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Sample records for 55 mph speed limit

  1. Reconciling Speed Limits with Design Speeds

    Figueroa-Medina, Alberto Miguel; Tarko, Andrzej P.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, context-sensitive highway design has been promoted to ensure that designers consider the environmental, scenic, aesthetic, historic, community, and preservation aspects of the road. Context-sensitive design may lead to situations where the current design standards cannot be met because of restricting local conditions. Indiana has road sections designed and built some time ago. In a considerable number of roads with the statutory limit of 55 mph (90 km/h), the road geometry do...

  2. Speed Limits for Entanglement

    Hartman, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We show that in any relativistic system, entanglement entropy obeys a speed limit set by the entanglement in thermal equilibrium. The bound is derived from inequalities on relative entropy with respect to a thermal reference state. Thus the thermal state constrains far-from-equilibrium entanglement dynamics whether or not the system actually equilibrates, in a manner reminiscent of fluctuation theorems in classical statistical mechanics. A similar shape-dependent bound constrains the full nonlinear time evolution, supporting a simple physical picture for entanglement propagation that has previously been motivated by holographic calculations in conformal field theory. We discuss general quantum field theories in any spacetime dimension, but also derive some results of independent interest for thermal relative entropy in 1+1d CFT.

  3. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  4. 36 CFR 4.21 - Speed limits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 4.21 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.21 Speed limits. (a) Park area speed limits are as follows: (1) 15 miles per hour... superintendent may designate a different speed limit upon any park road when a speed limit set forth in...

  5. 45 CFR 3.26 - Speed limit.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limit. 3.26 Section 3.26 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.26 Speed limit. The speed limit is 25 miles per hour, unless otherwise posted. A driver of a vehicle may not exceed the speed limit....

  6. 36 CFR 1004.21 - Speed limits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 1004.21 Section 1004.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.21 Speed limits. (a) Speed limits in the area administered by the Presidio Trust are as follows: (1) 15 miles...

  7. 50 CFR 38.13 - Speed limits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limits. 38.13 Section 38.13 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.13 Speed limits. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will exceed the speed limit for automobiles,...

  8. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  9. 33 CFR 401.28 - Speed limits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 401.28 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.28 Speed limits. (a) The maximum speed over the bottom for a vessel of more than 12 m in overall length shall be regulated so as not...

  10. 32 CFR 935.132 - Speed limits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 935.132 Section 935.132 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.132 Speed limits. Each person operating a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall operate it at a speed— (a) That is reasonable, safe, and proper, considering time...

  11. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  12. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to im

  13. Quantum speed limit for arbitrary initial states.

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    The minimal time a system needs to evolve from an initial state to its one orthogonal state is defined as the quantum speed limit time, which can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of a quantum system. This is a fundamental question of quantum physics. We investigate the generic bound on the minimal evolution time of the open dynamical quantum system. This quantum speed limit time is applicable to both mixed and pure initial states. We then apply this result to the damped Jaynes-Cummings model and the Ohimc-like dephasing model starting from a general time-evolution state. The bound of this time-dependent state at any point in time can be found. For the damped Jaynes-Cummings model, when the system starts from the excited state, the corresponding bound first decreases and then increases in the Markovian dynamics. While in the non-Markovian regime, the speed limit time shows an interesting periodic oscillatory behavior. For the case of Ohimc-like dephasing model, this bound would be gradually trapped to a fixed value. In addition, the roles of the relativistic effects on the speed limit time for the observer in non-inertial frames are discussed. PMID:24809395

  14. Theme II. Speed limits and the driver. Advisory speed limits: Should they be expanded or not?

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    According to Dutch legislation, advisory speed limits should only be used on curves with a small radius, although there has been an increasing demand in recent years for w wider application of advisory speed limits. The behaviour of drivers on curves and the forces working on the vehicle and its occ

  15. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  16. Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.

  17. Tectonic speed limits from plate kinematic reconstructions

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    The motion of plates and continents on the planet's surface are a manifestation of long-term mantle convection and plate tectonics. Present-day plate velocities provide a snapshot of this ongoing process, and have been used to infer controlling factors on the speeds of plates and continents. However, present-day velocities do not capture plate behaviour over geologically representative periods of time. To address this shortcoming, we use a plate tectonic reconstruction approach to extract time-dependent plate velocities and geometries from which root mean square (RMS) velocities are computed, resulting in a median RMS plate speed of ∼ 4 cm /yr over 200 Myr. Linking tectonothermal ages of continental lithosphere to the RMS plate velocity analysis, we find that the increasing portions of plate area composed of continental and/or cratonic lithosphere significantly reduces plate speeds. Plates with any cratonic portion have a median RMS velocity of ∼ 5.8 cm /yr, while plates with more than 25% of cratonic area have a median RMS speed of ∼ 2.8 cm /yr. The fastest plates (∼ 8.5 cm /yr RMS speed) have little continental fraction and tend to be bounded by subduction zones, while the slowest plates (∼ 2.6- 2.8 cm /yr RMS speed) have large continental fractions and usually have little to no subducting part of plate perimeter. More generally, oceanic plates tend to move 2-3 times faster than continental plates, consistent with predictions of numerical models of mantle convection. The slower motion of continental plates is compatible with deep keels impinging on asthenospheric flow and increasing shear traction, thus anchoring the plate in the more viscous mantle transition zone. We also find that short-lived (up to ∼ 10 Myr) rapid accelerations of Africa (∼100 and 65 Ma), North America (∼100 and 55 Ma) and India (∼ 130 , 80 and 65 Ma) appear to be correlated with plume head arrivals as recorded by large igneous province (LIPs) emplacement. By evaluating

  18. A study of speed limits and speed control measures for the urban arterial road

    Wichuda Satiennam; Phongphan Tankasem; Thaned Satiennam

    2015-01-01

    Speed limits in accordance with environment and road functions have been used as a fundamental tool for speed management and road safety. This paper presents literatures review of speed limits measure and results from the study on speed limits problem and driver attitude toward the speed limit and speed control measure. Area of study is on the arterial road where the Mittaprab Highway passed through Khon Kaen City. The study found that improper designation of road functions is the main cause ...

  19. Relationship between speed and traffic accident and speed limit on freeway

    CHENG Guo-zhu; PEI Yu-long

    2008-01-01

    To develop an equation between discrete degree of speed and traffic accident on freeway in China and give reasonable suggestions of speed management, the relation model was established between speed standard deviation and accident rate per 100,000,000 vehicle kilometers by regression analysis. The model shows that the more discrete is the speed distribution, the higher is the accident rate, which provides theoretical gist for speed limit on freeway. It is suggested that speed limit should be set according to 85th percentile speed obtained by the relationship between 85th percentile speed and Rcc, (curvature change rate of single circular curve), anddifferent speed limits should be set for cars and trucks. Through analyzing spot speed data of eight freeways in China, regression models were established between 85th percentile speed and RCCs and 15th percentile speed and RCCs. Reasonable speed limit suggestion values are put forward through these models.

  20. Speed behaviour as a choice between observing and exceeding the speed limit

    LETIRAND, F; Delhomme, P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite speed behaviour being defined as a choice between several possible speeds, studies using theory of reasoned action or theory of planned behaviour to predict and understand speed behaviour have focused on exceeding and not on observing the speed limit. This study examines whether the evaluation of exceeding but also of observing the speed limit contributes to improving predictions of self-reported speed behaviour and determining intentions to produce each of these two behavioural optio...

  1. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... used in the Intelligent Speed Adaptation scheme updated. The traditional method of updating speed limit maps on the basis of long time interval observations needed to be replaced by a more efficient speed limit updating tool. In a Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation trial a web-based tool was therefore...... developed to give road authorities the opportunity to keep the speed limit map updated. However, the feedback from road authorities was insufficient. Hence a new web application based on Google Maps was made to provide easier speed limit updates for road authorities. The lessons learnt were that tools for...

  2. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    2011-01-03

    ... rulemaking activity. \\1\\ 72 FR 3904; January 26, 2007. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) stated that 97 percent... speed of large trucks and buses under its jurisdiction to 62 mph since 1994. In Australia, large...

  3. A study of speed limits and speed control measures for the urban arterial road

    Wichuda Satiennam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed limits in accordance with environment and road functions have been used as a fundamental tool for speed management and road safety. This paper presents literatures review of speed limits measure and results from the study on speed limits problem and driver attitude toward the speed limit and speed control measure. Area of study is on the arterial road where the Mittaprab Highway passed through Khon Kaen City. The study found that improper designation of road functions is the main cause of complexity and difficulty on safety management. It suggests more researches on speed limit setting methods to accommodate the road conditions of the country. In order to increase effectiveness of speed limits measure, this paper suggests transportation-related authorities to classify this area to be the urban arterial road, to set proper speed limits, and to modify the road environment in accordance with its function. More measures to enhance speed limit effectiveness and to reduce accident are included automatic speed control devices, speed limits warning signs, and advertisement signs to use the bypass route. These could enhance the effective speed management program.

  4. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33 Section 25.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and...

  5. A health impact assessment of a proposed bill to decrease speed limits on local roads in Massachusetts (U.S.A.).

    James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Banay, Rachel F; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Wood, Benjamin; Arcaya, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing traffic speeds increases the amount of time drivers have to react to road hazards, potentially averting collisions, and makes crashes that do happen less severe. Boston's regional planning agency, the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) that examined the potential health impacts of a proposed bill in the state legislature to lower the default speed limits on local roads from 30 miles per hour (mph) to 25 mph. The aim was to reduce vehicle speeds on local roads to a limit that is safer for pedestrians, cyclists, and children. The passage of this proposed legislation could have had far-reaching and potentially important public health impacts. Lower default speed limits may prevent around 18 fatalities and 1200 serious injuries to motorists, cyclists and pedestrians each year, as well as promote active transportation by making local roads feel more hospitable to cyclists and pedestrians. While a lower speed limit would increase congestion and slightly worsen air quality, the benefits outweigh the costs from both a health and economic perspective and would save the state approximately $62 million annually from prevented fatalities and injuries. PMID:25279544

  6. Using Appropriate Speed Tables Regarding to the Speed Limit of Streets

    Amir Falamarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present decade along the increasing trend of using private vehicles, calming the local streets and residential areas has been important for local authorities. There are many unsuccessful experiences of traffic calming implementations because of lacking knowledge and engineered assessment before implementing them. Considering the design speed of traffic, calming measure is an essential factor to employ these measures. Design speed of different size of speed humps is investigated in previous studies because of its circular shape but for speed tables it is unknown. In this research the design speeds of two common speed tables in the city of Tehran have been examined, 6.5 and 8.5 m speed table. For calculating the design speed of the speed tables, we asked 220 drivers to participate in our experiment by installing a GPS tracker in their vehicles and encouraging them to drive normally. Crossing speeds over 6.5 and 8.5 m speed tables have been analyzed by collecting totally 220 samples. We pick out 100 correct samples for each speed table and the 85th percentile speed has been calculated for them, consequently the results of 85th percentile calculation of the crossing speeds have been proposed as the design speeds. For 6.5 m speed table, design speed is calculated 41.5 km/h and for 8.5 m speed table, design speed is calculated 47.5 km/h. the comparison of recent findings and past finding of 9.5 m speed table which is used in Denmark with a design speed of 80 km/h reveals that 1 m increasing with the length of a 6.5 speed table plateau will result 3 km/h increase in its design speed. The findings of this research can help traffic calming experts to take in consideration of the relation between speed table physical characteristics and its design speed. Furthermore by finding the design speed of speed tables, we can choose suitable speed tables for streets with different speed limits according to the design speed of speed tables.

  7. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33 Section 23.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits....

  8. Flutter Speed Limits of Cantilever Rectangular and Tapered Plates

    Kusay H. Jabir

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic and elastic forces may cause an oscillation of the structure such as the high frequency of the airfoil surfaces and the dynamic instability occurring in an aircraft in flight and failure may occur at a speed called flutter speed. In this work, analytical and numerical investigations of flutter limits of thin plates have been carried out. The flutter speed of rectangular plates were obtained and compared with some published results. Different design parameters were investigated...

  9. Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states

    Han, Wei; Jiang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-12-01

    The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and 11304179), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20123705120002 and 20133705110001), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2014AP009), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Qufu Normal University.

  10. SPEED COMPLIANCE IN FREEWAY VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT SYSTEM – CASE STUDY OF THE PRAGUE CITY RING

    Michał MATOWICKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have confirmed the strong relationship between speed compliance and the frequency and severity of traffic accidents. Variable speed limit (VSL system as a measure to improve traffic safety enables the freeway system to change its posted speed limit based on various traffic and environmental conditions. Such system helps drivers to recognize the upcoming events, to adjust their driving style and in such way to address speed variation of the traffic flow. This is called speed harmonization. Although many studies researching the effect of VSL system on the traffic stream can be found, there are only few addressing its influence on the drivers behavior, particularly focusing on their tolerance limit and compliance, which has crucial meaning for future design of controlling algorithms. This study was prepared to inspect this grey area by studying the data from the VSL system at Prague city ring, describing the influence of the highway management system and its influence on drivers.

  11. Fetal MRI. Value and limitations. A review of 55 lesions

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Iimura, Fumitoshi; Kono, Tatsuo; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa [Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of fetal MR imaging. Fifty-five prenatal MRI examinations were performed, and the results were confirmed by postnatal follow-up or from pathological examination and clinical findings. All examinations were performed between 18 and 40 weeks of gestation without any premedication. A 1.5-Tesla superconductive MR imaging unit was used to obtain half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) images. There were two false-positive cases on US. MRI allowed the diagnosis of serious unsuspected lesions such as hypoplastic lung and anorectal malformation. MRI was also useful for the precise diagnosis of ventriculomegaly. However, MRI missed two cases of spinal dysraphism and one case of laryngotracheoesophageal cleft. Fetal MRI is a valuable complementary tool when prenatal US is inadequate or doubtful. MRI is useful for the evaluation of pulmonary hypoplasia or hydrocephalus and may modify obstetric management. MRI may be able to diagnose spinal dysraphism by detecting mild widening of the CSF space. However, MRI currently is not useful for making a differential diagnosis between laryngotracheoesophageal cleft and esophageal atresia. (author)

  12. Safe Speeds and Credible Speed Limits (SaCredSpeed): New Vision for Decision Making on Speed Management.

    Aarts, L. Nes, N. van Wegman, F.C.M. Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Louwerse, R.

    2009-01-01

    Speed is an inherent characteristic of mobility and a hazard to safety. Several approaches exist of how to manage speed. In the Netherlands, the emphasis has mainly been on harm minimisation during the last decades, due to the implementation of the Sustainable Safety vision. Speed management remains

  13. Quantum Speed Limit For Mixed States Using Experimentally Realizable Metric

    Mondal, Debasis; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The minimal time required for a system to evolve between two different states is an important notion for developing ultra-speed quantum computer and communication channel. Here, we introduce a new metric for non-degenerate density operator evolving along unitary orbit and show that this is experimentally realizable operation dependent metric on quantum state space. Using this metric, we obtain the geometric uncertainty relation that leads to a new quantum speed limit. Furthermore, we argue th...

  14. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario for the...... blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  15. Flutter Speed Limits of Cantilever Rectangular and Tapered Plates

    Kusay H. Jabir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic and elastic forces may cause an oscillation of the structure such as the high frequency of the airfoil surfaces and the dynamic instability occurring in an aircraft in flight and failure may occur at a speed called flutter speed. In this work, analytical and numerical investigations of flutter limits of thin plates have been carried out. The flutter speed of rectangular plates were obtained and compared with some published results. Different design parameters were investigated such as aspect ratio, thickness and their effects on flutter velocity. It was found that the structural mode shape plays an important role in the determination of the flutter speed and the coupling between the bending and torsional mode is the main cause of flutter.

  16. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  17. Intelligent advisory speed limit dedication in highway using VANET.

    Jalooli, Ali; Shaghaghi, Erfan; Jabbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Noor, Rafidah Md; Yeo, Hwasoo; Jung, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that the effectiveness of this system is impacted by factors such as VSL control strategy used and the level of driver compliance. Hence, the proposed approach called Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication (IASLD) as the novel VSL control strategy which considers the driver compliance aims to improve the traffic flow and occupancy of vehicles in addition to amelioration of vehicle's travel times. The IASLD provides the advisory speed limit for each vehicle exclusively based on the vehicle's characteristics including the vehicle type, size, and safety capabilities as well as traffic and weather conditions. The proposed approach takes advantage of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to accelerate its performance, in the way that simulation results demonstrate the reduction of incident detection time up to 31.2% in comparison with traditional VSL strategy. The simulation results similarly indicate the improvement of traffic flow efficiency, occupancy, and travel time in different conditions. PMID:24999493

  18. Quantum speed limit in a qubit-spin-bath system

    We investigate the behavior of quantum speed limit (QSL) time for a typical non-Markovian system, a central spin coupled to a spin star configuration. We connect the QSL time with an external control and show that the effectiveness of the external magnetic field, as well as the coupling strength, is related to the fundamental bounds that affect the maximum speed at which a quantum system can evolve in its state space. We also demonstrate that a spin bath with larger size may shorten the QSL time, while the upper state population plays an important role for the acceleration of quantum evolution in the memory surrounding. (paper)

  19. Speed limit on the Route de l’Europe

    2016-01-01

    Construction work to create a cycle path is under way on the Route de l’Europe, between CERN’s Meyrin and Prévessin sites. The new cycle path is expected to be ready for use in August.   On the part of the road under construction, only one lane is open and the speed limit is 30 km/h. Unfortunately, drivers frequently exceed this limit. Those who drive too fast put their own lives at risk as well as those of the people working on the site.  Please respect the speed limit.  In addition, access to the Route de l’Europe from the SM18, SM19 and BA1 areas and from the tunnel may be in the part of the road where only one lane is open. In this case, please join the road only when the traffic lights allow travel in the relevant direction.

  20. Blazar Jets Push Closer to Cosmic Speed Limit

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have discovered jets of plasma blasted from the cores of distant galaxies at speeds within one-tenth of one percent of the speed of light, placing these plasma jets among the fastest objects yet seen in the Universe. "This tells us that the physical processes at the cores of these galaxies, called blazars, are extremely energetic and are capable of propelling matter very close to the absolute cosmic speed limit," said Glenn Piner of Whittier College in Whittier, California. Piner, who worked on the project with student Dipesh Bhattari, also of Whittier College, Philip Edwards of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Dayton Jones of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, California. According to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, no object with mass can be accelerated to the speed of light. To get even close to the speed of light requires enormous amounts of energy. "For example, to accelerate a bowling ball to the speed newly measured in these blazars would require all the energy produced in the world for an entire week," Piner said, "and the blobs of plasma in these jets are at least as massive as a large planet". Blazars are active galactic nuclei -- energetic regions surrounding massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Material being drawn into the black hole forms a spinning disk called an accretion disk. Powerful jets of charged particles are ejected at high speeds along the poles of accretion disks. When these jets happen to be aimed nearly toward the Earth, the objects are called blazars. Taking advantage of the extremely sharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, the scientists tracked individual features in the jets of three blazars at distances from Earth ranging from 7.3 to 9 billion light-years. A Boston University team led by Svetlana Jorstad earlier had identified

  1. The Limiting Speed of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    Nirody, Jasmine A; Oster, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on the bacterial flagellar motor have shown that the structure of this nanomachine, which drives locomotion in a wide range of bacterial species, is more dynamic than previously believed. Specifically, the number of active torque-generating units (stators) was shown to vary across applied loads. This finding invalidates the experimental evidence reporting that limiting (zero-torque) speed is independent of the number of active stators. Here, we propose that, contrary to previous assumptions, the maximum speed of the motor is not universal, but rather increases as additional torque-generators are recruited. This result arises from our assumption that stators disengage from the motor for a significant portion of their mechanochemical cycles at low loads. We show that this assumption is consistent with current experimental evidence and consolidate our predictions with arguments that a processive motor must have a high duty ratio at high loads.

  2. Execution of Limit and Market Orders with Trade Director, Speed Limiter, and Fill Uncertainty

    Bulthuis, Brian; Concha, Julio; Leung, Tim; Ward, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the optimal execution of market and limit orders with permanent and temporary price impacts as well as uncertainty in the filling of limit orders. Our continuous-time model incorporates a trade speed limiter and a trader director to provide better control on the trading rates. We formulate a stochastic control problem to determine the optimal dynamic strategy for trade execution, with a quadratic terminal penalty to ensure complete liquidation. In addition, we identify conditions on ...

  3. Speed limitation based on an advanced curve warning system

    Glaser, Sébastien; Nouveliere, Lydie; Lusetti, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to prevent driver from taking a curve with a dangerous speed. The integrated system underlines three functions developed as follows : the first function consists in knowing the geometry characteristics of the coming road ; the second function has to compute a safe speed according to the road section, the vehicle and the driver ; the last function must impose the speed control of the vehicle in order to achieve a safe speed in the case that the dr...

  4. Speeding Up Simulations By Slowing Down Particles: Speed-Limited Particle-In-Cell Simulation

    Werner, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is often impractical for the same reason that it is powerful: it includes too much physics. Sometimes the mere ability to simulate physics on small length or time scales requires those scales to be resolved (by the cell size and timestep) to avoid instability, even when the effects at those scales contribute negligibly to the phenomenon motivating the simulation. For example, a timestep larger than the inverse plasma frequency will often result in unphysical growth of plasma oscillations, even in simulations where plasma oscillations should not arise at all. Larger timesteps are possible in simulations based on reduced physics models, such as MHD or gyrokinetics, or in simulations with implicit time-advances. A new method, speed-limited PIC (SLPIC) simulation, allows larger timesteps without reduced physics and with an explicit time-advance. The SLPIC method slows down fast particles while still accurately representing the particle distribution. SLPIC is valid when fields and...

  5. Concurrent Single-Executable CCSM with MPH Library

    He, Yun; Ding, Chris H.Q.

    2006-05-15

    Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is currently a multi-executable system based on the Multi-Program Multi-Data (MPMD) mechanism. Each component is compiled into a separate executable. MPMD is normally cumbersome in usage and vendor support is sometimes limited or completely unavailable, such as on BlueGene/L. Also smaller groups and institutions would like to run CCSM locally, rather than relying on large computer centers. So, single-executable CCSM is under request. We are developing a multi-executable and single-executable coexisting version of CCSM. In single-executable, each component is organized as a subroutine, which is called from a master program. Different components run simultaneously. This is accomplished by redesigning the top level CCSM structures using the Multi-Program Handshaking (MPH) library.

  6. Quantum speed limit and a signal of quantum criticality

    Wei, Yong-Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Shao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) of a coupled system consisting of a central spin and its surrounding environment, and the environment is described by a general XY spin-chain model. For initial pure state, we find that the local anomalous enhancement of the QSLT occurs near the critical point. In addition, we investigate the QSLT for arbitrary time-evolution state in the whole dynamics process and find that the QSLT will decay monotonously and rapidly at a large size of environment near the quantum critical point. These anomalous behaviors in the critical vicinity of XY spin-chain environment can be used to indicate the quantum phase transition point. Especially for the XX spin-chain environment, we find that the QSLT displays a sudden transition from discontinuous segmented values to a steady value at the critical point. In this case, the non-Makovianity and the Loschmidt echo are incapable of signaling the critical value of the transverse field, while the QSLT can still witness the quantum phase transition. So, the QSLT provides a further insight and sharper identification of quantum criticality.

  7. 49 CFR 213.9 - Classes of track: operating speed limits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of track: operating speed limits. 213.9... speed limits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and §§ 213.57(b), 213.59(a), 213.113(a), and 213.137(b) and (c), the following maximum allowable operating speeds apply— Over...

  8. Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games.

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob W H; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael; Haikka, Pinja; Jensen, Jesper Halkjær; Planke, Tilo; Andreasen, Morten Ginnerup; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Mølmer, Klaus; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F

    2016-04-14

    Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science (or crowd sourcing) is a way of exploiting this ability by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. 'Gamification'--the application of game elements in a non-game context--is an effective tool with which to enable citizen scientists to provide solutions to research problems. The citizen science games Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire have been used successfully to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping, but so far gamification has not been applied to problems in quantum physics. Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems in quantum physics. We show that human players are able to find solutions to difficult problems associated with the task of quantum computing. Players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails, and analyses of their solutions provide insights into the problem of optimization of a more profound and general nature. Using player strategies, we have thus developed a few-parameter heuristic optimization method that efficiently outperforms the most prominent established numerical methods. The numerical complexity associated with time-optimal solutions increases for shorter process durations. To understand this better, we produced a low-dimensional rendering of the optimization landscape. This rendering reveals why traditional optimization methods fail near the quantum speed limit (that is, the shortest process duration with perfect fidelity). Combined analyses of optimization landscapes and heuristic solution strategies may benefit wider classes of optimization problems in quantum physics and beyond. PMID:27075097

  9. Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob W. H.; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael; Haikka, Pinja; Jensen, Jesper Halkjær; Planke, Tilo; Andreasen, Morten Ginnerup; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Mølmer, Klaus; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-04-01

    Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science (or crowd sourcing) is a way of exploiting this ability by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. ‘Gamification’—the application of game elements in a non-game context—is an effective tool with which to enable citizen scientists to provide solutions to research problems. The citizen science games Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire have been used successfully to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping, but so far gamification has not been applied to problems in quantum physics. Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems in quantum physics. We show that human players are able to find solutions to difficult problems associated with the task of quantum computing. Players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails, and analyses of their solutions provide insights into the problem of optimization of a more profound and general nature. Using player strategies, we have thus developed a few-parameter heuristic optimization method that efficiently outperforms the most prominent established numerical methods. The numerical complexity associated with time-optimal solutions increases for shorter process durations. To understand this better, we produced a low-dimensional rendering of the optimization landscape. This rendering reveals why traditional optimization methods fail near the quantum speed limit (that is, the shortest process duration with perfect fidelity). Combined analyses of optimization landscapes and heuristic solution strategies may benefit wider classes of optimization problems in quantum physics and beyond.

  10. The Research Forum for MPH students.

    Gofin, Rosa

    2002-01-01

    Over the years, the experience with the Research Forum has shown that the framework is effective in providing the time frame and the academic support for the preparation of the proposals. It provides the students with an additional opportunity for the integration of knowledge gained during the MPH core and elective courses and for developing skills in writing and appraising a proposal or an essay on a public health issue. For the faculty it is another instance in which methodological issues are stressed, public health themes are discussed, and a systematic approach is emphasized. This process helps the students to achieve high academic levels for their proposals, and the final theses or papers are enhanced. This is evidenced by the fact that many of these works are also published in peer-reviewed journals, a sample of which is shown in the references. Students from Countries of Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States have the opportunity to apply to the Soros Foundation Open Society Institute (OSI) for projects on their return to their home institution, which may include a continuation of their research project or master's paper topic. This project is to be carried out during the first year of their return home with financial support up to $5,000. These projects have been presented to Braun SPH faculty at summer seminars held in Russia in 2001 and 2002. PMID:12613710

  11. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time. PMID:27447060

  12. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...

  13. An unusual systematic behaviour of detection limits for elements from {sup 55}Cs to {sup 73}Ta

    Verma, Surendra P.; Santoyo, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (UNAM), Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Centro, 62580, Temixco, Mor. (Mexico)

    2003-09-01

    A representative database for detection limits for all elements from {sup 55}Cs to {sup 73}Ta reveals that these limits are governed by a systematic zigzag pattern, according to which the odd atomic number elements have systematically lower detection limits than the even atomic number neighbour elements. This is true even when the actual detection limits vary by several orders of magnitude. We propose that such a systematic pattern be used as a requisite analytical criterion to evaluate the detection limit data, and any departure from this pattern be looked on with caution to check the analytical technique for any interference or matrix effect problems. (orig.)

  14. Improving transition between power optimization and power limitation of variable speed/variable pitch wind turbines

    Hansen, A.D.; Bindner, H. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Rebsdorf, A. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The paper summarises and describes the main results of a recently performed study of improving the transition between power optimization and power limitation for variable speed/variable pitch wind turbines. The results show that the capability of varying the generator speed also can be exploited in the transition stage to improve the quality of the generated power. (au)

  15. Consideration of tip speed limitations in preliminary analysis of minimum COE wind turbines

    Cuerva-Tejero, A.; Yeow, T. S.; Lopez-Garcia, O.; Gallego-Castillo, C.

    2014-12-01

    A relation between Cost Of Energy, COE, maximum allowed tip speed, and rated wind speed, is obtained for wind turbines with a given goal rated power. The wind regime is characterised by the corresponding parameters of the probability density function of wind speed. The non-dimensional characteristics of the rotor: number of blades, the blade radial distributions of local solidity, twist, angle, and airfoil type, play the role of parameters in the mentioned relation. The COE is estimated using a cost model commonly used by the designers. This cost model requires basic design data such as the rotor radius and the ratio between the hub height and the rotor radius. Certain design options, DO, related to the technology of the power plant, tower and blades are also required as inputs. The function obtained for the COE can be explored to find those values of rotor radius that give rise to minimum cost of energy for a given wind regime as the tip speed limitation changes. The analysis reveals that iso-COE lines evolve parallel to iso-radius lines for large values of limit tip speed but that this is not the case for small values of the tip speed limits. It is concluded that., as the tip speed limit decreases, the optimum decision for keeping minimum COE values can be: a) reducing the rotor radius for places with high weibull scale parameter or b) increasing the rotor radius for places with low weibull scale parameter.

  16. Consideration of tip speed limitations in preliminary analysis of minimum COE wind turbines

    A relation between Cost Of Energy, COE, maximum allowed tip speed, and rated wind speed, is obtained for wind turbines with a given goal rated power. The wind regime is characterised by the corresponding parameters of the probability density function of wind speed. The non-dimensional characteristics of the rotor: number of blades, the blade radial distributions of local solidity, twist, angle, and airfoil type, play the role of parameters in the mentioned relation. The COE is estimated using a cost model commonly used by the designers. This cost model requires basic design data such as the rotor radius and the ratio between the hub height and the rotor radius. Certain design options, DO, related to the technology of the power plant, tower and blades are also required as inputs. The function obtained for the COE can be explored to find those values of rotor radius that give rise to minimum cost of energy for a given wind regime as the tip speed limitation changes. The analysis reveals that iso-COE lines evolve parallel to iso-radius lines for large values of limit tip speed but that this is not the case for small values of the tip speed limits. It is concluded that., as the tip speed limit decreases, the optimum decision for keeping minimum COE values can be: a) reducing the rotor radius for places with high weibull scale parameter or b) increasing the rotor radius for places with low weibull scale parameter

  17. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap; Yee, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH.

  18. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD.

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH. PMID:27004141

  19. Towards setting credible speed limits: Identifying factors that affect driver compliance on urban roads.

    Gargoum, Suliman A; El-Basyouny, Karim; Kim, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Road geometry, vehicle characteristics, and weather conditions are all factors that impact a driver's perception of a safe or credible speed and, consequently, the driver's decision on whether or not to comply with the posted speed limit. In fact, the role a road's environment plays in a driver's perception of a credible speed limit is a topic that has attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years. Despite that, not many studies have considered using empirical data to investigate what features of the road environment influence a driver's compliance choice. This paper aims to address this matter by exploring the relationships between features of the road surroundings (geometric, temporal factors, and weather conditions) and driver compliance with speed limits. The paper uses data from almost 600 different urban roads in the city of Edmonton, at which over 35 million vehicle spot speeds were collected. Compliance was represented using a categorical ordered response variable, and mixed-effects-logistic-regression models were fitted. Two different models were built, one for arterials and another for collector roads. In general, the findings show that the more restricted drivers become, particularly on arterials, the more likely drivers are to comply with speed limits; potential restrictions include on-street parking and the absence of lateral shoulders. Furthermore, higher traffic activity during peak hours, and presumably on shoulder weekdays, both increase the likelihood of compliance on arterials. Similarly, posted speed limits and traffic volume are both positively correlated with compliance on both arterial and collector roads. The findings of this research provide evidence of the existence of an empirical relationship between road features and compliance, highlighting the importance of setting credible speed limits on roads and the possibility of achieving higher compliance rates through modifications to the road environment. PMID:27438484

  20. Power limitation in variable speed wind turbines using pitch control and a mechanical torque observer

    Cardenas-Dobson, R. [Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas (Chile); Asher, G.M. [Nottingham University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses a variable speed wind energy conversion system which uses pitch angle control of the blades for power limitation. Three control methods are discussed to compensate the non linearities of the pitch control system. These are the well known method of gain scheduling using pitch angle feedback, a new pitch control method based on a simple and non-computationally intensive wind speed observer, and finally a fuzzy logic controller. Also, in this paper the advantages of using a torque observer for pitch control of variable speed wind turbines are extensively discussed. (author)

  1. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55-GALLON DRUM

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG and G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air)

  2. Waveless ships in the low speed limit: Results for multi-cornered hulls

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2015-01-01

    In the low-speed limit, a blunt ship modeled as two-dimensional semi-infinite body with a single corner can never be made waveless. This was the conclusion of the previous part of our work in Trinh et al. (2011), which focused on the Dagan & Tulin (1972) model of ship waves in the low speed limit. In this accompanying paper, we continue our investigations with the study of more general, piecewise-linear, or multi-cornered ships. The low-speed or low-Froude limit, coupled with techniques in exponential asymptotics allows us to derive explicit formulae relating the geometry of the hull to the form of the waves. Configurations with closely spaced corners present a non-trivial extension of the theory, and we present the general methodology for their study. Lastly, numerical computations of the nonlinear ship-wave problem are presented in order to confirm the analytical predictions.

  3. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    Bocquet, J. -P.; Moricciani, D.; Bellini, V.; Beretta, M.; Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Giusa, A.; Gurzadyan, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the ESRF's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first non-threshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal Standard-Model Extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95% confidence level on a combination of the ...

  4. Determination of Fe-55 and Ni-63 in Environmental Samples. Analytical Problems. Characteristic Limits. Automatized Calculation; Determinacion de 55{sup F}e y 63{sup N}i en Muestras Ambientales. Problemas Analiticos. Limites Caracteristicos. Calculo Automatizado

    Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Gonzalez, P.; Heras, M. C.; Gapan, M. P.; Alonso, C.; Calderon, A.; Sanchez, D.; Morante, R.; Fernandez, M.; Gajate, A.; Alvarez, A.

    2008-08-06

    The Department of Vigilance Radiologica y Radiactividad Ambiental from CIEMAT has developed an appropriate analytical methodology for Fe-55 and Ni-63 sequential determination in environmental samples based on the procedure used by RIS0 Laboratories. The experimental results obtained in the mayor and minor elements behaviour (soil and air constituents) in the different types of resins used for separating Fe-55 and Ni-63 are showed in this report. The measuring method of both isotopes by scintillation counting has been optimized with Ultima Gold liquid with different concentrations of stable element Fe and Ni. The decontamination factors of different gamma-emitters are experimentally determined in this method with the presence of soil matrix. The Fe-55 and Ni-63 activity concentrations and their associated uncertainties have been calculated from the counting data and sample preparation. A computer application has been implemented in Visual Basic in excel sheets for: (I) obtaining the counting data from spectrometer and counts in each window, (II) representing graphically the background and sample spectrums, (III) determining the activity concentration and its associated uncertainty and (IV) calculating the characteristic limits using ISO 11929 (2007) with various confidence levels. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. Development of an algorithm for using weather-dependent dynamic speed limits to enhance safety

    Jonkers, E.; Klunder, G.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Rooy, R. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing research project in the Netherlands for lowering the speed limit, depending on the weather condition (in particular rain) to enhance traffic safety. The research in this project consists of three main parts. In the first part, research has been conducted on the strate

  6. Muscle function and hydrodynamics limit power and speed in swimming frogs.

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the muscle force-velocity relationship and its derived n-shaped power-velocity curve offer important insights into muscular limits of performance. Given the power is maximal at 1/3 V(max), geometric scaling of muscle force coupled with fluid drag force implies that this optimal muscle-shortening velocity for power cannot be maintained across the natural body-size range. Instead, muscle velocity may decrease with increasing body size, conferring a similar n-shaped power curve with body size. Here we examine swimming speed and muscle function in the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. Swimming speed shows an n-shaped scaling relationship, peaking at 47.35 g. Further, in vitro muscle function of the ankle extensor plantaris longus also shows an optimal body mass for muscle power output (47.27 g), reflecting that of swimming speed. These findings suggest that in drag-based aquatic systems, muscle-environment interactions vary with body size, limiting both the muscle's potential to produce power and the swimming speed. PMID:24177194

  7. An evaluation of speed limit measure: A case of the Mittraphap highway passing through Khon Kaen city

    Phongphan Tankasem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the speed control measure on the arterial road of Khon Kaen city. The 60 km/hr speed limit was posted on the urban arterial since 2012. To reveal the existing conditions, this study analyzed the accident data, speed data and enforcement data. Driver’s and government officer’s attitudes toward the existing speed control measures are captured through the questionnaires survey and interview processes, respectively. The study results reveal that under the existing road environment, the drivers disagree with the posted 60 km/h speed limit and it cannot be enforced by the police. However, 1-year of speed control program significantly reduces the number of traffic injuries and fatalities. Spot speed study revealed that most of drivers reduced their speed once they saw the police with the radar gun. 86% of drivers agree with the speed control measure and 93% of drivers aware that driving speed is related to safety. Therefore, to support the existing speed control measure, this study suggests that the responsible authorities should consider and study for the suitable speed limit for the area and modify the road geometries accordingly. Besides, installing automatic speed enforcement devices, and continuing public campaign directly to the risk groups could also increase the effectiveness of the program.

  8. Internet-based teleoperation: A case study - toward delay approximation and speed limit module

    Shengtong, Zhong; Le Parc, Philippe; Vareille, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the internet-based remote control of mobile robot. To face unpredictable Internet delays and possible connection rupture, a direct teleoperation architecture with “Speed Limit Module” (SLM) and “Delay Approximator” (DA) is proposed. This direct control architecture guarantees the path error of the robot motion is restricted within the path error tolerance of the application. Experiment results show the effectiveness and applicability of this direct internet control archite...

  9. Quantum speed limit for a relativistic electron in a uniform magnetic field

    Villamizar, David V.; Duzzioni, Eduardo I.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the influence of relativistic effects on the minimum evolution time between two orthogonal states of a quantum system. Defining the initial state as an homogeneous superposition between two Hamiltonian eigenstates of an electron in a uniform magnetic field, we obtain a relation between the minimum evolution time and the displacement of the mean radial position of the electron wavepacket. The quantum speed limit time is calculated for an electron dynamics described by Dirac and Schr...

  10. Adaptation of superconducting fault current limiter to high-speed reclosing

    Using a high temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The superconductor might break in some cases because of its excessive generation of heat. Therefore, it is desirable to interrupt early the current that flows to superconductor. So, we proposed the SFCL using an electromagnetic repulsion switch which is composed of a superconductor, a vacuum interrupter and a by-pass coil, and its structure is simple. Duration that the current flow in the superconductor can be easily minimized to the level of less than 0.5 cycle using this equipment. On the other hand, the fault current is also easily limited by large reactance of the parallel coil. There is duty of high-speed reclosing after interrupting fault current in the electric power system. After the fault current is interrupted, the back-up breaker is re-closed within 350 ms. So, the electromagnetic repulsion switch should return to former state and the superconductor should be recovered to superconducting state before high-speed reclosing. Then, we proposed the SFCL using an electromagnetic repulsion switch which employs our new reclosing function. We also studied recovery time of the superconductor, because superconductor should be recovered to superconducting state within 350 ms. In this paper, the recovery time characteristics of the superconducting wire were investigated. Also, we combined the superconductor with the electromagnetic repulsion switch, and we did performance test. As a result, a high-speed reclosing within 350 ms was proven to be possible.

  11. Enhancement of quantum speed limit time due to cooperative effects in multilevel systems

    Deriving minimum evolution times is of paramount importance in quantum mechanics. Bounds on the speed of evolution are given by the so called quantum speed limit (QSL). In this work we use quantum optimal control methods to study the QSL for driven many level systems which exhibit local two-level interactions in the form of avoided crossings (ACs). Remarkably, we find that optimal evolution times are proportionally smaller than those predicted by the well-known two-level case, even when the ACs are isolated. We show that the physical mechanism for such enhancement is due to non-trivial cooperative effects between the AC and other levels, which are dynamically induced by the shape of the optimized control field. (fast track communication)

  12. No speed limits in medical imaging and high-energy physics

    Rita Giuffredi & Tom Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Speed, or high time resolution, is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, in the high-energy physics domain, both for particle acceleration and detection systems. Medical-imaging technology also vitally depends on high time resolution detection techniques, often the offspring of today’s large particle physics experiments. The four-year FP7 Marie Curie Training Project “PicoSEC-MCNet”, which draws to a close at the end of November, was designed to develop ultra-fast photon detectors for applications in both domains. The project has achieved important results that promise to trigger further developments in the years to come.   The PicoSEC-MCNet project participants. “New requirements in high-energy physics force us to push the limits of photon detection speed, as future high-luminosity accelerators will force us to cope with the unprecedentedly short bunch crossing intervals needed to produce sufficient luminosity,” explains Tom M...

  13. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations

    Ali Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed.

  14. Pharmacy Students’ Perspective on a Dual Degree PharmD/MPH Program at a Large Metropolitan School of Pharmacy

    Holtzman CW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine doctor of pharmacy (PharmD students’ perceptions of a PharmD and master of public health (MPH dual degree program. Methods: A seven-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to students at a large metropolitan school of pharmacy during scheduled class time in April 2012. Results: Among the 611 students enrolled in the PharmD program, 447 (73% responded. Of those who responded, 72.3% were either “very likely” or “likely” to consider enrolling in such a PharmD/MPH dual degree program, and 77.4% believed that it would be attractive to future students. The most commonly identified potential limitations to pursuing the dual degree were time commitment (19.9%, increased workload and stress (11.2%, and tuition cost (10.3%. The most notable advantages documented were increased job opportunities for public health-related pharmacy positions (26.9%, increased ability to serve patients and the community (13.4%, and increased marketability for future jobs (8.7%. Conclusions: PharmD student participants demonstrated overall positive attitudes and interest towards a PharmD/MPH dual degree program.

  15. MPH program adaptability in a competitive marketplace: the case for continued assessment.

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tutko, Holly

    2010-06-01

    In the last several years, the number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programs has increased rapidly in the US. As such, MPH programs, particularly smaller-sized ones, need to critically examine how their programs are meeting the needs and preferences of local public health practitioners. To assist in this necessity, the University of New Hampshire conducted a comprehensive educational assessment of its effectiveness as a smaller-sized, accredited MPH program. The aim of the assessment was to review the MPH program from the perspective of all stakeholders and then to agree on changes that would contribute to the fulfillment of the program's mission, as well as improve program quality and reach. The program's stakeholders examined the following components: policy development and implementation; target audience; marketing strategies; marketplace position; delivery model; curriculum design; and continuing education. Though assessment activities explored a wide array of program attributes, target audience, curriculum design, and delivery strategy presented significant challenges and opportunities for our smaller MPH Program to remain competitive. The effort put forth into conducting an in-depth assessment of the core components of our program also allowed for a comparison to the increasing number of MPH programs developing regionally. Since public health practice is changing and the education of public health practitioners must be adaptable, we propose that a routine assessment of an institution's MPH program could not only meet this need but also assist with keeping smaller, unbranded MPH programs competitive in a burgeoning marketplace. PMID:20127157

  16. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  17. Upper limit for D$\\overline{D}$ production in pp interactions at c.m. energy of 55 GeV

    Baum, L; Böhm, A; Ceradini, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Irion, J; Kernan, A; Layter, J G; Müller, F; Nakkasyan, A; Naroska, Beate; Navach, F; Nussbaum, M; Orkin-Lecourtois, A; Rubbia, Carlo; Schinzel, D; Seebrunner, H J; Shen, B; Staude, A; Tirler, R; VanDalen, G J; Voss, Rüdiger; Wojslaw, R

    1978-01-01

    From a search for e/sup +or-/ mu /sup -or+/ production at the CERN ISR an upper limit of 0.92 mu b (95% confidence limit) has been inferred for sigma .B/sub e/.B/sub mu / for the reaction p+p to D+D+X at square root s of 55 GeV. (16 refs).

  18. Resonant cavity enhanced InGaAs photodiodes for high speed detection of 1.55 μm infrared radiation

    Kaniewski, J.; Muszalski, J.; Pawluczyk, J.; Piotrowski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Resonant cavity enhanced photodetectors are promising candidates for applications in high-speed optical communications due to their high quantum efficiency and large bandwidth. This is a consequence of placing the thin absorber of the photodetector inside a Fabry-Perot microcavity so the absorption could be enhanced by recycling the photons with resonance wavelength. The performance of uncooled resonant cavity enhanced InGaAs/InAlAs photovoltaic devices operating near 1.55 μm has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The analyses include two different types of structures with cavity end mirrors made of semiconducting and metallic reflectors as well as semiconducting and hybrid (dielectric Si3N4/SiO2 + metal) Bragg reflectors. Optimization of the device design includes: absorption layer thickness, position of absorption layer within the cavity and number of layers in distributed Bragg reflectors. Dependence of absorption on wavelength and incidence angle are discussed. Various issues related to applications of resonance cavity enhanced photodiodes in optical systems are considered. Practical devices with metallic and hybrid mirrors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy and by microwave-compatible processing. A properly designed device of this type has potential for subpicosecond response time.

  19. All speed scheme for the low mach number limit of the Isentropic Euler equation

    Degond, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    An all speed scheme for the Isentropic Euler equation is presented in this paper. When the Mach number tends to zero, the compressible Euler equation converges to its incompressible counterpart, in which the density becomes a constant. Increasing approximation errors and severe stability constraints are the main difficulty in the low Mach regime. The key idea of our all speed scheme is the special semi-implicit time discretization, in which the low Mach number stiff term is divided into two parts, one being treated explicitly and the other one implicitly. Moreover, the flux of the density equation is also treated implicitly and an elliptic type equation is derived to obtain the density. In this way, the correct limit can be captured without requesting the mesh size and time step to be smaller than the Mach number. Compared with previous semi-implicit methods, nonphysical oscillations can be suppressed. We develop this semi-implicit time discretization in the framework of a first order local Lax-Friedrich (LLF...

  20. Drivers' compliance with speed limits: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Elliott, Mark A; Armitage, Christopher J; Baughan, Christopher J

    2003-10-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) was applied to drivers' compliance with speed limits. Questionnaire data were collected for 598 drivers at 2 time points separated by 3 months. TPB variables, demographic information, and self-reported prior behavior were measured at Time 1, and self-reported subsequent behavior was measured at Time 2. In line with the TPB, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control were positively associated with behavioral intention, and intention and perceived control were positively associated with subsequent behavior. TPB variables mediated the effects of age and gender on behavior. Prior behavior was found to moderate the perceived control-intention and perceived control-subsequent behavior relationships. Practical implications of the findings for road safety and possible avenues for further research are discussed. PMID:14516256

  1. Special Relativity Derived from Cellular Automata Theory The Origin of the Universal Speed Limit

    Ostoma, T

    1998-01-01

    A new formulation of Special Relativity is described. It is based on Cellular Automata theory and on a new theory of inertia called Quantum Inertia. The universe consists of a huge 3D array of cells given by C(x,y,z), whose numeric states are updated by every new CA clock period. The numeric state of the cells depends on the contents of the imediate neigbours and on the mathematical rules of the cell, with each cell containing the same set of rules. Photon motion on the CA is represented by information patterns 'shifting' from cell to adjacent cell at every clock cycle, and this represents the universal speed limit. The Lorentz Transformations follow directly from this model of light motion. The concept of mass and inertia is revised to be compatible with the CA model.

  2. Piecewise Function Feedback Strategy in Intelligent Traffic Systems with a Speed Limit Bottleneck

    Chen, Bokui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wei, Hua; Dong, Chuanfei; Wang, Binghong

    The road capacity can be greatly improved if an appropriate and effective information feedback strategy is adopted in the traffic system. In this paper, a strategy called piecewise function feedback strategy (PFFS) is introduced and applied into an asymmetrical two-route scenario with a speed limit bottleneck in which the dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the information board to guide road users to make a choice. Meanwhile, the velocity-dependent randomization (VDR) mechanism is adopted which can better reflect the dynamic behavior of vehicles in the system than NS mechanism. Simulation results adopting PFFS have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the previous strategies.

  3. Fundamental High-Speed Limits in Single-Molecule, Single-Cell, and Nanoscale Force Spectroscopies.

    Amo, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-07-26

    Force spectroscopy is enhancing our understanding of single-biomolecule, single-cell, and nanoscale mechanics. Force spectroscopy postulates the proportionality between the interaction force and the instantaneous probe deflection. By studying the probe dynamics, we demonstrate that the total force acting on the probe has three different components: the interaction, the hydrodynamic, and the inertial. The amplitudes of those components depend on the ratio between the resonant frequency and the frequency at which the data are measured. A force-distance curve provides a faithful measurement of the interaction force between two molecules when the inertial and hydrodynamic components are negligible. Otherwise, force spectroscopy measurements will underestimate the value of unbinding forces. Neglecting the above force components requires the use of frequency ratios in the 50-500 range. These ratios will limit the use of high-speed methods in force spectroscopy. The theory is supported by numerical simulations. PMID:27359243

  4. Quantum speed limits of a qubit system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment

    He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Li; Wang, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    The speed of evolution of a qubit undergoing a nonequilibrium environment with spectral density of general ohmic form is investigated. First we reveal non-Markovianity of the model, and find that the non-Markovianity quantified by information backflow of Breuer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210401 (2009)] displays a nonmonotonic behavior for different values of the ohmicity parameter s in fixed other parameters and the maximal non-Markovianity can be achieved at a specified value s. We also find that the non-Markovianity displays a nonmonotonic behavior with the change of a phase control parameter. Then we further discuss the relationship between quantum speed limit (QSL) time and non-Markovianity of the open-qubit system for any initial states including pure and mixed states. By investigation, we find that the QSL time of a qubit with any initial states can be expressed by a simple factorization law: the QSL time of a qubit with any qubit-initial states are equal to the product of the coherence of the initial state and the QSL time of maximally coherent states, where the QSL time of the maximally coherent states are jointly determined by the non-Markovianity, decoherence factor and a given driving time. Moreover, we also find that the speed of quantum evolution can be obviously accelerated in the wide range of the ohmicity parameter, i.e., from sub-Ohmic to Ohmic and super-Ohmic cases, which is different from the thermal equilibrium environment case. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61505053 and 61475045), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China(Grant No. 2015JJ3092), the School Foundation from the Hunan University of Arts and Science (Grant No. 14ZD01), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Information Integration and Optical Manufacturing Technology of Hunan Province, China, and the Construction Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan University of Arts and Science (Optics).

  5. Joint interpretation of on-board vision and static GPS cartography for determination of correct speed limit

    Bargeton, Alexandre; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Puthon, Anne-Sophie

    2010-01-01

    We present here a first prototype of a "Speed Limit Support" Advance Driving Assistance System (ADAS) producing permanent reliable information on the current speed limit applicable to the vehicle. Such a module can be used either for information of the driver, or could even serve for automatic setting of the maximum speed of a smart Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). Our system is based on a joint interpretation of cartographic information (for static reference information) with on-board vision, used for traffic sign detection and recognition (including supplementary sub-signs) and visual road lines localization (for detection of lane changes). The visual traffic sign detection part is quite robust (90% global correct detection and recognition for main speed signs, and 80% for exit-lane sub-signs detection). Our approach for joint interpretation with cartography is original, and logic-based rather than probability-based, which allows correct behaviour even in cases, which do happen, when both vision and cartograp...

  6. Switching from Methylphenidate-Immediate Release (MPH-IR) to Methylphenidate-OROS (OROS-MPH): A Multi-center, Open-label Study in Korea

    Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Ye-Ni; Cheong, Un-Sun; Kim, Jae-Won; Hwang, Jun-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; ,

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate HCL OROS extended-release (OROS-MPH) among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had been previously treated with methylphenidate HCL immediate-release (MPH-IR). Methods The sample included 102 children aged 6-12 (9.4±2.6) years who had been diagnosed with ADHD according the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; Am...

  7. Power Limitation Control for a PMSG-Based Marine Current Turbine at High Tidal Speed and Strong Sea State

    ZHOU, Zibhin; SCUILLER, Franck; Charpentier, Jean-Frederic; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; Tang, Tianhao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the control strategies for a fixed-pitch marine current turbine (MCT) when the marine current speed exceeds the rated value corresponding to the rated power of generator and converter. Over-rated marine currents occur at large spring tides or under strong sea states; in these cases maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategies must be changed to power limitation strategies for limiting the generator power at rated value. In this paper, two power limitation strategies wi...

  8. Effects of heterogeneous traffic with speed limit zone on the car accidents

    Marzoug, R.; Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-06-01

    Using the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model, we numerically study the impact of the heterogeneity of traffic with speed limit zone (SLZ) on the probability of occurrence of car accidents (Pac). SLZ in the heterogeneous traffic has an important effect, typically in the mixture velocities case. In the deterministic case, SLZ leads to the appearance of car accidents even in the low densities, in this region Pac increases with increasing of fraction of fast vehicles (Ff). In the nondeterministic case, SLZ decreases the effect of braking probability Pb in the low densities. Furthermore, the impact of multi-SLZ on the probability Pac is also studied. In contrast with the homogeneous case [X. Li, H. Kuang, Y. Fan and G. Zhang, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 25 (2014) 1450036], it is found that in the low densities the probability Pac without SLZ (n = 0) is low than Pac with multi-SLZ (n > 0). However, the existence of multi-SLZ in the road decreases the risk of collision in the congestion phase.

  9. Quantum speed limit for a relativistic electron in a uniform magnetic field

    Villamizar, D. V.; Duzzioni, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    We analyze the influence of relativistic effects on the minimum evolution time between two orthogonal states of a quantum system. Defining the initial state as a homogeneous superposition between two Hamiltonian eigenstates of an electron in a uniform magnetic field, we obtain a relation between the minimum evolution time and the displacement of the mean radial position of the electron wave packet. The quantum speed limit time is calculated for an electron dynamics described by Dirac and Schrödinger-Pauli equations considering different parameters, such as the strength of magnetic field and the linear momentum of the electron in the axial direction. We highlight that when the electron undergoes a region with extremely strong magnetic field the relativistic and nonrelativistic dynamics differ substantially, so that the description given by the Schrödinger-Pauli equation enables the electron to travel faster than c , which is prohibited by Einstein's theory of relativity. This approach allows a connection between the abstract Hilbert space and the space-time coordinates, besides the identification of the most appropriate quantum dynamics used to describe the electron motion.

  10. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-03-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode Z associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian √{1 -(∂0Z )2 } detecting the speed of light (|∂0Z |=1 ) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli ɛ to all orders in (∂ɛ ). The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: L =g (√{1 +(∂μɛ )2 }). This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on ∂0ɛ , i.e., a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit exists even for solitons in some nonrelativistic field theories, where we find that ɛ is a type I Nambu-Goldstone mode that also obeys a nonlinear dispersion to reach the speed limit. This offers a possibility of detecting the speed limit in condensed matter experiments.

  11. All speed scheme for the low mach number limit of the Isentropic Euler equation

    Degond, Pierre; Tang, Min

    2009-01-01

    An all speed scheme for the Isentropic Euler equation is presented in this paper. When the Mach number tends to zero, the compressible Euler equation converges to its incompressible counterpart, in which the density becomes a constant. Increasing approximation errors and severe stability constraints are the main difficulty in the low Mach regime. The key idea of our all speed scheme is the special semi-implicit time discretization, in which the low Mach number stiff term is divided into two p...

  12. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  13. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  14. Accuracy limitations on Brillouin lidar measurements of temperature and sound speed in the ocean.

    Fry, E S; Emery, Y; Quan, X; Katz, J W

    1997-09-20

    There are five mutually dependent variables relevant to Brillouin lidar measurements of temperature and sound speed in the ocean; they are (1) the Brillouin shift, (2) the sound speed, (3) the index of refraction, (4) the temperature, and (5) the salinity. We use three well-known relations to analyze rigorously the interdependence of these five variables. Clearly, a Brillouin shift measurement does not provide a stand-alone determination of temperature or sound speed; one more variable or one more relation must be known. The use of mean values of salinity that have been obtained by an analysis of a large set of historical in situ data is considered for this additional relation. PMID:18259560

  15. Speed Limits: Orientation and Semantic Context Interactions Constrain Natural Scene Discrimination Dynamics

    Rieger, Jochem W.; Kochy, Nick; Schalk, Franziska; Gruschow, Marcus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The visual system rapidly extracts information about objects from the cluttered natural environment. In 5 experiments, the authors quantified the influence of orientation and semantics on the classification speed of objects in natural scenes, particularly with regard to object-context interactions. Natural scene photographs were presented in an…

  16. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on postweaning behaviors of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Delbert Law, C; Sahin, Leyla; Montenegro, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. All offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose their dam had received on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. After weaning, offspring were assessed for adolescent play behavior, locomotor activity, motor coordination, Barnes maze performance, acoustic startle response, novel object recognition, residential running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, home cage behavior, water maze performance, elevated plus maze behavior, locomotor response to an MPH challenge, and passive avoidance. At euthanasia, whole brain and striatal weights as well as serum hormone levels were measured. Body weights of the high MPH group were reduced in both sexes. Males of the high MPH group were less active than control males in open field assessments on PNDs 40-42. Latency to maximum acoustic startle was significantly altered in females of the medium and high MPH groups and residential running wheel activity of females of the low and medium MPH groups was lower than control females. Open arm entries in the elevated plus maze were increased in subjects of the medium MPH group. Females of the low MPH group were less sensitive to the locomotor-increasing effects of an acute 5mg/kg MPH challenge. Serum hormone levels and whole brain and striatal weights were not altered by prior MPH treatment. These results indicate that MPH treatment during development has sporadic effects on postweaning behaviors and those effects were generally exhibited by females. PMID:25514582

  17. Alumni survey of Masters of Public Health (MPH training at the Hanoi School of Public Health

    Nguyen Ha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To elicit the opinions of the Public Health alumni of the MPH program; 2 To assess the applicability of the knowledge and skills acquired; 3 To identify the frequency of the public health competencies that the alumni performed. Methods We requested 187 graduates to complete a self-administered questionnaire and conducted in-depth interviews with 8 alumni as well as a focus group discussion with 14 alumni. Results In total 79.1% (148 of the MPH graduates completed and returned the questionnaire. Most alumni (91% agreed that the MPH curriculum corresponded with the working requirements of public health professionals; and nearly all were satisfied with what they have learnt (96%. Most respondents said that the MPH program enabled them to develop relevant professional skills (95% and that they were satisfied with the curriculum (90%. Notably fewer respondents (73% felt that the MPH program structure was balanced and well designed. Most alumni (64.3% were satisfied with Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH full-time lecturers; but even more (83% were satisfied with visiting lecturers. The most commonly selected of the 34 pre-identified public health competencies were: applying computer skills (66.4%, planning and managing health programs (47.9%, communicating with the community and/or mobilizing the community to participate in health care (43.2%. Overall, the MPH alumni felt that HSPH emphasized research methods at the expense of some management and operational competencies. The most important challenges at work identified by the alumni were insufficient skills in: data analysis, decision making, inter-sectoral cooperation development, English language and training. Conclusion The training program should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of its graduates who enter diverse situations and positions. English language skills were identified as top priority for further emphasis. The training program should comply with a more

  18. Data-based Speed-limit-respecting Eco-driving System

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia; Nagy, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 253-264. ISSN 0968-090X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030123 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : eco-driving * fuel consumption * recommended speed * recursive estimation * quadratic optimal control * dynamic programming Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.818, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/suzdaleva-0427942.pdf

  19. Limitation of Adjustable-Speed Drive Operation by Unbalanced Voltage Supply

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2008, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-1-4244-1736-0. [International Conference on Electrical Machines - ICEM 2008 /18./. Vilamoura (PT), 06.09.2008-09.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : unbalanced voltage supply * DC-link voltage pulsations * variable-speed drive Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.apdee.org

  20. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    Birch, Aaron C; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube, it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence.

  1. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    Birch, Aaron C.; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C.; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence. PMID:27453947

  2. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    Eto, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode $Z$ associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian $\\sqrt{1 - (\\partial_0 Z)^2}$ detecting the speed of light ($|\\partial_0 Z|=1$) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli $\\epsilon$ to all order in $(\\partial \\epsilon)$. The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: $L = g(\\sqrt{1 + (\\partial_\\mu \\epsilon)^2})$. This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on $\\partial_0 \\epsilon$, i.e. a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit...

  3. Summarization of Treating ADHD by Using MPH with Neuro - feedback%哌甲酯联合神经反馈治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(综述)

    陈桂芳; 谢维爵; 钟昆

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate(MPH)is a key drug to treat children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disor-der(ADHD),and neuro - feedback(NF)is a new technique for the treatment of ADHD,MPH and NF have their own advantages and limitations in treating ADHD. In recent years,in order to explore the better treatment effect for the ADHD,clinical doctors and researchers have reported the present situations of application and re-searches relating to MPH combined with NF in the treatment of ADHD. The paper summarizes the documents a-bout ADHD treatment in use of MPH combined NF,analyzes and comments on several factors which influence the effect,aiming at offering some references for combination therapy research about ADHD.%哌甲酯(Methylphenidate,MPH)是目前治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(Attention - deficit/ hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)的一线药物,神经反馈(Neuro - feedback,NF)是治疗 ADHD 的新技术。两种方法在治疗 ADHD 方面具有不同优势和局限性。近年来,为了探讨更好的 ADHD 治疗效果,临床工作者和研究者报道了 MPH 联合 NF治疗 ADHD 的临床应用与研究情况。文章综述了 MPH 联合 NF 治疗 ADHD 的相关文献,分析和评述了影响其疗效的各种可能因素。旨在为不断完善 ADHD 综合治疗研究提供一定的参考。

  4. Effects of developmental methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on monoamine neurochemistry of male and female rats.

    Panos, John J; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 4-5% of the adult human population (Kessler et al., 2006; Willcutt, 2012). Often prescribed to attenuate ADHD symptoms (Nair and Moss, 2009), methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) can have substantial positive effects. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use during pregnancy. Thus, adult women with ADHD face a difficult decision when contemplating pregnancy. In this study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated a total of 0 (water), 6 (low), 18 (medium), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg body weight/day (divided into three doses) on gestational days 6-21 (i.e., the low dose received 2 mg MPH/kg body weight 3×/day). Offspring were orally treated with the same daily dose as their dam (divided into two doses) on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. One offspring/sex/litter was sacrificed at PND 22 or PND 104 (n=6-7/age/sex/treatment group) and the striatum was quickly dissected and frozen. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a Photo Diode Array detector (PDA) was used to analyze monoamine content in the striatum of one side while a sandwich ELISA was used to analyze tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the other side. Age significantly affected monoamine and metabolite content as well as turnover ratios (i.e., DA, DOPAC, HVA, DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA); however, there were no significant effects of sex. Adult rats of the low MPH group had higher DA levels than control adults (peffect (i.e., higher DA or TH levels) exhibited an apparent dose-response. PND 22 subjects of the high MPH treatment group had higher ratios of HVA/DA and DOPAC/DA than same-age control subjects (peffects on monoamine system development, further studies are required to determine if these alterations manifest as functional changes in behavior. PMID:25132048

  5. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  6. 城市快速路可变限速策略%Variable Speed Limits Strategy of Urban Expressway

    孙静怡; 沈俊江; 刘拥华; 陈蜀乔

    2012-01-01

    对城市快速路可变限速控制策略的理论基础进行了研究.在对快速路上的主线车速、进出口匝道车速、分流点合流点车速的特性及速度分布特性进行深入分析的基础上,建立了快速路主线车速-密度动态关系模型,提出考虑出口匝道、不良天气以及道路线形因素下基于安全性的3种主线车速的约束条件.利用积分调节器建立了入口匝道控制模型;提出了基于道路服务流量、行程时间、入口匝道平均等待时间以及行程时间延误4种可变限速的目标函数,利用4种目标函数的线性组合建立了3种系统最优问题,即:低密度状态下路段通行能力最大,行程时间最短;中密度状态下路段通行能力最大,入口匝道平均等待时间最短;以及高密度状态下入口匝道平均等待时间最短,主线车流行程时间延误最短.利用VISSIM仿真模拟手段对可变限速控制模型进行分析,得到可变限速控制策略下与未采取控制策略下的交通流参数结果,验证了可变限速控制策略的有效性.%The theory of variable speed limit control strategy for urban expressway was researched. Based on analysing different characteristics of speeds at mainline, entrance and exit ramps, diverge and merge of urban expressway, the model of dynamic relation between traffic speed and density of expressway mainline was set up, and the safety based constraint condition of mainline speed considering exit ramp, bad weather and road alignment was put forward. The entrance ramp control model was established by using integral regulator. Four variable speed limit target functions based on road service traffic volume, travel time, average waiting time at entrance ramp, and travel time delay were put forward. By using the linear combination of the four objective functions, three kinds of system optimal objective were established. The first is the largest capacity and the shortest travel time in low

  7. Explicit Generalized Predictive Algorithms for Speed Control of PMSM Drives Fast Explicit Form with Field Weakening and Current Limitation

    Belda, Květoslav; Vošmik, D.

    Vienna: AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2013, s. 2833-2838. ISBN 978-1-4799-0224-8. ISSN 1553-572X. [IECON 2013. Vienna (AT), 10.11.2013-13.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : PMSM drives * speed control * field weakening * current limitation * Generalized Predictive Control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/belda-0398603.pdf

  8. Hypernetworks for Road Speed Limit Sign Recognition%超网络道路限速标志识别

    王进; 孙开伟; 李钟浩

    2012-01-01

    Road speed limit sign recognition system is an import part of intelligent transportation system, which effectively improves safety driving. To solve the characters recognition problem of the speed limit signs, a hypernetwork model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we introduce the hypernetwork model and the realization of a hypernetwork classifier in detail. And then we employ the color segmentation and shape analysis techniques to locate the speed limit signs and extract their features. The extracted features are used as training set for the hypernetworks learning. Finally, hypernetworks is used to recognize the speed signs; 20, 40, 60 and 80 km/h. Experimental results show that the recognition rate of the proposed hypernetworks-based road speed limit sign recognition system is 96.15%. The system learning process takes only 3 iterations. Compared with other traditional recognition methods, hypernetworks is time-saving and provides a high recognition performance, which makes hypernetwork very suitable for solving speed limit signs recognition problems in real world.%限速标志识别系统是智能交通系统的一个重要组成部分,它能有效地辅助司机安全驾驶.针对限速标志的数字字符识别问题,提出一种基于超网络模型的模式识别方法.首先介绍了超网络计算模型及其分类原理;然后采用颜色分割和形状分析相结合的方法对限速标志进行定位,并提取出限速数字字符特征;最后以限速字符的特征向量为训练样本对超网络模型进行演化学习.本文使用超网络模型对限速标志20、40、60、80 km/h进行识别.实验结果表明,基于超网络模型的道路限速标志识别系统最快只需3次迭代便可以完成对样本的学习,识别率为96.15%.和其它传统模式识别方法相比,该模型具有学习时间短、识别率高的优点,为解决现实应用中的道路限速标志识别问题提供了可能.

  9. Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects on Energy Dependence of the Speed of Light from Observations of TeV Flares

    Biller, S D; Buckley, J H; Catanese, M; Carson, M; Carter-Lewis, D A; Cawley, M F; Fegan, D J; Finley, J; Gaidos, J A; Hillas, A M; Krennrich, F; Lamb, R C; Lessard, R W; Masterson, C; McEnery, J E; McKernan, B; Moriarty, P; Quinn, J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Sembroski, G H; Skelton, P; Weekes, T C

    1999-01-01

    We have used data from the TeV gamma-ray flare associated with the active galaxy Markarian 421 observed on 15 May 1996 to place bounds on the possible energy-dependence of the speed of light in the context of an effective quantum gravitational energy scale. The possibility of an observable time dispersion in high energy radiation has recently received attention in the literature, with some suggestions that the relevant energy scale could be less than the Planck mass and perhaps as low as 10^16 GeV. The limits derived here indicate this energy scale to be in excess of 4x10^16 GeV at the 95% confidence level. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first convincing limit on such phenomena in this energy regime.

  10. MPH1 is a thylakoid membrane protein involved in protecting photosystem II from photodamage in land plants.

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is highly susceptible to photoinhibition caused by environmental stimuli such as high light; therefore plants have evolved multifaceted mechanisms to efficiently protect PSII from photodamage. We previously published data suggesting that Maintenance of PSII under High light 1 (MPH1, encoded by AT5G07020), a PSII-associated proline-rich protein found in land plants, participates in the maintenance of normal PSII activity under photoinhibitory stress. Here we provide additional evidence for the role of MPH1 in protecting PSII against photooxidative damage. Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking a functional MPH1 gene suffer from severe photoinhibition relative to the wild-type plants under high irradiance light. The mph1 mutants exhibit significantly decreased PSII quantum yield and electron transport rate after exposure to photoinhibitory light. The mutants also display drastically elevated photodamage to PSII reaction center proteins after high-light treatment. These data add further evidence that MPH1 is involved in PSII photoprotection in Arabidopsis. MPH1 homologs are found across phylogenetically diverse land plants but are not detected in algae or prokaryotes. Taken together, these results suggest that MPH1 protein began to play a role in protecting PSII against excess light following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. PMID:26337456

  11. Coupling Multi-Component Models with MPH on Distributed MemoryComputer Architectures

    He, Yun; Ding, Chris

    2005-03-24

    A growing trend in developing large and complex applications on today's Teraflop scale computers is to integrate stand-alone and/or semi-independent program components into a comprehensive simulation package. One example is the Community Climate System Model which consists of atmosphere, ocean, land-surface and sea-ice components. Each component is semi-independent and has been developed at a different institution. We study how this multi-component, multi-executable application can run effectively on distributed memory architectures. For the first time, we clearly identify five effective execution modes and develop the MPH library to support application development utilizing these modes. MPH performs component-name registration, resource allocation and initial component handshaking in a flexible way.

  12. What Motivates Talented Medical Students to Study Simulta-neously at Master of Public Health (MPH?

    Sahar Manavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly three decades ago, the Master of Public Health (MPH academic degree was introduced to Tehran University of Medical Sciences' School of Public Health, Tehran, Iran. A new program for simultaneous education of medical, pharmaceutical and dental students was initiated in 2006. Talented students had the opportunity to study MPH simultaneously. There were some concerns about this kind of admission; as to whether these students who were not familiar with the health system had the appropriate attitude and background for this field of education. And with the present rate of brain drain, is this just a step towards their immigration without the fulfillment of public health?Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 where 26 students took part in focused group discussions and individual interviews. The students were questioned about their motivation and the program's impact on their future career. The participants' statements were analyzed using thematic analysis.Results: The primary motivations of students who entered this program were: learning health knowledge related issues, gaining a perspective beyond clinical practice, obtaining a degree to strengthen their academic résumé, immigration, learning academic research methods and preparing for the management of health systems in the future.Conclusion: Apparently, there was no considerable difference between the motivation of students and the program planners. The students' main motivation for studying MPH was a combination of various interests in research and health sciences issues. Therefore, considering the potential of this group of students, effective academic investment on MPH can have positive impact.

  13. SU-E-P-55: The Reaserch of Cervical Cancer Delivered with Constant Dose Rate and Gantry Speed Arc Therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) On Conventional Linac

    Purpose: Postoperative cervical cancer patients with large target volume and the target shape is concave, treatmented with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to investigate using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) on conventional linear accelrator, by comparing with the IMRT technology to evaluate the performance of CDR-CAS-IMAT on postoperative cervical cancer patients. Methods: 18 cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT on Varian 23IX were replanted using CDR-CAS-IMAT. The plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) of target volume, the dose of organs at risk, radiation delivery time and monitor units were also compared. SPSS 19.0 software paired T-test analysis was carried out on the two sets of data. Results: Compared with the IMRT plans PTV’s CI (t= 3.85, P =0.001), CTV’s CI, HI, D90, D95, D98, V95, V98, V100 (t=4.21, −3.18, 2.13, 4.65, 7.79, 2.29, 6.00, 2.13, p=0.001, 0.005, 0.049, 0.000, 0.000, 0.035, 0.000, 0.049), and cord D2 and rectum V40 (t=−2.65, −2.47, p= P =0.017, 0.025), and treatment time and MU (t=−36.0, −6.26, P =0.000, 0.000) were better than that of IMRT group. But the IMRT plans in terms of decreasing bladder V50, bowel V30 (t=2.14, 3.00, P =0.048, 0.008) and low dose irradiation volume were superior to that of CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. There were no significant differences in other statistical index. Conclusion: Cervical cancer patients with CDR-CAS-IMAT on Varian Clinical 23IX can get equivalent or superior dose distribution compared with the IMRT technology. IMAT have much less treatment time and MU can reduce the uncertainty factor and patient discomfort in treatment. This work was supported by the Medical Science Foundation of the health department of Hebei

  14. SU-E-P-55: The Reaserch of Cervical Cancer Delivered with Constant Dose Rate and Gantry Speed Arc Therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) On Conventional Linac

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Chi, Z; Gao, C; Xiaomei, F [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Gao, Y [Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Postoperative cervical cancer patients with large target volume and the target shape is concave, treatmented with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to investigate using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) on conventional linear accelrator, by comparing with the IMRT technology to evaluate the performance of CDR-CAS-IMAT on postoperative cervical cancer patients. Methods: 18 cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT on Varian 23IX were replanted using CDR-CAS-IMAT. The plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) of target volume, the dose of organs at risk, radiation delivery time and monitor units were also compared. SPSS 19.0 software paired T-test analysis was carried out on the two sets of data. Results: Compared with the IMRT plans PTV’s CI (t= 3.85, P =0.001), CTV’s CI, HI, D90, D95, D98, V95, V98, V100 (t=4.21, −3.18, 2.13, 4.65, 7.79, 2.29, 6.00, 2.13, p=0.001, 0.005, 0.049, 0.000, 0.000, 0.035, 0.000, 0.049), and cord D2 and rectum V40 (t=−2.65, −2.47, p= P =0.017, 0.025), and treatment time and MU (t=−36.0, −6.26, P =0.000, 0.000) were better than that of IMRT group. But the IMRT plans in terms of decreasing bladder V50, bowel V30 (t=2.14, 3.00, P =0.048, 0.008) and low dose irradiation volume were superior to that of CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. There were no significant differences in other statistical index. Conclusion: Cervical cancer patients with CDR-CAS-IMAT on Varian Clinical 23IX can get equivalent or superior dose distribution compared with the IMRT technology. IMAT have much less treatment time and MU can reduce the uncertainty factor and patient discomfort in treatment. This work was supported by the Medical Science Foundation of the health department of Hebei

  15. Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria.

    Rubin, K H; van der Zander, I; Smith, M C; Bergmanis, E C

    2005-09-22

    Although 70 per cent of global crustal magmatism occurs at mid-ocean ridges-where the heat budget controls crustal structure, hydrothermal activity and a vibrant biosphere-the tempo of magmatic inputs in these regions remains poorly understood. Such timescales can be assessed, however, with natural radioactive-decay-chain nuclides, because chemical disruption to secular equilibrium systems initiates parent-daughter disequilibria, which re-equilibrate by the shorter half-life in a pair. Here we use 210Pb-226Ra-230Th radioactive disequilibria and other geochemical attributes in oceanic basalts less than 20 years old to infer that melts of the Earth's mantle can be transported, accumulated and erupted in a few decades. This implies that magmatic conditions can fluctuate rapidly at ridge volcanoes. 210Pb deficits of up to 15 per cent relative to 226Ra occur in normal mid-ocean ridge basalts, with the largest deficits in the most magnesium-rich lavas. The 22-year half-life of 210Pb requires very recent fractionation of these two uranium-series nuclides. Relationships between 210Pb-deficits, (226Ra/230Th) activity ratios and compatible trace-element ratios preclude crustal-magma differentiation or daughter-isotope degassing as the main causes for the signal. A mantle-melting model can simulate observed disequilibria but preservation requires a subsequent mechanism to transport melt rapidly. The likelihood of magmatic disequilibria occurring before melt enters shallow crustal magma bodies also limits differentiation and heat replenishment timescales to decades at the localities studied. PMID:16177787

  16. Replication and extention : The effet of the commitment to comply with speed limits in rehabilitation training courses for traffic regulation offenders in France

    Delhomme, P.; Grenier, K.; KREEL,V

    2008-01-01

    Our first aim was to replicate in French rehabilitation training courses the results of Delhomme et al. [Delhomme, P., Kreel, V., & Ragot, I. (in press). The effect of the commitment to comply with speed limits during rehabilitation training courses for traffic regulation offenders in France. European Review of Applied Psychology] who found, from phone interviews, a positive effect of the commitment to comply with speed limits. Our second aim was to extend the previous study. In the present s...

  17. 公路限速值设计方法研究%Research on Design Method of Road Limited Speed Values

    高海龙; 刘兴旺

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at there is lack of scientific rational basis for limits speed management in China, the method for determine mad limited speed values was studied. By summarizing the virtues and defects in limited speed methods of Europe, America and other developed countries such as statutory limits, optimum speed limits, engineering study method and expert system-based approach, with combination of mad conditions in China, the influencing factors on regulation of road speed limiting in China were further analyzed. With application of system analysis method and based on running speed, geometry, designed speed and safety multi-factors, the design method of road limited speed values which suitable for Chinese transportation characteristic was developed and the concrete implementation flow was given.%针对我国公路限速管理决策中缺乏相关的科学、合理的依据,对公路限速值设计方法进行了研究.通过总结欧美等发达国家公路所使用法定限速、最优限速法、工程研究法与专家系统法等限速值设计方法应用中存在的优缺点,结合我国公路状况,进一步分析影响我国公路限速的因素,应用系统分析方法,综合考虑运行速度、公路线形、设计速度和交通安全等因素提出了基于运行速度、线形、安全多因素的适合我国交通特性的公路限速值设计方法并给出具体实施流程.

  18. 单轨吊用机械式防振限速器%Monorail Mechanical Type Antivibration Speed Limiter

    王建国

    2015-01-01

    针对煤矿井下单轨吊运输要求的紧急制动问题,以及现有速度检测机构受机车振动影响较大的问题,提出了一种机械式防振限速器。该机构将机车车轮的转动转换为杆件的直动,当机车超速时,滑块被压入竖直通道内,增大了杆件的行程,进而触发行程开关,启动制动系统。该机构的检测精度受机车振动影响很小,而且机构中的惯性元件均采用轻质材料制作,可以进一步减少机车振动对限速器造成的影响。%In view of requirement of emergency braking of monorail transportation, and the adverse effect that vibration exerted on the speed limiter, this paper put forward a solve scheme of Mechanical Type Antivibration Speed Limiter, It converted the wheel rotation into rod linear movement, when the loco is overspeed, the slider will be put into the vertical channel, and extend the rod to trigger the stroke switch, and then, the braking system will start, Vibration has little effect on the accuracy, and all inertial elements are made in light material to reduce that effect.

  19. 5.5 W near-diffraction-limited power from resonant leaky-wave coupled phase-locked arrays of quantum cascade lasers

    Five, 8.36 μm-emitting quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) have been monolithically phase-locked in the in-phase array mode via resonant leaky-wave coupling. The structure is fabricated by etch and regrowth which provides large index steps (Δn = 0.10) between antiguided-array elements and interelement regions. Such high index contrast photonic-crystal (PC) lasers have more than an order of magnitude higher index contrast than PC-distributed feedback lasers previously used for coherent beam combining in QCLs. Absorption loss to metal layers inserted in the interelement regions provides a wide (∼1.0 μm) range in interelement width over which the resonant in-phase mode is strongly favored to lase. Room-temperature, in-phase-mode operation with ∼2.2 kA/cm2 threshold-current density is obtained from 105 μm-wide aperture devices. The far-field beam pattern has lobewidths 1.65× diffraction limit (D.L.) and 82% of the light in the main lobe, up to 1.8× threshold. Peak pulsed near-D.L. power of 5.5 W is obtained, with 4.5 W emitted in the main lobe. Means of how to increase the device internal efficiency are discussed

  20. CLUB 55

    Ramón Rojano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una reconceptualización del concepto de envejecimento. Se plantea la necesidad de revisar las etapas del desarrollo psicológico descritas por Erikson. Los recientes cambios demográficos y la prolongación de la expectativa de vida justifican el replanteamiento conceptual. Actualmente la tercera edad no es la última edad. Características que se le atribuían a este período de la vida ahora corresponden a la cuarta edad. El Departamento de Servicios Humanos de Hartford ha creado el Club 55, un proyecto basado en este nuevo paradigma.

  1. Hidroroute 55

    Mas, M.; Eixarch, E.; Ortonobes, C.

    2012-04-01

    "HIDROROUTE 55" Saving water is a recurrent topic for students in Spain because the Mediterranean zone suffers periodically severe droughts. Any student knows it and is able to repeat some basic advices like "take showers instead of baths, or "close the tap when brushing your teeth..." But maybe this is a quite superficial awareness about shortage and saving water. Where does the home flowing water come from? How can we be sure that this water is clean and safe to drink? And, tomorrow or next week, will be there water in our tap? Perhaps working in these questions is a good way to understand how difficult is to get water to our homes. In order to deepen in the question we are preparing a teaching unit titled "Hydro route 55: from the Earth to la Maurina trough the water" on 1rst ESO level students (12 years old) of the secondary public school "Institut les Aymerigues" in Terrassa (Barcelona). Students' tasks will be to search information about the way water gets to their homes, including water cycle, treatment and saving water... This unit belongs to an integrated project with all areas involved (history, mathematics, technology, languages and music) that aims to approach students to different aspects of their zone in Terrassa (La Maurina) and it will be implemented at the end of the second term, just some weeks before the Vienna's meeting. School and teaching team: Institut les Aymerigues is a new school that this year has only 1rst ESO students (12 years old). Teaching staff is engaged in developing an integrated and based on competences curriculum. In this context we integrate English and Science content in a unified teaching schedule of six hours per week for the students. One English teacher and two Science teachers are involved in it. In addition we have three student teachers from "Master of Secondary Teachers Training" that are in charge of preparing the Hydroroute 55 activities with the titular teachers. We illustrate students' tasks such as the

  2. 10 CFR 55.55 - Expiration.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration. 55.55 Section 55.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Licenses § 55.55 Expiration. (a) Each operator license and senior... existing license on Form NRC-398 at least 30 days before the expiration of the existing license, it...

  3. CFD based design and modelling of wind fence to mitigate high-speed wind loading on a modular data center

    Gorrepati, Devi Prasad

    A Modular Data Center (MDC) is a portable method of deploying a data center's capacity. As an alternative to the traditional data center, an MDC can be placed anywhere data capacity is required. The purpose of this study is to reduce the damage or loss of performance caused to the data centers that use free cooling, by mitigating high-speed winds. The Modular Data centers which use free cooling and that are located in open regions are subjected to various environmental risks such as very high-speed winds. As this wind blows over these data centers, the pressure difference generated within and outside the enclosure can have a drastic effect on the free cooling. Therefore, by using a wind fence which basically acts as a barrier to the upstream wind and reduces the mean velocity of air downstream of the wind fence, we reduce the pressure difference created and also the wind induced loading on the objects situated behind the fence. Although wind fences are used in many agricultural and farming practices, their usage pertaining to MDCs is very limited. The challenge is to reduce wind speed from 100 mph to 10 mph. This has been achieved by iteratively designing and analyzing a wind fence using CFD simulations to come up with a few wind fence options that have defined properties such as height, perforation and location (distance from the inlet of MDC) of the wind fence.

  4. Differentiation in neuroblastoma: diffusion-limited hypoxia induces neuro-endocrine secretory protein 55 and other markers of a chromaffin phenotype.

    Fredrik Hedborg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy of sympathetic embryonal origin. A high potential for differentiation is a hallmark of neuroblastoma cells. We have previously presented data to suggest that in situ differentiation in tumors frequently proceeds along the chromaffin lineage and that decreased oxygen (hypoxia plays a role in this. Here we explore the utility of Neuro-Endocrine Secretory Protein 55 (NESP55, a novel member of the chromogranin family, as a marker for this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridizations were performed on human fetal tissues, mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma cell lines, and on specimens of human neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Effects of anaerobic exposure on gene expression by cultured neuroblastoma cells was analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Fetal sympathetic nervous system expression of NESP55 was shown to be specific for chromaffin cell types. In experimental and clinical neuroblastoma NESP55 immunoreactivity was specific for regions of chronic hypoxia. NESP55 expression also correlated strikingly with morphological evidence of differentiation and with other chromaffin-specific patterns of gene expression, including IGF2 and HIF2α. Anaerobic culture of five neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in an 18.9-fold mean up-regulation of NESP55. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data confirms that chronic tumor hypoxia is a key microenvironmental factor for neuroblastoma cell differentiation, causing induction of chromaffin features and NESP55 provides a reliable marker for this neuronal to neuroendocrine transition. The hypoxia-induced phenotype is the predominant form of differentiation in stroma-poor tumors, while in stroma-rich tumors the chromaffin phenotype coexists with ganglion cell-like differentiation. The findings provide new insights into the biological diversity which is a striking feature of this group of tumors.

  5. Measures for speed management.

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather cond

  6. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias; Magnussen, Line V; Andersen, Marianne; Caserotti, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed of changes (TG vs. CG; pchange in muscle thickness was non-significant (+0.08cm). Improvements in voluntary muscle activation were associated with improvements in gait speed in TG (r=0.67, pmobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms influencing muscle mechanical function and gait speed in older adults. PMID:27090485

  7. Understanding the Benefits and Limitations of Increasing Maximum Rotor Tip Speed for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines

    Ning, A.; Dykes, K.

    2014-06-01

    For utility-scale wind turbines, the maximum rotor rotation speed is generally constrained by noise considerations. Innovations in acoustics and/or siting in remote locations may enable future wind turbine designs to operate with higher tip speeds. Wind turbines designed to take advantage of higher tip speeds are expected to be able to capture more energy and utilize lighter drivetrains because of their decreased maximum torque loads. However, the magnitude of the potential cost savings is unclear, and the potential trade-offs with rotor and tower sizing are not well understood. A multidisciplinary, system-level framework was developed to facilitate wind turbine and wind plant analysis and optimization. The rotors, nacelles, and towers of wind turbines are optimized for minimum cost of energy subject to a large number of structural, manufacturing, and transportation constraints. These optimization studies suggest that allowing for higher maximum tip speeds could result in a decrease in the cost of energy of up to 5% for land-based sites and 2% for offshore sites when using current technology. Almost all of the cost savings are attributed to the decrease in gearbox mass as a consequence of the reduced maximum rotor torque. Although there is some increased energy capture, it is very minimal (less than 0.5%). Extreme increases in tip speed are unnecessary; benefits for maximum tip speeds greater than 100-110 m/s are small to nonexistent.

  8. Understanding the Benefits and Limitations of Increasing Maximum Rotor Tip Speed for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines

    For utility-scale wind turbines, the maximum rotor rotation speed is generally constrained by noise considerations. Innovations in acoustics and/or siting in remote locations may enable future wind turbine designs to operate with higher tip speeds. Wind turbines designed to take advantage of higher tip speeds are expected to be able to capture more energy and utilize lighter drivetrains because of their decreased maximum torque loads. However, the magnitude of the potential cost savings is unclear, and the potential trade-offs with rotor and tower sizing are not well understood. A multidisciplinary, system-level framework was developed to facilitate wind turbine and wind plant analysis and optimization. The rotors, nacelles, and towers of wind turbines are optimized for minimum cost of energy subject to a large number of structural, manufacturing, and transportation constraints. These optimization studies suggest that allowing for higher maximum tip speeds could result in a decrease in the cost of energy of up to 5% for land-based sites and 2% for offshore sites when using current technology. Almost all of the cost savings are attributed to the decrease in gearbox mass as a consequence of the reduced maximum rotor torque. Although there is some increased energy capture, it is very minimal (less than 0.5%). Extreme increases in tip speed are unnecessary; benefits for maximum tip speeds greater than 100-110 m/s are small to nonexistent

  9. On the MAC/Network/Energy Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR Routing Protocols

    Carolina Del-Valle-Soto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH, the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR, all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  10. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  11. Teaching Note--Educating Public Health Social Work Professionals: Results from an MSW/MPH Program Outcomes Study

    Ruth, Betty J.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Velásquez, Esther E. M.; Bachman, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-degree programs in public health and social work continue to proliferate, yet there has been little research on master's of social work (MSW)/master's of public health (MPH) graduates. The purpose of this study was to describe and better understand the self-reported professional experiences, identities, roles, and outcomes…

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide Production as a Limiting Factor in Xenobiotic Compound Oxidation by Nitrogen-Sufficient Cultures of Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 Overproducing Peroxidases

    Kotterman, M.; Wasseveld, R. A.; Field, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overproduction of ligninolytic peroxidase by the N-deregulated white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 under nitrogen-sufficient conditions had no noteworthy effect on the oxidation of anthracene or the decolorization of the polymeric aromatic dye Poly R-478 in 6-day-old cultures. Only when the endogenous production of H(inf2)O(inf2) was increased by the addition of extra oxygen and glucose could a 2.5-fold increase in the anthracene oxidation rate and a 6-fold increase in the Poly ...

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Chemically Enhanced Mechanism of SERS Spectroscopy for Ag/MPH/TiO2 System%理论研究Ag/MPH/TiO2体系的SERS光谱化学增强机理

    孙磊; 白福全; 张红星

    2011-01-01

    A chemically enhanced mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)spectroscopy was investigated using density functional theory (DFT).We studied the Raman spectra of the Ag13/MPH and Ag13/MPH/TiO2 systems under 514.5 nm excitation.We found that the intensities of the non-totally symmetric vibration modes were selectively enhanced after TiO2 was introduced into the Ag13/MPH system.By analyzing the ground state and excited states of the charge transfer (CT) complex we found that the system gave a photoinduced CT state from Ag to the MPH-TiO2 complex when the excitation wavelength exceeded the optical absorption threshold (635 nm) of the MPH-TiO2 complex.The selective enhancement of the b2 modes in the SERS spectra probably originates from the Herzberg-Teller mechanism through the coupling of the corresponding modes with the CT transition.Our theoretical results support the experimental results and also define the adsorption threshold of the CT complex clearly while providing an intelligible physical explanation for the laser wavelength-dependent SERS phenomenon.%采用密度泛函理论研究了Ag/对巯基苯酚(MPH)TiO2体系的表面增强拉曼散射(SERS)光谱化学增强机理.分别研究了Ag13/MPH和Ag13/MPH/TiO2复合物在514.5 nm激发波长下的拉曼光谱,发现由于TiO2的引入,发生了非完全对称振动模式峰选择性增强的现象.通过对电荷转移复合物基态和激发态的指认,发现当激发波长大于MPH-TiO2电荷转移复合物的光学吸收阈值(635 nm)时,该体系内将发生从Ag到MPH-TiO2部分的光诱导电荷转移现象.SERS光谱中b2模式的选择性增强,来源于相应振动模式与电荷转移跃迁的耦合(Herzberg-Teller机制).我们的理论结果不仅支持了实验现象,并且明确界定了电荷转移复合物,对于该体系存在的光依赖SERS现象提供了一个清晰的理论阐述.

  14. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  15. Graviton time delay and a speed limit for small black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory

    Papallo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Camanho, Edelstein, Maldacena and Zhiboedov have shown that gravitons can experience a negative Shapiro time delay, i.e. a time advance, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. They studied gravitons propagating in singular "shock-wave" geometries. We study this effect for gravitons propagating in smooth black hole spacetimes. For a small enough black hole, we find that gravitons of appropriate polarisation, and small impact parameter, can experience time advance. Such gravitons can also exhibit a deflection angle less than $\\pi$, characteristic of a repulsive short-distance gravitational interaction. We discuss problems with the suggestion that the time advance can be used to build a "time machine". In particular, we argue that a small black hole cannot be boosted to a speed arbitrarily close to the speed of light, as would be required in such a construction.

  16. Graviton time delay and a speed limit for small black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory

    Papallo, Giuseppe; Reall, Harvey S.

    2015-11-01

    Camanho, Edelstein, Maldacena and Zhiboedov have shown that gravitons can experience a negative Shapiro time delay, i.e. a time advance, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. They studied gravitons propagating in singular "shock-wave" geometries. We study this effect for gravitons propagating in smooth black hole spacetimes. For a small enough black hole, we find that gravitons of appropriate polarisation, and small impact parameter, can experience time advance. Such gravitons can also exhibit a deflection angle less than π, characteristic of a repulsive short-distance gravitational interaction. We discuss problems with the suggestion that the time advance can be used to build a "time machine". In particular, we argue that a small black hole cannot be boosted to a speed arbitrarily close to the speed of light, as would be required in such a construction.

  17. Study on characteristics of traffic flow of trains and operational delay in speed-limited section%限速区段列车流特性及运行延误研究

    许得杰; 毛保华; 戎亚萍

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the operational characteristics of trains in speed-limited section, it proposes a cellular automaton model for train movements in the four-aspect fixed-block system. The operational properties and delay laws of traffic flow of mixed trains are investigated in this paper, and the reasons causing operational delay are also analyzed. The results show that when the passenger and freight trains operate on the same railway, the reasons which cause the delay are speed-limit and inhibiting effect of freight trains to passenger trains, and the delay time increases with the length grow of speed-limited section. The inhibiting effect decreases with the increasing of train departure interval, and once it is greater than a critical value, the main reason inducing train delay is only speed-limit of slowdown section. When the train depar-ture interval maintains a constant value, the average delay time of trains will form a“arch”with the increasing proportion of passenger and freight trains, and when the proportion ranges from 0.55~0.65, the average delay time reaches to maximum.%通过分析列车在限速区段的运行特征,提出了四显示固定闭塞系统下限速区段列车流的元胞自动机模型,重点研究了混合列车流在限速区段的运行特性以及列车在限速区段的延误规律,并分析了造成列车延误的原因。结果表明:当客货车在具有限速区段的线路混行时,造成列车延误的原因分为限速区段限速和货车对客车的抑制作用,且列车延误时间随着限速区段长度的增加而增加;货车对客车的抑制作用随着发车间隔的增大而减弱,当发车间隔超过临界值时,造成列车延误的主要原因是限速区段的限速。当发车间隔固定时,列车的平均延误时间会随着客货车比例的增大呈现出“拱形”,客货车比例在0.55~0.65之间时,列车的平均延误达到了峰值。

  18. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed of...... <0.9m/s in the per-protocol analysis: n=16 in the training group (TG: 12weeks of progressive high-load power training, 2 sessions per week; age: 82.3±1.3years, 56% women) and n=21 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age: 81.6±1.1years, 67% women). Knee extensor muscle thickness...... in TG (r=0.67, p<0.05). Importantly, voluntary muscle activation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  19. Zum Einfluss von Methylphenidat (MPH; Ritalin®) auf die Reifung von Dopamin in limbo-präfrontalen Arealen von Meriones unguiculatus

    Grund, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    Methylphenidat (MPH; z.B. Ritalin® und Medikinet®), ein zu den Psychostimulanzien gehörendes Amphetaminderivat, wird heute als Mittel der Wahl bei der Behandlung der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) eingesetzt, obwohl die therapeutische Wirkung des Medikaments immer noch weitgehend unverstanden ist. Das Dopaminsystem gilt bei der ADHS als ursächlich betroffen. Da MPH sein Wirkungsprofil speziell über diesen Transmitter entfaltet, steht Dopamin im Zentrum der hirnphysiolog...

  20. Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects on Energy Dependence of the Speed of Light from Observations of TeV Flares in Active Galaxies

    We have used data from a TeV γ -ray flare associated with the active galaxy Markarian 421 to place bounds on the possible energy dependence of the speed of light in the context of an effective quantum gravitational energy scale. Recent theoretical work suggests that such an energy scale could be less than the Planck mass and perhaps as low as 1016 GeV. The limits derived here indicate this energy scale to be in excess of 6x1016 GeV for at least one approach to quantum gravity in the context of D-brane string theory. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first convincing limit on such phenomena in this energy regime. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects on Energy Dependence of the Speed of Light from Observations of TeV Flares in Active Galaxies

    Biller, S.D. [Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breslin, A.C.; Carson, M.; Fegan, D.J.; Masterson, C.; McKernan, B. [University College, Dublin (Ireland); Buckley, J. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Catanese, M.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Krennrich, F.; Samuelson, F. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Cawley, M.F. [Maynooth University, Maynooth (Ireland); Finley, J.P.; Gaidos, J.A.; Lessard, R.; Sembroski, G. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Hillas, A.M.; Rose, H.J.; Skelton, P. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Lamb, R.C. [California Institute of Technology, California 91125 (United States); McEnery, J.E. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Moriarty, P. [Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway (Ireland); Quinn, J.; Weekes, T.C. [Whipple Observatory, Amado, Arizona 85645 (United States)

    1999-09-01

    We have used data from a TeV {gamma} -ray flare associated with the active galaxy Markarian 421 to place bounds on the possible energy dependence of the speed of light in the context of an effective quantum gravitational energy scale. Recent theoretical work suggests that such an energy scale could be less than the Planck mass and perhaps as low as 10{sup 16} thinspthinspGeV. The limits derived here indicate this energy scale to be in excess of 6{times}10{sup 16} thinspthinspGeV for at least one approach to quantum gravity in the context of D-brane string theory. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first convincing limit on such phenomena in this energy regime. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Speeding or not speeding? When subjective assessment of safe, pleasurable and risky speeds determines speeding behaviour

    Florent Lheureux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that in a given situation speeding behaviour is determined by three subjective speed assessments: the speed perceived as the riskiest, the speed perceived as the safest, and the speed perceived as the most pleasurable. Specifically, if these assessments are high, drivers are expected to circulate faster. Such speed perceptions are also viewed as influenced by attitudes towards speed and speed limits. 177 car drivers, included 102 men and 75 women between 18 and 72 years (M = 43, SD = 21 and with a mean driving experience of 22 years (SD = 19, answered to a questionnaire about their attitudes towards speed and speed limits, the speeds they considered as the riskiest, the safest, and the most pleasurable in three different contexts, as well as their usual speed. Data analyses (ANOVA and path analyses confirmed the influence of the three types of speed assessment on the usual speed and that the influence of attitudes on this behaviour is mediated by these three assessments. Results suggest that not only a change in attitudes and beliefs is desirable, but a concrete specification (e.g., 100 Km/h of speeds perceived as safe, pleasurable and risky is also needed in order to reduce speeding behaviour.

  3. Pharmacy students’ perspectives on a PharmD/MPH dual degree program at a large metropolitan school of pharmacy

    Holtzman, Carol W.; Sifontis, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ perceptions of a PharmD and master of public health (MPH) dual degree program. Methods A seven-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to students at a large metropolitan school of pharmacy during scheduled class time in April 2012. Results Among the 611 students enrolled in the PharmD program, 447 (73%) responded. Of those who responded, 72.3% were either “very likely” or “likely” to consider enrolling in such a PharmD...

  4. Pharmacy Students’ Perspective on a Dual Degree PharmD/MPH Program at a Large Metropolitan School of Pharmacy

    Holtzman CW; Sifontis NM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ perceptions of a PharmD and master of public health (MPH) dual degree program. Methods: A seven-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to students at a large metropolitan school of pharmacy during scheduled class time in April 2012. Results: Among the 611 students enrolled in the PharmD program, 447 (73%) responded. Of those who responded, 72.3% were either “very likely” or “likely” to consider enrolling in suc...

  5. STEM@1000mph: Developing Open Educational Resources in a Live Engineering Project

    Lanham, John; Howard, Yvonne; Drew, Ben; Johns, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions are recognising the clear benefits of open educational resources, and academics are engaging with the development of these resources. This paper presents a case study of OERs being developed using the live, current BloodhoundSSC world land speed record project as a basis. The paper outlines the rationale for the…

  6. Doppler-limited H2O and HF absorption spectroscopy by sweeping the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate using a single-mode MEMS-tunable VCSEL

    Stein, B. A.; Jayaraman, V.; Jiang, J. Y.; Cable, A.; Sanders, S. T.

    2012-09-01

    A single longitudinal mode micro-electro-mechanical system-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was used to measure H2O and HF absorption spectra in the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate (˜ 740 MHz/ns tuning rate). Pulse delay referencing was used to achieve an absorbance noise level of 0.004 (RMS), within a factor of 2.6 of the shot noise limit. The measured linewidths approach the low-pressure feature linewidths (˜790 MHz) characteristic of the gases studied, highlighting the single-mode nature of the VCSEL throughout each rapid wavelength sweep. At even higher tuning rates, molecular features became asymmetric and broad, consistent with rapid passage and Fourier effects.

  7. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  8. Speed Limits in General Relativity

    Low, Robert J

    1998-01-01

    Some standard results on the initial value problem of general relativity in matter are reviewed. These results are applied first to show that in a well defined sense, finite perturbations in the gravitational field travel no faster than light, and second to show that it is impossible to construct a warp drive as considered by Alcubierre (1994) in the absence of exotic matter.

  9. The pulsed linear induction motor concept for high-speed trains

    Turman, B.N.; Marder, B.M.; Rohwein, G.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Kelley, J.B.; Cowan, M.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The SERAPBIM (SEgmented RAil PHased Induction Motor) concept is a linear induction motor concept which uses rapidly-pulsed magnetic fields and a segmented reaction rail, as opposed to low-frequency fields and continuous reaction rails found in conventional linear induction motors. These improvements give a high-traction, compact, and efficient linear motor that has potential for advanced high speed rail propulsion. In the SERAPBIM concept, coils on the vehicle push against a segmented aluminum rail, which is mounted on the road bed. Current is pulsed as the coils cross an edge of the segmented rail, inducing surface currents which repel the coil. The coils must be pulsed in synchronization with the movement by reaction rail segments. This is provided by a sense-and-fire circuit that controls the pulsing of the power modulators. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the pulsed induction motor and to collect data that could be used for scaling calculations. A 14.4 kg aluminum plate was accelerated down a 4 m track to speeds of over 15 m/sec with peak thrust up to 18 kN per coilset. For a trainset capable of 200 mph speed, the SERAPHIM concept design is based on coils which are each capable of producing up to 3.5 kN thrust, and 30 coil pairs are mounted on each power car. Two power cars, one at each end of the train, provide 6 MW from two gas turbine prime power units. The thrust is about 210.000 N and is essentially constant up to 200 km/hr since wheel slippage does not limit thrust as with conventional wheeled propulsion. A key component of the SERAPHIM concept is the use of passive wheel-on-rah support for the high speed vehicle. Standard steel wheels are capable of handling over 200 mph. The SERAPHIM cost is comparable to that for steel-wheel high-speed rail, and about 10% to 25% of the projected costs for a comparable Maglev system.

  10. DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model

    1992-01-01

    Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.

  11. 基于多元因素的高速公路可变限速值计算方法研究%A New Method for Determining Variable Speed Limits on Freeway

    余凯; 张存保; 石永辉

    2011-01-01

    分析了高速公路限速的影响因素,总结了国内外高速公路限速值计算方法,在此基础上建立基于多元因素的高速公路可变限速值计算模型.该模型综合考虑交通量、道路线形,能见度,路面摩擦系数等因素,克服了静态限速存在的不足.%This paper analyzes the factors affecting freeway speed limit and establishes a variable speed limit model. The model takes several factors into account including traffic volume, road alignment, visibility, surface friction coefficient, etc. The proposed approach can overcome the limitation of static speed limits.

  12. Centromere-tethered Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase is a sufficient marker for recruitment of the spindle checkpoint protein Bub1, but not Mad1.

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yu; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all of the chromosomes properly achieve bipolar attachment to the spindle. It has been shown that unattached kinetochores are the site that emits a signal for activation of the checkpoint. Although the components of the checkpoint such as Bub1, Mad1 and Mad2 selectively accumulate at unattached kinetochores, the answer to how they recognize unattached kinetochores has remained elusive. Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase has been shown to function upstream of most of the components of the checkpoint and thus it is thought to recognize unattached kinetochores by itself and recruit other components. In this study we have expressed a fusion protein of Mph1 and Ndc80 (a kinetochore protein of the outer plate) and shown that the fusion protein arrests cell cycle progression in a spindle-checkpoint\\x{2013}dependent manner in fission yeast. When expression of Mad2 is turned off, the cells grow normally with Mph1 constitutively localized at centromeres/kinetochores. Under this condition, Bub1 can be found with Mph1 throughout the cell cycle, indicating that localization of Mph1 at centromeres/kinetochores is sufficient to recruit Bub1. In contrast, Mad1 is found to transiently localize at kinetochores, which are presumably unattached to the spindle, but soon it dissociates from kinetochores. We propose that Mph1 is a sufficient marker for recruitment of Bub1. Mad1, in contrast, requires an additional condition/component for stable association with kinetochores. PMID:22184248

  13. The Preparation and Characterization of MPH%MPH止血微球的制备及其结构表征

    孙伟庆; 夏尧远

    2015-01-01

    微孔多聚糖止血微球(Microporous polysaccharide hemispheres,MPH)是一种新型止血材料,具有良好的生物兼容性,无毒副作用,能直接作用于手术创面,迅速止血,值得在临床上广泛推广使用.以马铃薯淀粉为原料,通过反相微乳化技术以及交联改性技术制备了具有空间立体网状结构的MPH止血微球,并且通过红外光谱仪、场发射扫描电子显微镜、激光粒度分析仪等对其结构进行了表征.

  14. Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) has been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders as well as psychostimulant action. We hypothesized that the risk of an emotional side effect to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment may be associated with NTF3 genotypes. Ninety-six medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.70, standard deviation 1.41 years, 79 males) were genotyped and treated with MPH. At baseline, which was prior to MPH treatment, and after two weeks of medication, investigators asked children and their parents or caregivers about adverse events using a symptom rating scale. ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Emotionality' and 'Over-focus/euphoria' factor scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.042 and p=0.045, respectively). ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Proneness to crying' and 'Nail biting' item scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.047 and p=0.017, respectively). These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in the NTF3 gene is related to susceptibility to emotional side effects in response to MPH treatment in Korean children with ADHD. PMID:23471121

  15. Speeding Up

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the global financial crisis, China has amazed the world with the speed of its economic recovery. But what has been even more surprising is the speed of its railway evolution. The unveiling of the 1,069-km Wuhan-Guangzhou High-speed Railway on December 26, 2009 pushed China's high-speed rail sys-tem-the total mileage, the average speed and the technology-to rank first in the world almost overnight.

  16. Speed and income

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  17. 既有线临时限速预警控制技术研究与试验%Research and Test on Early Warning and Control Techniques for Temporary Speed Limit of Existing Railway Line

    朱玮; 王廷昌

    2013-01-01

    为确保列车安全通过既有线临时限速区段,综合应用射频识别、信息处理与控制、无线数据通信、地理信息系统(GIS)等技术,研发铁路既有线临时限速预警控制系统.在既有线临时限速区段前设置带有临时限速信息的射频标签,在机车上安装射频标签车底识别器和临时限速信息预警控制装置等车载设备.当列车接近临时限速区段时,车载设备自动读取和显示射频标签内的临时限速信息,并向列车司机发出临时限速的语音提示;当列车超速时,车载设备自动输出制动控制信号.为临时限速区段设置的限速信息可利用手持机读取和编辑,并通过其内置的无线通信模块传送到临时限速信息管理服务器,在基于GIS的地图上实时显示临时限速区段的设置情况.经实车试验表明,该系统实现了列车接近和通过既有线临时限速区段时地一车之问临时限速信息的实时自动传递和列车限速预警控制,满足设计和应用要求.%Early warning and control techniques on temporary speed limit setting for existing lines are developed with radio frequency identification,information processing and control,wireless data communication and GIS technique to insure train running safely through the temporary speed limit section of existing lines.RFID labels with the information of temporary speed limits are set before the temporary speed limit section of railway existing lines.Locomotives are furnished with RFID labels car identifiers,temporary speed limit control devices and other on-board devices.When trains approach temporary speed limit section,on-board devices will automatically read and display the information of temporary speed limits in RFID labels,also broadcast voice prompt to driver.On-board devices automatically send brake control signal as the train runs over speed.RFID information can be read and edited by hand-held reader,and transferred to RFID information

  18. Integrating service-learning into an MPH curriculum for future public health practitioners: strengthening community-campus partnerships.

    Anderson, Lisa S; Royster, Michael O; Bailey, Nannette; Reed, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Through a 3-year grant from the Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, the Virginia Commonwealth University MPH program adopted an incremental approach to implement service-learning focused on health disparities into its curriculum. We first incorporated service-learning into an elective course and then a required internship. We then worked with the Virginia Department of Health to develop a plan for first-year students to engage in additional experiential learning through a practicum. Students also were encouraged to organize community service events, such as health fairs. Service-learning was fully incorporated into the internship. The first-year student practicum, followed by the internship, has strengthened collaborations among faculty, students, and the Virginia Department of Health and expanded student service in the community. The number of student-supported community service events more than doubled. An incremental approach to incorporating service-learning led to successful implementation of the pedagogy. Service-learning benefits community partners, enriches student learning, and is well-suited for studies in public health. PMID:21617407

  19. 5.5 Summary

    Almén, A.; Valentin, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '5.5 Summary' of the Chapter '5 Medical Radiological Protection'.

  20. Analysis of a high speed train impact on a fuel transport flask

    Current requirements for flask testing involve the recommended IAEA 9m drop test onto a flat unyielding surface. However, in practice impacts may occur at speeds far greater than the 30 mph equivalent of a 9m drop but into a yielding target. Additionally, the flask itself may be the target. This report investigates the postulated accident of a high speed train travelling at 125 mph impacting a stationary flask. The objectives of this report are to establish the forces that are involved and to put them into the context of the regulation drop tests, to investigate what effects the train as a whole has on the impact and to identify the significant parameters that determine the force level. A one dimensional model of the train is used to obtain the flask loading when the flask is both fixed and free, these giving the upper and lower bounds for all possible flask constraints. (author)

  1. Dielectric barrier discharge actuator for vehicle drag reduction at highway speeds

    Subrata Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate reduction of aerodynamic drag for a realistic geometry at highway speeds using serpentine dielectric barrier discharge actuators. A comparable linear plasma actuator fails to reduce the drag at these speeds. Experimental data collected for linear and serpentine plasma actuators under quiescent operating conditions show that the serpentine design has profound effect on near wall flow structure and resulting drag. For certain actuator arrangement, the measured drag reduced by over 14% at 26.8 m/s (60 mph and over 10% at 31.3 m/s (70 mph opening up realistic possibility of reasonable energy savings for full scale ground vehicles. In addition, the power consumption data and drag reduction effectiveness for different input signals are also presented.

  2. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  3. The Impact of a Signalized Crosswalk on Traffic Speed and Street-Crossing Behaviors of Residents in an Underserved Neighborhood.

    Schultz, Courtney L; Sayers, Stephen P; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Thombs, Lori A; Thomas, Ian M; Canfield, Shannon M

    2015-10-01

    Infrastructure improvements such as pedestrian crosswalks that calm traffic and increase access to physical activity opportunities could alleviate important barriers to active living in underserved communities with outdated built environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how the built environment influences street-crossing behaviors and traffic speeds in a low-income neighborhood with barriers to active living in Columbia, Missouri. In 2013, a signalized pedestrian crosswalk and 400-ft-long median was constructed along a busy 5-lane, high-speed arterial highway linking low-income housing with a park and downtown areas. Data collection occurred prior to June 2012, and after June 2013, completion of the project at the intervention site and control site. Direct observation of street-crossing behaviors was performed at designated intersections/crosswalks or non-designated crossing points. Traffic volume and speed were captured using embedded magnetic traffic detectors. At the intervention site, designated crossings increased at the new crosswalk (p < 0.001), but not at non-designated crossings (p = 0.52) or designated crossings at intersections (p = 0.41). At the control site, there was no change in designated crossings (p = 0.94) or non-designated crossings (p = 0.79). Motor vehicles traveling above the speed limit of 35 mph decreased from 62,056 (46 %) to 46,256 (35 %) (p < 0.001) at the intervention site and increased from 57,891 (49 %) to 65,725 (59 %) (p < 0.001) at the control site. The installation of a signalized crosswalk facilitated an increase in safe street crossings and calmed traffic volume and speed in an underserved neighborhood. We believe these findings have significant public health implications that could be critical to advocacy efforts to improve infrastructure projects in similar communities. PMID:26354602

  4. Measured speed versus true speed

    Perez, Israel

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical predictions, derived from the Lorentz and the Tangherlini transformations, for the one-way speed of any physical entity are confronted with the corresponding expressions for the one-way measured speed obtained from a gedanken experiment. The experiment demonstrates that, for an inertial frame $K'$ in motion relative to an inertial frame $K$ where the one-way speed of light is isotropic, even the special theory of relativity renders the one-way speed of light as function of the...

  5. 基于信息感知的高速公路事故路段限速方案及仿真%Speed-limited Scheme and Simulation of Traffic Accident Scenes on Freeway Based on Information Perception

    张文会; 徐慧智; 张刑磊

    2012-01-01

    事故现场的存在改变了交通流状态,影响车辆的安全行驶,如果事故现场处置不合理,易诱发二次交通事故.根据车辆行驶特征以及驾驶员行为特性,将高速公路事故路段进行区域划分;参考驾驶员的动视力和视野范围,建立基于信息感知的高速公路事故路段限速逻辑模型.在仿真环境下,选取通行能力、最大排队长度、平均速度和速度样本标准偏差等评价参数,比对限速方案和不限速方案,结果表明:在各特征交通流量下,通行能力变化不大,限速方案下平均速度降低,最大排队长度和速度标准差也降低.%Accident scenes change the station of traffic flow and affect driving safely. Unreasonable disposal of accident scenes induces secondary traffic accidents. The accidents scenes on freeway were divided into microcosmic region according to the characteristics of vehicles driving and driver behavior. Speed-limit models based on information perception was established according to visual acuity and visual field of drivers. Evaluation indexes including traffic capacity, the max queue length, average velocity and standard deviation of speed sample were chosen to be compared for speed-limited scheme and not. The results show that traffic capacity has not significant difference, average velocity is lower in speed limited scheme, the max queue length and standard deviation of speed sample decrease in various traffic volume.

  6. Speed mathematics

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  7. A study of the Speed Limits under the Ice and Snow Conditions for Urban Expressways%冰雪条件下城市快速路限速研究

    李松龄; 向涛涛

    2015-01-01

    为了提高冰雪条件下城市快速路车辆行驶的安全性,通过视频录像和人工调查等方式获得哈尔滨市部分快速路在不同冰雪条件下的交通流基础数据,分析车流量、大小车型、车道位置等因素对运行速度的影响,并基于车辆追尾时的临界条件以及车辆的跟驰特性,建立与道路附着系数、交通量等参数相关的安全限速模型,并利用不同冰雪路面附着系数对模型中的路面参数进行标定,重点研究了冰雪环境对城市快速路车辆限速的影响,提出按交通量分级限速管理的方法。研究表明:冰雪条件下模型确定的限速值可以满足快速路上车辆的行驶安全;车辆在松雪、冰雪、冰膜路面上的限速值依次降低,在除雪作业后,限速值可以提高10~20 km/h;城市快速路在冰雪条件下的限速值需分车道分车型进行设置,相邻车道大、小型车限速值相差5~10 km/h;冰雪条件下的限速应根据交通量小于800 pcu/h、800~1500 pcu/h、大于1500 pcu/h 采用分级限速管理措施,以提高快速路的运输效率。%In order to improve traffic safety on urban expressways under the ice and snow,the effects of traffic vol-umes,vehicle types and lane positions on vehicle speed are investigated,where traffic flow data is collected from video re-cording and manual investigation in expressways in Harbin.Based on the characteristics of the critical condition of vehicle rear-end collision and vehicle-following,a speed limit model is developed,including variables of the road friction coeffi-cients and traffic volume,etc.The parameters of this model are calibrated using the surface friction coefficients under dif-ferent conditions of ice and snow,and the focus is to study the effects of ice and snow on the speed limit of urban express-ways.Finally,a method for optimizing speed limits by traffic volume levels is proposed.The study results showed that the speed

  8. Design Optimization and the Limits of Steady-State Heating Efficiency for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps; TOPICAL

    The ORNL Heat Pump Model* and an optimizing program were used to explore the limits of steady-state heating efficiency for conventional air-source heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of ten selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. Designs were optimized for a fixed heating capacity, but the results may be scaled to other capacities. Substantial performance improvement is predicted compared to today's state of the art heat pump. With increased component efficiencies that are expected in the near future and with modest increases in heat exchanger area, a 28% increase in heating efficiency is predicted; for long-term improvements with considerably larger heat exchangers, a 56% increase is possible. The improved efficiencies are accompanied by substantial reductions in the requirements for compressor and motor size. The predicted performance improvements are attributed not only to improved components and larger heat exchangers but also to the use of an optimizing design procedure. Deviations from the optimized design may be necessary to make use of available component sizes and to maintain good cooling-mode performance while improving the heating efficiency. Sensitivity plots (i.e., COP as a function of one or more design parameters) were developed to explore design flexibilities and to evaluate their consequences. The performance of the optimized designs was compared to that of modified ideal cycles to assess the factors that limit further improvement. It is hoped that the design methods developed will be useful to designers in the heat pump industry

  9. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius;

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept...... consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and...... without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a...

  10. High-speed AC motors

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  11. Animal evolution: trilobites on speed.

    Budd, Graham E

    2013-10-01

    A new study quantifies rates of morphological and molecular evolution for arthropods during the critical Cambrian explosion. Both morphological and molecular evolution are accelerated--but not so much to break any speed limits. PMID:24112983

  12. An Improved Method to Calculate Wind Power Penetration Limit Considering Wind Speed Correlation%考虑风速相关性的风电穿透功率极限的改进计算

    汤雪松; 殷明慧; 邹云

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively analyze the impact of wind speed correlation of multi wind farms on wind power penetration limit, an improved method for calculating wind power penetration limit, in which the wind speed correlation and multi constraints of power grid are considered, is proposed. Utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling based stochastic simulation, the correlated wind speeds of multi wind farms are simulated. Using chance constrained programming based probabilistic optimal power flow and taking the maximized total installed capacity to accommodate wind power as the objective, the wind power penetration limit is calculated under the premise of satisfying multi constraints of power grid, including the ramp rate constraints of conventional units. Taking IEEE 30-bus system as the case, the above-mentioned model is solved by genetic algorithm, and simulation results show that the proposed method is effective. Besides, simulation results also show that the impact of wind speed correlation on the capability of accommodating wind power can be reflected better by adding the constraint of ramp rate constraint, thus a wind power penetration limit that is more in conformity with the practice can be obtained.%为全面分析多风电场风速相关性对风电穿透功率极限的影响,提出了一种考虑风速相关性和电网多种约束条件的风电穿透功率极限的改进计算方法。该方法采用基于拉丁超立方采样的随机模拟技术对具有相关性的多个风电场风速进行模拟,并应用基于机会约束规划理论的最优概率潮流方法,在满足包含常规机组爬坡能力约束等系统多种约束的前提下,以系统接纳风电总装机容量最大化为目标,计算风电穿透功率极限。以IEEE-30节点系统为仿真算例,采用遗传算法对该模型进行求解,验证了上述方法的有效性。仿真结果表明,通过增加爬坡能力约束能更好地反映风速相关程度对风电接入能

  13. 76 FR 8917 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed

    2011-02-16

    ...; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include a high speed protection system. These proposed special conditions contain the... Design Features The GVI is equipped with a high speed protection system that limits nose down...

  14. Quantum speed limits, coherence and asymmetry

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturall...

  15. Testing the Speed Limit for Europe

    Gros, Daniel; Jimeno, Juan; Monticelli, Carlo;

    Macroeconomic Policy Group (MPG), distinguished economists from across Europe consider the state of the European economy, particularly with respect to three main issues: 1) Has the ‘new economy' arrived in Europe? 2) What is the state of European labour markets? And 3) Was the ECB's policy stance appropriate...

  16. The impact of a fully idealised high speed train into a constrained fuel transport flask

    The outcome of an accident involving a high speed train, travelling at 125 mph and impacting a stationary irradiated fuel transport flask is investigated. The case considered is that of a fully constrained flask and the power cars and carriages are fully idealised. A representation of the impact and an estimate of the resulting force-time curve experienced by the fuel flask are given. It is found that the peak force is not increased by the addition of coaches, but the time duration of the impact is lengthened. (author)

  17. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ?

    Oei, H.-l.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of speed management experiments carried out in The Netherlands on four 2-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The experiment involved an information campaign, warning signs and a radar camera system. Fixed signs advised a speed of between 60 and 80 km/h and an automati

  18. 14 CFR 25.1515 - Landing gear speeds.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear speeds. 25.1515 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1515 Landing gear speeds. (a) The established landing gear operating speed or speeds, V LO, may not exceed the speed at which it is safe both to extend and to retract the landing gear,...

  19. Time-limited optimal dynamics beyond the Quantum Speed Limit

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Das, Kunal K.; Arlt, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    time-varying control. The problem is addressed in the framework of Hilbert space geometry offering an intuitive interpretation of optimal control algorithms. This approach leads to a necessary criterion for control optimality applicable as a measure of algorithm convergence. The time fidelity trade...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1507 - Operating maneuvering speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating maneuvering speed. 23.1507... Limitations and Information § 23.1507 Operating maneuvering speed. The maximum operating maneuvering speed, VO, must be established as an operating limitation. VO is a selected speed that is not greater than...

  1. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver is...... speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding is...... reduced from 18.7% to 7.4% on urban roads with a speed limit of 50 km/h while it is reduced from 18.9% to 4.7% on rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h....

  2. Managing speed at school and playground zones.

    Kattan, Lina; Tay, Richard; Acharjee, Shanti

    2011-09-01

    Since speeding is one of the major causes of frequent and severe traffic accidents around school and playground areas, many jurisdictions have reduced the speed limits in these areas to protect children who may be at risk. This paper investigated the speed compliance, mean speed and 85th percentile speed at selected school and playground zones in the City of Calgary in Alberta. Our results showed that the mean speed was lower and the rate of compliance was higher in the school zone compared to the playground zone, 2 lane roads relative to 4 lane roads, roads with fencing, traffic control devices and the presence of speed display device or children, and zones that were longer (> 200 m). Accordingly, this study provided recommendations to improve the effectiveness of school and playground zone speed limits. PMID:21658518

  3. TA-55 change control manual

    Blum, T.W.; Selvage, R.D.; Courtney, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents.

  4. TA-55 change control manual

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents

  5. Determination of iron 55 in nuclear wastes and effluents

    The methods for iron 55 analysis, described in this report allows measurement in different types of radioactive wastes after a specific chemical separation. Detection limit is near 1 Bq/l and the concentration factor can reach 100. Activity level found show that iron 55 is a major activation product, then the chemical determination is indispensable for a complete inventory of radionuclides in radioactive wastes

  6. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius;

    2012-01-01

    the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers......, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...

  7. 中美全日制公共卫生硕士教育比较及其启示%Comparative study of full-time MPH education between China and America and it' s implication

    褚皓; 黄国琼

    2012-01-01

    本文对中美全日制公共卫生硕士教育的培养目标、招生录取、课程设置、社会实践和学业评价五个方面进行了比较,同时从中获得了完善我国现阶段全日制公共卫生硕士教育的若干启示.%This article compared from the training target,enrollment,curriculum,practicum and graduation of full-time master of public health ( MPH ) education between China and America.Meanwhile,this article provided some suggestions for perfecting full-time MPH education in China.

  8. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis of Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial

    Huss, Michael; Ginsberg, Ylva; Arngrim, Torben; Philipsen, Alexandra; Carter, Katherine; Chen, Chien-Wei; Gandhi, Preetam; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults it is important to recognize that individual patients respond to a wide range of methylphenidate doses. Studies with methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA) in children have reported the need for treatment optimization for improved outcomes. We report the results from a post hoc analysis of a 5-week dose optimization phase from a large randomized, placebo-controlled, multicen...

  9. The Effect of Speed Camera Warning Sign on Vehicle Speed in School Zones

    M.M. Rohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving too fast is one of the most prevalent factors that contribute to traffic crashes. In school zones, staying alert and obeying the posted speed limit especially during the school period are imperative for public safety, particularly involving children. Encouraging motorists to travel at safe speeds through the installation of yellow transverse bars at Seri Sabak Uni School and Pintas Puding School was found to be ineffective. Drivers were observed to have violated the 30 km/h speed limit and more seriously, driven over the speed limits of adjoining roads. Consequently, speed camera warning signs were erected as a pre-emptive measure to curtail speeding problems in the school zones. From impact studies carried out to measure the effectiveness of these signs, it was found that the speed camera warning signs were also not able to change driver behavior.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1517 - Rough air speed, VRA.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rough air speed, VRA. 25.1517 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1517 Rough air speed, VRA. A rough air speed, VRA, for use as the recommended turbulence... specified in § 25.335(d); and (3) Is sufficiently less than VMO to ensure that likely speed variation...

  11. Review of high speed communications photomultiplier detectors

    Enck, R. S.; Abraham, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    Four types of newly developed high speed photomultipliers are discussed: all electrostatic; static crossed field; dynamic crossed field; and hybrid (EBS). Design, construction, and performance parameters of each class are presented along with limitations of each class of device and prognosis for its future in high speed light detection. The particular advantage of these devices lies in high speed applications using low photon flux, large cathode areas, and broadband optical detection.

  12. Speed stress and the aircraft pilot

    W.T.V. Adiseshiah

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available When the human component in a man-machine system of pushed beyond the limits of human capacity in grasping information presented to senses or in executing a series of actions correctly, a condition of "speed stress" may be said to occur. Conditions encountered by aircraft at high speeds, make a consideration of the forms of speed stress, and of the measures to alleviate them, extremely important.

  13. Speed checks on the CERN site

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  14. High-speed photonics interconnects

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic increases in processing power have rapidly scaled on-chip aggregate bandwidths into the Tb/s range. This necessitates a corresponding increase in the amount of data communicated between chips, so as not to limit overall system performance. To meet the increasing demand for interchip communication bandwidth, researchers are investigating the use of high-speed optical interconnect architectures. Unlike their electrical counterparts, optical interconnects offer high bandwidth and negligible frequency-dependent loss, making possible per-channel data rates of more than 10 Gb/s. High-Speed

  15. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    Lacasta, A. M.; Ramírez-Piscina, L.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ˜t-1/2 to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ˜t-1.

  16. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate (t to the power -1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, (t to the power -1).

  17. 10 CFR 1003.55 - OHA evaluation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OHA evaluation. 1003.55 Section 1003.55 Energy DEPARTMENT... Rescission § 1003.55 OHA evaluation. (a)(1) The OHA may initiate an investigation of any statement in an application and utilize in its evaluation any relevant facts obtained by such investigation. The OHA...

  18. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee must identify and characterize each of the hazards and assess the risk to public health and safety and...

  19. 39 CFR 3020.55 - Review.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 3020.55 Section 3020.55 Postal Service... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.55 Review. The Commission shall review the request, the Postal Service reply, and any public comment to determine whether...

  20. 24 CFR 55.24 - Aggregation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 58), individual or aggregated approvals may be issued. A single compliance review and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregation. 55.24 Section 55.24... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.24...

  1. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  2. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or...

  3. 7 CFR 1700.55 - Telecommunications Program.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telecommunications Program. 1700.55 Section 1700.55... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.55 Telecommunications Program. (a..., Telecommunications Program, has the authority to approve the following loans, loan guarantees, and...

  4. 10 CFR 55.73 - Criminal penalties.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 55.73 Section 55.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Enforcement § 55.73 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful...

  5. 40 CFR 96.55 - Banking.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.55 Section 96.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.55 Banking. (a) NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...

  6. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  7. 10 CFR 55.21 - Medical examination.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical examination. 55.21 Section 55.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.21 Medical examination. An applicant for a license shall have a medical examination by a physician. A licensee shall have a...

  8. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium reports. 30.55 Section 30.55 Energy NUCLEAR..., Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, each licensee who is authorized to possess tritium shall report promptly to...

  9. 46 CFR 168.15-55 - Screening.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening. 168.15-55 Section 168.15-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-55 Screening. Provision must be made to protect the quarters against the admission...

  10. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for near surface disposal—(1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves...

  11. 17 CFR 200.55 - Statutory obligations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory obligations. 200.55 Section 200.55 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.55 Statutory obligations. In administering the law, members of this...

  12. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements....

  13. 34 CFR 668.55 - Updating information.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updating information. 668.55 Section 668.55 Education... Information § 668.55 Updating information. (a)(1) Unless the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this... applicant to verify the information contained in his or her application for assistance in an award year...

  14. 7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 52.55 Section 52.55 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities...

  15. Torque Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Schaak, P.; Van Engelen, T.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    An advanced generator control algorithm has been developed and implemented in ECN's control design tool for wind turbines. For wind speeds above nominal the algorithm limits power and rotor speed to the common bounds of constant power control in variable speed turbines, while the electromagnetic torque varies half as much as found in literature. Simultaneously production dips at above nominal wind speeds are avoided. The algorithm has been examined by the aero-elastic wind turbine code Phatas. Application on a commercial wind turbine is in preparation.

  16. Comparison of High Speed Congestion Control Protocols

    Jawhar Ben Abed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control limits the quantity of information input at a rate less important than that of thetransmission one to ensure good performance as well as protect against overload and blocking of thenetwork. Researchers have done a great deal of work on improving congestion control protocols,especially on high speed networks.In this paper, we will be studying the congestion control alongside low and high speed congestion controlprotocols. We will be also simulating, evaluating, and comparing eight of high speed congestion controlprotocols : Bic TCP, Cubic TCP, Hamilton TCP, HighSpeed TCP, Illinois TCP, Scalable TCP,Compound TCP and YeAH TCP, with multiple flows.

  17. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce OPERATION OF VENDING STANDS § 5.5 Vending machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are in direct competition with a...

  18. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

    Rasila, Mika

    2003-07-01

    Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

  19. Forced differentiation of CFU-s by iron-55 erythrocytocide

    Cascades of Auger electrons are emitted in the decay of 55Fe and absorbed in tissue within a 1 μm radius. Cytocidal amounts of 55Fe can therefore eliminate erythroid precursors with minimal damage to adjacent cells. Early events leave the granuloid series undisturbed but they are accompanied by a precipitous fall of pluripotent stem cells levels (CFU-s) in bone marrow, spleen, and blood. The pretreatment levels of CFU-s are not restored. Gradual decline of CFU-s is associated with intermittently increased turnover rate and reduced settings of cell production, yet unimpaired capacity for quick restoration of blood loss. The precipitous initial stem cell decrease is not caused by irradiation damage as shown in a separate experimental series which uses the frozen-storage cytocide technique. Only over several weeks could 55Fe radiation accumulate to lethal levels in nondividing stem cells. This irradiation is attributed to incorporation of small amounts of 55Fe into CFU-s from where it is slowly cleared. The stem cell loss immediately following 55Fe injection is in our interpretation caused by rapid differentiation along the erythroid pathway in a response that involves all progenitor populations. Data are consistent with the hypothesis of limited cell renewal capacity which thereby gains further support

  20. 40 CFR 55.10 - Fees.

    2010-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR part 71. (2) EPA will collect all other fees from OCS sources calculated in accordance with... from OCS sources in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 71. ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 55.10 Section 55.10 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account, an...

  2. 34 CFR 5.5 - Records.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records. 5.5 Section 5.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff... pictures, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical form or characteristics, made or...

  3. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total...

  4. 40 CFR 142.55 - Final schedule.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final schedule. 142.55 Section 142.55... schedule. (a) Within 30 days after the termination of the public hearing pursuant to § 142.54, the... schedule as necessary and prescribe the final schedule for compliance and interim measures for the...

  5. 41 CFR 105-55.002 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 105-55.002 Section 105-55.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... corporations. (k) Hearing means a review of the documentary evidence concerning the existence and/or amount...

  6. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... for commercial distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research...

  7. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7.55 Section 7.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1864 - Vessel speed within speed reduction.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel speed within speed reduction. 154.1864 Section... Vessel speed within speed reduction. The master shall ensure that the speed of the vessel is not greater than the posted speed reduction....

  9. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  10. The Speed of Galileon Gravity

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the speed of gravitational waves in coupled Galileon models with an equation of state $\\omega_\\phi=-1$ now and a ghost-free Minkowski limit. We find that the gravitational waves propagate much faster than the speed of light unless these models are small perturbations of cubic Galileons and the Galileon energy density is sub-dominant to a dominant cosmological constant. In this case, the binary pulsar bounds on the speed of gravitational waves can be satisfied and the equation of state can be close to -1 when the coupling to matter and the coefficient of the cubic term of the Galileon Lagrangian are related. This severely restricts the allowed cosmological behaviour of Galileon models and we are forced to conclude that Galileons with a stable Minkowski limit cannot account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe on their own. Moreover any sub-dominant Galileon component of our universe must be dominated by the cubic term. For such models with gravitons propagating faster than ...

  11. More Than Just Speed

    2011-01-01

    The 1,318-km Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway will finally come into operation at the end of June.Since construction began three years ago,the speedy railway has grabbed worldwide attention because of its design as the world’s longest and fastesthigh-speed rail line utilizing the most advanced technology.

  12. Speed enforcement in Norway

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers and...

  13. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  14. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  15. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  16. Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55

    2004-01-01

    Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55 aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Jõgevamaa firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  17. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry;

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as GPS...... positioning are often inaccurate, a technique known as map matching is needed that aims to use this inaccurate data for determining a vehicle's real road-network position. Then, knowing this position, an ISA system can compare the vehicle's speed with the speed limit in effect and react appropriately. This...

  18. First observation of $^{55,56}$Zn

    Giovinazzo, J; Borcea, C; Chartier, M; Czajkowski, S; De France, G; Grzywacz, R; Janas, Z; Lewitowicz, M; De Santos, F O; Pfützner, M; Pravikoff, M S; Thomas, J C

    2001-01-01

    In an experiment at the SISSI/LISE3 facility of GANIL, the most proton-rich zinc isotopes 55,56Zn have been observed for the first time. The experiment was performed using a high-intensity 58Ni beam at 74.5 MeV/nucleon impinging on a nickel target. The identification of 55,56Zn opens the way to 54Zn, a good candidate for two-proton radioactivity according to theoretical predictions.

  19. Models of Speed Discrimination

    1997-01-01

    The prime purpose of this project was to investigate various theoretical issues concerning the integration of information across visual space. To date, most of the research efforts in the study of the visual system seem to have been focused in two almost non-overlaping directions. One research focus has been the low level perception as studied by psychophysics. The other focus has been the study of high level vision exemplified by the study of object perception. Most of the effort in psychophysics has been devoted to the search for the fundamental "features" of perception. The general idea is that the most peripheral processes of the visual system decompose the input into features that are then used for classification and recognition. The experimental and theoretical focus has been on finding and describing these analyzers that decompose images into useful components. Various models are then compared to the physiological measurements performed on neurons in the sensory systems. In the study of higher level perception, the work has been focused on the representation of objects and on the connections between various physical effects and object perception. In this category we find the perception of 3D from a variety of physical measurements including motion, shading and other physical phenomena. With few exceptions, there seem to be very limited development of theories describing how the visual system might combine the output of the analyzers to form the representation of visual objects. Therefore, the processes underlying the integration of information over space represent critical aspects of vision system. The understanding of these processes will have implications on our expectations for the underlying physiological mechanisms, as well as for our models of the internal representation for visual percepts. In this project, we explored several mechanisms related to spatial summation, attention, and eye movements. The project comprised three components: 1. Modeling

  20. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63% had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA, speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.

  1. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63%) had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA), speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.

  2. Collaborative study on the determination of trace elements in two candidate reference materials: Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). Preliminary report

    Preparation of two new polish candidate reference materials is described. The consecutive steps involved collection of appropriately large quantities of Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) respectively, comminution, sieving, homogenization, preliminary homogeneity testing, distribution into containers, final homogeneity testing, and radiation sterilization followed microbiological investigation. methods of determination of moisture content were established and various approaches to the determination of particle size distribution were investigated. Worldwide interlaboratory comparison was organised in which 109 laboratories from 19 countries participated. Laboratory averages from all participants (over 1400 results for each of the materials for over 70 elements) are presented. The method of data evaluation is briefly outlined and preliminary strategy of certification which be the subject of final report(s) published at a later date is announced. (author)

  3. High-Speed Photography

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  4. High-Speed Photography

    Paisley, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Schelev, M.Y. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russia)

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  5. Wind_Speeds_Master

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  6. Speeding up Transportation

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an excellent year for the transportation industry, marked by high speed railway transportation, development of the national expressway network and launch of the Chang'e lunar probe satellite.

  7. High speed data acquisition

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  8. High speed data acquisition

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab.

  9. High Speed Economy

    Vadim Dumitrascu; Roxana Arabela Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    The use of knowledge in business opens vast possibilities for the spectacular intensification of the rhythms of the processes of economic value creation. High speeds are a fundamental feature of the knowledge economy. The sources of high speeds in business are certain economic, technological and commercial processes with the nature of some positive feedbacks. What generates it is the organization of knowledge in the form of networks. The organizations competitiveness is marked by the ability ...

  10. Forced differentiation of CFU-S by iron-55 erythrocytocide

    Cascades of Auger electrons are emitted in the decay of 55Fe and absorbed in tissue within a 1μm radius. Cytocidal amounts of 55Fe can therefore eliminate erythroid precursors with minimal damage to adjacent cells. A single intravenous injection leads to continued erythrocytocide in mice because the isotope is reutilized and has a 2.7 year half-life. The cytocide evokes an early compensatory response from morphologically unrecognizable precursors which differentiate into pronormoblasts. These early events leave the granuloid series undisturbed but they are accompanied by a precipitous fall in pluripotent stem cell (CFU-S) numbers in bone marrow, spleen, and blood. The pretreatment levels of CFU-S are not restored. Gradual decline of CFU-S is associated with intermittently increased turnover rates and reduced settings of cell production, yet the capacity for quick restoration of blood loss is unimpaired. The precipitous initial stem cell decrease is not caused by irradiation damage, as shown in a separate experimental series that used the frozen-storage cytocide technique. Only over several weeks could 55Fe radiation accumulate to lethal levels in nondividing stem cells. This irradiation is attributed to incorporation of small amounts of 55Fe into CFU-S, from where it is slowly cleared. The stem cell loss immediately following 55Fe injection is in our interpretation caused by rapid differentiation along the erythroid pathway in a response that involves all progenitor populations. Data are consistent with the hypothesis of limited cell renewal capacity which thereby gains further support. (orig.)

  11. Episodic and semantic memory functioning in very old age: Explanations from executive functioning and processing speed theories

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether age-related episodic and semantic memory impairments are better explained by decline in processing speed or executive functioning (or both, rather than directly in terms of memory components. The models tested were based on an extensive review of the literature on cognitive decline in normal aging, up to very old age. A computerized test battery, measuring episodic memory (free and cued recall; recognition, semantic memory (fluency; naming accuracy and latencies, processing speed and executive functioning, was administered to 234 elderly persons ranging from young-old to very old age (55–96 years. To avoid large variance in response times due to physical instead of cognitive limitations, no motor responses were required from participants. Age-related decline in episodic and semantic memory performance was found to be the consequence of declines in processing speed and executive functioning. Processing speed mainly mediated decline of semantic memory, whereas executive functioning mainly mediated episodic memory decline. The most parsimonious model showed that both processing speed and executive functioning attributed to memory decline but independent from one another. The results suggest that at very old age, the impact of executive dysfunctions on episodic memory performance exceeds the influence of cognitive slowing.

  12. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Transmission Technology

    Weber, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology is a key technology for increasing the communication capacity. In optical fibre networks, the number of wavelength channels and the bit rate per wavelength channel, i.e. the TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) bit rate, determine the transmission capacity. Currently, TDM bit rates of more than 40 Gbit/s require optical signal processing (Optical Time Division Multiplexing, OTDM). OTDM bit rates of up to 1.2 Tbit/s have already been reported. The devices developed for ultrahigh-speed optical transmission are not limited to communication applications only. They are key devices for high-speed optical signal processing, i.e. monitoring, measurement and control, and will thus give a wide technological basis for innovative science and technology. All these aspects of ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology are described in detail in this book.

  13. Variable Speed Rotor System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  14. 21 CFR 558.55 - Amprolium.

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 558.55, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...; improving pigmentation; as an aid in the prevention of infectious coryza Feed for 7 to 14 d; withdraw 5 d... coryza Feed for 7 to 14 d; withdraw 24 h before slaughter. Feed according to subtable in item (i)...

  15. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  16. 10 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.27 Documentation. The facility licensee shall document and maintain the results of medical qualifications data, test results, and each operator's or senior operator's medical history for the current license period and provide...

  17. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Herd status. 55.24 Section...

  18. 28 CFR 0.55 - General functions.

    2010-07-01

    .... 1171 et seq., including registration thereunder. (See also 28 CFR 3.2) (i) All civil proceedings... enforcement operation. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 0.55, see the List of CFR..., locomotive inspection (45 U.S.C. 22, 23, 28-34), the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, prison-made...

  19. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 1786.55 - Application procedure.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS Special Discounted Prepayments on RUS Direct/Insured Loans § 1786.55 Application procedure. Any borrower seeking to prepay its RUS Notes under this subpart should apply to the appropriate RUS Area Director...

  1. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  2. 33 CFR 151.55 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE... Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.55 Recordkeeping...) Plastic material. (ii) Floating dunnage, lining, or packing material. (iii) Ground paper products,...

  3. High speed photography

    Slemc, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of photography is to capture a moment in time and transfer the captured information onto the photographic paper. High speed photography is a photography technique in which parts of a very fast phenomenon are being captured. A phenomenon, which usually happens too fast to be captured by the human eye. An example of such is contact of a water drop with another surface. A person is capable to register the contact, but it is only by means of the high speed photography that one is...

  4. Distinct CD55 Isoform Synthesis and Inhibition of Complement-Dependent Cytolysis by Hepatitis C Virus.

    Kwon, Young-Chan; Kim, Hangeun; Meyer, Keith; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M; Ray, Ranjit

    2016-08-15

    CD55/DAF, one of the regulators of complement activation, is known to limit excess complement activation on the host cell surface by accelerating the decay of C3 convertase. We reported previously that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or virus core protein expression upregulates CD55 expression. CD55 associates with HCV particles, potentially protecting HCV from lysis in circulation. An increase in CD55 on the surface of HCV-infected cells may inhibit complement-mediated cell killing. In this study, we show that Abs against cancer cell surface proteins induce complement-dependent cytolysis or Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of immortalized human hepatocytes in the presence of CD55-blocking Ab. CD55 has a secreted isoform (sCD55) that is generated by alternative splicing. We observed that sCD55 is induced in HCV-infected or HCV replicon-harboring cells, as well as in liver biopsy samples from chronically HCV-infected patients. Conditioned medium from HCV-infected hepatoma cells (Huh7.5 cells) or immortalized human hepatocytes inhibited C3 convertase activity and complement-dependent cytolysis of sheep blood erythrocytes. Chronically HCV-infected patient sera inhibited C3 convertase activity, further implicating HCV-specific impairment of complement function in infected humans. CD55-blocking Ab inhibited erythrocyte lysis by conditioned medium, suggesting that CD55/sCD55 impairs convertase activity. Together, our data show that HCV infection induces sCD55 expression in HCV-infected cell culture-conditioned medium and inhibits C3 convertase activity. This may have implications for modulating complement-mediated immune function in the microenvironment and on HCV-harboring cells. PMID:27357152

  5. OVER SPEED VIOLATION MANAGEMENT OF A VEHICLE THROUGH ZIGBEE

    Uma Makeswari.A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So, a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding,violation of road rules and also to display alert messages. The proposed system has an alerting, recording and reporting system for over speed violation management. The Zigbee transmitter sends the speed limit of the particular lane entered by the vehicle and also gives alerts like “road works”, “steep slopes”, “school zone” in the form of acoustical messages and also in LCD. The receiver unit placed in the vehicle receives the messages and sends to the microcontroller. When speed of the vehicle nears the speed limit itdisplays the warning and if exceeds the limit, the microcontroller records the violated speed and time. The LCD displays the lane speed limit and shows the number of times, speed was violated. A GSMmodule sends message to the nearest traffic personnel immediately after a violation occurs. An authenticated device is also provided, which can be operated only by the traffic police in which he canretrieve the data stored at any time. Increase in the count of violation increases the penalty amount which can be collected in toll gates located nearby.

  6. Cloud speed sensor

    V. Fung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE, and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI. The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s−1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s−1 when compared to LCE results.

  7. Variable speed generators

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  8. High Speed Network Sampling

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  9. Speed mathematics simplified

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  10. More Than Just Speed

    2008-01-01

    Following more than 10 years of deliberation and planning,construc- tion of the 1,320-km Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway began in mid- April.Following the world’s most elevated Qinghai-Tibet Railway,which

  11. Speeding Up Innovation

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations...

  12. High speed network sampling

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  13. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    2010-07-01

    ... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and...

  14. Speed estimator for induction motor drive based on synchronous speed tracking

    S B Bodkhe; M V Aware; J G Chaudhari; J G Agrawal

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new open-loop speed estimation method for a three-phase induction motor drive. The open-loop speed estimators available in literature have the advantage of reduced computational stress over the observers but they share a common limitation of being largely dependent on flux and machine parameters. They involve integrations and differentiation in the algorithm that leads to serious error in estimation when subject to different operating conditions. The proposed estimator is based on synchronous speed tracking and is cost-effective. It is immune to any variation in machine parameters and noise. The synchronous speed is computed from stator frequency which is estimated on-line using the stator current signals. A unique, non-adaptive method for estimation of stator frequency within one-sixteenth of time period is also proposed to enhance the speed of estimation. Computer simulation and experimentation on a 2.2 kW Field oriented controlled induction motor drive is carried out to verify the performance of proposed speed estimator. The results show excellent response over a wide range of rotor speed in both directions including low speed and under different operating conditions. This confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. The economics of a variable speed wind-diesel

    A remote community power supply system generating over 1,000 kWH/d will have at least one diesel generator running all the time. If one or more wind turbine generators are added to such a system, the diesel generator will produce less power when wind speeds are adequate, but its fuel efficiency will gradually decrease as load decreases. In the variable speed wind/diesel concept, the diesel rpm is reduced with decreasing load and a high fuel efficiency is maintained over virtually the full power range. The outputs of the diesel and wind turbine generators are fed into an inverter which synthesizes a desired voltage wave-shape with controlled magnitude and frequency. The variable speed wind/diesel concept may make vertical axis wind turbines suitable for remote community power supply because the inverter effectively isolates the power ripple of the wind turbine. A possible wind/diesel system configuration using the variable speed concept is illustrated. The economics of a 50-kW variable speed diesel and a 80-kW variable speed wind turbine generator was analyzed. Going from a constant speed diesel generator to a variable speed generator operating at 55% capacity factor, a 6% fuel saving was achieved. Adding one 80-kW wind turbine increased fuel savings to 32% at 5 m/s wind speed, but the unit energy cost rose 8.5%. At 7 m/s wind speed, fuel savings were 59% and energy savings were 7.8%. Economics are better for a peaking variable speed 50-kW wind/diesel system added to an existing diesel system to extend the installed capacity. At 7 m/s wind speed the fuel savings translate into ca $40,000 over 10 y and purchase of a $150,000 diesel generator is postponed. 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. PMID:27294182

  17. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  18. E-Speed Governors For Public Transport Vehicles

    Sridhar, C S; Kumar, S Madhava; Sridhar, Manjula; D, Varun

    2010-01-01

    An accident is unexpected, unusual, unintended and identifiable external event which occurs at any place and at any time. The major concern faced by the government and traffic officials is over speeding at limited speed zones like hospitals, schools or residential places leading to causalities and more deaths on the roads. Hence the speed of the vehicles is to be regulated and confined to the limits as prescribed by the traffic regulations. In this paper we propose a solution in the form of providing E-speed governor fitted with a wireless communication system consisting of a Rx which receives the information regarding the speed regulation for their zones. The TX will be made highly intelligent and decide when receiver should be made active to regulate the speed and unwarranted honking from the vehicles which can be deactivated in the silent zones.

  19. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2016-01-01

    Speeding increases the risk and severity of accidents, especially for vulnerable road users. Hence, minimisation of speeding in built-up areas is vital. Some countries widely use speed-calming measures (SCs). Documentation shows that SCs reduce speeding considerably although various types and...... designs of SCs affect this reduction. This paper includes studies of the effects from establishment of sinus speed humps of height 10 cm and length 950 cm and chicanes (with a free carriageway width of 5,30 cm and a length between the 0.5 m wide obstacles of 18 m) as a before/after study where the speed....... Despite the apparent absence of more distant effects of each SC, there is an overall reduced average speed on the full length of a road with SCs. Humps reduce the mean speed comparable to the reduction from chicanes, but the speed variation is less reduced near chicanes, and especially prior to the...

  20. Speed control system for an access gate

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  1. 'PATRE': High speed concrete scabbling

    The decommissioning of a nuclear installation requires the complete and thorough decontamination of the buildings before dismantling to green field. This decontamination generally consists in cleaning and scabbling when necessary the concrete walls and floors. Up to now these works were often performed with hand-held machines, with limited power, and therefore were very long and had a high man-power content. PATRE is a concept which mechanizes the process, and allows the use of high power scabbling machines, thus allowing to reach much higher speed than with manual operations. The first tests with PATRE showed the following results: - 10 mm scabbling at a rate of 8 to 10 m2/h, - 45 mm scabbling, with 4 passes at a global rate of 1.5 m2/h

  2. Constant Speed Ramps

    Perdomo, Oscar M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show all possible ramps where an object can move with constant speed under the effect of gravity and friction. The planar ramp are very easy to describe, just rotate a curve with velocity vector (tanh(as),sech(as)). Recall that tanh(as)^2+sech^2(as) = 1. Therefore, the solution of the planar constant speed problem is connected with easy to describe examples of curves with arc-length parameter. For ramps in the space, we show that there are as many ramps as tangent unit vector fields in the south hemisphere. A video explaining these results can be found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBrvbb0efVk

  3. High speed door assembly

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  4. Acoustoelastic evaluation of the 20 MnMoNi 55 structural material of the pressure vessels of Angra 2 and 3 nuclear reactors

    The pressure vessels of the Angra II and Angra III nuclear power plants, which are of large thickness, have as one of their structural components the 20 MnMo Ni 55 steel. The acoustoelastic evaluation carried out through non-destructive ultrasonic tests was based on the variation of the speed of ultrasonic shear waves of normal incidence as a function of the stress applied in the material using the acoustic birefringence technique, which considers the fractional difference of the speeds of two ultrasonic waves propagating in orthogonal directions. In this work two experiments were carried out. In the first one, a new method for acquisition of ultrasonic signals for joint application with this technique of stress analysis was evaluated by comparison with the conventional one. The aim was to determine its potential and limitations for application in materials up to 120 mm of thickness. In the second experiment, the acoustoelastic behavior of the 20 MnMo Ni 55 steel was studied. The new method of acquiring ultrasonic signals led to satisfactory results and was used in the study of the acoustoelastic behavior of the 20 MnMoNi 55 steel. The acoustoelastic analysis indicated that the material has an anisotropic and heterogeneous behavior. The acoustoelastic constant of this material, obtained experimentally from the analysis of the graphs of the material behavior (birefringence x stress) under compression tests performed on specimens of the 20 MnMo Ni 55 steel, was used for the quantitative stress analysis. A specimen of the 20 MnMo Ni 55 steel was subjected to a bending test to carry out a qualitative stress analysis through the difference between the values of the birefringence obtained during loading (B) and before loading (Bo) in every point studied. With the obtained results it was possible to identify qualitative and quantitatively the regions of the specimen under compressive and tensile stresses. The execution of these tests allowed to verify the efficiency of

  5. Exploring the Quantum Speed Limit with Computer Games

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob Winther Hedemann; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael Kulmback;

    2016-01-01

    in quantum physics. Quantum Moves aims to use human players to find solutions to a class of problems associated with quantum computing. Players discover novel solution strategies which numerical optimizations fail to find. Guided by player strategies, a new low-dimensional heuristic optimization method......Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science exploits this intuition by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. Gamification is an effective tool for attracting citizen...... scientists and allowing them to provide novel solutions to the research problems. Citizen science games have been used successfully in Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping. However, gamification has never been applied in quantum physics. Everyday experiences of non...

  6. High-speed Viterbi decoding with overlapping code sequences

    Ross, Michael D.; Osborne, William P.

    1993-01-01

    The Viterbi Algorithm for decoding convolutional codes and Trellis Coded Modulation is suited to VLSI implementation but contains a feedback loop which limits the speed of pipelined architecture. The feedback loop is circumvented by decoding independent sequences simultaneously, resulting in a 5-9 fold speed-up with a two-fold hardware expansion.

  7. Speeding in school zones: violation or lapse in prospective memory?

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2014-09-01

    Inappropriate speed is a causal factor in around one third of fatal accidents (OECD/ECMT, 2006). But are drivers always consciously responsible for their speeding behavior? Two studies are reported which show that an interruption to a journey, caused by stopping at a red traffic light, can result in failure to resume the speed of travel prior to the interruption (Study 1). In Study 2 we showed that the addition of a reminder cue could offset this interruption. These studies were conducted in a number of Australian school zone sites subject to a 40 km/h speed limit, requiring a reduction of between 20 km/h and 40 km/h. Motorists who had stopped at a red traffic signal sped on average, 8.27 km/h over the speed limit compared with only 1.76 km/h over the limit for those who had not been required to stop. In the second study a flashing "check speed" reminder cue, placed 70 m after the traffic lights, in the same school zones as those in Study 1 eliminated the interruptive effect of stopping with drivers resuming their journey at the legal speed. These findings have practical implications for the design of road environments, enforcement of speed limits, and the safety of pedestrians. PMID:24884545

  8. 10 CFR 55.57 - Renewal of licenses.

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator specified in § 55.5(b). (3) Provide written evidence of the applicant's experience under the... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal of licenses. 55.57 Section 55.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Licenses § 55.57 Renewal of licenses. (a) The...

  9. Dreamweaver CS55 The Missing Manual

    McFarland, David

    2011-01-01

    Dreamweaver is the tool most widely used for designing and managing professional-looking websites, but it's a complex program. That's where Dreamweaver CS5.5: The Missing Manual comes in. With its jargon-free explanations, 13 hands-on tutorials, and savvy advice from Dreamweaver expert Dave McFarland, you'll master this versatile program with ease. Get A to Z guidance. Go from building your first web page to creating interactive, database-driven sites.Build skills as you learn. Apply your knowledge through tutorials and downloadable practice files.Create a state-of-the-art website. Use powerf

  10. Division XII: Commission 55: Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Russo, Pedro; Robson, Ian; Arcand, Kimberly Kowal; Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Ödman-Govender, Carolina; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Wheeler, Pete; Zhu, Jin

    2015-08-01

    A good fraction of the Commission 55 (C55) Organizing Committee met in Beijing in August at the XXVIII IAU General Assembly, where C55 organized Special Session 14 (SpS14) entitled ``Communicating Astronomy with the Public for Scientists.'' During our C55 business meeting, and again during an impromptu gathering a few days later, we discussed changes in the IAU's organizational and programmatic structure and how these changes might affect C55. This report summarizes key points and offers some ideas about what we're calling ``C55 v2.0.'' For background and reference, see the C55 website at http://www.communicatingastronomy.org.

  11. The Relation of Speeded and Unspeeded Reasoning with Mental Speed.

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Schulze, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Studied the contribution of mental speed to task performance on reasoning tasks under timed and untimed conditions for 227 participants and for 90 participants working under time conditions. Results suggest that the use of speeded reasoning tests is likely to lead to overestimates of the relation between mental speed and reasoning ability. (SLD)

  12. Virtual inertia for variable speed wind turbines

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Rudolph, Andreas Jakob; Münster-Swendsen, Janus;

    2013-01-01

    Inertia provision for frequency control is among the ancillary services that different national grid codes will likely require to be provided by future wind turbines. The aim of this paper is analysing how the inertia response support from a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) to the primary...... frequency control of a power system can be enhanced. Unlike fixed speed wind turbines, VSWTs do not inherently contribute to system inertia, as they are decoupled from the power system through electronic converters. Emphasis in this paper is on how to emulate VSWTs inertia using control of the power...... conventional generation. The range of wind speeds near the power limitation zone seems to be the most critical from a primary response point of view. The theoretical reasons behind this are elucidated in the paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  13. speed of change

    Jon Barnett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the barriers and limits to climate change adaptation identifies many factors, but describes few processes whereby adaptation is constrained or may indeed fail to avoid catastrophic losses. It often assumes that barriers are by and large distinct from limits to adaptation. We respond to recent calls for comparative studies that are able to further knowledge about the underlying drivers of barriers and limits to adaptation. We compare six cases from across Australia, including those in alpine areas, rivers, reefs, wetlands, small inland communities, and islands, with the aim of identifying common underlying drivers of barriers and limits to adaptation. We find that the path-dependent nature of the institutions that govern natural resources and public goods is a deep driver of barriers and limits to adaptation. Path-dependent institutions are resistant to change. When this resistance causes the changes necessary for adaptation to be slower than changes in climate, then it becomes a limit to adaptation.

  14. Accident selection methodology for TA-55 FSAR

    In the past, the selection of representative accidents for refined analysis from the numerous scenarios identified in hazards analyses (HAs) has involved significant judgment and has been difficult to defend. As part of upgrading the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the TA-55 plutonium facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an accident selection process was developed that is mostly mechanical and reproducible in nature and fulfills the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3009 and DOE Order 5480.23. Among the objectives specified by this guidance are the requirements that accident screening (1) consider accidents during normal and abnormal operating conditions, (2) consider both design basis and beyond design basis accidents, (3) characterize accidents by category (operational, natural phenomena, etc.) and by type (spill, explosion, fire, etc.), and (4) identify accidents that bound all foreseeable accident types. The accident selection process described here in the context of the TA-55 FSAR is applicable to all types of DOE facilities

  15. Particle Swarm Optimization of Speed in Unplanned Lane Traffic

    Prasun Ghosal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Speed Optimization Technique in Traffic is a very promising research problem. Searching foran efficient optimization method to increase the degree of speed optimization and thereby increasing thetraffic flow in a lane is a widely concerning issue. However, there has been a limited research effort on theoptimization of the lane usage with speed optimization. This paper presents a novel technique to solve theproblem optimally using the knowledge base analysis of speeds of vehicles, population of lanes , usingpartial modification of Swarm Intelligence which, in turn will act as a guide for design of lanes optimally toprovide better optimized traffic with less number of transitions of vehicles between lanes..

  16. Nonequilibrium solidification in undercooled Ti45Al55 melts

    Ti-Al alloys are of high technological interest as light-weight high-performance materials. When produced by solidification from the liquid state, the material properties of as-solidified materials are strongly dependent on the conditions governing the solidification process. Nonequilibrium solidification from the state of an undercooled liquid may result to the formation of metastable solid materials. On the one hand undercooling under special cases may influence the phase selection behavior during solidification, and on the other hand during rapid growth of solid phases in undercooled melts nonequilibrium effects such as solute trapping and disorder trapping may occur. In the present work containerless processing by electromagnetic levitation is used to undercool Ti45Al55 melts deeply below the liquidus temperature. The dendrite growth velocity during the solidification is measured as a function of undercooling by application of a high-speed video camera. In situ diffraction experiments at ESRF in Grenoble and microstructure investigations are performed in order to identify the primary solidified phases. The experimental findings are interpreted within current theoretical models for dendritic growth and solute trapping

  17. Factors Associated with Speeding Penalties in Novice Drivers

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2010-01-01

    Novice drivers are an important risk group in traffic and speed limit exceeding is one of the major risk factors for traffic collisions. In this paper we explore how impulsivity measures, driving skills and driving safety are associated with speed limit exceeding in novice drivers if described variables are measured on the same subjects. Participants of the study were 909 novice car-drivers (mean age 24.7(SD=7.5) years). Subjects filled Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Adaptive and Maladaptive Impu...

  18. High speed all optical networks

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ganz, Aura

    1990-01-01

    An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point wide area network (WAN) architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. The first solution to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation is presented. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs. The principle of the Lightnet architecture is the construction and use of virtual topology networks, embedded in the original network in the wavelength domain. For this construction Lightnets utilize the new concept of lightpaths which constitute the links of the virtual topology. Lightpaths are all-optical, multihop, paths in the network that allow data to be switched through intermediate nodes using high throughput passive optical switches. The use of the virtual topologies and the associated switching design introduce a number of new ideas, which are discussed in detail.

  19. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  20. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    M. Jamal Deen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps.

  1. Determining the approach speed envelope of carrier aircraft

    Geng Jianzhong; Yao Hailin; Duan Zhuoyi

    2013-01-01

    Many factors,such as deck motion and air wave,influence the determination of the approach speed which has an important effect on landing safety. Until recently,there are no design criteria about approach speed of carrier aircraft in the current standards and available publications. Therefore,the requirements of stall margin, longitudinal acceleration ability,altitude correction and field-of-view on approach speed were researched. Based on the flight dynamics model,the flight simulations were conducted to study the effect of the response time of en-gine,wave off requirements,elevator efficiency and deflection rate on the approach speed. The results presented that the approach longitudinal acceleration and altitude correction ability had crucial influence on the approach speed envelope of the aircraft. The limitations of the control requirements,field-of-view requirements and gear were also given through the simulation and analysis. Based on the above results,the approach speed envelope were determined.

  2. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6' diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently

  3. Dose limits for astronauts

    Sinclair, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

  4. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH)3. precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Speed and position sensors for electric motors

    Lyyjynen, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of speed and position measuring instruments for electric motors. The emphasis is on sensors that are designed to operate at industrial environment. In addition to that, some other, mostly magnetic sensors which are used, e.g., in automotive applications, are presented. Some of them are already applied in induction motors and some might be worth a try remembering the limitations. Automotive sensors are very cost-effective due to high production volumes. (orig.) 22 refs.

  6. Cellular Automata Models of Traffic Behavior in Presence of Speed Breaking Structures

    In this article, we study traffic flow in the presence of speed breaking structures. The speed breakers are typically used to reduce the local speed of vehicles near certain institutions such as schools and hospitals. Through a cellular automata model we study the impact of such structures on global traffic characteristics. The simulation results indicate that the presence of speed breakers could reduce the global flow under moderate global densities. However, under low and high global density traffic regime the presence of speed breakers does not have an impact on the global flow. Further the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker creates a phase distinction. For a given global density and slowdown probability, as the speed limit enforced by the speed breaker increases, the traffic moves from the reduced flow phase to maximum flow phase. This underlines the importance of proper design of these structures to avoid undesired flow restrictions. (general)

  7. In situ local shock speed and transit shock speed

    S. Watari

    Full Text Available A useful index for estimating the transit speeds was derived by analyzing interplanetary shock observations. This index is the ratio of the in situ local shock speed and the transit speed; it is 0.6–0.9 for most observed shocks. The local shock speed and the transit speed calculated for the results of the magnetohydrodynamic simulation show good agreement with the observations. The relation expressed by the index is well explained by a simplified propagation model assuming a blast wave. For several shocks the ratio is approximately 1.2, implying that these shocks accelerated during propagation in slow-speed solar wind. This ratio is similar to that for the background solar wind acceleration.

    Keywords. Interplanetary physics (Flare and stream dynamics; Interplanetary shocks; Solar wind plasma

  8. CD55 is a HIF-2α marker with anti-adhesive and pro-invading properties in neuroblastoma.

    Cimmino, F; Avitabile, M; Pezone, L; Scalia, G; Montanaro, D; Andreozzi, M; Terracciano, L; Iolascon, A; Capasso, M

    2016-01-01

    CD55 has been revealed to have an important role in tumor genesis, and presence of small populations of cells with strong CD55 expression would be sufficient to predict poor prognosis of several tumors. In our study we revealed that CD55 is a novel target of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-2α in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. We show that HIF-2α expression is sufficient to sustain stem-like features of NB cells, whereas CD55 protein upon HIF-2α expression contributes to growth of colonies and to invasion of cells, but not to stemness features. Interestingly, in NB tissues, CD55 expression is limited to quite a small population of cells that are HIF-2α positive, and the gene expression of CD55 in the NB data set reveals that the presence of CD55(high) affects prognosis of NB patients. The functional characterization of CD55-positive populations within heterogeneous NB monoclonal cell lines shows that CD55 has pro-invading and anti-adhesive properties that might provide the basis for the ability of solid tumors to survive as microscopic residual disease. The easy accessibility to CD55 membrane antigen will offer the possibility of a novel antibody approach in the treatment of recurrent tumors and will provide a ready target for antibody-based visualization in NB diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:27043658

  9. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  10. 36 CFR 251.55 - Nature of interest.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of interest. 251.55 Section 251.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.55 Nature of interest. (a) A holder is authorized only to occupy such land...

  11. 47 CFR 61.55 - Contract-based tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract-based tariffs. 61.55 Section 61.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.55 Contract-based tariffs. (a) This section shall apply to price...

  12. 9 CFR 55.6 - Mortgage against animals.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against animals. 55.6 Section 55.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.6 Mortgage against animals. When cervids...

  13. 9 CFR 55.5 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 55.5 Section 55.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.5 Presentation of claims...

  14. 10 CFR 1.55 - Establishment of official NRC flag.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of official NRC flag. 1.55 Section 1.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION NRC Seal and Flag § 1.55 Establishment of official NRC flag. The official flag is based on the design of the NRC...

  15. 30 CFR 47.55 - Retaining an MSDS.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining an MSDS. 47.55 Section 47.55 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.55 Retaining an MSDS. The operator must— (a) Retain its MSDS for as long as...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  17. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  18. 42 CFR 432.55 - Reporting training and administrative costs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting training and administrative costs. 432.55 Section 432.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION Staffing and Training Expenditures § 432.55 Reporting training...

  19. 46 CFR 201.55 - Postponement of hearing.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponement of hearing. 201.55 Section 201.55 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time (Rule 5) § 201.55 Postponement of hearing. Applications for postponement of any hearing...

  20. 28 CFR 55.20 - Oral assistance and publicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral assistance and publicity. 55.20 Section 55.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS... Assistance § 55.20 Oral assistance and publicity. (a) General. Announcements, publicity, and...

  1. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  2. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  3. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  4. 31 CFR 103.55 - Exceptions, exemptions, and reports.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions, exemptions, and reports. 103.55 Section 103.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.55...

  5. 49 CFR 37.55 - Intercity rail station accessibility.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intercity rail station accessibility. 37.55 Section 37.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.55 Intercity rail station...

  6. 4 CFR 28.55 - Scheduling the hearing.

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling the hearing. 28.55 Section 28.55 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD... Procedures Hearings § 28.55 Scheduling the hearing. The notice of initial hearing shall fix the date,...

  7. 40 CFR 205.55-1 - General requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 205.55-1 Section 205.55-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-1...

  8. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.55-2 Section 205.55-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-2...

  9. 40 CFR 205.55-4 - Labeling-compliance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-compliance. 205.55-4 Section 205.55-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-4...

  10. 40 CFR 205.55-3 - Configuration identification.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Configuration identification. 205.55-3 Section 205.55-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-3...

  11. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5...

  12. 46 CFR 64.55 - Relief device location.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief device location. 64.55 Section 64.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.55 Relief device location. A pressure relief...

  13. 7 CFR 1788.55 - Providing RUS evidence.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing RUS evidence. 1788.55 Section 1788.55... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.55 Providing...

  14. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  15. Capsulorhexis: Its safe limits

    Vasavada Abhay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook this study to determine the safe limits of capsulorhexis during nucleus expression in 40 eyes of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation and in 30 cadaver eyes. In group I (patient eyes, capsulorhexis of 4.5 to 7.5 mm was performed and the nucleus was expressed by hydrodissection. The nuclei measured 4.5 to 9.0 mm. One relaxing incision at 12 o′clock position had to be placed in 9 patients. In group II (cadaver eyes, continuous curvilinear capsulotomies of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mm were made in 5 eyes each. No relaxing incisions were placed. In both the groups, nuclei of all sizes could be safely delivered through intact capsulotomies measuring 5.5 mm or more. In two patient eyes, posterior capsule rupture occurred with rhexis measuring 4.5 and 5.0 mm, respectively. In the cadaver eyes, intracapsular extraction occurred in 4 eyes with rhexis measuring 5.0 mm or less. We conclude that a rhexis less than 5.5 mm is not safe for nucleus delivery during ECCE.

  16. 14-3-3/HIP-55 complex increases the stability of HIP-55%14-3-3/HIP-55复合体增强HIP-55蛋白稳定性

    田爱炬; 李子健

    2015-01-01

    目的:用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术验证HIP-55与14-3-3在HEK293细胞中存在相互作用,并进一步研究其生物学意义. 方法:利用GATEWAY系统构建PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT(野生型),PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55AA(突变体S269A/T291A),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT及PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τ重组质粒,利用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术检测两者的相互作用,同时应用14-3-3蛋白相互作用抑制肽R18和HIP-55蛋白突变体( HIP-55AA突变体S269A/T291A不能与14-3-3相互作用)作为工具研究两者结合后对嘌呤霉素诱导的HIP-55蛋白表达的影响. 结果:外源转入的Venus-HIP-55WT、Venus-HIP-55AA及Venus-14-3-3蛋白能够在HEK293细胞中表达;双分子荧光互补实验结果表明HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用,HIP-55蛋白的S269/T291位点介导HIP-55与14-3-3的相互作用;免疫共沉淀技术表明内源性HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用;进一步研究发现HIP-55与14-3-3复合体增强HIP-55蛋白的稳定性,保护HIP-55不被降解. 结论:14-3-3与HIP-55存在相互作用,14-3-3/HIP-55复合体可以促进HIP-55蛋白的稳定性.%Objective:To further demonstrate the interaction of a new 14-3-3 interaction protein hema-topoietic progenitor kinase 1 [ HPK1 ]-interacting protein ( HIP-55 ) and 14-3-3 proteins and its potential biological function in HEK293 cells. Methods:PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT (wild type),PDEST-N-Ve-nus-HIP-55AA (mutants, S269A/T291A, abolishing the binding of HIP-55 to 14-3-3),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT and PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τplasmids were constructed by gateway system. Their expressions were demonstrated by Western blotting method. Then we used Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation ( BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation ( co-IP) methods to demonstrate the interaction of HIP-55 and 14-3-3 in HEK293 cells. Moreover, the 14-3-3 antagonist peptide, R18 and HIP-55 protein mutant plasmid HIP-55 AA were used to detect the protein synthesis of HIP-55 at different time points

  17. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL[sub size]) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL[sub contrast] model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  18. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL{sub size}) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL{sub contrast} model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  19. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    2010-01-01

    ... heatup rate is established. (B) Plant shutdown. (C) Manual control of steam generators or feedwater or... 10, chapter I, Code of Federal Regulations. (3) On-the-job training. The requalification program must... or greater where load change is performed with load limit control or where flux, temperature,...

  20. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (Sf=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  1. Speed of evolution on graphs

    Sui, Xiukai; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2015-12-01

    The likelihood that a mutant fixates in the wild population, i.e., fixation probability, has been intensively studied in evolutionary game theory, where individuals' fitness is frequency dependent. However, it is of limited interest when it takes long to take over. Thus the speed of evolution becomes an important issue. In general, it is still unclear how fixation times are affected by the population structure, although the fixation times have already been addressed in the well-mixed populations. Here we theoretically address this issue by pair approximation and diffusion approximation on regular graphs. It is shown (i) that under neutral selection, both unconditional and conditional fixation time are shortened by increasing the number of neighbors; (ii) that under weak selection, for the simplified prisoner's dilemma game, if benefit-to-cost ratio exceeds the degree of the graph, then the unconditional fixation time of a single cooperator is slower than that in the neutral case; and (iii) that under weak selection, for the conditional fixation time, limited neighbor size dilutes the counterintuitive stochastic slowdown which was found in well-mixed populations. Interestingly, we find that all of our results can be interpreted as that in the well-mixed population with a transformed payoff matrix. This interpretation is also valid for both death-birth and birth-death processes on graphs. This interpretation bridges the fixation time in the structured population and that in the well-mixed population. Thus it opens the avenue to investigate the challenging fixation time in structured populations by the known results in well-mixed populations.

  2. On limit and limit setting.

    Gorney, J E

    1994-01-01

    This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580

  3. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Kruse, Timothy N; Carter, Rickey E; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings. PMID:25409192

  4. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  5. High-speed milling of light metals

    F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented inthis paper.Design/methodology/approach:HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling hasbecome faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages ofthe HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow timeof production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longerservice life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/minrequire modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in theautomobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also theachievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficientmachining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling canbe compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and morefrequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some caseswhen machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum andmagnesium alloying materials are machined.

  6. The Acceptability of In-vehicle Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) Systems: from Trial Support to Public Support

    Vlassenroot, S.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Speed management is a set of measures to limit negative effects of speed in a transport system. One of the solutions to solve speeding is making the road transport system more intelligent by implementing intelligent speed assistance (ISA). This thesis provides more insight in the factors that can de

  7. Investigation of surrogate method for 55Fe(n,p)55Mn reaction cross-section measurement

    In the present work the feasibility study of surrogate technique for the cross-section measurement of 55Fe(n, p)55Mn is done. This reaction is very important in fusion environment as 55Fe (t1/2=2.73 years) is produced via 56Fe(n,2n)55Fe nuclear reaction with fast neutrons. It will be first time that we use surrogate method in fusion applications in this mass region

  8. Social Environment Shapes the Speed of Cooperation

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Evans, Anthony M.; O’Malley, A. James; Rand, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Are cooperative decisions typically made more quickly or slowly than non-cooperative decisions? While this question has attracted considerable attention in recent years, most research has focused on one-shot interactions. Yet it is repeated interactions that characterize most important real-world social interactions. In repeated interactions, the cooperativeness of one’s interaction partners (the “social environment”) should affect the speed of cooperation. Specifically, we propose that reciprocal decisions (choices that mirror behavior observed in the social environment), rather than cooperative decisions per se, occur more quickly. We test this hypothesis by examining four independent decision time datasets with a total of 2,088 subjects making 55,968 decisions. We show that reciprocal decisions are consistently faster than non-reciprocal decisions: cooperation is faster than defection in cooperative environments, while defection is faster than cooperation in non-cooperative environments. These differences are further enhanced by subjects’ previous behavior – reciprocal decisions are faster when they are consistent with the subject’s previous choices. Finally, mediation analyses of a fifth dataset suggest that the speed of reciprocal decisions is explained, in part, by feelings of conflict – reciprocal decisions are less conflicted than non-reciprocal decisions, and less decision conflict appears to lead to shorter decision times. PMID:27435940

  9. High-Speed Schlieren Movies of Decelerators at Supersonic Speeds

    1960-01-01

    High-Speed Schlieren Movies of Decelerators at Supersonic Speeds. Tests were conducted on several types of porous parachutes, a paraglider, and a simulated retrorocket. Mach numbers ranged from 1.8-3.0, porosity from 20-80 percent, and camera speeds from 1680-3000 feet per second (fps) in trials with porous parachutes. Trials of reefed parachutes were conducted at Mach number 2.0 and reefing of 12-33 percent at camera speeds of 600 fps. A flexible parachute with an inflatable ring in the periphery of the canopy was tested at Reynolds number 750,000 per foot, Mach number 2.85, porosity of 28 percent, and camera speed of 36oo fps. A vortex-ring parachute was tested at Mach number 2.2 and camera speed of 3000 fps. The paraglider, with a sweepback of 45 degrees at an angle of attack of 45 degrees was tested at Mach number 2.65, drag coefficient of 0.200, and lift coefficient of 0.278 at a camera speed of 600 fps. A cold air jet exhausting upstream from the center of a bluff body was used to simulate a retrorocket. The free-stream Mach number was 2.0, free-stream dynamic pressure was 620 lb/sq ft, jet-exit static pressure ratio was 10.9, and camera speed was 600 fps. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030973. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  11. The comparison of two speed-dependent Voigt line profile models

    Protasevich, A. E.

    2013-07-01

    Numerical calculations of the ratio of line width and maximum value of two speed-dependent Voigt line profiles to the respective values of their speed-independent analogs are performed in the high-pressure limit. The intercomparison demonstrates considerable disagreement between different speed-dependent models.

  12. High speed pellet development

    Advanced pneumatic propulsion systems have been developed using two stage and arc heater guns. For pellet preparation a freezing cell for condensing the d2-gas is incorporated into the gun barrel. Results on the optimization of condensation parameters to find the mechanical limits of deuterium ice and of accelerations tests using a 2-stage gun with plastic as well as d2-pellets are discussed. It appears that two stage gun systems can provide a rather constant acceleration even in their low pressure regime suitable for pellet injection. The peak acceleration tolerable for d2-pellets, however turned out to be less than 5.106 ms-2 and a serious erosion effect of the pellet makes the use of long gun barrel rather problematic. At present it is concluded that only the sabot technique can overcome the stress and erosion effect limitations

  13. The Need for Speed

    Hrkac, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Microfinance has been a lifeline for many low-income people at the base of the pyramid, helping them break the cycle of poverty and improve their lives. Yet the rapid growth of the microfinance industry, combined with limited financial literacy among its customers, made it particularly vulnerable during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. To expand short-term financing solutions to the ...

  14. Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term

    Agerholm, Niels

    Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term Despite massive improvements in vehicles’ safety equipment, more information and safer road network, inappropriate road safety is still causing that more than 250 people are killed and several...... fewer speed limit violations. Estimation of safety effects showed various results and the reduction in the number of fatalities was estimated to be as high as 37 to 42% if ISA was fully implemented. Despite convincing effects of ISA in short term, it was found that the effect of ISA decreased over time...... activation of ISA. The effect was studied on the basis of the Danish ISA trial PAYS. Short term means 0-1.5 months after ISA activation, while medium-term means 3-4.5 months after ISA activation. Regarding short-term effects, it was found that the combination of informative and incentive ISA resulted in...

  15. Quench limits

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  16. How to Improve Reading Speed

    王仲亮

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is well known that reading plays an important role not only in our daily life but also in learning a foreign language.And,of course,reading depends on reading speed to some degree.So it is natural that it is important to improve reading speed.

  17. When is speed a problem?.

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is relatively useless to make pronouncements on what, in certain circumstances, is a safe driving speed for road users; it is interesting, however, to indicate what is an optimum speed from the social point of view, after weighing up the various pros and cons, including safety. Ultimately this is

  18. NTF – wind speed comparison

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  19. High Speed Viterbi Decoder Architecture

    Paaske, Erik; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The fastest commercially available Viterbi decoders for the (171,133) standard rate 1/2 code operate with a decoding speed of 40-50 Mbit/s (net data rate). In this paper we present a suitable architecture for decoders operating with decoding speeds of 150-300 Mbit/s....

  20. Optimal Speed Control for Cruising

    Blanke, M.

    1994-01-01

    With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability......With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability...

  1. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    2010-01-01

    ... destination for specified handling, processing, or utilization (the destination and other conditions to be... American cactus moth because life stages of the South American cactus moth will be destroyed by the... insecticide spray cycle and have been sprayed with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, carbaryl,...

  2. Limited Neutrality

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  3. Dose limits

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  4. Pulse Detonation Engines for High Speed Flight

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Revolutionary concepts in propulsion are required in order to achieve high-speed cruise capability in the atmosphere and for low cost reliable systems for earth to orbit missions. One of the advanced concepts under study is the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Additional work remains in order to establish the role and performance of a PDE in flight applications, either as a stand-alone device or as part of a combined cycle system. In this paper, we shall offer a few remarks on some of these remaining issues, i.e., combined cycle systems, nozzles and exhaust systems and thrust per unit frontal area limitations. Currently, an intensive experimental and numerical effort is underway in order to quantify the propulsion performance characteristics of this device. In this paper, we shall highlight our recent efforts to elucidate the propulsion potential of pulse detonation engines and their possible application to high-speed or hypersonic systems.

  5. Tornado-borne missile speeds. Final report

    An investigation of the question of tornado-borne missile speeds was carried out, with a view to identify pertinent areas of uncertainty and to estimate credible tornado-borne missile speeds - within the limitations inherent in the present state of the art. The investigation consists of two parts: (1) a study in which a rational model for the missile motion is proposed, and numerical experiments are carried out corresponding to various assumptions on the initial conditions of the missile motion, the structure of the tornado flow, and the aerodynamic properties of the missile; (2) a theoretical and experimental study of tornado-borne missile aerodynamics, conducted by Colorado State Univ. (CSU) to be covered in a separate report by CSU. In the present report, the factors affecting missile motion and their influence upon such motion are examined

  6. High-speed massively parallel scanning

    Decker, Derek E.

    2010-07-06

    A new technique for recording a series of images of a high-speed event (such as, but not limited to: ballistics, explosives, laser induced changes in materials, etc.) is presented. Such technique(s) makes use of a lenslet array to take image picture elements (pixels) and concentrate light from each pixel into a spot that is much smaller than the pixel. This array of spots illuminates a detector region (e.g., film, as one embodiment) which is scanned transverse to the light, creating tracks of exposed regions. Each track is a time history of the light intensity for a single pixel. By appropriately configuring the array of concentrated spots with respect to the scanning direction of the detection material, different tracks fit between pixels and sufficient lengths are possible which can be of interest in several high-speed imaging applications.

  7. On the Maximum Speed of Matter

    Raftopoulos, Dionysios G.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we examine the analytical production of the Lorentz Transformation regarding its fundamental conclusion i.e. that the speed of Light in vacuum is the uppermost limit for the speed of matter, hence superluminal speeds are unattainable. This examination covers the four most prominent relevant sources of bibliography: Albert Einstein's historic paper (1905) titled: "On the Electrodynamics of moving Bodies" on which his Special Relativity Theory is founded. His famous textbook titled: "Relativity, The Special and General Theory", A. P. French's textbook titled "Special Relativity", Wolfgang Rindler's textbook titled: "Essential Relativity". Special emphasis is placed on the critical analysis of Einstein's gedanken experiment as it is presented in his original paper, where he considers a moving, straight, rigid rod at the ends of which there are two clocks, whose synchronization is checked according to his own definition as given in part 1 of his paper. By applying the second fundamental hypothesis (principle) of SRT, we arrive at the conclusion that this noetic experiment can be concluded only if the rod's speed V with regards the stationary system and measured from it, is less than the speed of light C also with regards the stationary system and measured from it. In the opposite case, said noetic experiment would be meaningless as it could never be concluded for the Observer of the stationary system, at least in the Euclidean Space. Finally, we show that in all four cases under examination the relationship v < c is not a conclusion of the Lorentz Transformation, but rather a hidden pre-condition of its analytical production, in other words, the LT can only be valid for v < c Consequently, there doesn't exist a definite and rigid law of Physics forbidding matter to travel with superluminal velocity in vacuum.

  8. The need for speed: global optic flow speed influences steering.

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Mole, Callum D; Merat, Natasha; Wilkie, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    How do animals follow demarcated paths? Different species are sensitive to optic flow and one control solution is to maintain the balance of flow symmetry across visual fields; however, it is unclear whether animals are sensitive to changes in asymmetries when steering along curved paths. Flow asymmetries can alter the global properties of flow (i.e. flow speed) which may also influence steering control. We tested humans steering curved paths in a virtual environment. The scene was manipulated so that the ground plane to either side of the demarcated path produced larger or smaller asymmetries in optic flow. Independent of asymmetries and the locomotor speed, the scene properties were altered to produce either faster or slower globally averaged flow speeds. Results showed that rather than being influenced by changes in flow asymmetry, steering responded to global flow speed. We conclude that the human brain performs global averaging of flow speed from across the scene and uses this signal as an input for steering control. This finding is surprising since the demarcated path provided sufficient information to steer, whereas global flow speed (by itself) did not. To explain these findings, existing models of steering must be modified to include a new perceptual variable: namely global optic flow speed. PMID:27293789

  9. Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed

    2007-06-01

    Using a robotic telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, astronomers have for the first time measured the velocity of the explosions known as gamma-ray bursts. The material is travelling at the extraordinary speed of more than 99.999% of the velocity of light, the maximum speed limit in the Universe. ESO PR Photo 26a/07 ESO PR Photo 26a/07 The REM Telescope "With the development of fast-slewing ground-based telescopes such as the 0.6-m REM telescope at ESO La Silla, we can now study in great detail the very first moments following these cosmic catastrophes," says Emilio Molinari, leader of the team that made the discovery. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful explosions occurring in distant galaxies, that often signal the death of stars. They are so bright that, for a brief moment, they almost rival the whole Universe in luminosity. They last, however, for only a very short time, from less than a second to a few minutes. Astronomers have long known that, in order to emit such incredible power in so little time, the exploding material must be moving at a speed comparable with that of light, namely 300 000 km per second. By studying the temporal evolution of the burst luminosity, it has now been possible for the first time to precisely measure this velocity. Gamma-ray bursts, which are unseen by our eyes, are discovered by artificial satellites. The collision of the gamma-ray burst jets into the surrounding gas generates an afterglow visible in the optical and near-infrared that can radiate for several weeks. An array of robotic telescopes were built on the ground, ready to catch this vanishing emission (see e.g. ESO 17/07). On 18 April and 7 June 2006, the NASA/PPARC/ASI Swift satellite detected two bright gamma-ray bursts. In a matter of a few seconds, their position was transmitted to the ground, and the REM telescope began automatically to observe the two GRB fields, detecting the near-infrared afterglows, and monitored the evolution of their luminosity as a

  10. Measuring cognitive determinants of speeding: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    Paris, Helmut; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes. the development and validation of a self-report questionnaire to measure the determinants of speeding behaviour in road traffic, based on the theory of planned behaviour. A provisional questionnaire measuring self-reported speeding behaviour as well as its determinants as predicted by the TPB model (attitudes towards speeding and towards respecting speed limits, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions) was completed by 116 drivers. Separate principa...

  11. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk. PMID:22405242

  12. Next Generation High Speed Computing Using Photonic Based Technolog

    Farooq, Umer; Iqbal, M. Aqeel

    2011-01-01

    In the present era of technology computer has facilitated the human life up to a great extent. The speed of computation has raised to astonish level but the pace of development of other technologies which have core dependency over computers have raised relatively exponentially huge, though the computer speed of computation is very fast with respect to human abilities but still it has to be increased a lot more to meet the future requirements. We have pushed electrons to their maximum limit to...

  13. Urban Traffic Eco-Driving: Speed Advisory Tracking

    De Nunzio, Giovanni; Canudas de Wit, Carlos; Moulin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience The evaluation of the benefits of an Eco-Driving assistance system is carried out in the urban environment in presence of traffic lights. The traffic evolution is modeled macroscopically with the Urban Variable-Length Model in a variable speed limits framework. Under the assumption of equal boundary flows, the vehicles in a road section dispose themselves according to well defined equilibrium conditions which are dependent on the traveling speed in the free-flow part...

  14. The role of decision speed in the construct of intelligence

    Valentin Bucik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory of general intelligence in Spearman's sense has been frequently verified via two complementary approaches, the one using psychometric and the other using experimental methodology. The results led to the conclusion that both, psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks in different experimental paradigms measure the same thing in substantial extent. The rapid, error free information processing, reflecting the efficiency of a nervous system with limited capacity, was supposed to be the essential component of the intellect. This view is often criticised by the authors who claim that high correlation between speed of information processing and psychometric intelligence is simply the consequence of the fact that some intelligence tests themselves are "speeded" and that mental speed is merely a marginal variable in both psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks. In our study we tested 88 subjects with three psychometric tests, measuring general intelligence in Spearman's sense. Parallel versions of those tests were created by splitting each of them into two equivalent halves by "odd-even" principle. One version was applied under strict time constraints and the other one without time pressure. In addition five speed-of-information-processing paradigms were applied. The relationship between the mental speed and general intelligence measured in timed and untimed conditions was examined. Results suggest that the role of speed of information processing is significant in determining general intelligence. Mental speed also seems to be relatively independent with regarding to time limitations in testing intelligence. The results are discussed in terms of the neural efficiency presumptions.

  15. Clinical applications of a high speed matrix ionization chamber portal imaging system

    A main disadvantage of the present matrix ionization chamber system for electronic portal imaging is its relatively slow image acquisition of 6 s at full resolution. We have solved this problem by modifying the read-out electronics in two ways: First, faster high voltage switches are applied which work with a higher voltage; Second, faster read-out amplifiers are applied which have reduced cross-talk. With these improvements circuit noise is no longer dominant at typical radiotherapy dose rates. Because the quantum noise level in the matrix ionization chamber system is purely determined by signal integration in the liquid medium, the image scan can now be reduced to as short as 0.55 s with little loss of image quality. However, there is some loss of resolution at readout speed faster than 1.5 s due to speed limitations of the read-out amplifiers. One of the applications of the new device is double exposures for larynx fields. At a reduced dose rate of 125 MU/min, only about 5 MUs are required for a single frame on a 4 MV ABB Dynaray accelerator. Other applications which benefit from the reduced image scan time are time lapse movies. Typically 15 frames per field are made during one fraction. The movies offer both information on patient motion and improved image quality by averaging the frames. Finally, on-line analysis of the images can be performed more easily and has been included in the software package. In can be concluded that the higher speed of the new matrix ionization chamber system is an important improvement for several clinical applications

  16. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    the body's aerodynamic drag, the top speed is predicted at 226 mph. Further design considerations are also addressed, including the development of the component level layout of the motorcycle, weighing factors such as safety and ease of fabrication with that of performance and accessibility. At the time of composition, the Comet had started the fabrication process, and it is the intent of the author that the finished product competes in the 2016 Bonneville Motorcycle Speed Trials to set the first world record for a single track electric motorcycle streamliner.

  17. Limiting Skepticism

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...... must demonstrate that agents are operating with a bad method or are in an epistemically cursed world. Such demonstration involves a significant step beyond conceivability and commits the skeptic to potentially convergent inquiry...

  18. Verification and Validation of RADTRAN 5.5.

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.

    2005-02-01

    This document contains a description of the verification and validation process used for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The verification and validation process ensured the proper calculational models and mathematical and numerical methods were used in the RADTRAN 5.5 code for the determination of risk and consequence assessments. The differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 are the addition of tables, an expanded isotope library, and the additional User-Defined meteorological option for accident dispersion. 3

  19. GPR55: a new member of the cannabinoid receptor clan?

    Pertwee, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Ryberg et al. present convincing in vitro evidence that the orphan GPCR, GPR55, is a cannabinoid receptor. GPR55 was activated by a range of plant, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids and blocked by the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol. Their experiments have revealed several differences between the pharmacology of GPR55 and the established cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. For example, the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, ...

  20. Kinematics and critical swimming speed of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks

    Lowe

    1996-01-01

    Kinematics and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini were measured in a Brett-type flume (635 l). Kinematic parameters were also measured in sharks swimming in a large pond for comparison with those of sharks swimming in the flume. Sharks in the flume exhibited a mean Ucrit of 65±11 cm s-1 (± s.d.) or 1.17±0.21 body lengths per second (L s-1), which are similar to values for other species of sharks. In both the flume and pond, tailbeat frequency (TBF) and stride length (LS) increased linearly with increases in relative swimming speed (Urel=body lengths traveled per second). In the flume, tailbeat amplitude (TBA) decreased with increasing speed whereas TBA did not change with speed in the pond. Differences in TBF and LS between sharks swimming in the flume and the pond decreased with increases in Urel. Sharks swimming at slow speeds (e.g. 0.55 L s-1) in the pond had LS 19 % longer and TBF 21 % lower than sharks in the flume at the same Urel. This implies that sharks in the flume expended more energy while swimming at comparable velocities. Comparative measurements of swimming kinematics from sharks in the pond can be used to correct for effects of the flume on shark swimming kinematics and energetics. PMID:9320537

  1. Role of the lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 axis in cancer.

    Falasca, Marco; Ferro, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a well-known bioactive lipid that is able to activate signalling cascades relevant to cell proliferation, migration, survival and tumourigenesis. It is well-established that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is the specific receptor for LPI. Several investigations have demonstrated that the signalling pathways activated by LPI through its receptor GPR55 play a pivotal role in different cancer type. This review focuses on the role of the LPI/GPR55 axis, in particular with regards to its pharmacological potential therapeutic exploitation. PMID:26588872

  2. Conceptual differences and similarities between public health related contents of syllabus of Ayurveda graduation (B.A.M.S. with syllabi of M.B.B.S, M.P.H. and M.D. (social and preventive medicine in India

    Jaideep Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The concept and discipline of public health has seen a revival in the past decade. A gradual shift of focus from curative to preventive is being discernible. It is estimated that there will be a huge increase in need of public health professionals day by day. This would require human resources from diverse disciplines, fields and backgrounds. However, the enrollment of them in the public health education will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the community health arena or not. Objective: To appraise the conceptual differences and similarities between public health related contents of syllabus of Ayurvedic graduation (B.A.M.S. with syllabi of M.B.B.S., M.P.H. and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine. Methodology: A review based study was conducted during February 1st February- 15th March 2010. To appraise the conceptual differences and similarities, comparison of contents of syllabus of Swasthavarita subject of B.A.M.S. curriculum was done with syllabi of community medicine of M.B.B.S. as well as of entire syllabus of M.P.H. and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine. Standard syllabus of B.A.M.S. and M.B.B.S. degrees was taken from official website of Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M, New Delhi and Medical Council of India (M.C.I., New Delhi, respectively. Master in Public Health (M.P.H. and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine syllabi from official website of PGIMER, Chandigarh were considered as standards syllabi for study. The syllabi were divided in to the sub-categories and conceptual comparison was done. Frequencies and percentages were used to draw inferences. Conclusions: Conceptual similarities were found in the majority of the topics of the B.A.M.S. syllabus with the syllabi of community medicine of M.B.B.S.; M.P.H. P.G.I.M.E.R., Chandigarh and M.D. Community Medicine. Some topics like health financing, health planning, monitoring management and administration, knowledge of modern

  3. EPA speeds technology implementation

    Common barriers block the use of innovative remediation technologies. The Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sandia National Laboratories was initiated in 1993 in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Technology Innovation Office in an attempt to reduce these barriers and accelerate the implementation of innovative remediation technologies. The innovative technologies considered for evaluation by the ITRD program lack the cost and performance information that would otherwise permit their full consideration as remedial alternatives. These technologies have often shown promise in pilot-scale applications but have limited full-scale data. Some examples in this category include: bioremediation, in situ dynamic stripping, soil washing and soil flushing, solvent and surfactant extraction and chemical treatment, in situ passive treatment, and advanced physical separation techniques. Currently, three ITRD projects are under way. ITRD sites are generally small, and most are characterized sites already scheduled for remediation. Thus, each project can be initiated quickly; additional program costs are minimized; and overall site remediation is accelerated. ITRD projects tend to target sites with typical soil and groundwater contamination problems. Contaminants at such sites include chlorinated solvents and petroleum products; pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins; heavy metals; explosives; and complex or multiconstituent contamination. The paper describes the activities at these three projects located at Pinellas, Mound Laboratory, and Fernald

  4. Flexible high speed CODEC

    Wernlund, James V.

    1993-02-01

    HARRIS, under contract with NASA Lewis, has developed a hard decision BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) triple error correcting block CODEC ASIC, that can be used in either a bursted or continuous mode. the ASIC contains both encoder and decoder functions, programmable lock thresholds, and PSK related functions. The CODEC provides up to 4 dB of coding gain for data rates up to 300 Mbps. The overhead is selectable from 7/8 to 15/16 resulting in minimal band spreading, for a given BER. Many of the internal calculations are brought out enabling the CODEC to be incorporated in more complex designs. The ASIC has been tested in BPSK, QPSK and 16-ary PSK link simulators and found to perform to within 0.1 dB of theory for BER's of 10(exp -2) to 10(exp -9). The ASIC itself, being a hard decision CODEC, is not limited to PSK modulation formats. Unlike most hard decision CODEC's, the HARRIS CODEC doesn't upgrade BER performance significantly at high BER's but rather becomes transparent.

  5. Forecasting wind speed financial return

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is very important when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. In this paper, we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model that has been shown to be able to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is used to forecast, one step ahead, wind speed. In order to check the validity of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error and mean absolute error between real data and predicted ones. We also compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model. At last, we show an application of the model to predict financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, Duration and Convexity.

  6. High-Speed Electrochemical Imaging.

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Byers, Joshua C; McKelvey, Kim; Kang, Minkyung; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-09-22

    The design, development, and application of high-speed scanning electrochemical probe microscopy is reported. The approach allows the acquisition of a series of high-resolution images (typically 1000 pixels μm(-2)) at rates approaching 4 seconds per frame, while collecting up to 8000 image pixels per second, about 1000 times faster than typical imaging speeds used up to now. The focus is on scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), but the principles and practicalities are applicable to many electrochemical imaging methods. The versatility of the high-speed scan concept is demonstrated at a variety of substrates, including imaging the electroactivity of a patterned self-assembled monolayer on gold, visualization of chemical reactions occurring at single wall carbon nanotubes, and probing nanoscale electrocatalysts for water splitting. These studies provide movies of spatial variations of electrochemical fluxes as a function of potential and a platform for the further development of high speed scanning with other electrochemical imaging techniques. PMID:26267455

  7. Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

  8. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  9. Giga bit per second Differential Scheme for High Speed Interconnect

    Mandeep Singh Narula

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of many digital systems today is limited by the interconnection bandwidth between chips. Although the processing performance of a single chip has increased dramatically since the inception of the integrated circuit technology, the communication bandwidth between chips has not enjoyed as much benefit. Most CMOS chips, when communicating off-chip, drive un terminated lines with full-swing CMOS drivers. Such full-swing CMOS interconnect ring-up the line, and hence has a bandwidth that is limited by the length of the line rather than the performance of the semiconductor technology. Thus, as VLSI technology scales, the pin bandwidth does not improve with the technology, but rather remains limited by board and cable geometry, making off-chip bandwidth an even more critical bottleneck. In order to increase the I/O Bandwidth, some efficient high speed signaling standard must be used which considers the line termination, signal integrity, power dissipation, noise immunity etc In this work, a transmitter has been developed for high speed off chip communication. It consists of low speed input buffer, serializer which converts parallel input data into serial data and a current mode driver which converts the voltage mode input signals into current over the transmission line. Output of 32 low speed input buffers is fed to two serializer, each serializer converting 16 bit parallel data into serial data stream. Output of two serializers is fed to LVDS current mode driver. The serial link technique used in this work is the time division multiplex (TDM and point-to-point technique. It means that the low-speed parallel signals are transferred to the high-speed serial signal at the transmitter end and the high-speed serial signal is transferred to the low-speed parallel signals at the receiver end. Serial link is the design of choice in any application where the cost of the communication channel is high and duplicating the links in large numbers is

  10. Giga bit per second Differential Scheme for High Speed Interconnect

    Mandeep Singh Narula

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of many digital systems today is limited by the interconnection bandwidth between chips. Although the processing performance of a single chip has increased dramatically since the inception of the integrated circuit technology, the communication bandwidth between chips has not enjoyed as much benefit. Most CMOS chips, when communicating off-chip, drive unterminated lines with full-swing CMOS drivers. Such full-swing CMOS interconnect ring-up the line, and hence has a bandwidth that is limited by the length of the line rather than the performance of the semiconductor technology. Thus, as VLSI technology scales, the pin bandwidth does not improve with the technology, but rather remains limited by board and cable geometry, making off-chip bandwidth an even more critical bottleneck. In order to increase the I/O Bandwidth, some efficient high speed signaling standard must be used which considers the line termination, signal integrity, power dissipation, noise immunity etc In this work, a transmitter has been developed for high speed offchip communication. It consists of low speed input buffer, serializer which converts parallel input data into serial data and a current mode driver which converts the voltage mode input signals into current over the transmission line. Output of 32 low speed input buffers is fed to two serializer, each serializer converting 16 bit parallel data into serial data stream. Output of two serializers is fed to LVDS current mode driver. The serial link technique used in this work is the time division multiplex (TDM and point-to-point technique. It means that the low-speed parallel signals are transferred to the high-speed serial signal at the transmitter end and the high-speed serial signal is transferred to the low-speed parallel signals at the receiver end. Serial link is the design of choice in any application where the cost of the communication channel is high and duplicating the links in large numbers is

  11. Methods of speed measurement. Geschwindigkeitsmessverfahren

    Baeumer, K.; Rath, K.; Rogge, H.; Wiegand, H.

    1990-09-27

    In a method, i.e. the operation of a device for contactless measurement of speeds, speed-time curves and decay frequencies in liquid jets and flames two light beams emitted by strong light source are focussed in such a way in the measured volume of a fluid layer or flame layer that the light transmission in the measured volume can be measured at a focal distance s by means of two light-sensitive detectors. Speeds and speed-time curves in injection jets and flames can be inferred from the shift in time s of the transmission curves by means of the equation v=s/t. Furthermore, the recorded transmission-time curve can be used for harmonic analysis studies by means of a digital Fourier analysis (FFT analysis). The speed v or, as the case may be, the speed-time curve in the layer of a fluid or flame and the frequencies f determined with the frequency spectrum permit a calculation of the wavelength according to the wave equation =vxf, and this in turn determines the ball size in jets of fluid and flames.

  12. Development of a protocol to measure iron-55 in the solid matrices of the environment

    Finding out about the radiological status of the environment requires the quantification of radionuclides found in the various compartments (liquid or solid). The measurement of low-level radioactivity is an asset for conducting radioecological studies. The metrology of iron-55 is difficult and its development requires resources and skills in the nuclear and chemical fields. The development of metrology of iron-55 of low-level radioactivity in environmental solid matrices was realised for conducting radioecological studies. As of existing methods adaptation, a protocol was developed based on the purification of iron-55 with selective chromatographic resin followed by a measurement by liquid scintillation. The loss attached treatment chemical steps is quantified measured by elemental iron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). This protocol analysis is rapid (less 1 week) and by means of classic technique currently used in a radioactivity laboratory. The optimisation of the operating conditions including test portion, chemical treatment, the iron retention capacity of selective chromatographic resin, chemical yield and coloration of the solution after chemical treatment to obtain the desired detection limit at of 30 Bq kg-1 dry is described. The solid samples were analysed with the protocol developed. The activity concentrations obtained for iron-55 are below the detection limit of 30 Bq kg-1 dry. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  14. 27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

  15. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...

  16. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.55-2 Section 301.55-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living..., Nopalea, and Opuntia. (c) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraphs...

  17. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.55 Section 7.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Hunting. Hunting is allowed at times and locations designated as open for hunting. (b... Recreation Area except in the following areas: (i) Crescent Bay Lake. (ii) Kettle River above the...

  18. 41 CFR 105-55.009 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    2010-07-01

    ... to collect the debt or terminate collection action. See 31 CFR 285.12 (Transfer of Debts to Treasury... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aggressive agency... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.009 Aggressive agency collection...

  19. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    2010-07-01

    ... subcontractor with all the contract clauses in 29 CFR 5.5. (7) Contract termination: debarment. A breach of the contract clauses in 29 CFR 5.5 may be grounds for termination of the contract, and for debarment as a... employment opportunity requirements of Executive Order 11246, as amended, and 29 CFR part 30. (5)...

  20. 45 CFR 309.55 - What does this subpart cover?

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this subpart cover? 309.55 Section 309.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...

  1. 9 CFR 55.22 - Participation and enrollment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation and enrollment. 55.22 Section 55.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) Participation by owners. Any owner of a farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose herd may apply to enroll in...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.55 - Transportation credits and assembly credits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Transportation credits and assembly credits. 1030.55... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.55 Transportation credits and assembly credits. (a) Each handler operating a pool distributing plant described in § 1030.7(a), (b),...

  3. 31 CFR 360.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 360.55 Section 360.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  4. 31 CFR 353.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 353.55 Section 353.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  5. 31 CFR 315.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 315.55 Section 315.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... authenticated by a legible imprint either of a corporate stamp of the institution or of the issuing or...

  6. 45 CFR 400.55 - Availability of agency policies.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of agency policies. 400.55 Section..., ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.55 Availability of agency policies. A State, or the agency(s)...

  7. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  8. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  9. 50 CFR 25.55 - Refuge admission permits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuge admission permits. 25.55 Section 25... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.55 Refuge... onto an Entrance Fee Area will be available for issue or purchase at such area and, except for...

  10. 24 CFR 200.55 - Financing fees and charges.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financing fees and charges. 200.55 Section 200.55 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Financing fees and charges. Fees and charges approved by the Commissioner in excess of the initial...

  11. 40 CFR 60.55a - Standard for nitrogen oxides.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides. 60.55a... § 60.55a Standard for nitrogen oxides. On and after the date on which the initial compliance test is... gases that contain nitrogen oxides in excess of 180 parts per million by volume, corrected to 7...

  12. 12 CFR 650.55 - Inventory, audit, and reports.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventory, audit, and reports. 650.55 Section... CORPORATION GENERAL PROVISIONS § 650.55 Inventory, audit, and reports. (a) As soon as practicable after taking... public accountant selected by the receiver. (c) The receiver shall make an annual accounting or...

  13. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.12 Language used for written material. (a) Language minority groups having more than one language....

  14. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquidation of... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 915.55 - Avocados not subject to regulations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avocados not subject to regulations. 915.55 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 915.55 Avocados not subject...

  16. 28 CFR 55.10 - Types of elections covered.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of elections covered. 55.10 Section... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.10 Types of elections... of election, whether it is a primary, general or special election. Section 14(c)(1). This...

  17. 32 CFR 643.55 - Mandatory revocation clause in lease.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory revocation clause in lease. 643.55... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.55 Mandatory revocation clause in lease. Each lease will contain a provision permitting the SA to revoke the lease at any time, unless it is determined that the omission...

  18. Quantum speed limits—primer, perspectives, and potential future directions

    Frey, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental physical limits on the speed of state evolution in quantum systems exist in the form of the Mandelstam-Tamm and the Margolus-Levitin inequalities. We give an expository review of the development of these quantum speed limit (QSL) inequalities, including extensions to different energy statistics and generalizations to mixed system states and open and multipartite systems. The QSLs expressed by these various inequalities have implications for quantum computation, quantum metrology, and control of quantum systems. These connections are surveyed, and some important open questions are noted.

  19. High-speed milling of light metals

    F. Cus

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longer service life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/min require modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in the automobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also the achievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficient machining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling can be compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and more frequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some cases when machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum and magnesium alloying materials are machined.

  20. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  1. Performance evaluation of high speed compressors for high speed multipliers

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes high speed compressors for high speed parallel multipliers like Booth Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier in Digital Signal Processing (DSP. This paper presents 4-3, 5-3, 6-3 and 7-3 compressors for high speed multiplication. These compressors reduce vertical critical path more rapidly than conventional compressors. A 5-3 conventional compressor can take four steps to reduce bits from 5 to 3, but the proposed 5-3 takes only 2 steps. These compressors are simulated with H-Spice at a temperature of 25°C at a supply voltage 2.0V using 90nm MOSIS technology. The Power, Delay, Power Delay Product (PDP and Energy Delay Product (EDP of the compressors are calculated to analyze the total propagation delay and energy consumption. All the compressors are designed with half adder and full Adders only.

  2. Speed-up electric railways. Denki tetsudo no kosokuka

    Yasukawa, S.; Ito, J. (Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-20

    Explanation was made of speed heightening tendency of electric rail transport in Japan and Europe. The electric rail transport can transport a large quantity with a high safety and largely contribute particularly to the energy saving and solution of environmental problems. Introduction was made of Japanese superexpress lines, French TGV network, and German and Italian high speed railroads. DC motor has been conventionally used to strengthen the output as required by the speed heightening. Because the commutator and dynamic braking resistor are limited in size enlarging and weight increasing as required by a further speed heightening, the DC motor is being replaced by the AC motor or synchronous motor without commutators for the driving. For the coach weight lightening, design is made by lightening the bogie weight, compatibly with maintaining the running stability, and using the aluminum alloy for the body. The air resistance is proportional to the speed squared and therefore, particularly important for the high speed train. Progress is made in taking measures against the noise and vibration (due to dislocation, spark and aerodynamic force) under a stable power collecting performance through pantograph hardly coming off the overhead line. Pertaining to the ground facilities to satisfy the speed heightening, also mentioned were AC generation system which can supply a large electric energy, overhead wiring system, and ATC and other signal maintaining system. 31 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Speed Adaptation in Urban Road Network Management

    Raiyn Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Various forecasting schemes have been proposed to manage traffic data, which is collected by videos cameras, sensors, and mobile phone services. However, these are not sufficient for collecting data because of their limited coverage and high costs for installation and maintenance. To overcome the limitations of these tools, we introduce a hybrid scheme based on intelligent transportation system (ITS and global navigation satellite system (GNSS. Applying the GNSS to calculate travel time has proven efficient in terms of accuracy. In this case, GNSS data is managed to reduce traffic congestion and road accidents. This paper introduces a short-time forecasting model based on real-time travel time for urban heterogeneous road networks. Travel time forecasting has been achieved by predicting travel speeds using an optimized exponential moving Average (EMA model. Furthermore for speed adaptation in heterogeneous road networks, it is necessary to introduce asuitable control strategy for longitude, based on the GNSS. GNSS products provide worldwide and real-time services using precise timing information and, positioning technologies.

  4. Particle Swarm Optimization of Speed in Unplanned Lane Traffic

    Prasun Ghosal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Speed Optimization Technique in Traffic is a very promising research problem. Searching for an efficient optimization method to increase the degree of speed optimization and thereby increasing the traffic flow in a lane is a widely concerning issue. However, there has been a limited research effort on the optimization of the lane usage with speed optimization. This paper presents a novel technique to solve the problem optimally using the knowledge base analysis of speeds of vehicles, population of lanes , using partial modification of Swarm Intelligence which, in turn will act as a guide for design of lanes optimally to provide better optimized traffic with less number of transitions of vehicles between lanes..

  5. Practical speed meter designs for QND gravitational-wave interferometers

    Purdue, P; Purdue, Patricia; Chen, Yanbei

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g., LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. A previous paper analyzed a straightforward but impractical design for a {\\it speed-meter interferometer} that accomplishes this. This paper describes some practical variants of speed-meter interferometers. Like the original interferometric speed meter, these designs {\\it in principle} can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies. These variants essentially consist of a Michelson interferometer plus an extra "sloshing" cavity that sends the signal back into the interferometer with opposite phase shift, thereby cancelling the position information and leaving a net phase shift proportional to the relative velocity. {\\it In practice}, the sensitivity of...

  6. Propionic acidemia: clinical course and outcome in 55 pediatric and adolescent patients

    Grünert Sarah C; Müllerleile Stephanie; De Silva Linda; Barth Michael; Walter Melanie; Walter Kerstin; Meissner Thomas; Lindner Martin; Ensenauer Regina; Santer René; Bodamer Olaf A; Baumgartner Matthias R; Brunner-Krainz Michaela; Karall Daniela; Haase Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Although it is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, information on the outcome of affected individuals is still limited. Study design/methods Clinical and outcome data of 55 patients with propionic acidemia from 16 European metabolic centers were evaluated retrospectively. 35 patients were diagnosed by selective metabolic screening while 20 patients were identified by newb...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  8. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  9. Brushless tachometer gives speed and direction

    Nola, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Brushless electronic tachometer measures rotational speed and rotational direction, maintaining accuracy at high or low speeds. Unit is particularly useful in vacuum environments requiring low friction.

  10. Assessing the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials for moving humans using a mobile electroencephalogram headset.

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Yijun; Wei, Chun-Shu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, featuring non-prep dry electrodes and wireless telemetry, have enabled and promoted the applications of mobile brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in our daily life. Since the brain may behave differently while people are actively situated in ecologically-valid environments versus highly-controlled laboratory environments, it remains unclear how well the current laboratory-oriented BCI demonstrations can be translated into operational BCIs for users with naturalistic movements. Understanding inherent links between natural human behaviors and brain activities is the key to ensuring the applicability and stability of mobile BCIs. This study aims to assess the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs), which is one of promising channels for functioning BCI systems, recorded using a mobile EEG system under challenging recording conditions, e.g., walking. To systematically explore the effects of walking locomotion on the SSVEPs, this study instructed subjects to stand or walk on a treadmill running at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 mile (s) per hour (MPH) while concurrently perceiving visual flickers (11 and 12 Hz). Empirical results of this study showed that the SSVEP amplitude tended to deteriorate when subjects switched from standing to walking. Such SSVEP suppression could be attributed to the walking locomotion, leading to distinctly deteriorated SSVEP detectability from standing (84.87 ± 13.55%) to walking (1 MPH: 83.03 ± 13.24%, 2 MPH: 79.47 ± 13.53%, and 3 MPH: 75.26 ± 17.89%). These findings not only demonstrated the applicability and limitations of SSVEPs recorded from freely behaving humans in realistic environments, but also provide useful methods and techniques for boosting the translation of the BCI technology from laboratory demonstrations to practical applications. PMID:24744718

  11. Assessing the Quality of Steady-state Visual-evoked Potentials for Moving Humans Using a Mobile Electroencephalogram Headset

    Yuan-Pin eLin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile electroencephalogram (EEG systems, featuring non-prep dry electrodes and wireless telemetry, have urged the needs of mobile brain-computer interfaces (BCIs for applications in our daily life. Since the brain may behave differently while people are actively situated in ecologically-valid environments versus highly-controlled laboratory environments, it remains unclear how well the current laboratory-oriented BCI demonstrations can be translated into operational BCIs for users with naturalistic movements. Understanding inherent links between natural human behaviors and brain activities is the key to ensuring the applicability and stability of mobile BCIs. This study aims to assess the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs, which is one of promising channels for functioning BCI systems, recorded using a mobile EEG system under challenging recording conditions, e.g., walking. To systemati-cally explore the effects of walking locomotion on the SSVEPs, this study instructed subjects to stand or walk on a treadmill running at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 mile (s per hour (MPH while con-currently perceiving visual flickers (11 and 12 Hz. Empirical results of this study showed that the SSVEP amplitude tended to deteriorate when subjects switched from standing to walking. Such SSVEP suppression could be attributed to the walking locomotion, leading to distinctly deteriorated SSVEP detectability from standing (84.87±13.55% to walking (1 MPH: 83.03±13.24%, 2 MPH: 79.47±13.53%, and 3 MPH: 75.26±17.89%. These findings not only demonstrated the applicability and limitations of SSVEPs recorded from freely behaving humans in realistic environments, but also provide useful methods and techniques for boosting the translation of the BCI technology from laboratory demonstrations to practical applications.

  12. Division C Commission 55: Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Russo, Pedro; Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Cheung, Sze-Leung; Robson, Ian; Ödman-Govender, Carolina; Arcand, Kimberly Kowal; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Zhu, Jin; Wheeler, Pete

    2016-04-01

    The IAU Division C Commission 55, Communicating Astronomy with the Public, played an active role in Union affairs within Division C, Education, Outreach and Heritage. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) vested considerable responsibility for its public outreach efforts in Commission 55 (C55), Communicating Astronomy with the Public. This article briefly recounts the origin and history of C55 over the past decade, and describes the work of C55 until it became Division C Commission C.C2 in 2015. As stated on our website, http://www.communicatingastronomy.org, C55 was founded on the principle that ``it is the responsibility of every practising astronomer to play some role in explaining the interest and value of science to our real employers, the taxpayers of the world.'' While this was true a decade ago, when the Working Group that eventually became C55 first took shape, it is even more true today, when funding for the astronomical sciences (and science more generally) is under threat on nearly every continent.

  13. Detection of an Atmosphere Around the Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Tsiaras, A.; Rocchetto, M.; Waldmann, I. P.; Venot, O.; Varley, R.; Morello, G.; Damiano, M.; Tinetti, G.; Barton, E. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report the analysis of two new spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared of the super-Earth 55 Cancri e, obtained with the WFC3 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. 55 Cancri e orbits so close to its parent star that temperatures much higher than 2000 K are expected on its surface. Given the brightness of 55 Cancri, the observations were obtained in scanning mode, adopting a very long scanning length and a very high scanning speed. We use our specialized pipeline to take into account systematics introduced by these observational parameters when coupled with the geometrical distortions of the instrument. We measure the transit depth per wavelength channel with an average relative uncertainty of 22 ppm per visit and find modulations that depart from a straight line model with a 6σ confidence level. These results suggest that 55 Cancri e is surrounded by an atmosphere, which is probably hydrogen-rich. Our fully Bayesian spectral retrieval code, { T }-REx, has identified HCN to be the most likely molecular candidate able to explain the features at 1.42 and 1.54 μm. While additional spectroscopic observations in a broader wavelength range in the infrared will be needed to confirm the HCN detection, we discuss here the implications of such a result. Our chemical model, developed with combustion specialists, indicates that relatively high mixing ratios of HCN may be caused by a high C/O ratio. This result suggests this super-Earth is a carbon-rich environment even more exotic than previously thought.

  14. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  15. Gas and dark matter in the Sculptor group: NGC 55

    Westmeier, Tobias; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Braun, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present new, sensitive HI observations of the Sculptor group galaxy NGC 55 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We achieve a 5 sigma HI column density sensitivity of 10^19 cm^-2 over a spectral channel width of 8 km/s for emission filling the 158" x 84" synthesised beam. Our observations reveal for the first time the full extent of the HI disc of NGC 55 at this sensitivity and at a moderately high spatial resolution of about 1 kpc. The HI disc of NGC 55 appears to be distorted on al...

  16. Long slit spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas in NGC 55

    Otte, B.; Dettmar, R. -J.

    1999-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of emission line ratios and velocities are presented for ionized gas across the central plane of NGC 55, a late-type galaxy in the Sculptor group. The low metallicity in NGC 55 leads to relatively low line ratios of [S II]/H$\\alpha$ and [N II]/H$\\alpha$ for H II regions as well as the diffuse ionized gas. These are the first spectroscopical measurements of line ratios in ionized gas exterior to the stellar disc of NGC 55. Analysis of the line ratios and the relative...

  17. Estimation of Lightning Return Stroke Speed Using Elve Observations

    Blaes, P.; Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U.

    2014-12-01

    Elves are optical emissions in the D-region ionosphere that are a result of collisional heating from the intense lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The shape of elves is determined by the EMP radiation pattern at D-region altitudes, which is in turn controlled by the geometry and current propagation properties of the return stroke channel. In particular, numerical simulation of the EMP-ionosphere interaction shows a strong relationship between the elve "hole" radius and the current return stroke speed. During the summer of 2013, hundreds of elves were observed from Langmuir Laboratory, in New Mexico, with the PIPER high-speed photometer. Of these, 55 had an appropriate viewing geometry in which the elve hole is observable and is not corrupted by cloud flashes or sprites. An "emission profile", characterizing the elve emissions versus radius and time, is fit to each of these events using a constrained least squares reconstruction, allowing easy extraction of the elve hole radius. Using these measured radii in conjunction with the numerical EMP model, we perform Bayesian inference to estimate the distribution of return stroke speeds. The MTLL engineering model is assumed for the current propagation with reasonable priors for the parameters. The results show a maximum a posteriori probability return stroke speed estimate of 0.64c for elve producing lightning.

  18. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... converter losses and its size so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and...

  19. Instant PageSpeed optimization

    Jaiswal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant PageSpeed Optimization is a hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for optimizing your websites for better performance and improving their efficiency.Instant PageSpeed Optimization is aimed at website developers and administrators who wish to make their websites load faster without any errors and consume less bandwidth. It's assumed that you will have some experience in basic web technologies like HTML, CSS3, JavaScript, and the basics of netw

  20. High-speed pulse techniques

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  1. Heat load limits for TRU drums on pads

    Some of the Trans-Uranic (TRU) waste generated at SRS is packaged in 55 gallon, galvanized steel drums and stored on concrete pads that are exposed to the weather. It was necessary to compute how much heat can be generated by the waste in these drums without exceeding the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. This report documents the calculation of heat load limits for the drum, which depend on the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. The applicable temperature limits for the contents of the drum are the melting temperature of the polyethylene liner, 284 ± 8 F, the combustion temperature of paper, 450 F and the decomposition temperature of anionic resin, 190 F. One part of the analysis leading to the heat load limits was the collection of weather records on solar flux, wind speed and air temperature. Another part of the task was an experimental measurement of two important properties of the drum lid, the emittance and the absorptance. As used here, emittance is the rate at which an object emits infrared thermal radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body at the same temperature emits thermal radiation. Absorptance is the rate at which an object absorbs solar radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body absorbs radiation. For nine locations on each of eight typical weathered drum lids the measured emittance ranged from 0.73 ± 0.05 to 1.00 ± 0.07 (95% confidence level) and the average emittance for the eight lids was 0.85. For the eight drum lids the measured absorptance ranged from 0.64 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.07 with an average absorptance for the eight lids of 0.739

  2. Enhanced speed in fluorescence imaging using beat frequency multiplexing

    Mikami, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Wang, Yisen; Hamad, Syed; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence imaging using radiofrequency-tagged emission (FIRE) is an emerging technique that enables higher imaging speed (namely, temporal resolution) in fluorescence microscopy compared to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy and wide-field microscopy. It works based on the principle that it uses multiple intensity-modulated fields in an interferometric setup as excitation fields and applies frequency-division multiplexing to fluorescence signals. Unfortunately, despite its high potential, FIRE has limited imaging speed due to two practical limitations: signal bandwidth and signal detection efficiency. The signal bandwidth is limited by that of an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) employed in the setup, which is typically 100-200 MHz for the spectral range of fluorescence excitation (400-600 nm). The signal detection efficiency is limited by poor spatial mode-matching between two interfering fields to produce a modulated excitation field. Here we present a method to overcome these limitations and thus to achieve higher imaging speed than the prior version of FIRE. Our method achieves an increase in signal bandwidth by a factor of two and nearly optimal mode matching, which enables the imaging speed limited by the lifetime of the target fluorophore rather than the imaging system itself. The higher bandwidth and better signal detection efficiency work synergistically because higher bandwidth requires higher signal levels to avoid the contribution of shot noise and amplifier noise to the fluorescence signal. Due to its unprecedentedly high-speed performance, our method has a wide variety of applications in cancer detection, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.

  3. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27085597

  4. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  5. Standardization and half-life measurement of 55Fe

    Methods for measurement of the specific activity and the KX-ray emission rate per 1 g of a 55Fe solution are described. The emission rate was determined by a pressurized proportional 4π-counter with an uncertainty of 0.3% and absorption and self-absorption corrections were determined experimentally for each source. The specific activity of the 55Fe solution was determined with an uncertainty of 0.7% by the 4π KX-γ-coincidence tracing method with 54Mn as the tracer. 55Fe to 54Mn efficiency ratio equations were derived. The 55Fe half-life was measured in the pressurized proportional 4π-counter over a period of ∼2.5 half-lives. The result is 995±3 days

  6. 33 CFR 1.07-55 - Hearing procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-55 Hearing procedures. (a... the Hearing Officer is presented. The party has the right to examine, and to respond to or rebut,...

  7. 42 CFR 60.55 - Administrative and fiscal procedures.

    2010-10-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.55 Administrative and fiscal procedures. Each school must... unreasonable risk of loss due to defaults; and (d) Compliance with applicable requirements for HEAL schools....

  8. Necropsy Report - Eaastern Pipistrelle Box Culvert I-55 Grenada, MS

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Necropsy report of a eastern pipisttrelle tricolored bat found dead in a box culvert along I55, near Grenada, MS provides no indication of whitenose syndrome.

  9. How Much Power and Speed Is Measured in This Test?

    Partchev, Ivailo; De Boeck, Paul; Steyer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    An old issue in psychological assessment is to what extent power and speed each are measured by a given intelligence test. Starting from accuracy and response time data, an approach based on posterior time limits (cut-offs of recorded response time) leads to three kinds of recoded data: time data (whether or not the response precedes the cut-off),…

  10. Limit Kids' Exposure to Media Violence, Pediatricians Say

    ... M.D., M.P.H., director, Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute; Christopher Ferguson, Ph.D., associate professor, psychology, Stetson University, DeLand, Fla.; Eugene Beresin, M.D., ...

  11. GPR55 regulates cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated responses in human neutrophils

    Nariman A B Balenga; Maria Waldhoer; Elma Aflaki; Julia Kargl; Wolfgang Platzer; Ralf Schr(o)der; Stefanie Bl(a)ttermann; Evi Kostenis; Andrew J Brown; Akos Heinemann

    2011-01-01

    The directional migration of neutrophils towards inflammatory mediators,such as chemokines and cannabinoids,occurs via the activation of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) and is a highly organized process.A crucial role for controlling neutrophil migration has been ascribed to the cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R),but additional modulatory sites distinct from CB2R have recently been suggested to impact CB2R-mediated effector functions in neutrophils.Here,we provide evidence that the recently de-orphanized 7TM/GPCR GPR55potently modulates CB2R-mediated responses.We show that GPR55 is expressed in human blood neutrophils and its activation augments the migratory response towards the CB2R agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG),while inhibiting neutrophil degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.Using HEK293 and HL60 cell lines,along with primary neutrophils,we show that GPR55 and CB2R interfere with each other's signaling pathways at the level of small GTPases,such as Rac2 and Cdc42.This ultimately leads to cellular polarization and efficient migration as well as abrogation of degranulation and ROS formation in neutrophils.Therefore,GPR55 limits the tissueinjuring inflammatory responses mediated by CB2R,while it synergizes with CB2R in recruiting neutrophils to sites of inflammation.

  12. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  13. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization

  14. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits. PMID:26545011

  15. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  16. Speed Judgements of Transparent Stimuli

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    When two moving patterns are combined additively, observers often perceive two transparent surfaces, even when there are no cues supporting this segmentation in a frozen snapshot. We examined the ability of observers to make quantitative judgments about the speed of one of the patterns under these conditions. The component patterns consisted of band-pass filtered random noise presented in a spatial Gaussian contrast envelope, presented for 250 ms. On each trial a standard pattern appeared on one side of the fixation point, while a test pattern appeared on the other. The test pattern moved in the same direction as the standard, but with a speed which varied from trial to trial using a staircase procedure. The subjects' task was to report the side of the fixation point on which faster motion was seen. In some conditions the test stimulus was made to appear transparent by adding a mask pattern. When the mask was stationary, or moved slowly with respect to the test, no significant biases were introduced and discrimination performance was comparable to the no-mask condition (typically 3%). If the mask moved over the test with similar speed, however, the task became much harder, regardless of whether the mask moved opposite or orthogonal to the test. (Some subjects commented on a perceived directional repulsion between tests and orthogonally moving masks.) These results suggest the use of non-directional temporal channels in the performance of the speed discrimination task.

  17. High-speed OTDM switching

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Clausen, Anders;

    1998-01-01

    Optical TDM (OTDM) continues to be of interest both for point-point transmission and as a networking technology for both LANs and long-distance fibre transmission. Recent research has demonstrated enabling techniques for OTDM networks at high speeds. In conclusion, OTDM is emerging as an attractive...

  18. Hint of a transiting extended atmosphere on 55 Cancri b

    Ehrenreich, David; Bonfils, Xavier; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Hébrard, Guillaume; Sing, David K; Wheatley, Peter J; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Delfosse, Xavier; Udry, Stéphane; Forveille, Thierry; Moutou, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The naked-eye star 55 Cancri hosts a planetary system with five known planets, including a hot super-Earth (55 Cnc e) extremely close to its star and a farther out giant planet (55 Cnc b), found in milder irradiation conditions with respect to other known hot Jupiters. This system raises important questions on the evolution of atmospheres for close-in exoplanets, and the dependence with planetary mass and irradiation. These questions can be addressed by Lyman-alpha transit observations of the extended hydrogen planetary atmospheres, complemented by contemporaneous measurements of the stellar X-ray flux. In fact, planet `e' has been detected in transit, suggesting the system is seen nearly edge-on. Yet, planet `b' has not been observed in transit so far. Here, we report on Hubble Space Telescope STIS Lyman-alpha and Chandra ACIS-S X-ray observations of 55 Cnc. These simultaneous observations cover two transits of 55 Cnc e and two inferior conjunctions of 55 Cnc b. They reveal the star as a bright Lyman-alpha t...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1509 - Rotor speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 29.1509 Section 29.1509....1509 Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1509 - Rotor speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 27.1509 Section 27.1509... Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...

  1. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  2. 14 CFR 25.1507 - Maneuvering speed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering speed. 25.1507 Section 25.1507....1507 Maneuvering speed. The maneuvering speed must be established so that it does not exceed the design maneuvering speed V A determined under § 25.335(c)....

  3. Exploring of Chinese High-speed Railways

    liuYoumei

    2004-01-01

    Based ion experiences of high-speed railways in foreign countries,the speed-raise situation of the Chinese railways,the research & development and test of high-speed transportation carries,as well as the prospective of high-speed railway in China are introduced.

  4. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  5. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  6. Survey of variable speed operation of wind turbines

    Carlson, Ola; Hylander, J.; Thorborg, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    During the last five years the production and operation of variable-speed wind turbines have advanced from a few experimental machines to a serial production of at least 10 MW of installed capacity of variable speed machines per week. The rated power of serial wind turbines is today around 600 kW and for the prototypes up to 3000 kW. Variable speed operation of wind turbines can be obtained with several different types of electrical generating systems, such as synchronous generators with diode rectifiers and thyristor inverters or induction generators with IGBT-converters, for the wide speed range. For the narrow speed range the wound motor induction generator with a rotor cascade or a controlled rotor resistance is preferable. The development of permanent magnetic material and the reduction of costs of the power electronic components have opened a possibility of designing cost-effective wind turbines with a directly driven generator. Pitch control together with variable speed will make it possible to limit the power variation within a few percent, 2 to 5 %, of the rated power. 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Signaling cascades modulate the speed of signal propagation through space.

    Christopher C Govern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells are not mixed bags of signaling molecules. As a consequence, signals must travel from their origin to distal locations. Much is understood about the purely diffusive propagation of signals through space. Many signals, however, propagate via signaling cascades. Here, we show that, depending on their kinetics, cascades speed up or slow down the propagation of signals through space, relative to pure diffusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled simple cascades operating under different limits of Michaelis-Menten kinetics using deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Cascades operating far from enzyme saturation speed up signal propagation; the second mobile species moves more quickly than the first through space, on average. The enhanced speed is due to more efficient serial activation of a downstream signaling module (by the signaling molecule immediately upstream in the cascade at points distal from the signaling origin, compared to locations closer to the source. Conversely, cascades operating under saturated kinetics, which exhibit zero-order ultrasensitivity, can slow down signals, ultimately localizing them to regions around the origin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Signal speed modulation may be a fundamental function of cascades, affecting the ability of signals to penetrate within a cell, to cross-react with other signals, and to activate distant targets. In particular, enhanced speeds provide a way to increase signal penetration into a cell without needing to flood the cell with large numbers of active signaling molecules; conversely, diminished speeds in zero-order ultrasensitive cascades facilitate strong, but localized, signaling.

  8. When real life wind speed exceeds design wind assumptions

    Winther-Jensen, M.; Joergensen, E.R. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Most modern wind turbines are designed according to a standard or a set of standards to withstand the design loads with a defined survival probability. Mainly the loads are given by the wind conditions on the site defining the `design wind speeds`, normally including extreme wind speeds given as an average and a peak value. The extreme wind speeds are normally (e.g. in the upcoming IEC standard for wind turbine safety) defined as having a 50-year recurrence period. But what happens when the 100 or 10,000 year wind situation hits a wind turbine? Results on wind turbines of wind speeds higher than the extreme design wind speeds are presented based on experiences especially from the State of Gujarat in India. A description of the normal approach of designing wind turbines in accordance with the standards in briefly given in this paper with special focus on limitations and built-in safety levels. Based on that, other possibilities than just accepting damages on wind turbines exposed for higher than design wind speeds are mentioned and discussed. The presentation does not intend to give the final answer to this problem but is meant as an input to further investigations and discussions. (au)

  9. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  10. Unconscious local motion alters global image speed.

    Sieu K Khuu

    Full Text Available Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed.

  11. Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motors with DTC Based on EKF

    Bijan Sheikhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide usage of induction motors in various industries and the limitation of applying speed sensors in some cases, sensorless drives have became very important and the challenge to increase the accuracy of estimation continues. This paper presents a novel method for sensorless speed control for IM's that not only improve the estimation and speed tracking in DTC but also eliminate the speed sensor in DTC. For this purpose all needed parameters for sensorless speed control such as stator flux, speed and load torque are estimated with the extended Kalman filter. In this method, noise due to system structure, voltage, and current sampling is eliminated in all the effective parameters. Simulation results show the increase in the precision of estimation and speed tracking.

  12. High-speed motion neutron radiography

    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames. Synchronization has provided high-speed motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycles of 7.62-mm munition rounds within a thick steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate its ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two-phase flow. The equipment includes a TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to a peak power of 3000 MW, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16-mm high-speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is about 4 X 1011 n/cm2 X s with a pulse, full-width at half-maximum, of 9 ms. Modulation transfer function techniques have been used to assist optimization of the system performance. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on information availability

  13. Upper limit of the electrocaloric peak in lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics

    Le Goupil, Florian; Alford, Neil McN.

    2016-06-01

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of two compositions (x = 0.06 and 0.07) of (1 - x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-xKNbO3 in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is studied by direct measurements. ΔTmax = 1.5 K is measured at 125 °C under 70 kV/cm for NBT-6KN while ΔTmax = 0.8 K is measured at 75 °C under 55 kV/cm for NBT-7KN. We show that the "shoulder," TS, in the dielectric permittivity, marks the upper limit of the ECE peak under high applied electric fields. These results imply that the range of temperature with high ECE can be quickly identified for a given composition, which will significantly speed up the process of materials selection for ECE cooling.

  14. Effect of Media Usage Selection on Social Mobilization Speed: Facebook vs E-Mail

    Jing Wang; Stuart Madnick; Xitong Li; Jeff Alstott; Chander Velu

    2015-01-01

    Social mobilization is a process that enlists a large number of people to achieve a goal within a limited time, especially through the use of social media. There is increasing interest in understanding the factors that affect the speed of social mobilization. Based on the Langley Knights competition data set, we analyzed the differences in mobilization speed between users of Facebook and e-mail. We include other factors that may influence mobilization speed (gender, age, timing, and homophily...

  15. Quantum speed problem: Theoretical hints for control

    Lisboa, Alexandre Coutinho; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2016-06-01

    The transition time between states plays an important role in designing quantum devices as they are very sensitive to environmental influences. Decoherence phenomenon is responsible for possible destructions of the entanglement that is a fundamental requirement to implement quantum information processing systems. If the time between states is minimized, the decoherence effects can be reduced, thus, it is advantageous to the designer to develop expressions for time performance measures. Quantum speed limit (QSL) problem has been studied from the theoretical point of view, providing general results. Considering the implementation of quantum control systems, as the decoherence phenomenon is unavoidable, it is important to apply these general results to particular cases, developing expressions and performance measures, to assist control engineering designers. Here, a minimum time performance measure is defined for quantum control problems, for time-independent or time-dependent Hamiltonians, and applied to some practical examples, providing hints that may be useful for researchers pursuing optimization strategies for quantum control systems.

  16. A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers' speeding behaviour.

    Chevalier, Anna; Coxon, Kristy; Rogers, Kris; Chevalier, Aran John; Wall, John; Brown, Julie; Clarke, Elizabeth; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    There is little objective evidence about the extent older drivers' are involved in speeding or factors that may influence this behaviour. Particular concern exists for the increasing number of older drivers with poor or declining cognitive and visual function. This study investigates whether a reduction in speeding forms part of the self-restrictive driving behaviour evident when older drivers experience poor cognitive and visual function. Driving data over 12 months were collected from 182 volunteers aged 75-94years. Driving speed was estimated using Global Positioning System location, and speed limit data was based on a service-provider database. Speed events were defined as driving 1km/h or more, with 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30s. Almost all participants (99%) were involved in speed events. While, 16-31% of participants experienced a meaningful decline in cognitive or visual function during the 12-months, these declines were not predictive of a change in speed events. Our results indicate speeding behaviour in this age group was highly prevalent, but less so for the oldest drivers whereby the rate of speed events was 7% lower per year older (IRR=0.93, 95%CI=0.89-0.96). Older drivers with worse function were less involved in speed events (unadjusted for distance driven) during 12 months of observation. Weekly distance driven decreased over the year by approximately 0.45km with every week of monitoring for these older drivers. When distance driven was taken into account, decreased function was not predictive of involvement in speed events, indicating the reduction in speed events may be achieved by older drivers with lower function reducing distance driven. These results are important for developing policy to address speeding behaviour of the growing population of older drivers to reduce the incidence of crashes and resulting casualties. PMID:27163701

  17. Ultrasonic metal sheet thickness measurement without prior wave speed calibration

    Conventional ultrasonic mensuration of sample thickness from one side only requires the bulk wave reverberation time and a calibration speed. This speed changes with temperature, stress, and microstructure, limiting thickness measurement accuracy. Often, only one side of a sample is accessible, making in situ calibration impossible. Non-contact ultrasound can generate multiple shear horizontal guided wave modes on one side of a metal plate. Measuring propagation times of each mode at different transducer separations, allows sheet thickness to be calculated to better than 1% accuracy for sheets of at least 1.5 mm thickness, without any calibration. (paper)

  18. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  19. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception

    Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roland Baddeley; Palmer, Chloe E.; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2011-01-01

    Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called “dazzle camouflage”. Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks ...

  20. Detection of an atmosphere around the super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Tsiaras, A; Waldmann, I P; Venot, O; Varley, R; Morello, G; Tinetti, G; Barton, E J; Yurchenko, S N; Tennyson, J

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of extrasolar planets, super-Earths belonged in the realm of science fiction. However, they appear to constitute the most common planetary type in our galaxy. We know very little about these planets beyond very basic planetary and orbital parameters. The WFC3 camera onboard the HST has enabled the spectroscopic observations of the atmospheres of two super-Earths, GJ1214b and HD97658b, with unprecedented precision; but the published spectra of these two objects are featureless, suggesting an atmosphere covered by thick clouds or made of molecular species much heavier than hydrogen. We report here the analysis of the observations performed with the WFC3 of a third, very hot, super-Earth, 55 Cancri e. Given the brightness of 55 Cancri, the observations were obtained in scanning mode, adopting a very long scanning length and a very high scanning speed. These observational parameters are coupled with the geometrical distortions of the instrument, so we have developed a specialized pipeline to ...

  1. Waste profiling of newly generated transuranic waste at TA-55

    Goyal, K. K.; Punjak, W. A. (Wayne A.); Montoya, A. J. (Andrew J.)

    2004-01-01

    For many years, segregation of transuranic (TRU) waste at Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was based on the TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Content Code (TRUCON Code)-dependent matrices, hazardous constituents, the nonhazardous nature of waste, nondestructive assay requirements, and other factors. This approach required well over a hundred active waste profiles for waste acceptance at the onsite treatment storage and disposal facility. Over the past few years, the profiling approach has evolved in an effort to make the waste disposition process more efficient. Based on interpretation of various requirements, TA-55 is further simplifying its waste management operations and plans to eventually have only a few tens of waste profiles to expedite the review and approval of drum data packages. Nondefense, or homogeneous, cemented, or vitrified wastes are excluded from discussion in this paper.

  2. Effects of Animation's Speed of Presentation on Perceptual Processing and Learning

    Meyer, Katja; Rasch, Thorsten; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Animations presented at different speed are assumed to differentially interact with learners' perception and cognition due to the constraints imposed by learners' limited sensitivity to incoming dynamic information. To investigate the effects of high and low presentation speed of animation, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, participants were…

  3. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  4. Performance characteristics of a small-capacity directly cooled refrigerator using R290/R600a (55/45)

    Lee, Moo-Yeon; Kim, Yongchan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea); Lee, Dong-Yeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea)

    2008-06-15

    In this study, the performance of a small-capacity directly cooled refrigerator was evaluated by using the mixture of R290 and R600a with mass fraction of 55:45 as an alternative to R134a. The compressor displacement volume of the alternative system with R290/R600a (55/45) was modified from that of the original system with R134a to match the refrigeration capacity. Both systems with R290/R600a (55/45) and R134a were tested, and then optimized by varying the refrigerant charge and capillary tube length under experimental conditions for both the pull-down test and the power consumption test. The refrigerant charge of the optimized R290/R600a system was approximately 50% of that of the optimized R134a system. The capillary tube lengths for each evaporator in the optimized R290/R600a system were 500 mm longer than those in the optimized R134a system. The power consumption of the optimized R134a system was 12.3% higher than that of the optimized R290/R600a system. The cooling speed of the optimized R290/R600a (55/45) system at the in-case setting temperature of -15{sup o}C was improved by 28.8% over that of the optimized R134a system. (author)

  5. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.

    1982-06-01

    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  6. Atmospheric Corrosion of Painted Galvanized and 55%Al-Zn Steel Sheets: Results of 12 Years of Exposure

    C. I. Elsner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc or 55%Al-Zn alloy-coated steel sheets, either bare or covered by different painting systems, have been exposed for 12 years to the action of the urban atmosphere at the CIDEPINT station located in La Plata (34° 50′ South, 57° 53′, West, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples exposed surface was evaluated through periodical visual inspections, standardized adhesion tests, and electrochemical impedance measurements. The ambient variables monitored were average annual rains and temperatures, time of wetness, sulphur and chloride concentration, relative humidity, and speed and direction of the winds. It was found that in this atmosphere, the corrosion resistance of the bare 55% Al-Zn/steel sheets was higher than of the galvanized steel, and the polyurethane painting system was more protective than the alkyd and epoxy ones, which degraded after 6-7 years of exposure.

  7. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  8. Gallium arsenide 55Fe X-ray-photovoltaic battery

    Butera, S.; Lioliou, G; Barnett, A M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature on the key parameters of a prototype GaAs 55Fe radioisotope X-ray microbattery were studied over the temperature range -20 °C to 70 °C. A p-i-n GaAs structure was used to collect the photons from a 254 Bq 55Fe radioisotope X-ray source. Experimental results showed that the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current decreased with increased temperature. The maximum output power and the conversion efficiency of the device decreased at higher temperatures. For ...

  9. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    Brown Kinloch, David [Shaker Landing Hydro Associates, Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  10. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.;

    2015-01-01

    Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...... minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and routing decisions will change because of this. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to be applied by ship operators for determining sailing paths and speeds that minimize operating costs for a ship along a given sequence of ports. We perform...... a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...

  11. Reducing Photobleaching in STED Microscopy with Higher Scanning Speed

    Wu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Photobleaching is a major limitation of super-resolution STED microscopy. We show that the photobleaching rate in STED microscopy is slowed down by scanning with a higher linear speed, enabled by the large field of view in our custom-built resonant-scanning STED microscope. The effect of scanning speed on photobleaching is more remarkable at higher levels of depletion laser irradiance. With a depletion irradiance of 0.4 GW/cm$^2$ (time average), we were able to slow down the photobleaching of the Atto 647N dye by 80% with 8-fold faster scanning. Photobleaching is primarily caused by the depletion light acting upon the excited fluorophores. Experimental data qualitatively agree with a theoretical model. Our results encourage further increasing linear scanning speed for photobleaching reduction in STED microscopy.

  12. Deleuze and Epicurean Philosophy: Atomic Speed and Swerve Speed

    Michael James Bennett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs Gilles Deleuze’s interpretation of Epicurean atomism, and explicates his claim that it represents a problematic idea, similar to the idea exemplified in early, “barbaric” accounts of the differential calculus. Deleuzian problematic ideas are characterized by a mechanism through whose activity the components of the idea become determinate in relating reciprocally to one another, rather than in being determined exclusively in relation to an extrinsic paradigm or framework. In Epicurean atomism, as Deleuze reads it, such a mechanism of determination can be found in the famous atomic “swerve”. It is necessary to bear this interpretation of Epicurean atomism in mind when understanding Deleuze and Guattari’s promulgation of a new image of thought in What is Philosophy?, which has an explicitly Epicurean inspiration. The paper argues that this inspiration is particularly evident to the extent that Deleuze and Guattari identify the sub-representative feature that lies at the heart of their new image of thought with “chaos”, defined as “infinite speed”. I claim that infinite speed, this otherwise puzzling feature of What is Philosophy?, ought to be understood in the light of Deleuze’s interpretation of Epicurus. Moreover, the Epicurean distinctions between different speeds must be read together with Deleuze’s appropriation of the metaphysics of the ancient Stoics, who, although widely recognized as Deleuze’s Hellenistic counterparts, lack important theoretical resources that the Epicureans provide for Deleuze.

  13. Feasibility and efficacy of high-speed gait training with a voluntary driven exoskeleton robot for gait and balance dysfunction in patients with chronic stroke: nonrandomized pilot study with concurrent control.

    Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Shimizu, Issei; Hiroi, Yasuhiro; Kawaki, Masahiro; Sato, Daichi; Nagasawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of high-speed gait training with an exoskeleton robot hybrid assistive limb (HAL) in patients with chronic stroke, and to examine the efficacy of eight sessions (8 weeks) of gait training with a HAL compared with conventional physical therapy. Eighteen patients with chronic stroke were included in this study (nine each in the HAL and control groups). The HAL group underwent high-speed gait training with the HAL once a week for 8 weeks (20 min/session). The control group underwent conventional physical therapy for gait disturbance. Outcome measures were walking speed, number of steps, and cadence during a 10 m walking test, a timed up and go test, a functional reach test, and the Berg Balance Scale. Assessments were performed in the absence of the HAL before training and after the fourth and eighth training sessions. All patients in the HAL group completed the high-speed gait training without adverse events. The HAL group improved significantly in walking speed (55.9% increase, P<0.001), number of steps (17.6% decrease, P<0.01), and cadence (32.8% increase, P<0.001) during the 10 m walking test. The patients also exhibited significant improvements in the timed up and go test, the functional reach test, and the Berg Balance Scale after HAL training (P<0.01 in all). No statistical time-dependent changes were observed in any parameter in the control group. For chronic stroke patients, high-speed gait training with a HAL appears to be feasible and effective in improving gait and balance dysfunction despite the limitations of this nonrandomized pilot study. PMID:26288120

  14. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    2010-10-01

    ...) regulated as CMRS (see 47 CFR 20.9) shall have an attributable interest in a total of more than 55 MHz of... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No...

  15. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    T. Haga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and recycled 6061 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. Casted strips were about 3 mmthick. As cast strip could be cold-rolled down to sheet of 1 mm thick. 180 degrees bending test was operated on thesheet after T4 heat treatment and crack was not worse than 6022 which is typical aluminum alloy for sheet of theautomobile. This result means the roll cast 6061 can be used as a sheet for body of the automobile instead of 6022.Research limitations/implications: Research limitation is that the width of the strip was 100 mm andinvestigation of the properties were enough for practical use. Wider strip must be cast using the twin roll caster ofthe size for production.Originality/value: The economy sheet of the 6061 for the auto mobile can be produced by the high speed twinroll caster. 6061 is typical wrought aluminum alloy of 6000 series. Therefore, the sheet of 6061 will becomeeconomy. 6061 can be recycled at two times when the 6061 is cast into strip by the high speed roll casting.

  16. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive for the...... bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  17. High speed twin roll caste for aluminum alloy thin strip

    T. Haga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed twin roll caster for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The effects of the high-speed twin roll caster on alleviating the deterioration of mechanical properties by impurities were investigated. Properties of the cast strip were investigated by metalography, a tension test, and a bending test.Findings: A vertical type twin roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloys was devised. The strip, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast at speeds higher than 60 m/min. Features of the twin roll casters are as below. Copper rolls were used and lubricant was not used in order to increase the casting speed. A casting nozzle was used to set the solidification length precisely. Heat transfer between melt and the roll was improved by hydrostatic pressure of the melt. Separating force was very small in order to prevent sticking of the strip to the roll. Low superheat casting was carried out in order to improve microstructure of the strip. In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed and high-cooling rate twin roll caster of the present study for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated. Fe was added as impurity to 6063 and A356. The roll caster of the present study was useful to decrease the influence of impurity of Fe.Research limitations/implications: A high-speed twin roll caster of vertical type was designed and assembled to cast aluminum alloy thin strip.Originality/value: The results demonstrate that the high-speed twin roll caster can improve the deterioration by impurities.

  18. Length and activation dependent variations in muscle shear wave speed

    Muscle stiffness is known to vary as a result of a variety of disease states, yet current clinical methods for quantifying muscle stiffness have limitations including cost and availability. We investigated the capability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to measure variations in gastrocnemius shear wave speed induced via active contraction and passive stretch. Ten healthy young adults were tested. Shear wave speeds were measured using a SWE transducer positioned over the medial gastrocnemius at ankle angles ranging from maximum dorsiflexion to maximum plantarflexion. Shear wave speeds were also measured during voluntary plantarflexor contractions at a fixed ankle angle. Average shear wave speed increased significantly from 2.6 to 5.6 m s–1 with passive dorsiflexion and the knee in an extended posture, but did not vary with dorsiflexion when the gastrocnemius was shortened in a flexed knee posture. During active contractions, shear wave speed monotonically varied with the net ankle moment generated, reaching 8.3 m s–1 in the maximally contracted condition. There was a linear correlation between shear wave speed and net ankle moment in both the active and passive conditions; however, the slope of this linear relationship was significantly steeper for the data collected during passive loading conditions. The results show that SWE is a promising approach for quantitatively assessing changes in mechanical muscle loading. However, the differential effect of active and passive loading on shear wave speed makes it important to carefully consider the relevant loading conditions in which to use SWE to characterize in vivo muscle properties. (paper)

  19. 49 CFR 1242.77 - Administration (account XX-55-01).

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration (account XX-55-01). 1242.77 Section...-Transportation § 1242.77 Administration (account XX-55-01). Separate common expenses in the same proportion as... systems operations and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76, XX-55-77 and XX-55-78)....

  20. 24 CFR 55.21 - Notification of floodplain hazard.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 58 of the hazards of the floodplain location before the execution of documents completing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of floodplain hazard... § 55.21 Notification of floodplain hazard. For HUD programs under which a financial transaction for...