presents an information security evaluation framework based on new fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to help policy makers conduct comprehensive assessment of e-government security strategy.

  5. The new government strategy for higher education in the Netherlands: an analysis

    Vught, van, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new government strategy for higher education is emerging. This new strategy is presented by the Ministry of Education and Science as a development of more institutional self-regulation and a distancing of government from day to day higher education affairs. This article asks whether the Dutch Government is really allowing higher education institutions to become more autonomous. To answer this question two recent policy papers on higher education from the Ministry of Educa...

  6. Government Financial Management, Strategy for Preventing Corruption in Indonesia

    Haryono Umar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In popular view, the term accountability generally refers to a wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational performance, responsiveness, good governance, and even morality of government and nonprofit organizations. These expectations often include implicit performance criteria – related to obligations and responsibilities – that are subjectively interpreted and sometimes even contradictory. And in this broader conception of accountability, the range of people and institutions to whom public and nonprofit organizations must account include not only higher authorities in the institutional chain of command but also the general public, the news media, peer agencies, donors, and many other stakeholders (Kearns, 1996. Government could build its accountability by implementing good and proper financial management. Financial management is a tool for government to show its performance and accountability to the public. Meanwhile, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices (Langseth, 1999. The more corruption, the more far away from good governance, and the less public accountability. According to Klitgaard (1988, power minus accountability is corruption. This paper explains about the influences of implementing government financial management to corruption fighting and good governance in broadly view. Discussion will be derived to find out the understanding of financial management, corruption, and good governance terminology fits for Indonesia environment. The purpose of this paper is to achieve common knowledge that financial management should be implemented by public organization from strategic management for public organization approaches. Besides, reader will find out

  7. Tissue Engineering Stem Cells – An e-Governance Strategy

    Grange, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The rules of governance are changing. They are necessarily becoming more stringent as interventions offered to treat conditions carry unpredictable side effects, often associated with novel therapeutic vectors. The clinical relevance of this relates to the obligations of those involved in research, to ensure the best protection for subjects whilst encouraging the development of the field. Existing evidence supports the concept of e-Governance both in operational health research and more broad...

  8. The strategies of governance from two perspectives: capitalist enterprises versus social economy enterprises: an empirical study

    María del Carmen Muñoz Medraño; Francisco Laborda Peñalver; Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver

    2014-01-01

    Companies increasingly develop strategies and implement governance models of efficient management. These systems of government are based on innovative measures, policies for social and environmental responsibility, and strategic alliances. All are being considered in recent years as efficient policies for the governance of institutions, creating value and better business results. This paper addresses good governance from a comparative analysis of capitalist enterprises and social economy to t...

  9. A New Fuzzy MCDM Framework to Evaluate E-Government Security Strategy

    Syamsuddin, Irfan; Hwang, Junseok

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring security of e-government applications and infrastructures is crucial to maintain trust among stakeholders to store, process and exchange information over the e-government systems. Due to dynamic and continuous threats on e-government information security, policy makers need to perform evaluation on existing information security strategy as to deliver trusted e-government services. This paper presents an information security evaluation framework based on new fuzzy multi criteria decis...

  10. The performance implications of strategic fit of relational norm governance strategies in global supply chain relationships

    Griffith, David A; Matthew B Myers

    2005-01-01

    The search for strategic fit has become a core concept in normative models of strategy formation. The issue of strategic fit is becoming increasingly important in global supply chain relationships as managers and academics examine the effectiveness of culturally founded relational governance strategies across multiple supply chain relationships. This study empirically examines the performance implications of strategic fit of relational norm governance strategies in global supply chain relatio...

  11. Public information strategies: Making government information available to citizens

    Meijer, A.J.; Thaens, M.

    2009-01-01

    New technological opportunities and increasing demands make it imperative for government agencies to make the information they gather available to citizens. How should they go about this? This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing the strategic options open to agencies which have information that could be relevant to citizens. The conceptual framework is constructed on the basis of the literature and tested in a case study. The Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Mana...

  12. A Brief Survey of Corporate Strategy, Environmental Issues and Corporate Governance at Vietnamese Companies

    Phung, Dinh Trong; Toma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    So as to make a cursory investigation into corporate strategies, care about environmental issues and managerial forms (corporate governance) in business of current Vietnamese companies, a brief survey has conducted at 4 enterprises in Vietnam.

  13. Effects of Post-Privatization Governance and Strategies on Export Intensity in the Former Soviet Union

    Igor Filatotchev; Natalya Dyomina; Mike Wright; Trevor Buck

    2001-01-01

    The fall of the Soviet Union brought new enterprise opportunities whose exploitation required the development of entirely new strategies. Simultaneously, enterprises faced crucial constraints in their governance structures. This paper analyzes the impact of governance structures of privatized firms on one key outcome of new strategies: export intensity. Using a longitudinal, multi-industry dataset of privatized firms in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, we analyze how export intensity is mediated ...

  14. Governing board structure, business strategy, and performance of acute care hospitals: a contingency perspective.

    Young, G; Beekun, R I; Ginn, G O

    1992-01-01

    Contingency theory suggests that for a hospital governing board to be effective in taking on a more active role in strategic management, the board needs to be structured to complement the overall strategy of the organization. A survey study was conducted to examine the strategies of acute care hospitals as related to the structural characteristics of their governing boards. After controlling for organizational size and system membership, results indicated a significant relationship between th...

  15. Green Grades: The Popularity and Perceived Effectiveness of Information-Based Environmental Governance Strategies

    Bullock, Graham Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Initiatives that use information to catalyze collective action have proliferated in recent years, and represent a significant shift away from more traditional governance strategies, such as regulation. This dissertation analyzes this phenomenon of "information-based governance" in the context of the environmental arena, where non-profit organizations, government agencies, and companies have developed a wide range of product eco-labels and corporate sustainability ratings to evaluate the envi...

  16. Organisational strategies for changing clinical practice: how trusts are meeting the challenges of clinical governance

    Wallace, L.; Freeman, T.; Latham, L; Walshe, K; Spurgeon, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To describe the use, perceived effectiveness, and predicted future use of organisational strategies for influencing clinicians' behaviour in the approach of NHS trusts to clinical governance, and to ascertain the perceived benefits of clinical governance and the barriers to change.

  17. Let-7i-5p represses brite adipocyte function in mice and humans.

    Giroud, Maude; Karbiener, Michael; Pisani, Didier F; Ghandour, Rayane A; Beranger, Guillaume E; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Langin, Dominique; Scheideler, Marcel; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In response to cold or β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes non-shivering thermogenesis, leading to energy dissipation. BAT has long been thought to be absent or scarce in adult humans. The recent discovery of thermogenic brite/beige adipocytes has opened the way to development of novel innovative strategies to combat overweight/obesity and associated diseases. Thus it is of great interest to identify regulatory factors that govern the brite adipogenic program. Here, we carried out global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling on human adipocytes to identify miRNAs that are regulated upon the conversion from white to brite adipocytes. Among the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, we found that Let-7i-5p was down regulated in brite adipocytes. A detailed analysis of the Let-7i-5p levels showed an inverse expression of UCP1 in murine and human brite adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Functional studies with Let-7i-5p mimic in human brite adipocytes in vitro revealed a decrease in the expression of UCP1 and in the oxygen consumption rate. Moreover, the Let-7i-5p mimic when injected into murine sub-cutaneous white adipose tissue inhibited partially β3-adrenergic activation of the browning process. These results suggest that the miRNAs Let-7i-5p participates in the recruitment and the function of brite adipocytes. PMID:27345691

  18. The strategies of governance from two perspectives: capitalist enterprises versus social economy enterprises: an empirical study

    María del Carmen Muñoz Medraño

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies increasingly develop strategies and implement governance models of efficient management. These systems of government are based on innovative measures, policies for social and environmental responsibility, and strategic alliances. All are being considered in recent years as efficient policies for the governance of institutions, creating value and better business results. This paper addresses good governance from a comparative analysis of capitalist enterprises and social economy to the region of Murcia. Transparency, democratic management, innovation, partnerships, among others, can make the difference between the modus operandi of these businesses and the effects thereof in the territories where they settle.

  19. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    Zaitun, Y; MT, Mohd Nasir; AS Hazizi; Aina Mardiah, B; JM, Hamid Jan

    2012-01-01

    "nBackground: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed."nMethods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the sub...

  20. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    Aina Mardiah, B; Hazizi, AS; Nasir, MT Mohd; Zaitun, Y; Jan, JM Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed. Methods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the subjects’ body w...

  1. How Corporate Governance Affects Strategy of Corporations : - Lessons from Enron Corporation -

    Ahmed, Hameed; Najam, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Corporate governance is a subject of academic and professional debate. It has and it will continue to be a topic under scrutiny for subsequent deliberations since there are many different research dimensions and contexts associated with it. However, it has been observed that the linkage between corporate governance and strategy of a corporation remains as an untapped area with considerable avenues of research. This paper tends to explore this linkage, using Enron scandal as backdrop. In the a...

  2. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Dr. James Gathungu; Alfred N. Mungai

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005) E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government) is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and busi...

  3. Developing a Medium-Term Debt-Management Strategy for the Government of Canada

    Marc Larson; Étienne Lessard

    2011-01-01

    As the Government of Canada’s fiscal agent, the Bank of Canada provides strategic policy advice on the management of the government’s debt, in addition to being responsible for conducting debt-management operations. In this article, the authors review the evolution of the debt strategy over the past 20 years and outline the complex process of developing a sound strategy that balances various cost and risk considerations. This includes an examination of the tools and practices used to develop ...

  4. The use of Enterprise Architecture, IT Strategy and IT Governance at StatoilHydro

    Parmo, Christopher Ludt

    2009-01-01

    The master thesis will extend the students depth study. Through the master thesis the student shall study and evaluate how IT Governance, Enterprise Architecture and IT Strategy are related in StatoilHydro. The student shall also research StatoilHydro´s awareness of the concepts. The student shall propose improvements and/or changes based on this evaluation.

  5. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  6. Governance of sustainable development: co-evolution of corporate and political strategies

    This article proposes a policy framework for analysing corporate governance toward sustainable development. The aim is to set up a framework for analysing market evolution toward sustainability. In the first section, the paper briefly refers to recent theories about both market and government failures that express scepticism about the way that framework conditions for market actors are set. For this reason, multi-layered governance structures seem advantageous if new solutions are to be developed in policy areas concerned with long-term change and stepwise internalisation of externalities. The paper introduces the principle of regulated self-regulation. With regard to corporate actors' interests, it presents recent insights from theories about the knowledge-based firm, where the creation of new knowledge is based on the absorption of societal views. The result is greater scope for the endogenous internalisation of externalities, which leads to a variety of new and different corporate strategies. Because governance has to set incentives for quite a diverse set of actors in their daily operations, the paper finally discusses innovation-inducing regulation. In both areas, regulated self-regulation and innovation-inducing regulation, corporate and political governance co-evolve. The paper concludes that these co-evolutionary mechanisms may assume some of the stabilising and orientating functions previously exercised by framing activities of the state. In such a view, the government's main function is to facilitate learning processes, thus departing from the state's function as known from welfare economics. (author)

  7. PLANNING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY THROUGH STRATEGY FORMULATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning the implementation of quality is a complex process that depends on many different internal and external factors. Planning the implementation is defined by the capabilities of management to visualize the market position of the company and to evaluate the company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Serving to the company's purposes, planning the implementation of quality must be integrated into the company's strategic objectives and then transferred to other parts of the organization utilizing the corporate governance system. Planning the implementation, as a part of strategy formulation, should be reflected in: 1 company's vision and mission development, 2 goals setting, 3 strategy development aimed at achieving goals, 4 implementation and execution of the strategy, and 4 monitoring, evaluation, control, and readjustment of the strategy. Finally, planning must account for all possible implementation barriers.

  8. Demands for media democratisation and the Latin American 'New Left': Government strategies in Argentina and Brazil in comparative perspective

    Kitzberger, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of government strategies vis-à-vis dominant media actors in the Latin American context, where the media’s role in democratic politics is increasingly being questioned. It compares the first two Kirchnerist presidencies in Argentina with the first two Workers’ Party-led governments in Brazil. While these governments initially adopted accommodation strategies towards media organisations, political crises subsequently disturbed the fragile coexistence of medi...

  9. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-06-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning. PMID:23690592

  10. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  11. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  12. Implications of the Ontario government's white paper and competition strategies for Ontario's municipal electric utilities

    The strategies that Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU) should follow to deal with competition were discussed. North Bay Hydro is the 34th largest MEU out of 300 in Ontario but it serves only 23,000 out of 4 million electrical customers in Ontario. Therefore, the main strategy for municipal utilities to ensure their future would be to become part of an alliance and association like the MEA and the SAC - the Strategic Alliance for Competition and Customer Choice. Strong criticism was voiced regarding the contents of the recent Ontario Government White Paper for being vague with regard to electrical distribution and the role of MEUs in Ontario. It was suggested that it is vitally important that MEUs ally themselves with other stakeholders, to resist an Ontario Hydro monopoly, to make sure that prices stay low, to avoid excessive debt and bureaucratic inefficiency, be innovative, and consumer oriented and be prepared to anticipate events and conditions. 3 figs

  13. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different communities, etc.. From this point of view we research the way in which public strategies of achievement and implementation of model of e-government are shaped, model which can exploit the opportunities offered by new technologies and can implement roles for the citizen and public policy makers and implicitly of local and regional development. How the public sector should support the implementation of strategies of e-government, to polarize at the highest level all communities of interest, to provide a framework for planning and action across the board, covering local administration, institutions, organizations and government agencies, to empower appropriate training for implementation of IT strategies, can lead to stimulation of generators factors of local and regional development. We also, intend to identify, from carrying out an empirical study in Bihor county, by analysis of 30 public institutions, the degree of implementation of new technologies in public administration, human resources readiness for appropriate use of IT facilities and what level of implementation of e-government in these institutions, in order to outline the main characteristics and determinants of e-government implementation. The present paper is of interest to policy-makers, researchers, local communities through analysis how the introduction of new technology development in developing and implementing public policies, particularly by networking government and e-government, can cause

  14. Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Analysis of Ownership Structure, Profit Redistribution and Diversification Strategies of Firms in India.

    George, R.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between corporate governance and performance of firms in India. Utilizing various theoretical bases in strategy and finance domains, the dissertation attempts to distill a better understanding of the pivotal role played by the twin dimensions of ownership structure and business group-affiliation in influencing firm strategy and performance. In particular, three pertinent issues underpinning the corporate governance-firm performance relationship are ...

  15. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed. PMID:18771835

  16. Brazilian Constitution: The concept of family and family planning as a government strategy

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about the legal contexts of the Brazilian Constitution which we find the notion of family and family planning, as well as the laws regarding family planning that were promulgated after the 1988 Constitution. Guided through the Foucault’s perspective we questioning how the rationalities that underlie such legislations may produce effects in the organization and management of the population nowadays. We selected the material analyzed through systematic research in the Brazilian Constitution and in the Portal of Legislation of the Presidency of Brazil. The results obtained indicate that the idea of family and family planning compose legal tools which constitute elements of retrenchment and disciplining of subjects by regulations that they establish. Thus, the jurisdictions operate as strategies to the Brazilian government that include goals that put the employment as the base of everything, and from this, directs people through the policies that produce.

  17. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  18. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.  

  19. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  20. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc

  1. Mir-434-5p mediates skin whitening and lightening

    David TS Wu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available David TS Wu, Jack S Chen, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung LinInstitute of Mello Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCAbstract: Utilization of gene silencing effectors, such as microRNA (miRNA and small airpin RNA (shRNA, provides a powerful new strategy for human skin care in vivo, particularly for hyperpigmentation treatment and aging prevention. In this study, tyrosinase (Tyr, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin (black pigment biosynthesis, was served as a target for treatment of hyperpigmentation in mouse and human skins. There are over 54 native microRNA capable of silencing human tyrosinase for skin whitening and lightening. To this, we have designed a mir-434-5p homologue and used it to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of miRNA-mediated skin whitening and lightening in vitro and in vivo. Under the same experimental condition in the trials, Pol-II-directed intronic mir-434-5p expression did not cause any detectable sign of cytotoxicity, whereas siRNAs targeting the same sequence often induced certain nonspecific mRNA degradation as previously reported. Because the intronic miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is tightly regulated by multiple intracellular surveillance systems, including Pol-II transcription, RNA splicing, exosomal digestion and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD, the current findings underscore the fact that intronic miRNA agents, such as manually re-designed mir-434-5p homologues, are effective, target-specific and safe to be used for skin whitening without any detectable cytotoxic effect. Given that the human skins also express a variety of other native miRNAs, we may re-design these miRNAs based on their individual functions for skin care, which may provide significant insights into areas of opportunity for new cosmetic and/or therapeutical applications.Keywords: microRNA, miRNA, mir-434, intron, gene silencing, RNAi, tyrosinase, melanin, cosmetics, pigmentation, skin whitening

  2. Introduction to biomass energy project financing, funding sources and government strategies

    Biomass projects can help developing countries to protect their environment as well as to build a modem infrastructure. However, such projects present, in addition to the more typical risks associated with fossil-fuel projects, certain risks relating to the unique technologies and fuels used in such projects. Further, their location in developing countries regularly creates enhanced political and credit risk as well. Biomass power projects, like any other power project, must be financed. To be financeable, a power project should allocate risk in the most efficient way, so as to maximize return on investment. This paper examines the way in which various project documents can be structured to allocate most efficiently the technology and fuel risks unique to biomass projects, as well as the more typical risks, such as construction risk, permitting risk, expropriation risk, currency risk, country risk, sovereign risks, operating risks and credit risk. In addition, this paper summarizes the public financing sources and support that are available to assist in meeting the unique risk profiles of biomass projects. Specifically, it examines some of the principal multilateral and export credit agencies having involvement in this area. Finally, it examines potential strategies available to the developer of a biomass project for soliciting the involvement of, and negotiating with, local governments and public financing agencies. (author)

  3. MiRNA-199a-5p influences pulmonary artery hypertension via downregulating Smad3.

    Liu, Yuanhua; Liu, Guanghui; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jing

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Recently, it has been reported that miR-199a-5p participates in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the roles of miR-199a-5p in PAH are still unclear. In the present study, miR-199a-5p was investigated in PAH rat models and in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) and endothelial cells (HPAECs). The expression of miR-199a-5p was significantly increased following PAH induction, and anti-miR-199a-5p could increase the nitric oxide (NO) level and decrease the PAH-induced upregulation of pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, in HPASMCs and HPAECs, miR-199a-5p overexpression could inhibit the level of NO and promote the concentration of Ca(2+), but anti-miR-199a-5p showed opposite results. Further analysis demonstrated that miR-199a-5p attenuated the expression of Smad3. Importantly, Smad3 was confirmed to be the target gene of miR-199a-5p using dual-luciferase reporter assay. Mechanism analyses revealed that the downregulation of NO and the upregulation of Ca(2+) caused by miR-199a-5p were all reversed by Smad3 overexpression in HPASMCs and HPAECs. Moreover, in PAH model, Smad3, p-Smad3 and Smad4 were all downregulated in lung tissues, and SIS3 (Smad3 inhibitor) could reverse the effects of anti-miR-199a-5p in PAH rats. Our date suggest that miR-199a-5p may function as a regulator of PAH by targeting Smad3, indicating a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with PAH. PMID:27038547

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ), a lipid signalling enigma.

    Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Clarke, Jonathan H; Irvine, Robin F

    2016-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are an important family of enzymes, whose physiological roles are being teased out by a variety of means. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) is especially intriguing as its in vitro activity is very low. Here we review what is known about this enzyme and discuss some recent advances towards an understanding of its physiology. Additionally, the effects of the ATP-competitive inhibitor I-OMe Tyrphostin AG-538 on all three mammalian PI5P4Ks was explored, including two PI5P4Kγ mutants with altered ATP- or PI5P-binding sites. The results suggest a strategy for targeting non-ATP binding sites on inositol lipid kinases. PMID:26710750

  5. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  6. Sustainable Cost Transformation in Governments Using Accelerated Design of Shared Services, Social CRM and Information Strategy Development

    Prayas Kad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In advance of the current economic downturn, governments around the world had embarked uponvery well intentioned efficiency remedial measures by observing its customers’ needs and expectations,implementing the shared design services catering to its various common functions across the departments, leveraging benefits with state-of-art introduction of Information technology and Social CRM. Bringing this approach together helps cost reduction programs introduced by the government produce better outcome and deliver efficiencies and effectiveness in various government functions along with endorsing sustainability in its different endeavors. Strong alignment among the various government departments and buy-in to the shared-services philosophy has been realized as the major contributing factor enabling the effective functioning and hence tools the SCRM and I.T. Strategy have been bundled together forming a collaborative approach.

  7. Cloud Computing Architecture: The Improved Strategy for Good E-Governance

    Dr. G. P. Singh Rajendra Singh Thapa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing provides a great opportunity for governments across the globe, to provide reliable E-Governance quickly, at lower costs. Cloud computing features like application virtualization, end-to-end service management, instant deployment and ease of maintenance are catalysts that jumpstart application deployment on the Cloud. With proper planning, execution, training and good management, the Cloud infrastructure can greatly reduce overall costs for government departments maintaining and managing E-Services for E-Governance, and help in efficiently utilization.

  8. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-government levels. The author describes the goals and directions of secondary school teacher government support and government strong requirements for teacher professional learning. The article also considers the role of Australian professional education organizations in teacher professional growth. The analysis of the goals is carried out by means of government and professional education organizations documents. The author reports that social context of secondary school teacher professional development in Australia is provided through government education institutions. In support of this fact there is a range of government projects, programmes and documents approved at international and national levels and aimed to encourage lifelong quality teacher development. Furthermore, teacher professional development support is also organized by various Australian professional associations that work collaboratively. Moreover, these associations are not only focused on teacher professional development national standards, requirements and forms but global trends in professional learning and performance.

  9. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  10. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  11. The persistent food crisis in Ethiopis: causes, government responses and household strategies; the case of Enebse Sar Midir district

    Lakew, Ejiga Jemberu

    2006-01-01

    This study looks into the underlying causes of household food shortage and coping and survival strategies of households. It also analyzes government intervention undertaken to address the problem. It was based on a field survey in three peasant associations of the Enebse Sar Midir district in Amhara Region. The findings of this study show that various and interrelated factors are responsible for the problem of household food shortage. There are many natural predisposing factors such as drough...

  12. Image Repair Strategies of Rwandan Government in the Post-genocide Era: A Historical and Critical Analysis

    Olatunji, Ebenezer Oluwole

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study employed Crisis-Communication theoretical framework to examine the responses of the government of Rwanda to the 1994 genocide which arguably posed the most serious challenge to the country’s image since independence from Belgium in 1962. It also evaluated the effectiveness of the image-restoration and repair strategies- using a model proposed by image restoration scholars, Benoit & Pang, (2008). The investigation and analysis were done using a combination of historica...

  13. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  14. Connected Government: An Exploration of the UAE's Identity Management Integration Strategy

    Ali M. Al-Khouri

    2013-01-01

    The subject of connected government is coming once again to the forefront of national development priorities around the world. This stems from the need to address various local and global necessities in light of the changing landscape of the new digital world we live in today. In a connected government context, public service agencies are needed to act as a single enterprise so that citizens feel they are being served by one organization rather than a number of different public authorities. I...

  15. Governance approaches in European territorial cooperation programmes and the implications of macro-regional strategies.

    van der Zwet, Arno; Mcmaster, Irene; BACHTLER, John

    2012-01-01

    Historically, cooperation across borders was an area of activity dominated by central government actors. However, in the EU some of the earliest institutionalised forms of territorial cooperation are based on bottom-up initiatives involving border municipalities. Current territorial cooperation arrangements continue to be strongly based upon local and regional institutions and actors. Theoretical work on Europeanisation, multi-level governance and new regionalism highlights the increased role...

  16. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski;

    2014-01-01

    addresses the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the current European marine governance structures and its relationship to implement the MSFD. Results of the SWOT analysis were acquired through a combination of approaches with MSFD experts and stakeholders including: 30 face......-to-face interviews, an online survey with 264 stakeholder respondents and focus groups within each European marine region. The SWOT analysis concurrently identifies common strengths and weakness and key governance issues for implementing the MSFD for European marine regions. This paper forms one assessment within...

  17. Industrial Deregulation Policy of New Government and Improvement Strategy of Nuclear Safety Regulation

    New Government launched in Feb. 2008 pledged the 'economic revival through alleviating the enterprise regulation.' Based on this commitment, the government established a strategic goal, that is, 'zero-base regulation innovation' and now is performing nine governmental projects. Although the industrial safety deregulations including the nuclear safety deregulation are not comprised in the projects, 43 regulation issues, among 267 issues suggested by 5 economic and industrial organizations at the beginning of this year, correspond to the industry safety. Therefore, the demand for reform of the safety regulation is unavoidable. Accordingly, we will investigate the direction to cope with the need for the nuclear safety deregulation in this paper

  18. Poverty in Mexico : An Assessment of Conditions, Trends and Government Strategy

    Walton, Michael; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, half of Mexico's population lived in poverty and one fifth in extreme poverty, slightly lower than before the 1994-1995 crisis. Mexico has made major progress in some poverty dimensions -health, nutrition and education outcomes, access to basic health and education services, electricity, water and (to a lesser extent) sanitation. Large increases in government spending enabled key ...

  19. Social capital, survival strategies, and their potential for post-conflict governance in Liberia

    Sawyer, Amos

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how people created, adapted and used social capital and conflict resolution during more than a decade of violent conflict in Liberia, and the potential of such capital to contribute to post-conflict peacebuilding and self-governance. – institutions ; conflict ; community ; society ; reconstruction

  20. Empowerment and performance in local government : the impact of empowerment strategies on service improvement

    Tickner, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact an empowerment strategy may have when applied to public sector employees delivering Environmental Services. The study employs a case study method as its central research strategy with ten sample local authorities chosen as strategic informants. The key issues considered were the relevance of the appropriate structure within the organisation, the importance of employee engagement, the impact of the management or leadership style, and the opportunity for implement...

  1. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    organizations. Transition of the path-dependent, socio-technical regimes in the energy system is a governance challenge, since transitions need to occur simultaneously in different arenas without necessarily having a specific „centre‟ of co-ordination. Changes of regimes require innovative breakthroughs in......, companies, cities, and national and international policy. Theoretically the research alliance builds upon a combination of theories including social practice theory, innovation economy, institutional theory, actor-network theory and governance theory. Through a combination of historical analysis, case...... stakeholders to make continuous adjustments of objectives and means in unavoidably conflict ridden transition processes.  Analyses of how key measures and institutions at different societal levels might contribute to transition processes.  Characterisation of 4-6 typical sustainable transition set-ups as...

  2. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-01-01

    Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-gov...

  3. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2011-01-01

    Most of the research on low carbon society in Denmark has hitherto focused on developing scenarios and analyzing possible policy instruments, including market mechanisms, costs and impacts in relation to known options and impacts. The Danish Council of Strategic Research funds the four year research alliance “Enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society” during 2010-2013. The aim of this alliance is to conceptualize the dynamics of transition processes towards a low carbon socie...

  4. Hedging Alberta Government's Oil and Gas Revenue: Is Acting Like a Farmer a Viable Strategy?

    Hotz, Joffre; Unterschultz, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The provincial government of Alberta in Canada experiences significant annual revenue variability arising from changes in crude oil and natural gas prices. This research evaluated whether Alberta’s non-renewable revenue risk could be managed using a derivatives hedging program. Results from a historical hedging simulation approach suggested that such a program would not have been the most effective method of managing revenue risk over the period of 1995-96 to 2003-04. Total impacts of hedging...

  5. Justifying accounting change through global discourses and legitimation strategies. The case of the UK central government.

    Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata

    2016-01-01

    Accounting has been viewed, especially through the lens of the recent managerial reforms, as a neutral technology that, in the hands of rational managers, can support effective and efficient decision making. However, the introduction of new accounting practices can be framed in a variety of ways, from value-neutral procedures to ideologically-charged instruments. Focusing on financial accounting, budgeting and performance management changes in the UK central government, and through extensive ...

  6. International R&D rivalry and industrial strategy without government commitment

    Leahy, Dermot; Neary, J. Peter

    1995-01-01

    We examine optimal industrial and trade policies in a series of dynamic oligopoly games in which a home and a foreign firm compete in R&D and output. Alternative assumptions about the timing of moves and the ability of agents to commit intertemporally are considered. We show that the home export subsidy, R&D subsidy and welfare are higher when government commitment is credible than in the dynamically consistent equilibrium without commitment. Commitment thus yields welfare gains (though they ...

  7. Issues and Strategies in Promoting Democracy and Good Governance: Nigerian and Malaysian Examples

    Abdulkadir M.S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines both the political structures and institutions of Nigeria and Malaysia with a view of highlighting areas of similarities and differences in their modus operandi. While Malaysia has witnessed a tremendous boost and radicalism after 20 years of Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad's rule, Nigeria since the restoration of democracy in 1999, after a long military rule, did not yield a proper institutionalization of democratic principles. There have been cries against anti- and undemocratic practices of the eleven years old civilian government in Nigeria. The two countries under review operate a Federal Constitution, promote the principles of rule of law, protect the rights and liberties of the citizens but differ in the system of government. Malaysia operates parliamentary system while Nigeria is built on a presidential system. What went wrong and how can democracy be promoted and consolidated? The paper explores answers to the above question. The conclusion of this article is drawn on the premise of providing plausible suggestions that will promote democracy and good governance in the two countries.

  8. Spam SMS Classification Governance Strategies%垃圾短信分类治理对策研究

    曾剑秋; 杨光永; 董豪

    2015-01-01

    Taking spam SMS governance as the entry point and based on the theory of supply and demand analy-sis, a two-dimensional asymmetric evaluation matrix and hierarchical classification governance strategies are presented from two dimensions of SMS content and its transmission channel.Through the analysis, it is found that the current governance emphasis is the spam SMS related with the port, of which the advertising spam mes-sage accounts for the largest proportion, while the illegal SMS spam, such as fraud and pornography spam, harms the society most, and relevant recommendations of spam SMS classification governance is put forward. Spam SMS governance is researched from a new perspective, and the results will provide references both to the regulatory authorities and to telecom operators, and promote the healthy development of SMS.%以垃圾短信治理问题为切入点, 以供需分析为理论基础, 从短信内容与短信发送渠道两个维度分别提出非对称二维评判矩阵和分层分级治理策略. 通过分析发现, 目前治理重点转向 "端口" 类垃圾短信, 广告类垃圾短信数量占比最大, 而诈骗、 色情等违法类短信社会危害最大, 因而提出垃圾短信分类治理的相关建议. 从新的视角研究垃圾短信治理问题, 给监管部门及电信运营企业提供理论及方法借鉴, 并促进短信业务的健康发展.

  9. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model th

  10. miR290-5p/292-5p activate the immunoglobulin kappa locus in B cell development.

    Patty B Garcia

    Full Text Available Regulated expression of miRNAs influences development in a wide variety of contexts. We report here that miR290-5p (100049710 and miR292-5p (100049711 are induced at the pre-B stage of murine B cell development and that they influence assembly of the Igκ light chain gene (243469 by contributing to the activation of germline Igκ transcription (κGT. We found that upon forced over-expression of miR290-5p/292-5p in Abelson Murine Leukemia Virus (AMuLV transformed pro-B cells, two known activators of κGT, E2A (21423 and NF-κB (19697, show increased chromosomal binding to the kappa intronic enhancer. Conversely, knockdown of miR290-5p/292-5p in AMuLV pro-B cells blunts drug-induced activation of κGT. Furthermore, miR290-5p/292-5p knockdown also diminishes κGT activation, but not Rag1/2 (19373, 19374 expression, in an IL-7 dependent primary pro-B cell culture system. In addition, we identified a deficiency in κGT induction in miR290 cluster knockout mice. We hypothesize that increased expression of miR290-5p and miR292-5p contributes to the induction of κGT at the pre-B stage of B cell development through increased binding of NF-κB and E2A to kappa locus regulatory sequences.

  11. miR290-5p/292-5p activate the immunoglobulin kappa locus in B cell development.

    Garcia, Patty B; Cai, Amie; Bates, Jamie G; Nolla, Hector; Schlissel, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Regulated expression of miRNAs influences development in a wide variety of contexts. We report here that miR290-5p (100049710) and miR292-5p (100049711) are induced at the pre-B stage of murine B cell development and that they influence assembly of the Igκ light chain gene (243469) by contributing to the activation of germline Igκ transcription (κGT). We found that upon forced over-expression of miR290-5p/292-5p in Abelson Murine Leukemia Virus (AMuLV) transformed pro-B cells, two known activators of κGT, E2A (21423) and NF-κB (19697), show increased chromosomal binding to the kappa intronic enhancer. Conversely, knockdown of miR290-5p/292-5p in AMuLV pro-B cells blunts drug-induced activation of κGT. Furthermore, miR290-5p/292-5p knockdown also diminishes κGT activation, but not Rag1/2 (19373, 19374) expression, in an IL-7 dependent primary pro-B cell culture system. In addition, we identified a deficiency in κGT induction in miR290 cluster knockout mice. We hypothesize that increased expression of miR290-5p and miR292-5p contributes to the induction of κGT at the pre-B stage of B cell development through increased binding of NF-κB and E2A to kappa locus regulatory sequences. PMID:22928038

  12. The missing link between technological standards and value-chain governance: the case of patent-distribution strategies in the mobile-communication industry

    Hu Wen; Daniel You-Ren Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of technological standards on the governance structure of production networks by investigating patent-distribution strategies in the global mobile-communication industry. Through a comparative analysis of two mobile-communication technology standards—GSM and CDMA—we find that there exist significantly different patent-distribution strategies which result in varied governance structure as well as power relations within seemingly similar production networks....

  13. Civic engagement and local government strategies for sustainable local community development

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Across Europe more and more citizens involve in voluntary grassroots and NGO activity. Concurrently, more local and national governments express an interest in increasing collaboration with voluntary organisations. The curiosity and interest as regards voluntary labour from public bodies seems to...... regeneration with a range of participatory and collaborative measures aimed at involving local citizens in urban projects and programmes. In the paper it is discussed what motivates and drives members of voluntary community organisations (VCOs). Moreover it is discussed what is the role of volunteering in...

  14. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

    Mark Gary Embrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  15. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders/Belgium

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  16. Potentials and constraints of modeling for transdisciplinary co-producing strategies for sustainable water governance

    Schneider, Flurina

    2013-01-01

    Both climate change and socio-economic development will significantly modify the supply and consumption of water in future. Consequently, regional development has to face aggravation of existing or emergence of new conflicts of interest. In this context, transdisciplinary co-production of knowledge is considered as an important means for coping with these challenges. Accordingly, the MontanAqua project aims at developing strategies for more sustainable water management in the study area Cr...

  17. Governing Migration: Immigrant Groups' Strategies in Three Italian Cities - Rome, Naples and Bari

    Crane, Kristine

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic networks constitute an important component of immigrants' integration in their host societies. This has been a particularly important strategy in Italy, where institutional assistance for immigrants is often paltry and problematic. This paper examines three ethnic communities in Italy that have been particularly successful in using their ethnic social capital for integrating into Italian society at the city level: the Mauritians in Bari, Filipinos in Rome and Chinese in Naples. Sending...

  18. Developing conservation governance strategies: holistic management of protected areas in Nepal

    Budhathoki, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    The Buffer Zone (BZ) concept has been introduced in Nepal as a key component of the national biodiversity conservation strategy to mitigate the impacts of protected areas on local communities, and thereby reduce adverse impacts of local people on protected areas. Unlike traditional Buffer Zone programmes which are mostly limited to creating a protective layer and/or distributing economic benefits to local people, the Buffer Zone management approach in Nepal integrates livelihoods and conserva...

  19. Open Innovation: Implications for Corporate Strategies, Government Policy and International R&D Spillovers

    Jean Guinet; Dirk Meissner

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of public policy to the open innovation process. Innovation processes are dynamic and global. Actors must adapt their strategies to new contexts, including the increasingly knowledge-based global competition. They must reconcile the need for speed in commercial exploitation of new products in order to ensure continuous investments with long lead-time in the development of radical innovation capabilities. For the world leaders in their industries, suppliers ...

  20. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  1. Anti-corruption strategies in some South-Eastern European states.An empirical study on the impact of the government performance

    Matei, Ani; Lucica MATEI

    2010-01-01

    The preoccupations about conceiving and promoting efficient anti-corruption strategies exist in most states, especially in the developing countries. The opportunity of such strategies derives from the direct link, demonstrated theoretically and empirically, between the effects of the anti-corruption strategies and government performance, translated both in the economic and social results and living standard, welfare etc. In the last decades, the transnational actors – UN, World Bank, OECD, EU...

  2. An Analysis of the Collusive Game and Governance Strategy between the Supervisor and the Contractor under the Asymmetric Information

    TaoYan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Project contract is the incomplete contract and the rights and obligations between the parties of the contract cannot be accurately determined because of the inherent characteristics of asymmetric information, incompleteness, the parties' bounded rationality and each party in pursuit of maximizing their own interests. This gives rise to the collusive risk of the project in the process of construction between the supervisor and the contractor. This study firstly takes the supervisor and contractor as each party of the game by using the view of game theory and establishes the game model based on the theory of asymmetric information and then analyzes the effective treatment for both parties' gambling behaviors, finally discuss the governance strategy on the prevention of the collusion between the supervisor and constructor.

  3. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  4. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au)

  5. 开放政府与政府数据公开战略%Open Government and Government Data Disclosure Strategy

    周和

    2012-01-01

    提高政府公信力是全球关注的问题,创新政府管理,建设透明与开放政府,更多地在公共事务上实行公民参与,已成为全球的发展趋势。各国政府也在努力寻找各种途径,使政府更加透明、回应性更强、更加负责和有效。这也使得美国“开放政府”行动的影响越来越大。透明度、参与和协作这三项原则,构成开放政府的基石。而合理地开放政府信息、扩大信息公开与敏感信息的保护、提高政府信息的可及性则是有效实施政府数据公开战略,建设开放政府的必然选择。%This paper describes the origin of open government, and discusses the connotation, value and trends of open government, and points out that innovative government management, building transparent and open government has become the development trend of the world. At the same time, this paper analyzes discussion of the Chinese scholars on building open government in China, and conducts specific discussion from three aspects: reali- zing greater disclosure of government data, finding a balance between open government and sensitive information protection, as well as facilitating public access to government information.

  6. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  7. Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future - national strategy for implementation of the kyoto protocol. The government's report to parliament on 24 November 2005

    The energy and climate policy carried out in recent years has been based on the National Climate Strategy approved by the Government in 2001 and submitted to the Finnish Parliament as a government report. After completion of the strategy, however, the operating environment of the energy and climate policy has undergone so many changes that, in summer 2003, a stand was recorded in the programme of Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen's Government stating that the Government will implement and revise the National Climate Strategy taking into account the EU Directive on emissions trading and the Kyoto mechanisms. The revised strategy, presented in the document Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future - national strategy for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, is given to Parliament as a government report. The report was prepared under the supervision of the Ministerial Working Group on Climate and Energy Policy. The practical preparatory work was carried out by the Climate and Energy Policy Network, comprised of representatives of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of the Environment. The report consists of outline and strategy texts, including background information and stands taken, and four appendices. The strategy proper describes the changes that have taken place in the international operating environment, and presents the Government's outlines for the energy and climate policy in the coming years as well as the actions required by these outlines. The national emission target set for Finland for the Kyoto commitment period can be met with the actions specified in the strategy. According to the trend outlined in the strategy, the diversity of our energy system and the security of energy supply will be preserved, or even improved. The volume of indigenous energy sources, and their share of

  8. Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future. National strategy for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The government's report to parliament on 24 November 2005

    The energy and climate policy carried out in recent years has been based on the National Climate Strategy approved by the Government in 2001 and submitted to the Finnish Parliament as a government report. After completion of the strategy, however, the operating environment of the energy and climate policy has undergone so many changes that, in summer 2003, a stand was recorded in the programme of Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen's Government stating that the Government will implement and revise the National Climate Strategy taking into account the EU Directive on emissions trading and the Kyoto mechanisms. The revised strategy, presented in the document 'Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future - national strategy for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol', is given to Parliament as a government report. The report was prepared under the supervision of the Ministerial Working Group on Climate and Energy Policy. The practical preparatory work was carried out by the Climate and Energy Policy Network, comprised of representatives of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of the Environment. The report consists of outline and strategy texts, including background information and stands taken, and four appendices. The strategy proper describes the changes that have taken place in the international operating environment, and presents the Government's outlines for the energy and climate policy in the coming years as well as the actions required by these outlines. The national emission target set for Finland for the Kyoto commitment period can be met with the actions specified in the strategy. According to the trend outlined in the strategy, the diversity of our energy system and the security of energy supply will be preserved, or even improved. The volume of indigenous energy sources, and their share of

  9. Outline of the Energy and Climate Policy for the Near Future - National Strategy to Implement the Kyoto Protocol. Government Report to Parliament 24 November 2005

    The energy and climate policy carried out in recent years has been based on the National Climate Strategy approved by the Government in 2001 and submitted to the Finnish Parliament as a government report. After completion of the strategy, however, the operating environment of the energy and climate policy has undergone so many changes that, in summer 2003, a stand was recorded in the programme of Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen's Government stating that the Government will implement and revise the National Climate Strategy taking into account the EU Directive on emissions trading and the Kyoto mechanisms. The revised strategy, presented in the document Energy and climate policy outlines for the near future - national strategy for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, is given to Parliament as a government report. The report was prepared under the supervision of the Ministerial Working Group on Climate and Energy Policy. The practical preparatory work was carried out by the Climate and Energy Policy Network, comprised of representatives of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of the Environment. The report consists of outline and strategy texts, including background information and stands taken, and four appendices. The strategy proper describes the changes that have taken place in the international operating environment, and presents the Government's outlines for the energy and climate policy in the coming years as well as the actions required by these outlines. The national emission target set for Finland for the Kyoto commitment period can be met with the actions specified in the strategy. According to the trend outlined in the strategy, the diversity of our energy system and the security of energy supply will be preserved, or even improved. The volume of indigenous energy sources, and their share of

  10. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment.

    Boal, Frédéric; Puhar, Andrea; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Kunduzova, Oksana; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment. PMID:26776508

  11. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment

    Frédéric Boal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment.

  12. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  13. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different comm...

  14. Inhibition of microRNA-31-5p protects human colonic epithelial cells against ionizing radiation

    Kim, Sang Bum; Zhang, Lu; Barron, Summer; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding small RNAs, are sensitive to environmental changes, and their differential expression is important for adaptation to the environment. However, application of miRNAs as a clinical prognostic or diagnostic tool remains unproven. In this study we demonstrate a chronic/persistent change of miRNAs from the plasma of a colorectal cancer susceptible mouse model (CPC;Apc) about 250 days after exposure to a simulated solar particle event (SPE). Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified compared to unirradiated control mice, including miR-31-5p, which we investigated further. To address the cellular function of miR-31-5p, we transfected a miR-31-5p mimic (sense) or inhibitor (antisense) into immortalized human colonic epithelial cells followed by gamma-irradiation. A miR-31-5p mimic sensitized but a miR-31-5p inhibitor protected colonic epithelial cells against radiation induced killing. We found that the miR-31-5p mimic inhibited the induction of hMLH1 expression after irradiation, whereas the miR-31-5p inhibitor increased the basal level of hMLH1 expression. The miR-31-5p inhibitor failed to modulate radiosensitivity in an hMLH1-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell line but protected HCT116 3-6 and DLD-1 (both hMLH1-positive) colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that miR-31-5p has an important role in radiation responses through regulation of hMLH1 expression. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer radiotherapy.

  15. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international context; and (3) suggest options for priorities for the next Strategy to cover period 2003-2007, paying regard to recent developments (including relevant international developments). The target of the...

  16. GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION IN LOCAL CLUSTERS TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCEhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5585/riae.v9i2.1672

    Helen Fischer Günther

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME are designed to operate in networks, cooperatively, in order to obtain benefits that would not occur through the alone action, and encourage the development of local productive arrangements (LPA. Emerge the need for synergy between the actors, operationalized by the mechanisms of integration, which must be managed for efficiency. These characteristics of cooperation and interaction impact the achievement of the objectives and strategies, and administrative functions and plans. Therein appear one of the challenges of present time: how to implement the strategies, plans, and how to make the strategy works? Governance emerges, then, as a medium to achieve the objectives and, so, talk about it in the LPA extends the focus on developing management methods to maintain the idiosyncrasies, to the same extent as they contribute to the effectiveness and improvement in performance.

  17. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  18. 76 FR 34650 - Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace

    2011-06-14

    ... for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce... Ecosystem Framework in accordance with the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC or... importance of cyberspace to U.S. innovation, prosperity, education and political and cultural life, and...

  19. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention. PMID:27198808

  20. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  1. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  2. 基于网络营销理念提升电子政务影响力的策略研究%The Promotion Strategy of E-government's Impact Based on Network Marketing

    李曼; 包文夏

    2014-01-01

    在电子政务的发展中,政府网站“重建设,轻服务”的现状影响了公众对电子政务信息和服务的获取。基于网络营销理念,提出SEO策略、网络推广策略、病毒营销策略、客户关系管理策略来提升电子政务的影响力。%In the development of e-government,situation government website"heavy construction,light service"affects public access to electronic government information and services.Based on network marketing,his article proposes 4 strategies to promote e-government's impact:SEO strategy,network marketing strategy,viral marketing strategy,customer relationship management strategy.

  3. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  4. MiR-21a-5p suppresses bisphenol A-induced pre-adipocyte differentiation by targeting map2k3 through MKK3/p38/MAPK.

    Xie, Xiuwen; Song, Jia; Li, Gang

    2016-04-22

    Childhood obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of excessive fat. Bisphenol A (BPA), a potential obesogen compound, possesses an estrogen mimetic activity and endocrine disruption effect. MicroRNA-21a-5p (miR-21a-5p) is reported to regulate the adipogenic differentiation. Our study showed that miR-21a-5p overexpression significantly decreased the red lipid droplets and triglyceride level in BPA-induced 3T3-L1 cells. BPA induced the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and adiponectin, and the induction was inhibited by miR-21a-5p mimics transfection. MiR-21a-5p mimics inhibited the GR activity, GR phosphorylation (S220, S21a-5p2, and S234), and the activation of p38/MAPK pathway, which are elevated by BPA treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. MiR-21a-5p overexpression inhibited the protein level of MKK3, but not in the mRNA level. Luciferase activity assay showed that miR-21a-5p directly targeted map2k3 3'-UTR. MKK3 overexpression attenuated the effect of miR-21a-5p mimics transfection on 3T3-L1 differentiation. We also assessed the body weight, fat mass and the content of serum lipid in rats subcutaneous injected with BPA and miR-21a-5p mimics. MiR-21a-5p overexpression attenuated BPA-induced obesity in vivo. These findings suggested that miR-21a-5p inhibited BPA induced adipocyte differentiation by targeting map2k3 through MKK3/p38/MAPK in 3T3-L1 cells, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for BPA induced obesity. PMID:26996129

  5. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  6. Stakeholder Governance

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation to...... e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  7. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  8. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  9. Cambodia Health System Review: The Current Policies and Strategies of the Health System’s Governance, Financing, and Service Delivery

    Peat, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia’s health system is in a period of transition as policy innovation and reform began in 1996. Importantly, the Ministry of Health (MoH) and donor agencies have undergone a series of policy shifts in an attempt to strengthen the health system in order to provide equitable access to health care for the population. This paper will describe the health system’s governance, financing and service delivery functions in regards to their current situation and recent innovations that aim to impro...

  10. MicroRNA-187-5p suppresses cancer cell progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through down-regulation of CYP1B1.

    Mao, Ming; Wu, Zhouqing; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-09-16

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for over 80% of lung cancer-related deaths. Identifying novel molecular biomarker that can inhibit the progression of lung cancer will facilitate the development of new treatment strategies. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-187-5p is a tumor-suppressor miRNA in NSCLC progression. We found that expression of miR-187-5p was decreased obviously in NSCLC tissues. Down-regulation of miR-187-5p was associated with TNM stage and postoperative survival. Overexpression of miR-187-5p inhibited the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. The CYP1B1 was a direct target of miR-187-5p and promoted the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Further study showed that CYP1B1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-187-5p on growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data highlight the pivotal role of miR-187-5p in the progression of NSCLC. Thus, miR-187-5p may be a potential prognostic marker and of treatment relevance for NSCLC progression intervention. PMID:27495872

  11. Economic competitiveness and governance in areas of urban deprivation: the case study of two growth strategies in London.

    Bertotti, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    In an urban context characterised by concentrated and persistent deprivation there has been a history of policy intervention albeit with limited impact. Michael Porter's US inspired City Growth Strategy (CGS) initiative presented an alternative approach to urban economic regeneration within the UK characterised by a focus on the competitive advantages of deprived urban areas and a leading role for the private sector within the policy making process. This thesis investigates the implem...

  12. Good Governance i Cambodja

    Hansen, Thomas Kieler

    2012-01-01

    This project aims to asses the concept of governance, in reference to its use in the Cambodian development strategy. A theoretical analysis of the term, will determine how and in what manner the notion of governance relates to the field of developmental aid. An identification of the key concepts that relate to governance theory, will hereafter be applied to the Cambodian development strategy, in search of which focal points are hindering for the country’s development process. With the use of ...

  13. The government draft of the Combined Heat and Power Generation Act 2016. Exit strategy or prospects for the future?

    The combined heat and power (CHP) is in addition to renewable energy and energy efficiency a cornerstone for the transformation of the energy sector towards greater climate and environmental friendliness. Due to the situation in the energy markets currently plants operated with natural gas have come under pressure. Against the background of the critical economic situation of many gas-based cogeneration plants, it is therefore necessary, with a new combined heat and power law (CHP) to provide planning security for the plant operator. Meanwhile, there is a government draft of the Combined Heat and Power Generation Act in 2016, which includes far-reaching changes for the CHP. This article summarizes the most important changes.

  14. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence.

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  15. Strategies to manage stream flow to benefit people and nature: a non-government conservation organisation's perspective.

    Pittock, J; Holland, R

    2004-01-01

    More than for any other biome, freshwater biodiversity is increasingly imperiled, particularly due to poor stream flow management and increasing demand for water diversions. The adoption by the world's governments of targets to extend water services to the poor and at the same time to conserve biodiversity increase the need to better direct investments in freshwater management. In this paper WWF draws on examples from its work to identify areas where investment can be focused to assure efficient water use and improve stream flow management, namely: Prioritize and target those river basins and sub-catchments that are most critical for conservation of freshwater biodiversity to maintain stream flows; Link strategic field, policy and market interventions at different scales in river basins to maximize the impact of interventions; Implement the World Commission on Dams guidelines to minimize investment in large scale and costly infrastructure projects; Apply market mechanisms and incentives for more sustainable production of the world's most water consuming crops Enhance statutory river basin management organizations to draw on their regulatory and financial powers; Implement international agreements, such as the Convention on Wetlands; Integrate environment and development policies. PMID:15195421

  16. Issue 3: Driving factors for nuclear industry strategies and choices. Accelerating the nuclear renaissance: Crucial roles for government and industry

    Ten years ago, the phrase 'nuclear renaissance' conveyed only a cautious hope within a narrow community of dedicated professionals. Today, the rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. This revitalisation is a composite of several developments: - Continuing evolutionary advance in reactor technology; - Multinational research efforts to produce quantum leaps in technology; - Unprecedented levels of efficiency and capacity utilisation in key countries; - A robust and accumulating record of operational safety, backed by the emergence of a global nuclear safety culture; - Political progress in implementing the scientifically sound concept of waste disposal using deep geological repositories; - And the truest barometer - expansive growth planning for nuclear power in major nations in both the developed and developing worlds. In countries representing the preponderance of world economic activity and world population - from North America across much of Europe to Russia and on to the leading countries of South and East Asia - the value of nuclear power has been reviewed and reaffirmed. Major countries without nuclear power - such as Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam - stand on the threshold of introducing nuclear energy for the first time; and even Italy, the one nation ever to suspend nuclear generation, now plans to reconsider. To be sure, anti-nuclear convictions can still be found: - In the mythologies that motivate many environmental groups; - In the assumptions of environmental journalists and bureaucrats; - In the rhetoric of some small countries like Denmark and Austria that are not inhibited by the hypocrisy of importing nuclear electricity, and - In the case of Germany, in the declaratory policy of a major country where a governing coalition is temporarily beholden to a small minority party. But all of these reactionary forces, taken together, are receding under the onslaught of facts that

  17. miR-339-5p regulates the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway by targeting MDM2

    Jansson, M D; Djodji Damas, Nkerorema; Lees, M;

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many key cancer-relevant pathways and may themselves possess oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions. Consequently, miRNA dysregulation has been shown to be a prominent feature in many human cancers. The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a negative regulator of cell...... proliferation in response to stress and represents the most commonly lost and mutated gene in human cancers. The function of p53 is inhibited by the MDM2 oncoprotein. Using a high-throughput screening approach, we identified miR-339-5p as a regulator of the p53 pathway. We demonstrate that this regulation...... occurs via the ability of miR-339-5p to target directly the 3'-untranslated region of MDM2 mRNA, reducing MDM2 expression and thus promoting p53 function. Consequently, overexpression of miR-339-5p positively impacts on p53-governed cellular responses such as proliferation arrest and senescence, whereas...

  18. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Heide Weishaar

    governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against industry efforts to disrupt the implementation of the FCTC and support the development of future, comparable initiatives in global health.

  19. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  20. Strategy of Government-Oriented Tourism Development%我国政府主导型旅游业发展策略探析

    王珏

    2015-01-01

    At present, the rapid growth of China′s tourism industry continues to rise in the status of social development and national economy. But problems arise in the financial support, infrastructure, eco-tourism, intelligent tourism, resources sharing, environmental protection, coordination among travel security and other departments, industrial upgrading and industrial management. Thus, it is particularly important to give full play to the leading role of the government. The government should take the leading role and the dominant strategy in the tourism industry, which can sort and handle coordinating relations between the government and the tourism market, avoid blind investment and major mistakes, feasibly protect national tourism resources from destruction, and effectively guarantee the healthy and sustainable development of the tourism industry.%目前,我国旅游产业规模快速壮大,在社会发展和国民经济中的地位持续提升.但在发展的同时,也带来金融支持、基础建设、生态旅游、智能旅游、资源共享、环境保护、旅行安全等部门协调、产业升级及行业管理问题. 由此,充分发挥政府的主导作用尤为重要. 政府在旅游产业中的主导行为和采取的主导策略,能够梳理与处理协调好政府与旅游市场的关系,避免投资的盲目性与重大失误,切实保护国家旅游资源不被破坏,有效保证旅游产业健康有序的持续发展.

  1. 政府推进农村信息化策略探析%Strategy on Promoting Rural Informatization by Government

    程海梅

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems in the construction of rural informatization, this article highlighted the government functions from the view of public management. According the practice of rural informatization construction in China, strategies for government on promoting rural informatization by adjusting measures to local conditions were proposed, including overall coordination, increasing investment, reducing cost, establishing standards, perfecting the system and personnel training, etc.%针对农村信息化建设中存在的问题,从公共管理角度突出政府职能发挥,结合我国农村信息化建设实际,从统筹协调、加大投入、降低成本、建立标准、完善体系和人才培养等角度为政府因地制宜地推进我国各地区信息化建设提出策略建议。

  2. 5p13 microduplication syndrome: a new case and better clinical definition of the syndrome.

    Novara, Francesca; Alfei, Enrico; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Beri, Silvana; Achille, Valentina; Sciacca, Francesca L; Giorda, Roberto; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ciccone, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome (OMIM #613174), a contiguous gene syndrome involving duplication of several genes on chromosome 5p13 including NIPBL (OMIM 608667), has been described in rare patients with developmental delay and learning disability, behavioral problems and peculiar facial dysmorphisms. 5p13 duplications described so far present with variable sizes, from 0.25 to 13.6 Mb, and contain a variable number of genes. Here we report another patient with 5p13 duplication syndrome including NIPBL gene only. Proband's phenotype overlapped that reported in patients with 5p13 microduplication syndrome and especially that of subjects with smaller duplications. Moreover, we better define genotype-phenotype relationship associated with this duplication and confirmed that NIPBL was likely the major dosage sensitive gene for the 5p13 microduplication phenotype. PMID:23085304

  3. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  4. A 360-degree Data Governance Strategy for Medical Institutions%面向医疗机构的360°数据管控策略研究

    王斌; 李忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide a 360-degree data governance strategy for medical institutions in order to further improve the medical information quality and access efficiency. Methods With the enterprise medical data warehouse as the basis platform, the accountability recognition mechanism of medical institutions internal data was perfected, and the active data governance was exerted with a 360-degree all-round view under data stewardship in the following areas: data quality, data integration, data security and privacy, metadata management, and master data management. Results Through this kind of full -spectrum data governance, medical institutions could greatly improve their information access efficiency and data quality, and finally step into a new elaborately-managed operational mode. Conclnsion In virtue of clear data monitoring, standardized workflow, and definitive data stewardship, this 360-degree data governance can help effectively and efficiently solve the data integration and data quality problems massively confronting medical institutions. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(6) :45-48]%目的:为了进一步提高医疗数据质量和信息获取效率,提出一种面向医疗机构的360°全方位数据管控机制.方法:以企业级数据仓库为基础平台,完善医疗机构内部数据认责机制,并通过对数据质量、数据集成、数据安全与隐私、元数据管理、数据标准等细分层面的主动管控,以360°全方位视角完成整个医疗机构的数据管控.结果:通过这种全方位数据管控,医疗机构可以有效提升数据准确率和利用率,通过有效反馈,不断完善,最终步入精细化运营阶段.结论:360°全方位医疗数据管控平台通过监控数据流向、规范工作流程、明确数据职责,可以有效地解决异构系统集成问题,大幅度提升数据质量和数据访问效率.

  5. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid;

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via...... partially rescued these cells from miR-30a-5p-mediated growth suppression. In addition, TP53 and CDKN1A expression were increased in miR-30a-5p-overexpressing HCT116 cells, suggesting that miR-30a-5p is able to modulate the cell cycle via a DTL-TP53-CDKN1A regulatory circuit. Finally, 379 colorectal cancer...

  6. "Growth without Governance"

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that there is a strong positive correlation between per capita incomes and the quality of governance across countries. the authors propose an empirical strategy that allows separation of this correlation into (1) a strong positive causal effect running from better governance to higher per capita incomes, and, perhaps surprisingly at first, (2) a weak and even negative caus...

  7. Urinary microRNA-30a-5p is a potential biomarker for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma.

    Zhou, Jun; Gong, Guanghui; Tan, Hong; Dai, Furong; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Yile; Wang, Junpu; Liu, Ying; Chen, Puxiang; Wu, Xiaoying; Wen, Jifang

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as biomarkers in human cancer. To determine the clinical value of urinary miRNAs for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, we collected urine samples from 39 ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, 26 patients with benign gynecological disease and 30 healthy controls. The miRNA microarray data showed that only miR-30a-5p was upregulated and 37 miRNAs were downregulated in the urine samples of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, when compared to healthy controls, which was confirmed after conducting quantitative PCR. The upregulation of urinary miR-30a-5p was closely associated with early stage of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma as well as lymphatic metastasis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated the potential use of urinary miR-30a-5p as a diagnostic marker for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, a lower urine level of miR-30a-5p was found in 20 gastric cancer and 20 colon carcinoma patients when compared to ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that the upregulation of urinary miR-30a-5p may be specific for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. miR-30a-5p was also upregulated in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines, while urinary miR-30a-5p from ovarian cancer patients was notably reduced following the surgical removal of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that urinary miR-30a-5p was derived from the ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissue. Notably, miR-30a-5p was concentrated with exosomes from the ovarian cancer cell supernatant or urine from ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, supporting a pathway for excretion into the urine. The results also showed that the knockdown of miR-30a-5p significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence of increased miR-30a-5p in the urine of ovarian serous adeno-carcinoma patients, while the inhibition of miR-30a-5p suppressed the

  8. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    BĂLĂCEANU, Cristina; TILEA, Doina; Andreea-Monica PREDONU

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are implemented around the world and may impact upon the population worldwide. In developing countries, such reforms are implemented in a broader context that is primarily defined by previous attempts of promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalization reforms associated with the economic globalization), in effect, represent a new development strategy for t...

  9. Governing Engineering

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of...... engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  10. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on...... processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  11. Iterative Precision Measurement of Branching Ratios Applied to 5P states in 88Sr+

    Zhang, Helena; Low, Guang Hao; Rines, Richard; Stuart, Jules; Wu, Tailin; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method for measuring the branching ratios of dipole transitions of trapped atomic ions by performing nested sequences of population inversions. This scheme is broadly applicable and does not use ultrafast pulsed or narrow linewidth lasers. It is simple to perform and insensitive to experimental variables such as laser and magnetic field noise as well as ion heating. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we make the most accurate measurements thus far of the branching ratios of both 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 states in 88Sr+ with sub-1% uncertainties. We measure 17.175(27) for the branching ratio of 5P1/2-5S1/2, 15.845(71) for 5P3/2-5S1/2, and 0.05609(21) for 5P3/2-4D5/2, ten- fold and thirty-fold improvements in precision for 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 branching ratios respectively over the best previous experimental values.

  12. The Role of Government and Markets in the Strategy “Europe 2020” of the European Union: A Robust Political Economy Analysis

    Wandel Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s current ten year strategy “Europe 2020” aims to set out a vision of a European social market economy for the 21st century that will promote economic growth with social and ecological attributes. This article analyzes the roles ascribed to the government and the market and the extent this role allocation is suitable to enhance growth of the European Union’s member states. Based on a robust political economy framework it is argued that this new economic policy concept is in essence a technocratic approach and a form of selective interventionism. As such it suffers from three major shortcomings: (1 it underestimates the difficulties of gathering and analyzing the relevant information necessary for steering the economy in the desired direction, (2 it encourages rent-seeking rather than productive entrepreneurship, and (3 it may cause a subtle transformation of the societal order through the diminution of individual liberties. It is contended that while an interventionist policy approach meets the preferences of large parts of the population, not the least in Germany, it is unlikely to boost economic growth and employment in the EU.

  13. A p53-dependent tumor suppressor network is induced by selective miR-125a-5p inhibition in multiple myeloma cells.

    Leotta, Marzia; Biamonte, Lavinia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Ronchetti, Domenica; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Botta, Cirino; Leone, Emanuela; Pitari, Maria Rita; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Amodio, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) is emerging as a novel approach to disclose the regulation of tumor suppressor or tumor promoting pathways in tumor cells. Targeting aberrantly expressed miRNAs is therefore a promising strategy for cancer treatment. By miRNA profiling of primary plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we previously reported increased miR-125a-5p levels associated to specific molecular subgroups. On these premises, we aimed at investigating the biological effects triggered by miR-125a-5p modulation in MM cells. Expression of p53 pathway-related genes was down-regulated in MM cells transfected with miR-125a-5p mimics. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed specific p53 targeting at 3'UTR level by miR-125a-5p mimics. Interestingly, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) affected the miR-125a-5p/p53 axis, since adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs strongly up-regulated miR-125a-5p levels, while reduced p53 expression. Moreover, ectopic miR-125a-5p reduced, while miR-125-5p inhibitors promoted, the expression of tumor suppressor miR-192 and miR-194, transcriptionally regulated by p53. Lentiviral-mediated stable inhibition of miR-125a-5p expression in wild-type p53 MM cells dampened cell growth, increased apoptosis and reduced cell migration. Importantly, inhibition of in vitro MM cell proliferation and migration was also achieved by synthetic miR-125a-5p inhibitors and was potentiated by the co-expression of miR-192 or miR-194. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-125a-5p antagonism results in the activation of p53 pathway in MM cells, underlying the crucial role of this miRNA in the biopathology of MM and providing the molecular rationale for the combinatory use of miR-125a inhibitors and miR-192 or miR-194 mimics for MM treatment. PMID:24819167

  14. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ Currents Through TRPC Channels Controlled via the PI(4,5P2-PLC Signaling Pathway

    Masayuki X Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5P2 on different ROCs.

  15. Consultancy support to GCC ICT Authorities to assist in creating common guidelines and strategies to enhance the development of eGovernment within the eGULF Initiative: final report

    J. Millard; J. Shahin

    2010-01-01

    This consultancy support analyses global experience in eGovernment cooperation between responsible authorities, examines the needs and existing strategies of each of the six GCC Countries, identifies common elements and areas where mutual cooperation will be beneficial, and proposes common guideline

  16. Enterprise IT governance key decision-making based on strategy alignment and analytic hierarchy process%基于战略匹配和层次分析的企业IT治理关键问题决策

    计春阳; 唐志豪

    2012-01-01

    The alignment between business strategy and IT strategy is the bases for good IT governance performance. And enterprises have to do five key decisions for their IT governance. To convert the alignment ideal into quantitative model so as to support enterprise IT governance decision, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) algorithm was introduced , and collaboration between business and IT strategy was simulated. Business strategy management of Porter, and strategy alignment management of Henderson were borrowed to represent business strategy and IT strategy. An IT governance key decision-making model based on the quantitative results of strategic alignment was put forward and validated through computation and analysis of real cases.%企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配是确保IT治理取得良好绩效的重要前提.企业的IT治理必须完成五个关键问题的决策.为有效地将战略对应的思想转化为量化模型,支持企业决策,本文引入网络层次分析法模拟企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配关系,分别借用Porter的战略管理理论和Henderson的战略匹配模型代表企业战略和IT战略,提出了基于战略匹配的企业IT治理五个关键问题决策模型,并通过实例分析与运算验证了该模型的有效性.

  17. Electron-impact ionization of laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p) and Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d) atoms

    Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.; Antoni, T.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p; 1P1, M = - 1) and cascade-populated Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d; 1D + 3D) atoms were measured in the threshold to 10 eV energy range. The peak cross sections for the excited species are about a factor of 2 larger than that for ground-state Ba. In addition, it was demonstrated that ionization from individual magnetic substates of various hyperfine levels can be studied. The ionization cross sections in the case of Ba-138 (1P1) were found to be equal for the M = 0 and for the M = + or - 1 sublevels within the experimental error limit.

  18. Energy-Pooling Collisions in Rubidium: 5P3/2+ 5P3/2 → 5S + (nl = 5D, 7S)

    SHEN Yi-Fan; DAI Kang; MU Bao-Xia; WANG Shu-Ying; CUI Xiu-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ We experimentally study rubidium energy pooling collisions of Rb(5P3/2) + Rb(5P3/2) → Rb(5S1/2) + Rb (nlJ =5DJ, 7S1/2) at low densities in a cell using diode laser excitation. The excited-atom density and spatial distribution are mapped by monitoring the absorption of a counterpropagating single-mode diode laser beam, tuned to the 5P3/2 → 7S1/2 transition, which could be translated parallel to the pump beam. The excited atom densities are combined with measured fluorescence ratios to determine cross sections for the rubidium energy pooling process.The cross sections for nlJ being 5D5/2, 5D3/2, and 7S1/2 are (1.32 ± 0.59) × 10-14, (1.18 ± 0.53) × 10-14 and (3.21 ± 1.44) × 10-15 cm2, respectively.

  19. Involvement of aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p25 activity in experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Yousuf, Mohammad A; Tan, Chunfeng; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; Lu, Fang-Min; Plautz, Erik; Zhang, Shanrong; Takahashi, Masaya; Hernandez, Adan; Kernie, Steven G; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with adverse effects on brain functions, including sensation, language, emotions and/or cognition. Therapies for improving outcomes following TBI are limited. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI may suggest novel treatment strategies to facilitate recovery and improve treatment outcome. Aberrant activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. Cdk5 is a neuronal protein kinase activated via interaction with its cofactor p35 that regulates numerous neuronal functions, including synaptic remodeling and cognition. However, conversion of p35 to p25 via Ca(2+) -dependent activation of calpain results in an aberrantly active Cdk5/p25 complex that is associated with neuronal damage and cell death. Here, we show that mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model, exhibit increased p25 levels and consistently elevated Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in hippocampal lysates. Moreover, CCI-induced neuroinflammation as indicated by increased astrocytic activation and number of reactive microglia. Brain-wide conditional Cdk5 knockout mice (Cdk5 cKO) subjected to CCI exhibited significantly reduced edema, ventricular dilation, and injury area. Finally, neurophysiological recordings revealed that CCI attenuated excitatory post-synaptic potential field responses in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway 24 h after injury. This neurophysiological deficit was attenuated in Cdk5 cKO mice. Thus, TBI induces increased levels of p25 generation and aberrant Cdk5 activity, which contributes to pathophysiological processes underlying TBI progression. Hence, selectively preventing aberrant Cdk5 activity may be an effective acute strategy to improve recovery from TBI. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases astrogliosis and microglial activation

  20. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4. PMID:26446256

  1. Does Candida albicans Als5p Amyloid Play a Role in Commensalism in Caenorhabditis elegans?

    Bois, Michael; Singh, Sean; Samlalsingh, Alyssa; Lipke, Peter N.; Garcia, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus and an opportunistic pathogen, possesses a myriad of adherence factors, including members of the agglutinin-like sequence (Als) family of mannoproteins. The adhesin Als5p mediates adhesion to many substrates and is upregulated during commensal interactions but is downregulated during active C. albicans infections. An amyloid-forming core sequence at residues 325 to 331 is important for Als5p function, because a single-amino-acid substitution at position 32...

  2. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation.

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Yanzhi; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. PMID:27179777

  3. Interactive governance

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy;

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other...... governments, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors...

  4. Targeting of multiple myeloma-related angiogenesis by miR-199a-5p mimics: in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity.

    Raimondi, Lavinia; Amodio, Nicola; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Altomare, Emanuela; Leotta, Marzia; Caracciolo, Daniele; Gullà, Annamaria; Neri, Antonino; Taverna, Simona; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Alessandro, Riccardo; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2014-05-30

    Multiple myeloma (MM) cells induce relevant angiogenic effects within the human bone marrow milieu (huBMM) by the aberrant expression of angiogenic factors. Hypoxia triggers angiogenic events within the huBMM and the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is over-expressed by MM cells. Since synthetic miR-199a-5p mimics negatively regulates HIF-1α, we here investigated a miRNA-based therapeutic strategy against hypoxic MM cells. We indeed found that enforced expression of miR-199a-5p led to down-modulated expression of HIF-1α as well as of other pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, IL-8, and FGFb in hypoxic MM cells in vitro. Moreover, miR-199a-5p negatively affected MM cells migration, while it increased the adhesion of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, transfection of MM cells with miR-199a-5p significantly impaired also endothelial cells migration and down-regulated the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Finally, we identified a hypoxia\\AKT/miR-199a-5p loop as a potential molecular mechanism responsible of miR-199a-5p down-regulation in hypoxic MM cells. Taken together our results indicate that miR-199a-5p has an important role for the pathogenesis of MM and support the hypothesis that targeting angiogenesis via a miRNA/HIF-1α pathway may represent a novel potential therapeutical approach for this still lethal disease. PMID:24839982

  5. IT GOVERNANCE AND BUSINESS CORPORATE STRATEGY – BASED ON EMBEDDING THE PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT WITH THE IT&C VALUE CHAIN

    Mihail Sădeanu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the key concepts related to the current process of IT Governance in modern corporations. The first part addresses the definitions of IT Governance and its life-cycle model, the covered strategic areas and the effective governance management ways, the IT value management for ensuring value delivery, and the IT value chain based on projects and programs together with the organizational value of the IT&C programs and projects. The second part deals with the IT value chain bas...

  6. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. PMID:27008179

  7. Membrane association of the cycling peroxisome import receptor Pex5p.

    Kerssen, Daniela; Hambruch, Eva; Klaas, Wibke; Platta, Harald W; de Kruijff, Ben; Erdmann, Ralf; Kunau, Wolf-H; Schliebs, Wolfgang

    2006-09-15

    Peroxisomal proteins carrying a peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) are recognized in the cytosol by the cycling import receptor Pex5p. The receptor-cargo complex docks at the peroxisomal membrane where it associates with multimeric protein complexes, referred to as the docking and RING finger complexes. Here we have identified regions within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex5p sequence that interconnect the receptor-cargo complex with the docking complex. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved tryptophan residue within a reverse WXXXF motif abolished two-hybrid binding with the N-terminal half of Pex14p. In combination with an additional mutation introduced into the Pex13p-binding site, we generated a Pex5p mutant defective in a stable association not only with the docking complex but also with the RING finger peroxins at the membrane. Surprisingly, PTS1 proteins are still imported into peroxisomes in these mutant cells. Because these mutations had no significant effect on the membrane binding properties of Pex5p, we examined yeast and human Pex5p for intrinsic lipid binding activity. In vitro analyses demonstrated that both proteins have the potential to insert spontaneously into phospholipid membranes. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that a translocation-competent state of the PTS1 receptor enters the membrane via protein-lipid interactions before it tightly associates with other peroxins. PMID:16849337

  8. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Jia Meng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p < 0.05. Taken together, the present findings suggest that miR-194-5p may be a viable miRNA biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Nanotechnology governance

    Kurath, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Current discourses in science, technology and innovation policy describe a shift from formal, governmental, or statutory regulation to non-hierarchical, informal, and cooperative self-regulatory approaches. They narrate a turn from government to governance, described as a “governance turn.” Governance as a new and popular mode of regulation, deliberation and shared responsibility is often linked to favored attributes of science and technology development, and policy making such as democracy a...

  10. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  11. Plural Governance

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes a...... model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  12. Program governance

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  13. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 31-32M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Closure of the telephone switchboard at 5 p.m. on 20 December

    Communications Support Section

    2013-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 5 p.m. on Friday 20 December, instead of 6 p.m. (usual time), to allow time for all systems to be properly closed before the annual closure.   Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will cease. All other phone services will run as usual.

  15. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 17-18M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 30-31M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 78-79M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 78 and 79 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Kingman Reef Site 5P 3/17/2002 33-34M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P 6 23.805N, 162 20.941W, between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 32-33M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 30-29M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 28-29M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 10-9M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 47-46M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 16-17M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P 00 11.781N, 176 29.176W, between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 47-48M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 7-6M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 25-26M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 10-11M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 21-22M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 23-24M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 24-25M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 20-21M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 11-12M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 12-13M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 19-20M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 7-8M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 17-18M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 15-16M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 22-23M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 16-17M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 13-14M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 18-19M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 14-15M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 60-61M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P 06 23.805N, 162 20.941W, between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 60-61M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 60-61M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P 00 11.781N, 176 29.176W, between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Baker Island Site 5P 2/9/2001 60-61M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P 0 11.781N, 176 29.176W, between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 40-39M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 6-7M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 40-41M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 43-44M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 7-8M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 11-12M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Nuclear PI5P, Uhrf1, and the Road Not Taken

    Reynoird, Nicolas; Gozani, Or

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gelato et al (2014) identify the signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) as an allosteric regulator that determines the mode of chromatin binding for the DNA methylation maintenance factor Uhrf1. This work links nuclear lipids to chromatin signaling in the maintenance of DNA methylation and epigenetic regulation.

  15. Nuclear PI5P, Uhrf1, and the road not taken.

    Reynoird, Nicolas; Gozani, Or

    2014-06-19

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gelato et al. (2014) identify the signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P) as an allosteric regulator that determines the mode of chromatin binding for the DNA methylation maintenance factor Uhrf1. This work links nuclear lipids to chromatin signaling in the maintenance of DNA methylation and epigenetic regulation. PMID:24950375

  16. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 81-82M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (06 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 13-14M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 55-56M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 55 and 56 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 25-26M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Kingman Reef Site 5P 2/23/2001 5-6M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P 6 23.805N, 162 20.941W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Predatory Governance

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that imperfect corporate control is a determinant of market structure. We integrate a widely accepted version of the separation of ownership and control -- Jensen's (1986) 'empire-building' hypothesis -- into a dynamic oligopoly model. Our main observation is that, due to product market competition, shareholders face an endogenous opportunity cost of governance. We derive shareholders' optimal governance choices and show analytically that governance has a first-order effect ...

  2. Corporate Governance

    Zingales, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the firm. In this respect, the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm are reviewed and the possible applications of the idea that the firm is a ‘nexus of specific investments’ introduced by Rajan and Zingale...

  3. Corporate Governance

    Luigi Zingales

    1997-01-01

    This essay summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I" argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. " In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the" firm. In this respect, I review the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm and the" possible applications of the idea that the firm is a specific investments" introduced by" Rajan and Zingales (1997a...

  4. The Governance Structure, Mechanism and Strategy of Library Consortia%图书馆联盟治理的结构、机制及策略

    刘丽萍

    2015-01-01

    文章在探究图书馆联盟治理的涵义和主要特征的基础上,对图书馆联盟治理结构模型和管理机制进行了重点分析,从政府、行业协会、图书馆、社会以及科研角度出发,提出了改进和提升图书馆联盟治理水平的对策和建议,为促进图书馆联盟治理和提高协同水平,实现可持续发展目标提供理论依据.%On the basis of the meaning and key feature of library consortia governance this paper analyzes the governance structure model and management mechanism and proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to enhance level of library consortia governance in order to promote the library consortia governance and improve the cooperative level, achieve the goal of sustainable development providing theoretical foundation from the government, industry associations, library, social and scientiifc research.

  5. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  6. Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Lebensohn, Andres M; Ma, Le; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Kirschner, Marc W

    2006-01-01

    Xenopus egg cytoplasmic extracts have been used to study a variety of complex cellular processes. Given their amenability to biochemical manipulation and physiological balance of regulatory proteins, these extracts are an ideal system to dissect signal transduction pathways leading to actin assembly. We have developed methods to study Cdc42 and PI(4,5)P2-induced actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. In this chapter, we describe detailed procedures to prepare Xenopus egg extracts, Cdc42, and PI(4,5)P2 for use in actin assembly experiments. We also describe a fluorometric pyrene actin assay for quantitative kinetic analysis of actin polymerization and a microscopic rhodamine actin assay for quick measurement of actin rearrangements in extracts. Finally we provide a protocol for immunodepletion of proteins and discuss the use of immunodepletion and rescue experiments for functional analysis of components in the extracts. PMID:16472657

  7. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory

  8. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra;

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  9. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f...... entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  10. The proteasome cap RPT5/Rpt5p subunit prevents aggregation of unfolded ricin A chain

    Pietroni, Paola; Vasisht, Nishi; Cook, Jonathan P;

    2013-01-01

    model is that the bulk of ER-dislocated RTA is degraded by proteasomes. We show here that the proteasome has a more complex role in ricin intoxication than previously recognised, that the previously reported increase in sensitivity of mammalian cells to ricin in the presence of proteasome inhibitors......5p in the triage of substrates in which either activation (folding) or inactivation (degradation) pathways may be initiated....

  11. Corporate Governance

    Žilková, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Definition and basic theoretic information about Corporate Governance of big industry company Description and Analyse of corporate Management, the functions of Top Management Members, their role in relationship to owners / shareholders (describtion of used tools for internal control of government, investment and tools for financial analyses)

  12. Adaptation on a regional level. From national and supranational strategies to practical actions in the local and regional government and the economic life

    The presentation reviews various national strategies in the climate policies with emphasis on challenge approaches and greenhouse gas emissions. Measures in and implementations of the climatic handling and policies both regionally, nationally and supranationally are discussed (tk)

  13. Revealing the Anti-Tumor Effect of Artificial miRNA p-27-5p on Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line T-47D

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs cause mRNA degradation or translation suppression of their target genes. Previous studies have found direct involvement of miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Artificial miRNAs, designed to target single or multiple genes of interest, provide a new therapeutic strategy for cancer. This study investigates the anti-tumor effect of a novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, on breast cancer. In this study, we reveal that miR P-27-5p downregulates the differential gene expressions associated with the protein modification process and regulation of cell cycle in T-47D cells. Introduction of this novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, into breast cell lines inhibits cell proliferation and induces the first “gap” phase (G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines but does not affect normal breast cells. We further show that miR P-27-5p targets the 3′-untranslated mRNA region (3′-UTR of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 and reduces both the mRNA and protein level of CDK4, which in turn, interferes with phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB1. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of miR p-27-5p on cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest are through the downregulation of CDK4 and the suppression of RB1 phosphorylation. This study opens avenues for future therapies targeting breast cancer.

  14. MicroRNA miR-J1-5p as a potential biomarker for JC virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Alexander Link

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: JC virus (JCV, a human polyomavirus that causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC. However, determination of JCV infection and its role in carcinogenesis has been challenging, highlighting the need for better diagnostic strategies for this virus. JCV-specific microRNAs (miRNAs were identified and shown to negatively regulate oncogenic JCV T-Ag. Herein, we determined the pattern of JCV miRNA expression in clinical specimens from healthy subjects and CRC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: JCV miRNA expression was validated in CRC cell lines transfected with the JCV T-Ag. Results were confirmed using CRC tissues that were expressed T-Ag. Expression of JCV-specific miR-J1-5p was measured in fresh stool samples from healthy volunteers, and samples from fecal occult blood test kits from healthy subject, and patients with colorectal neoplasms. RESULTS: JCV miR-J1-5p was detected in JCV-transfected, but not vector-transfected, CRC cells, and was stable between cell passages. MiR-J1-5p was present in all six JCV T-Ag+ CRC samples. Surprisingly, JCV miRNA was detectable in all normal tissues, but the expression was much lower in CRC tissues. Similarly, miR-J1-5p expression was present in all fecal samples, but expression was lower in CRCs compared to controls or adenoma patients. CONCLUSION: JC virus-specific miR-J1-5p miRNA is a potential biomarker for viral infection, and the lower expression in patients with colonic neoplasia highlights its biological role regulating oncogenic T-Ag expression in CRC. IMPACT: JCV-specific miRNA is a candidate for the development of a non-invasive screening test, as well as therapeutic intervention for JCV-associated diseases.

  15. Renewing governance.

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  16. Government Accounting

    Ian Ball; Gary Pflugrath

    2012-01-01

    As the current sovereign debt crisis engulfing Europe broadens and threatens to bring down more governments and lead the world into another, potentially very serious, economic slowdown, minimal commentary and public debate has focused on a fundamental problem, and the need to address it. That problem is the deficient – and sometimes fraudulent – accounting practices employed by many governments around the world. A major shortcoming of many governments has been highlighted by the crisis â€...

  17. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years. PMID:26845819

  18. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p by a natural compound extracted from Brazilian Red Propolis

    Cinzia Lotti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms leading to the treatment failure of some forms of cancer or life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections is often caused by the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. The multidrug resistance of fungal cells often involves the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR family of ABC transporters. Possibly the best-studied fungal PDR transporter is the multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some research groups have been searching for new inhibitors of these efflux pumps in order to alleviate resistance. Natural products are a great source for the discovery of new compounds with biological activity. Propolis is a complex resinous material collected by honeybees from exudates and buds of certain plant sources and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee hives. Propolis is widely used in traditional medicine and is reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Literature reported some biological functionalities of propolis, such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The chemical composition of propolis is qualitatively and quantitatively variable. Components isolated from methanolic extract of red Brazilian propolis (Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil are isoflavonoids (including pterocarpans, isoflavans, isoflavones, flavanones and polyprenylated benzophenones. In this work we demonstrated the effects of five different isolated compounds on the ATPase activity of Pdr5p. Out of all five substances tested, only BRP-1 was able to completely abolish the enzymatic activity while others worked as positive modulators of the enzyme activity. BRP-1also inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine 6G from yeast cells overexpressing Pdr5p. Taken together, these results

  19. Organizational governance

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the...

  20. SeNtInel 5P validaTion by Comet HALO

    Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; BOVENSMANN Heinrich; Gerbig, Christoph; K. Pfeilsticker; Zöger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the proposed activity is the validation of the methane column of S5P using aircraft measurements. The airborne platform foreseen is the German research aircraft HALO. A dedicated HALO science mission that is focused on the measurement of methane (and carbon dioxide), dubbed CoMet, has been evaluated by the scientific steering committee of HALO and is now scheduled for the 1st half of 2017. In order to maximize gain, the team proposes to make use of the gathered data from this...

  1. Measuring Governance

    Charles P. Oman; Christiane Arndt

    2010-01-01

    The use of governance indicators, as applied to developing countries, has grown spectacularly in recent years. Following the maxim that you cannot manage what you cannot measure, international investors and official development aid agencies, together with academics and the media, have turned widely to using quantitative governance indicators for both analytical and decision-making purposes – with far-reaching consequences for developing countries…

  2. Governance matters

    Bloom, David E.; David Steven; Mark Weston

    1999-01-01

    In a cross-section of more than 150 countries, the authors provide new empirical evidence of a strong causal relationship from better governance to better development outcomes. They base their analysis on a new database containing more than 300 governance indicators compiled from a variety of sources. They provide a detailed description of each of these indicators and sources. Using an unobserved components methodology (described in the companion paper by the same authors,"Aggregating Governa...

  3. Territorial Governance and Area Image

    Nicola Bellini

    2004-01-01

    The image of a region or a city is an emerging topic in most debates about economic development strategies at the local and national level. Local and national policies of innovation which form an essential part of modern policies of local development are less and less an expression of government and increasingly an exercise of governance. The concept that allows best to describe and understand the practical meaning and implications of governance is 'policy network'. The establishment, selecti...

  4. Corporate Governance

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  5. MicroRNA-548a-5p promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting Tg737

    Zhao, Ge; Wang, Ting; Huang, Qi-Ke; Pu, Meng; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhuo-Chao; Ling, Rui; Tao, Kai-Shan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Tg737 is regulated by microRNA-548a-5p (miR-548a-5p), and correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and apoptosis. METHODS: Assays of loss of function of Tg737 were performed by the colony formation assay, CCK assay and cell cycle assay in HCC cell lines. The interaction between miR-548a-5p and its downstream target, Tg737, was evaluated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tg737 was then up-regulated in HCC cells to evaluate its effect on miR-548a-5p regulation. HepG2 cells stably overexpressing miR-548a-5p or miR-control were also subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to evaluate the effect of miR-548a-5p up-regulation on in vivo tumor growth. As the final step, the effect of miR-548a-5p on the apoptosis induced by cisplatin was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Down-regulation of Tg737, which is a target gene of miR-548a-5p, accelerated HCC cell proliferation, and miR-548a-5p promoted HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Like the down-regulation of Tg737, overexpression of miR-548a-5p in HCC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, increased colony forming ability and hampered cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-548a-5p overexpression increased HCC cell growth in vivo. MiR-548a-5p down-regulated Tg737 expression through direct contact with its 3’ untranslated region (UTR), and miR-548a-5p expression was negatively correlated with Tg737 levels in HCC specimens. Restoring Tg737 (without the 3’UTR) significantly hampered miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation, and rescued the miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. CONCLUSION: MiR-548a-5p negatively regulates the tumor inhibitor gene Tg737 and promotes tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.

  6. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    Full Text Available FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686: one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  7. An Investigation into the Effectiveness of the RewardSystem in the Government Sector in the Sultanate ofOman and the Potential for Introducinga Total Reward Strategy

    Al Jarradi, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the migration of talent from developed countries is not a new one, andessentially it is understood that the reward systems of the countries involved are at faultin not providing individuals with rewards that they value. In the Sultanate of Oman,such a brain drain is not yet a problem, but over the last few years there has been anincreasing departure of talented people from the Omani Government Sector, as theprivate sector has more to offer. Such a phenomenon is wasteful in resp...

  8. Brain enhancer activities at the gene-poor 5p14.1 autism-associated locus.

    Inoue, Yukiko U; Inoue, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the vast clinical and genetic heterogeneity, identification of causal genetic determinants for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has proven to be complex. Whereas several dozen 'rare' genetic variants for ASD susceptibility have been identified, studies are still underpowered to analyse 'common' variants for their subtle effects. A recent application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to ASD indicated significant associations with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 5p14.1, located in a non-coding region between cadherin10 (CDH10) and cadherin9 (CDH9). Here we apply an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) based enhancer-trapping strategy in mice to scan the gene desert for spatiotemporal cis-regulatory activities. Our results show that the ASD-associated interval harbors the cortical area, striatum, and cerebellum specific enhancers for a long non-coding RNA, moesin pseudogene1 antisense (MSNP1AS) during the brain developing stages. Mouse moesin protein levels are not affected by exogenously expressed human antisense RNAs in our transgenic brains, demonstrating the difficulty in modeling rather smaller effects of common variants. Our first in vivo evidence for the spatiotemporal transcription of MSNP1AS however provides a further support to connect this intergenic variant with the ASD susceptibility. PMID:27503586

  9. Down-regulation of miR-192-5p protects from oxidative stress-induced acute liver injury.

    Roy, Sanchari; Benz, Fabian; Alder, Jan; Bantel, Heike; Janssen, Joern; Vucur, Mihael; Gautheron, Jeremie; Schneider, Anne; Schüller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Luedde, Mark; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Luedde, Tom; Trautwein, Christian; Roderburg, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    miR-192-5p has gained increasing relevance in various diseases, however, its function in acute liver injury is currently unknown. We analysed miR-192-5p serum levels and hepatic miR-192-5p expression in mice after hepatic ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) as well as in toxic liver injury. On a functional level, miRNA levels were analysed in the different hepatic cell-compartments and in the context of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent liver cell death. We detected increased serum levels of miR-192-5p after hepatic I/R- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. miR-192-5p levels correlated with the degree of liver damage and the presence of hepatic cell death detected by TUNEL stainings (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick-end labelling stainings). Moreover, expression of miR-192-5p was increased in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model of in vitro hepatocyte injury, supporting that the passive release of miR-192-5p represents a surrogate for hepatocyte death in liver injury. In critically ill patients, miR-192-5p levels were elevated selectively in patients with liver injury and closely correlated with the presence of hepatic injury. In contrast with up-regulated miR-192-5p in the serum, we detected a down-regulation of miR-192-5p in both injured mouse and human livers. Deregulation of miR-192-5p in livers was dependent on stimulation with TNF. Functional experiments confirmed a protective effect of down-regulation of miR-192-5p in hepatocytes, suggesting a role of miR-192-5p in limiting liver injury. Finally, we identified Zeb2, an important regulator of cell death, as a potential target gene mediating the function of miR-192-5p Our data suggest that miR-192-5p is involved in the regulation of liver cell death during acute liver injury and might represent a potent marker of hepatic injury. PMID:27129188

  10. Up-regulated miR-199a-5p in gastric cancer functions as an oncogene and targets klotho

    Recent studies have shown that miR-199a-5p plays opposite roles in cancer initiation and progression of different cancer types, acting as oncogene for some cancer types but as tumor suppressor gene for others. However, the role and molecular mechanism of miR-199a-5p in gastric cancer are largely unknown. In this study, miR-199a-5p expression level in gastric cancer was first analyzed by qPCRand then validated in 103 gastric cancer patients by in situ hybridization (ISH). Gastric cancer cell lines were transfected with miR-199a-5p inhibitor and mimic, and underwent in vitro transwell assays. Target genes (klotho) were identified using Luciferase reporter assay. Immunohistochemical staining was also used to investigate on how miR-199a-5p regulates the tumour-suppressive effects of klotho in gastric cancer. In our present study, we found that miR-199a-5p level was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared to paired normal tissues. We observed that miR-199a-5p could promote migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. In situ hybridization of miR-199a-5p also confirmed that higher miR-199a-5p expression level was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node metastasis and later TNM stage. Luciferase reporter assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that klotho might be the downstream target of miR-199a-5p. Our present study suggests that miR-199a-5p acts as an oncogene in gastric cancer and functions by targeting klotho