WorldWideScience

Sample records for 51st cold spring

  1. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  2. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  3. Radon concentrations in Neitaping cold spring

    Neitaping cold spring is one of the recreation attractions in the northwestern part of Taiwan. It is located in Peipu Village of Hsinchu County about one-hour drive from the National Tsing Hua University. In summer time many tourists enjoy swimming in a small pool specially constructed for recreation purpose. There are several water sources situated in different places around the pool. The cold water flows into a creek called Shangping. All samples were taken from the sources, pool, and along the creek for a period starting in December 1996 and finished sampling in July 1997. During the eight-month monitoring period, electret ion chambers (EICs) have extensively been used. (author)

  4. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  5. The finishing problem of stress on pipe with cold spring and hanger spring

    The Fluid temperature influence stream in piping from pump nozzle to tank nozzle will cause expansion or contraction. This condition will pull or press to the nozzle. The consequences of piping displacement, so will rise return force to piping. Because of that must calculated the displacement using Caesar 11.4.program so that force of rising can support by piping without fracture and break. From calculation, resulted displacement Dy = -30,224 mm, Restraint summary Fy = 75,851 kg and Stress = 5.026,9 kg/cm2 and then It done to cut of Dy with Cold Spring method, and so Running on Caesar 11.4 program, resulted that It not different with the first data namely that is Dy = -30,038 mm, Restraint Summary Fy = 75.562 kg dan stress = 5.006,7 kg/cm2. Because of data still stress on Piping Installation indicated by value of Restraint summary and stress were height. And then It has taken solution by consideration that pipe of ∅30 very rigid, namely to lose The support and change with the spring hanger, so program of Caesar II.4 has run and result of support displacement is 45,588 mm, Restraint summary Fy = -1.823 kg dan Stress 2.1178 kg/cm2 with allowable stress 2.121,1 kg/cm2. It see result of calculate with spring hanger, in fact The stress more little than allowable stress, so that this condition is safety to install. (author)

  6. Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions measured by neutron diffraction

    Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions were determined at several manufacturing stages using neutron diffraction. These results indicate that the residual stresses in the as-coiled springs are nearly uniaxial with peak values of ±900 MPa and independent of coil position. A factory stress-relieved spring showed the same pattern of stresses, but with the peak values reduced to ∼±200 MPa. Residual stresses in a spring annealed in a laboratory furnace at 56 K over the normal factory annealing temperature were ∼35% lower. The effect of cutting the springs either by electric discharge machining (EDM) or by abusive grinding was also examined. From these data, the smallest spring segment that can yield reliable stress data was determined

  7. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  8. Cold-induced accumulation of protein in the leaves of spring and winter barley cultivars.

    Karimzadeh, G; Darvishzadeh, R; Jalali-Javaran, M; Dehghani, H

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoretic pattern and quantitative changes in soluble proteins were determined in the leaves of spring and winter cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Makouei and cv. Reyhan, respectively) exposed to 4 degrees C for 14 d. Seedlings were grown in a controlled growth chamber for 2 weeks at a constant air temperature of 20 degrees C and then transferred to constant 4 degrees C for 14 d followed by returning to 20 degrees C (cold treatment), or they were maintained throughout at 20 degrees C during the experimental period of 40 d (control treatment). Plants were sampled every 48 h for leaf fresh weight measurements. Total leaf soluble proteins were extracted and their concentration was either determined by a colorimetric method, or size-fractionated on SDS-PAGE. Low temperature-induced increases in protein amount occurred over the second week of exposure to cold treatment irrespective of cultivar: the winter cultivar was 2 d prior in this response. The protein patterns and their density showed differences between-cultivars and between-temperature treatments. A new cold-induced polypeptide was recognized in the leaves of winter barley cultivar on day 22 (8 d at 4 degrees C) compared to the control. This polypeptide was produced earlier over the first 48 h of low temperature in the winter cultivar compared with the spring one, recognizing in the leaves of cold-treated seedling until day 26. This more rapid response to a low temperature by the winter barley cultivar indicates a more sensitive response compared with the spring barley, probably cold-shock protein is a component of this cold-induced response. PMID:15813217

  9. Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Microbial Populations in Cold Perennial Springs of the High Arctic ▿ †

    Perreault, Nancy N.; Greer, Charles W.; Andersen, Dale T.; Tille, Stefanie; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Whyte, Lyle G.

    2008-01-01

    The saline springs of Gypsum Hill in the Canadian high Arctic are a rare example of cold springs originating from deep groundwater and rising to the surface through thick permafrost. The heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (up to 40% of the total microbial community) isolated from the spring waters and sediments were classified into four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) based on 16S rRNA gene analysis; heterotrophic isolates were primarily psychrotolerant, salt-tolerant, facultative anaerobes. Some of the isolates contained genes for thiosulfate oxidation (soxB) and anoxygenic photosynthesis (pufM), possibly enabling the strains to better compete in these sulfur-rich environments subject to long periods of illumination in the Arctic summer. Although leucine uptake by the spring water microbial community was low, CO2 uptake was relatively high under dark incubation, reinforcing the idea that primary production by chemoautotrophs is an important process in the springs. The small amounts of hydrocarbons in gases exsolving from the springs (0.38 to 0.51% CH4) were compositionally and isotopically consistent with microbial methanogenesis and possible methanotrophy. Anaerobic heterotrophic sulfur oxidation and aerobic autotrophic sulfur oxidation activities were demonstrated in sediment slurries. Overall, our results describe an active microbial community capable of sustainability in an extreme environment that experiences prolonged periods of continuous light or darkness, low temperatures, and moderate salinity, where life seems to rely on chemolithoautotrophy. PMID:18805995

  10. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume XLVII, Part 1. Structures of DNA

    The proceedings for the 47th Annual Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology are presented. This symposium focused on the Structure of DNA. Topics presented covered research in the handedness of DNA, conformational analysis, chemically modified DNA, chemical synthesis of DNA, DNA-protein interactions, DNA within nucleosomes, DNA methylation, DNA replication, gyrases and topoisomerases, recombining and mutating DNA, transcription of DNA and its regulation, the organization of genes along DNA, repetitive DNA and pseudogenes, and origins of replication, centromeres, and teleomeres

  11. Ornithological studies of the Cold Northcott Wind Farm in the spring/summer 1994

    Results of ornithological studies carried out at Cold Northcott Wind Farm in North Cornwall during 1994 are presented. Flight patterns of species using the area were studied as were breeding patterns and bird mortality due to collisions with wind turbines. No significant effect on the spring and summer bird communities was observed. Long-term influences on the birds seem, rather, to stem from large scale population changes and local agricultural practice. Wind strength was shown to affect flight patterns in some species, but turbine operation seems unrelated. Death by collision with wind turbines is shown to be very rare. (UK)

  12. Regional Science trends through the analysis of the main facts of the 51st ERSA Conference

    Vicente Royuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51st ERSA Conference held in Barcelona in 2011 was one of the largest ever. By examining the characteristics of the conference, this paper identifies the main trends in Regional Science and draws on a broad array of sources of information: the delegates’ demographic details, the conference program itself, a satisfaction survey conducted among delegates, a quality survey addressed to those chairing the sessions and, finally, a bibliometric database including each author signing a paper presented at the conference. We finally run a regression analysis from which we show that for ERSA delegates what matters most is quality, and this must be the direction that future conferences should move toward. Ultimately, ERSA conferences are comprehensive, all-embracing occasions, representing an ideal opportunity for regional scientists to present their work to each other and to network.

  13. "A Cold Spring Harbor in Europe." EURATOM, UNESCO and the Foundation of EMBO.

    Cassata, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the problem of the foundation of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), by reconstructing a broader institutional framework, which includes other international actors--EURATOM, UNESCO and the International Laboratory of Genetics and Biophysics (ILGB) in Naples--and a relevant, but still neglected figure, the Italian geneticist Adriano Buzzati-Traverso (1913-1983). The article considers the tension between centralized and federal models of organization in the field of life sciences not just as an EMBO internal controversy, but rather as a structural issue of European scientific cooperation in fundamental biology in the early 1960s. Along with EMBO, the article analyzes in particular the EURATOM Biology Division Program and the constitution of UNESCO International Cell Research Organization (ICRO). Adriano Buzzati-Traverso, as founder of ILGB and scientific consultant of EURATOM and UNESCO, played a crucial role in the complex negotiation which ultimately led to the foundation of EMBO. A synchronic treatment of ILGB, EURATOM, UNESCO-ICRO and EMBO opens a window on the early 1960s institutional configuration of molecular biology in Europe, showing how it basically incorporated the "Cold Spring Harbor" decentralized model rather than reproducing the "CERN" centralized model. PMID:25931208

  14. Complex phytohormone responses during the cold acclimation of two wheat cultivars differing in cold tolerance, winter Samanta and spring Sandra

    Kosová, K.; Prášil, I.T.; Vítámvás, P.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Turečková, Veronika; Rolčík, Jakub; Pešek, Bedřich; Trávníčková, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Galiba, G.; Janda, T.; Vlasáková, E.; Prášilová, P.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 6 (2012), s. 567-576. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058; GA MŠk MEB040713; GA MŠk MEB040924 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold stress * Dehydrin * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  15. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  16. Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions measured by neutron diffraction

    Matějíček, Jiří; Brand, P. C.; Drews, A. R.; Krause, A.; Lowe-Ma, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1-2 (2004), s. 306-311. ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, automotive springs, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  17. Irradiation-enhanced creep of cold-worked Zr-2.5Nb tubes and helical-springs

    The anisotropy of irradiation-enhanced creep of cold-worked Zr-2.5Nb at 548-563 K has been investigated using internally-pressurized capsules and axially loaded helical-springs. The test specimens were machined from small diameter extruded and cold-worked tubing which had crystallographic texture and microstructure similar to that of CANDU power reactor pressure tubes. The biaxial creep capsules and the helical-springs were irradiated for 9525 and 16 670 hours, respectively, in a fast neutron flux of about 1.4 x 1017 n.m-2.s-1 (E > 1 MeV). It was found that the creep strain rate in shear increased linearly with shear stress at 548 K for shear stresses between 20 and 68 MPa. The creep compliance in shear is 3.1 x 10-9 MPa-1.h-1. The axial and transverse strains of the internally pressurized capsules showed a linear dependence on hoop stress in the range between -25 and 175 MPa. The biaxial tests appeared to be reaching the end of primary creep and the ratio of the axial creep strain to the transverse creep strain tended towards a value of about 0.45. The measured axial and transverse creep compliances under biaxial loading were approximately 1.9 x 10-10 and 4.3 x 10-10 MPa-1.h-1 at 563 K. The results have been analysed, and reported elsewhere, using a polycrystalline creep model which accounts for the effects of texture using self-consistent calculation of the effect of intergranular constraints. It was found that the creep anisotropy depends on the anisotropy of the dislocation structure and the grain size and shape as well as the crystallographic texture. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs

  18. Proteome Analysis of Cold Response in Spring and Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Crowns Reveals Similarities in Stress Adaptation and Differences in Regulatory Processes between the Growth Habits

    Kosová, K.; Vítámvás, P.; Planchon, S.; Renaut, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Prášil, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 4830-4845. ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 2D-DIGE analysis * cold stress * spring and winter growth habit Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  19. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase in Biofilms and Germinating Spores of Mucor hiemalis Strain EH5 from Cold Sulfidic Spring Waters▿

    Hoque, Enamul; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Fritscher, Johannes; Wolf, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and activation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the GST activities in biofilms in cold sulfidic spring waters were compared to the occurrence and activation of GST and the GST activities of the aquatic fungal strains EH5 and EH7 of Mucor hiemalis isolated for the first time from such waters. Using fluorescently labeled polyclonal anti-GST antibodies and GST activity measurements, we demonstrated that a high level of GST occurred in situ in natural biofilms and pure cultur...

  20. Study of the genetics of progeny, brothers and sisters of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday from lung cancer. Final report

    The project was aimed to reconstruct the genotype of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday due to lung cancer using genetic data from their children, brothers and sisters, in order to study the individual radiation sensitivity of the person and to develop a bio-sample data base. The final report includes the description of planning and realization of the project, investigation strategies, development and organization of a phenotype and bio-sample data base, preparation of data storage and genotype evaluation.

  1. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring

    Whitehouse, Michael J.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Julia Mackenzie; Shelley A Hinsley

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England – mi...

  2. The transformation of frequency distributions of winter precipitation to spring streamflow probabilities in cold regions; case studies from the Canadian Prairies

    Shook, Kevin; Pomeroy, John; van der Kamp, Garth

    2015-02-01

    Hydrological processes alter the states and/or locations of water, and so they can be regarded as being transformations of the properties of the time series of input variables to those of output variables, such as the transformation of precipitation to streamflow. Semi-arid cold regions such as the Canadian Prairies have extremely low annual streamflow efficiencies because of high infiltration rates, large surface water storage capacities, high evaporation rates and strong climate seasonality. As a result snowfall produces the majority of streamflow. It is demonstrated that the probability distributions of Prairie spring streamflows are controlled by three frequency transformations. The first is the transformation of snowfall by wind redistribution and ablation over the winter to form the spring snowpack. The second transformation is the melt of the spring snowpack to produce runoff over frozen agricultural soils. The third is the transformation of runoff to streamflow by the filling and spilling of depressional storage by connecting fields, ponds, wetlands and lakes. Each transformation of the PDF of the input variable to that of the output variable is demonstrated at a number of locations in the Canadian Prairies and is explained in terms of the hydrological processes causing the transformation. The resulting distributions are highly modified from that of precipitation, and the modification depends on which processes dominate streamflow formation in each basin. The results demonstrate the need to consider the effect of the interplay among hydrological processes, climate and basin characteristics in transforming precipitation frequency distributions into those of streamflow for the design of infrastructure and for water management.

  3. Unexpected finding of the invasive Baikalian amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus in a cold spring of the southern Pamir Mountains

    Sidorov D.A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specimen of the Baikalian micruropodid amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus was recently found in a spring brook in the Shugnansky District, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of Tajikistan. This occurrence represents the first record confirmed with mt-cox1 sequence data for this species from the Pamir Mountains. Reliable information on the introduction of Gm. fasciatus and the pattern of its distribution in the region is not yet available, but we hypothesise that the species was introduced intentionally to increase the fish productivity of Yashilkul Lake in 1973−1974. This finding of probably an isolated population shifts the southernmost limit of the species range approximately 1400 km from the Bukhtarminskoye reservoir, Eastern Kazakhstan. A general overview of the morphology, ecology, distribution and invasive history of the species is provided.

  4. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Whitehouse, Michael J; Harrison, Nancy M; Mackenzie, Julia; Hinsley, Shelley A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature) and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland. PMID:24058694

  5. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  6. Innovative control and signalling systems for local rail operations. Report on the 51st VDEI Railway Technology Conference; Innovative Leit- und Sicherungstechnik im Nahverkehr. Bericht von der 51. Eisenbahntechnischen Fachtagung des VDEI im Rahmen der CeBIT 2006

    Unkelbach, W.

    2006-07-01

    The Association of German Railway Engineers (VDEI) held its 51st Railway Technology Conference at the traditional venue of the CeBIT trade fair in Hanover. The theme of this year's conference was 'Engineers as standard setters - Innovation in control and signalling systems for regional and non-state-owned railways'. Thus the present report on the conference also includes a look back over the world's leading fair for the ICT industry, held under the motto 'Join the vision'. (orig.)

  7. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON COLD HARDINESS AND SPRING BUD BURST AND GROWTH IN DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII)

    We examined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on cold hardiness and bud burst of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Two-year-old seedlings were grown for 2.5 years in semi-closed, sunlit chambers at either ambient or elevated (ambient+apprxeq 4deg...

  8. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  9. Framework Spring

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  10. Comparison of spring-time phytoplankton community composition in two cold years from the western Gulf of Alaska into the southeastern Bering Sea

    Stauffer, Beth A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; McKee, Kali T.; do Rosario Gomes, Helga; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea is a highly productive ecosystem providing the main oceanographic connection between the North Pacific and Arctic oceans. The atmospheric connection with the Arctic Ocean leads to seasonal sea ice formation in the Bering Sea, the areal extent and timing of retreat of which have important implications for primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition in this region. Hydrographic data from cruises and satellite sea ice and sea surface temperature data in spring 2011 and 2012 suggest classification of these years as relatively warmer and colder years, respectively. Locations in the western Gulf of Alaska (Pavlof Bay), at the north end of an eastern pass through the Aleutian Islands (Unimak Pass), and on the continental shelf of the Bering Sea (M2) were visited in both years. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in 2012, while the water column was comparatively well-mixed at other locations in both years. Phytoplankton biomass was highest in 2011 overall and specifically on the shelf in both years, while minimal biomass was measured within the well-mixed Unimak Pass in 2012. Surface phytoplankton size distributions included substantial contributions of picoplankton (<3 μm) in 2011 (21-35%), while micro- (20-200 μm) and nanoplankton (3-20 μm) comprised 79% and 95% of biomass in Pavlof Bay and at M2, respectively, in 2012. Analyses of similarity revealed spatial variability in the phytoplankton assemblages within each year (2011: R=0.588, p<0.004; 2012: R=0.646, p<0.004). Additionally, between-year variability had a strong and significant effect on differences between assemblages across all locations (R=0.579, p<0.0003), likely masking differences between sites when years were grouped (R=0.134, p<0.079). These differences were likely driven by the dominance (up to 75% in Unimak Pass) of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis sp. at all sites in 2011, resulting in reduced community diversity, compared to more widespread abundance of

  11. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  12. Study on Cold Resistance during Maize Seed Germination in Spring-sowing Early Maturing Area%春播早熟区玉米种子发芽期抗寒性的研究

    郭庆瑞; 郭凤琴; 殷建军; 张小娟

    2013-01-01

    In order to study low-temperature treatment’s effect on the cold resistance of corn seeds during the germination period, 8 different corn breeds suited to be sown in early-maturing region were sown in spring, such as Bing Dan 6, Bing Dan16, Tong Yu158, Tong Yu162, Tong Dan 36, Chang Cheng799, Tong Yu 229, Tong Dan 38 as materials, the study of their germination rate, germination potential, seedling height, seedling health, and other germination characteristics being contrasted under the different temperatures of 8℃, 10℃, 15℃, 20℃ , 25℃ separately. The results demonstrate that germination rate and germination potential decrease as the temperature decreases when the temperature is between 8 - 25 ℃; there are differences among the 8 corn breeds: the cold resistance of Tong Yu 158, Bing Dan 6 and Tong Yu 162 is stronger; low-temperature treatment under 8℃is good for enhancing the germination uniformity, cold resistance and seedling strength.%为了研究低温处理对玉米种子萌发期间抗寒性影响,试验以适宜春播早熟区种植的8个玉米品种并单6号、并单16号、同玉158号、同玉162号、同单36号、长城799号、同玉229号、同单38号为材料,在8℃、10℃、15℃、20℃、25℃温度条件下对其发芽率、发芽势、苗高、苗色等特性进行了比较研究。结果表明:在8~25℃条件下发芽率、发芽势随温度的降低而降低;8个品种间存在差异,其中同玉158、并单6号和同玉162这3个品种的抗寒性强;8℃的低温处理有利于提高玉米种子的出苗整齐度、抗寒性和壮苗。

  13. Just Spring

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  14. Beginning Spring

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  15. Cold Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  16. Common Cold

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  17. Study of the genetics of progeny, brothers and sisters of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday from lung cancer. Final report; Studie der Genetik bei Nachkommen und Geschwistern von Wismut-Mitarbeitern, die vor dem 51. Lebensjahr an Lungenkrebs verstorben sind. Schlussbericht

    Wichmann, H. Erich [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie

    2012-02-15

    The project was aimed to reconstruct the genotype of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday due to lung cancer using genetic data from their children, brothers and sisters, in order to study the individual radiation sensitivity of the person and to develop a bio-sample data base. The final report includes the description of planning and realization of the project, investigation strategies, development and organization of a phenotype and bio-sample data base, preparation of data storage and genotype evaluation.

  18. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  19. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  20. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  1. 春天%Spring

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  2. Common cold

    ... infections in children, even years after you stop breastfeeding. Drink plenty of fluids to help your immune system work properly. Eat yogurt that contains "active cultures." These may help prevent colds. Probiotics may help ...

  3. Cold turkey

    Coombes, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Highly popular cold remedies could be banned from sale because of their link to a dangerous drug epidemic that has yet to surface in the UK. Rebecca Coombes asks whether the authorities are over-reacting

  4. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  5. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  6. Cold resistance and botanical characteristics of the hybrid prgeny between winter and spring turnip rapes (Brassica campestris L .)%白菜型冬油菜和春油菜杂交后代抗寒性与植物学特性

    王丽萍; 杨宁宁; 刘自刚; 方彦; 武军艳; 杨刚; 孙万仓; 张正丽; 王月; 董红业; 赵艳宁; 孔德晶; 鲁美宏

    2015-01-01

    This study had carried on the preliminary analysis and research on temperature sensitivity (winterness and springness ) ,botanical characteristics , and overwintering rates of filial generations for hybrids between winter type turnip rape (Brassica rapa ,Longyou7 and Longyou9 strong in cold hardiness ) and spring type turnip rape (Brassica ra-pa ,Parkland) .The results showed that all of the F1 generation from hybridization between Longyou7 ,Longyou9 and Parkland presented winterness ,which meant winterness was dominant .And the winterness and springness were separated in F2 and BC1 generations .The separation ratio within F2 generation was 4∶1 and the ratio within BC1 generation when Parkland was used as the recurrent parent was 1∶1 .When Longyou7 and Longyou9 were used as the recurrent parents , the separate ratio was 4∶1 .Additionally ,while wintering rates were used as the indexes of cold hardiness ,the results in-dicated that cold resistance of filial generations from Longyou7 and Parkland was stronger than that from Longyou9 and Parkland ,which was consistent with winterness of parents .The cold resistance strength for each generation was in the following order :BC1 with winternss as recurrent parents>F2>F1>BC1 with springnss as recurrent parents .Moreover , correlation and grey correlation analyses showed that overwintering rates were closely related with the main biological char-acteristics ,and the related degree was as the follows :heart leaves>growth habit>winter and spring sex> leaf color . The analysis results showed that the plant morphological characteristics had close relations with cold hardiness .Generally speaking ,seedlings with purple heart leaves ,light green or dark green leaves ,and prostrate or erect growth ,were likely to possess the large wintering rates and strong cold resistance .%对强抗寒性白菜型冬油菜陇油7号和陇油9号与优质白菜型春油菜品种Parkland杂交后代群体的感温性(冬春性)、植

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  8. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  9. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  10. Cold fusion

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4He, 3He, 3H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  11. Cold fusion

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  12. Coping with Cold Sores

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  13. Precipitation impacts on vegetation spring phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Cong, Nan; Zhang, Gengxin; Jassens, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The ongoing changes in vegetation spring phenology in temperate/cold regions are widely attributed to temperature. However, in arid/semiarid ecosystems, the correlation between spring temperature and phenology is much less clear. We test the hypothesis that precipitation plays an important role in the temperature dependency of phenology in arid/semiarid regions. We therefore investigated the influence of preseason precipitation on satellite-derived estimates of starting date of vege...

  14. Framework Spring MVC

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  15. Spring integration essentials

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  16. Pro Spring Integration

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  17. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  18. Mockito for Spring

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  19. Masters of the springs

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  20. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain

  1. Cold symptoms (image)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  2. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  3. Learning Spring application development

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  4. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  5. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888. ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  6. 51st International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Long-standing conference bringing together researchers and students from various fields of subatomic physics. The conference location is Bormio, a beautiful mountain resort in the Italian Alps. Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields.

  7. Cold energy

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime

  8. Cold energy

    Wallace, John P., E-mail: jpw@castinganalysis.com [Casting Analysis Corp., PO Box 52, Weyers Cave, VA 24486 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  9. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  10. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  11. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  12. GREENPATCH® - Cold Mix Asphalt

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    GreenPatch® is environmentally friendly cold asphalt that is a direct replacement for traditional cold patch in repairing asphalt pavements. This revolutionary breakthrough in the cold asphalt industry contains no petroleum based softeners such as diesel, toluene, kerosene, and naphthalene found in conventional cold asphalt that pose serious threats to human health and the environment.

  13. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  14. Walking with springs

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  15. Spring of women?

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  16. SpringInside

    Norman, David

    2009-01-01

    This Master Thesis is a product development project that has been carried out in cooperation with a Swedish company called Cleaver Ways. The purpose of the project has been to develop one of Cleaver Ways patents on a new kind of bag-in-box packaging, called SpringInside. The new with SpringInside is that the tap is located in the top of the box, which for example makes it possible to fill up a glass of wine even when the bag-in-box has been placed in the middle of a table. In the bottom of th...

  17. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  18. Pro Spring security

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  19. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from Indian PHWR

    Garter springs play an important role in maintaining the annulus gap between hot pressure tubes and cold calandria tubes of PHWRs. Post irradiation examination (PIE) was carried out on the garter springs removed from Indian PHWR after around 8 and 15 Hot Operating Years (HOY). PIE studies included visual examination, dimensional measurements, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. The girdle wires of these garter springs were also examined and subjected to the tension and bend tests. This paper gives the results of the PIE investigations and discusses its relevance for continued performance of garter springs in PHWRs

  20. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  1. Spring Festival Cauplets

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times,Chnese peoplecustomarily hung peach wood to warnagmnst evil on their gates on lunar NewYear’s Eve—a pair of rectangular peachwood tablets inscribed with statues ofgods,and later on with a poetic couplet.and that was the beginning of SpringFestival couplets(also called

  2. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  3. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  4. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  5. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  6. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  7. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  8. Cold Region Pavements%寒区路面

    GuyDore

    2002-01-01

    The article mainly discusses several essential problems of cold region pavement, including thermal cracking of asphalt concrete, cracking deterioration and heaving, frost heave, seasonal and long term roughness induced by different frost heave, frost heave cracking, bearing capacity loss during spring thaw. The reason for these problems is that cold region pavements are subjected to intense solicitation by climatic and environmental factors. The author offers several models corresponding to the solicitation. Furthermore in conclusion of the article the author indicates future research for cold region.

  9. Cold and Cough Medicines

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  10. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  11. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  12. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Cold Weather Pet Safety Client Handout Available for download ... in hot cars , but did you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to your pets’ ...

  13. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000557.htm Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in ...

  14. Cold knife cone biopsy

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  15. Cold and Cough Medicines

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  16. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  17. Cold-Weather Sports

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A Text Size ... the easiest sports around, snowshoeing can be excellent cold-weather cross-training for runners and cyclists — or ...

  18. Exercising in Cold Weather

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  19. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    Serna, Juan D

    2010-01-01

    Springs are used for any imaginable purpose and all sort of things in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of its most common uses is to study the real nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify the Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only a single spring is presented. The easy setup and accurate results makes this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  20. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  1. The Beijing Spring 1989

    Calhoun, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The climax of China's spring 1989 student protest movement is well known, at least outside of China. Troops acting to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters and enforce martial law succeeded in their charge, firing automatic assault weapons on unarmed citizens and sometimes wildly into neighboring buildings. People were crushed under the tracks of armored personnel carriers as they moved in to smash the statue of the "Goddess of Democracy" that had come almost overnight to symbolize the movemen...

  2. Magnetic Spring Device

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  3. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  4. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  5. How cold is cold dark matter?

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  6. Experiment at SPring-8

    Nakano, T; Ejiri, H; Fujiwara, M; Hotta, T; Matsuoka, N; Matsumura, T; Mibe, T; Nomachi, M; Toki, H; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Iwata, T; Miyachi, Y; Toyama, T; Wakai, A; Hicks, K; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, Y; Daté, S; Kumagai, N; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Imai, K; Yosoi, M; Ichikawa, A; Kishimoto, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sumihama, M; Makino, S; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon will be above 3 GeV, and the beam intensity will be 10 sup 7 photons/sec. Polarization of the photon beam will be 100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the outline of the quark nuclear physics project with this high-quality high-intensity beam.

  7. Fun with Automobile Springs

    Fritsch, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    Simple measurements on car suspension systems and their analysis can raise student interest in the elementary discussion of the behavior of springs in oscillating systems. To understand these complicated oscillating systems and to interpret measurements properly, models may be used. Students find out how to make approximations and extract useful information from marginal data using common sense, basic physics, and simple software tools. Basic experiments on a physical model of a car suspension and on a passenger car, as well as the analysis of the data, will be presented. In particular, a value of the bounce mode frequency of a car was obtained using several approaches.

  8. Magnetic Spring Device

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of spring sandstorms in 2000

    周秀骥; 徐祥德; 颜鹏; 翁永辉; 王建林

    2002-01-01

    Systematical analyses of spring sandstorms in 2000 affecting Beijing area are carried out. Results revealed the key dynamic mechanisms of dust storm during its mobilization, lifting, horizontal advection and deposition processes. It turns out that in the processes of sandstorms influencing Beijing area in March-April 2000, the dynamic conditions for dust mobilization are significantly correlated with phenomena, such as cold air-related climatic activities,clay soils area of North China and surface friction velocity anomaly. The characteristics of sandstorm can be described by composite mode of dust particles mobilization-lifting-long-range transport. This paper will provide scientific evidences for further studies,prediction and harness of sandstorms in China.

  10. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  11. Cold pool dissipation

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  12. A MULTIPOLAR COLD WAR

    GAGIK HARUTYUNYAN

    2007-01-01

    The present article draws parallels between existing political realities and the onesthat occurred during the Cold War in the second half of the 20th century. Similarto the previous one, the new Cold War is consistent with the logic of «the policy ofdeterrence» which nowadays is directed against the United States. «Cold War-1»reflected stiff competition between the two opposite ideological and geopoliticalprograms. Meanwhile, today we have several poles of power and, therefore, «ColdWar-2» is...

  13. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safeload of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

  14. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics of travertine springs and lakes, affecting the lives of lamellibranches (Ostracoda)

    Ostracods are very frequent fossils in the travertine, but we know little about their biodiversity, space distribution and ecological preferences in the extant travertine springs and lakes. To improve their application in Quaternary paleoecologic and paleoclimatic studies, we studied travertine springs and lakes of different physical characteristics (cold 25 grad C) and chemical composition (carbonate, sulfate, Fe) in Slovakia. Twenty-four ostracod species were observed in the travertine springs, lakes and their surroundings. Our findings provide interesting information on ostracods biodiversity in these environments. Connection between variables was evaluated by using the statistical program PCA analysis. Travertine habitats exhibit high variability in environmental parameters. (author)

  16. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of hot springs along the along the Neogene Malawi rift.

    Atekwana, E. A.; Tsokonombwe, G. W.; Elsenbeck, J.; Wanless, V. D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13CDIC), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) of hot springs along the Neogene Malawi rift. We compared the results with those of streams and a cold spring. We aimed to assess the hot springs for evidence of addition of mantle mass, specifically water and carbon and (2) determine the processes that control the chemical and isotopic evolution of the hot springs. Understanding the source(s) of heat for the springs and if the chemical and isotopic characteristics show evidence of mantle processes is an important goal of the Project for Rift Initiation, Development and Evolution (PRIDE). The temperature of the hot springs ranged from 35 to 80 ºC. High temperature anomalies are observed between latitudes 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 degrees south along the rift axis. The δD and δ18O for the cold spring, hot springs and streams had a similar range, were positively correlated and lie on the trend of the local meteoric water line. We suggest negligible contribution of water from a connate or magmatic source and limited oxygen exchange from water-rock interaction or CO2 exchange from deep sedimentary carbonates. The DIC concentrations of the hot springs are higher (5 to 61 mg C/L) than those of streams (2 to 28 mg C/L) indicating addition of carbon to the DIC pool during the circulation of some springs. The range in the δ13CDIC of the hot springs (-17 to -8‰) is broader and lower compared to streams (-12 to -5‰) due to addition of carbon with a δ13CDIC of -15‰ to the spring water during circulation. Our results indicate that (1) the source of water for the hot springs is meteoric, (2) the hot springs have not experienced extensive water-rock interaction due to fast circulation suggesting highly permeable fault zones, (3) the source of carbon in the DIC of the hot springs is mostly CO2(g) from the soil zone and (4) the springs are heated by normal

  17. Cold fusion research

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  18. Working in the Cold

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  19. Cold fusion stays elusive

    A short overview of papers presented at the 6. international conference on cold fusion which has taken place 13-18 Oct 1996 in Hokkaido (Japan) is given. The typical electrolysis cell used for cold fusion experiments is recalled and some new results are described, like a correlation of helium 4 production and heat excess. (C.B.)

  20. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  1. Facts about the Common Cold

    ... Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections of the nose and throat caused by ... other products such as echinacea, eucalyptus, garlic, honey, lemon, menthol, zinc and vitamin C have received a ...

  2. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    ... Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Snowstorms & Extreme Cold This page explains what actions to take when ... snowstorm or extreme cold. Before Snowstorms and Extreme Cold To prepare for a winter storm you should ...

  3. Preliminary Mineralogical and Geological Characterization of the Lost Hammer Perennial Spring, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut

    Battler, M.; Osinski, G. R.; Banerjee, N.; Izawa, M.

    2009-05-01

    Understanding past potential hydrological processes is fundamental in the search for past life on Mars. Despite the lack of liquid water on the Martian surface today, there is evidence of past upwelling and evaporation of groundwater [e.g., 1]. Cold, saline, perennial spring systems, in which water would have been able to flow to the Martian surface year round, may be of particular interest. Analogous systems on Earth are pertinent to better understand how they might have functioned, and possibly preserved biosignatures, on Mars. Several sets of cold saline springs have been documented in the region surrounding the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, NU; these represent the highest latitude perennial springs on Earth, flow through 600 m of permafrost, and are not associated with any volcanic heat sources. Primitive life thrives in these springs year round [2]. Here, first results of mineralogical analyses and geological field observations are presented for the Lost Hammer spring site. Spring deposits cover an area approximately 150 m x 30 m. The main vent is roughly 2.5 m tall and 3 m in diameter, and is covered in a layer several mm thick of a very fine, white, powdery mineral, overlying several cm of fine grey material. Preliminary XRD analysis has revealed the mineralogy of the white material to be thenardite (a dehydrated Na-sulphate; original mirabitite suspected) and halite, with trace amounts of quartz. The grey material is interpreted to be predominantly thenardite, mirabitite, and halite, with traces of other minerals. Hard white crusts on dried channel beds are thenardite and halite, and thicker crusts on pebbles are composed of halite and gypsum. Refs: [1] Allen, C.C, and Oehler, D.Z. 2008, A Case for Ancient Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars: Astrobiology, 8: 1093-1112. [2] Perreault, N.N. et al. 2007, Characterization of the Prokaryotic Diversity in Cold Saline Perennial Springs of the Canadian High Arctic: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73

  4. Spring comes for ATLAS

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  5. A bountiful spring harvest

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  6. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  7. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  8. Chilling Out with Colds

    ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... body already has the best cold cure — your immune system. The immune system defends your body against illness. ...

  9. A Cold Alarm

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  10. A Cold Alarm

    ZHOU JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  11. Febrile/cold agglutinins

    ... diagnose certain infections and find the cause of hemolytic anemia (a type of anemia that occurs when red ... or cold agglutinins can help explain why the hemolytic anemia is occurring and direct treatment.

  12. Cold nuclear fusion

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion be...

  13. LHC cold masses

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    In these pictures some 30 newly-arrived cold masses can be seen awaiting cryostating and subsequent intensive testing before they are installed in the LHC tunnel. Taken in September 2003, they mark the delivery of one-eighth of the total 1232 superconducting coils. These cold masses contain the cryogenics that allow the magnets to be cooled to 1.9 K (-271°C).

  14. The Damper Spring Unit of the Sentinel 1 Solar Array

    Doejaaren, Frans; Ellenbroek, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The Damper Spring Unit (DSU, see Figure 1) has been designed to provide the damping required to control the deployment speed of the spring driven solar array deployment in an ARA Mk3 or FRED based Solar Array in situations where the standard application of a damper at the root-hinge is not feasible. The unit consists of four major parts: a main bracket, an eddy current damper, a spring unit, an actuation pulley which is coupled via Kevlar cables to a synchro-pulley of a hinge. The damper slows down the deployment speed and prevents deployment shocks at deployment completion. The spring unit includes 4 springs which overcome the resistances of the damper and the specific DSU control cable loop. This means it can be added to any spring driven deployment system without major modifications of that system. Engineering models of the Sentinel 1 solar array wing have been built to identify the deployment behavior, and to help to determine the optimal pulley ratios of the solar array and to finalize the DSU design. During the functional tests, the behavior proved to be very sensitive for the alignment of the DSU. This was therefore monitored carefully during the qualification program, especially prior to the TV cold testing. During TV "Cold" testing the measured retarding torque exceeded the max. required value: 284 N-mm versus the required 247 N-mm. Although this requirement was not met, the torque balance analysis shows that the 284 N-mm can be accepted, because the spring unit can provide 1.5 times more torque than required. Some functional tests of the DSU have been performed without the eddy current damper attached. It provided input data for the ADAMS solar array wing model. Simulation of the Sentinel-1 deployment (including DSU) in ADAMS allowed the actual wing deployment tests to be limited in both complexity and number of tests. The DSU for the Sentinel-1 solar array was successfully qualified and the flight models are in production.

  15. Winter Habitat Preferences for Florida Manatees and Vulnerability to Cold

    Laist, David W.; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E.

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provi...

  16. Water treatment of spring Jama

    Stopar, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Spring Jama is one of the three springs that provides sufficient amount of potable water for consumers in water system Kostanjevica na Krki. Main problem with water is its permanent microbiological contamination and periodicaly high turbidity. This graduation thesis – university studies presents several methods to cope mentioned problems. It focuses on two methods, conventional – pressure filters and alternative – ultrafiltration. Both methods are designed for flow of 30 m3 /h. Before water e...

  17. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  18. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration. PMID:23434279

  19. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  20. "Cold training" affects rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure.

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Continuous exposure of homeothermic animals to low environmental temperatures elicits physiological adaptations necessary for animal survival, which are associated to higher generation of pro-oxidants in thermogenic tissues. It is not known whether intermittent cold exposure (cold training) is able to affect tissue responses to continuous cold exposure. Therefore, we investigated whether rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure of 2 days are modified by cold training (1h daily for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks). Continuous cold increased liver oxidative metabolism by increasing tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial aerobic capacity. Cold training did not affect such parameters, but attenuated or prevented the changes elicited by continuous cold exposure. Two-day cold exposure increased lipid hydroperoxide and protein-bound carbonyl levels in homogenates and mitochondria, whereas cold training decreased such effects although it decreased only homogenate protein damage in control rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX and GR and H2O2 production were increased by continuous cold exposure. Despite the increase in GPX and GR activities, livers from cold-exposed rats showed increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Such cold effects were decreased by cold training, which in control rats reduced only H2O2 production and susceptibility to stress. The changes of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression levels were consistent with those induced by cold exposure and cold training in mitochondrial protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms by which cold training attenuates the effects of the continuous cold exposure remain to be elucidated. PMID:26808664

  1. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  2. Cold nuclear fusion

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  3. Warmer springs, laying date and clutch size of tree sparrows Passer montanus in Croatia

    Z. DOLENEC; P. DOLENEC; A.P. MΦLER

    2011-01-01

    Global surface air temperatures increased during the past 100 years. Many long-term studies of birds have reported a climatic influence on breeding performance. We analysed long-term changes in first laying date and clutch size for first clutches of sedentary, hole-nesting and socially monogamous tree sparrows Passer montanus during 1980-2009 in northwestern Croatia. Laying date advanced and spring temperature increased significantly during the study. Date of laying was significantly correlated with mean air spring temperature and advanced by 8.6 days during the 30 years period. Laying date was delayed in extremely cold, but not in extremely warm springs compared to years with normal temperatures. These results suggest that current climate change including extreme change does not have negative effects on timing of laying or clutch size. In contrast to laying date, clutch size did not vary systematically during the study period or with mean spring air temperature changes.

  4. Cold regions isotope applications

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  5. Cold regions isotope applications

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  6. Commemoration of a cold war

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  7. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  8. Be Spring to All Things

    WANGKEPING

    2003-01-01

    ONE old saying that is particularly rooted in the Chinese consciousness is“Spring is the most meaningful season.” It has particular significance in rural regions,where spring is the time for plowing, and for planning the work for the coming year. In urban areas,peach and plum blossom and the fresh green shoots that clothe winter-denuded trees signify the time for outings and enjoyment of the warmer weather. One aspect of this season that adds greatly to the overall aesthetic is the sight of young girls, having finally put aside their warm winter wear,dressed in light colorful fabrics that display their maidenly charms to full effect. All in all, from the Chinese point of view, spring is a time of color, charm and cheer.

  9. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  10. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  11. Modeling of seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy

    YANG Tao; ZHENG Mao-yu; WANG Xiao; KONG Fan-hong

    2010-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption on summer air conditioning,a novel seasonal soil cold storage mode using natural energy is presented and two-dimensional transient heat transfer model of U-tube is developed.The three processes of cold storage in winter,shut-down in transition season and cold extraction in summer are simulated by using sensitive heat capacity method with variable time step.The changing of U-tube outlet water temperature in different periods,daily cold storage and cold extraction are estimated.The temperature field of the U-tube and soil around the tube is investigated.Simulations show that seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy is feasible in the north to Changchun,which provides theoretical support for seasonal soil cold storage application.

  12. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  13. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ... forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to concentrated cold wave lotion will cause much more damage than over-the-counter lotion.

  14. Out in the cold.

    Bates, Jane

    2016-05-01

    Every now and then, you say something to a patient and wonder whether you should have kept quiet. On this occasion, a female patient and I were indulging in a moment of shared empathy over an annoying symptom we both experience - permanently cold feet. PMID:27154099

  15. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  16. Cold-induced metabolism

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  17. Recent Cold War Studies

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  18. Cold spray nozzle design

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  19. Cold Lake profitability improvement

    For the past ten years, Imperial Oil Ltd. has been carrying out a world scale commercial project, using cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) to extract bitumen from the Cold Lake area. Because of the very heavy and viscous nature of Cold Lake bitumen, Imperial Oil has employed CSS as a means of in-situ enhanced recovery. Although this method has been very effective, production has been challenged by the cost of generating and treating steam. To comply with pipeline constraints, Cold Lake bitumen has had to be blended with a diluent. The blended product has been a desirable refinery feedstock, however, it sells for less that light sweet crude, clearly indicating the need for unit cost reduction. Since the start-up of operations nearly a decade ago cost reductions have been achieved in many areas, including production technology, water management, fuel efficiency, services and maintenance, people productivity, electricity costs, and chemical costs. The combined value of these reductions was claimed to be about one third of production costs, resulting in significantly improved competitive position and profitable development of the Cold Lake deposit. 5 figs

  20. Instant Spring for Android starter

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  1. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  2. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ∼130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (∼160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  4. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  5. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    ... help to prevent colds or relieve cold symptoms. Andrographis ( Andrographis paniculata ) Chinese herbal medicines Green tea Guided imagery ... measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms ...

  6. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  7. Imaging with cold neutrons

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  8. Imaging with cold neutrons

    Lehmann, E. H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-09-01

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 Å). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects—choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  9. Cold denaturation of encapsulated ubiquitin

    Pometun, Maxim S.; Peterson, Ronald W.; Babu, Charles R.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that protein cold denaturation can potentially provide a means to explore the cooperative substructure of proteins. Protein cold denaturation is generally predicted to occur well-below the freezing point of water. Here NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin encapsulated in reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity alkanes is used to follow cold-induced unfolding to temperatures below −25 °C. Comparison of cold-induced structural transitions in a variety of reverse ...

  10. Spring for It: First Novels

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  11. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  12. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  13. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  14. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  15. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  16. Engineering carpel-specific cold stress tolerance: a case study in Arabidopsis

    Freezing temperatures during winter generally do not injure floral buds of horticulturally important crops. Entry into dormancy coupled with cold acclimation provides adequate protection unless the temperatures are exceptionally low. This measure of protection is lost in spring when the floral bud...

  17. WISPy cold dark matter

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  18. Progress with cold antihydrogen

    The creation of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations, working at CERN's unique Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility, has ushered in a new era in atomic physics. This contribution will briefly review recent results from the ATHENA experiment. These include discussions of antiproton slowing down in a cold positron gas during antihydrogen formation, information derived on the dependence of the antihydrogen formation rate upon the temperature of the stored positron plasma and, finally, upon the spatial distribution of the emitted anti-atoms. We will discuss the implications of these studies for the major outstanding goal of trapping samples of antihydrogen for precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. The physics motivations for undertaking these challenging experiments will be briefly recalled

  19. "Miniature Cold War?"

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  20. Cold fusion: an outlaw

    This article presents a status report on cold fusion. The experiment conducted by S.Pons and M.Fleischmann suggests that nuclear reactions can be triggered by particular chemical conditions. This experiment was difficult to reproduce because of the great number of variables that are to be mastered. The Stanford Research Institute realised an extensive study of this experiment. Its results show that an energy excess occurs in certain conditions and is very dependent on the quality of involved materials: some batches of palladium are more active than others. The author draws a parallel between cold fusion and the latest works of Japanese and Russian scientists which show that nuclear reactions can be induced by biological processes. A review of theoretical models explaining the fusion process is made and an extensive bibliography is given. (A.C.)

  1. Cold heteromolecular dipolar collisions

    Sawyer, Brian C.; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Yeo, Mark; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Hummon, Matthew T.; Xia, Yong; Klos, Jacek; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We present the first experimental observation of cold collisions between two different species of neutral polar molecules, each prepared in a single internal quantum state. Combining for the first time the techniques of Stark deceleration, magnetic trapping, and cryogenic buffer gas cooling allows the enhancement of molecular interaction time by 10$^5$. This has enabled an absolute measurement of the total trap loss cross sections between OH and ND$_3$ at a mean collision energy of 3.6 cm$^{-...

  2. The CMS COLD BOX

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  3. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  4. Hot fusion, cold fusion

    The publication of observations of nuclear fusion reactions in electrolysis experiments has led to hope that an easy way to domesticate this major source of energy had been found. In this article are recalled the classical solutions which are studied for hot fusion, the state of the art the difficulties and the perspectives, followed by the present situation concerning the experiments related to what has been called, perhaps a little too quickly, cold fusion

  5. Prevention of cold injuries

    Tipton, Mike

    2006-01-01

    On the 19th and 20th May 2005, civilian and military scientists, medical officers, engineers and other personnel from NATO and Partners for Peace countries met in Amsterdam, The Netherlands for a Human Factors and Medicine Panel Specialist's meeting (HFM-126/RSM) on the "Prevention of Cold Injuries". The meeting was organized by the Human Factors and Medicine Panel in close collaboration with TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands and the Royal Netherlands Navy (RLN). The meeting comprised two 45...

  6. Cold-induced metabolism

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic response in infants and several animal species. In adult humans, however, its role is less clear. Here we explore recent findings on the role and variability of nonshivering thermogenesis in adults. Rece...

  7. Cold Dark Matter Models

    Dodelson, Scott; Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by inflation, the theory of big-bang nucleosynthesis and the quest for a deeper understanding of the fundamental forces and particles, a very successful paradigm for the development of structure in the Universe has evolved. It holds that most of the matter exists in the form of slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments (cold dark matter or CDM) and that the small density inhomogeneities that seed structure formation arose from quantum fluctuations around...

  8. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  9. Support for cold neutron utilization

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  10. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Laist, David W; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down. PMID:23527063

  11. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  12. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would...

  13. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  14. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  15. AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Reports

    Abecker, Andreas; Alami, Rachid; Baral, Chitta; Bickmore, Tim; Durfee, Ed; Fong, Terry; Goker, Mehmet H.; Green, Nancy; Liberman, Mark; Lebiere, Christian; Martin, James H.; Mentzas, Gregoris; Musliner, Dave; Nicolov, Nicolas; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2006-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Computer Science Department, was pleased to present its 2006 Spring Symposium Series held March 27-29, 2006, at Stanford University, California. The titles of the eight symposia were (1) Argumentation for Consumers of Health Care (chaired by Nancy Green); (2) Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Cognitive Science Principles Meet AI Hard Problems (chaired by Christian Lebiere); (3) Computation...

  16. Injector linac of SPring-8

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  17. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  18. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  19. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  20. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  1. Force of an actin spring

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  2. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  3. Cold fusion in perspective

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  4. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria.

    Shanbhag, Satish; Spivak, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria is a rare cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia predominantly seen as an acute form in young children after viral illnesses and in a chronic form in some hematological malignancies and tertiary syphilis. It is a complement mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia associated with a biphasic antibody against the P antigen on red cells. The antibody attaches to red cells at colder temperatures and causes red cell lysis when blood recirculates to warmer parts of the body. Treatment is mainly supportive and with red cell transfusion, but immunosuppressive therapy may be effective in severe cases. PMID:26043386

  5. The Isis cold moderators

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  6. Exception in Cold War

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  7. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  8. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    B.Arun*1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7 with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application. hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application.

  9. COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment

    Wells, H.; Price, J.; Horlacher, V.; Sheridan, P. F.; Vosper, S. B.; Brown, A. R.; Mobbs, S. D.; Ross, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based sensors including turbulence towers, automatic weather stations, Doppler lidar, radiation sensors and soil temperature probes. We also hope to deploy an instrumented car and a tethered balloon facility for limited periods. Data from the field campaign will be used for a number of purposes. Firstly, to increase our understanding of how the valley cold pools form and why, for instance, some valleys offer a more favourable environment for their formation than others. Secondly, to investigate the formation and dissipation of fog in complex terrain. Thirdly, the data set will also be used to help validate and develop the Met Office Unified Model at high resolution. An area for the experiment has been identified in the Shropshire/Powis area of the UK where a network of valleys and low hills exist with a typical valley width of ~1.5km and hill top to valley floor heights of 75-200m. 0m.

  10. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  11. And what about cold fusion?

    This article reviews the experimental results that have been achieved concerning cold fusion. 12 experiments or methods involving cold fusion processes have been recorded till now, they are very briefly described. The author discusses the correlation between the helium produced in a Pons-Fleischmann cell and the amount of energy released. The author regrets the worldwide lack of money for cold fusion programs. (A.C.)

  12. Cold War in Southern Africa

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot “Cold War†: The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...

  13. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  14. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  15. Stretching Instability of Helical Springs

    Kessler, David A.; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2003-01-01

    We show that when a gradually increasing tensile force is applied to the ends of a helical spring with sufficiently large ratios of radius to pitch and twist to bending rigidity, the end-to-end distance undergoes a sequence of discontinuous stretching transitions. Subsequent decrease of the force leads to steplike contraction, and hysteresis is observed. For finite helices, the number of these transitions increases with the number of helical turns but only one stretching and one contraction instability survive in the limit of an infinite helix. We calculate the critical line that separates the region of parameters in which the deformation is continuous from that in which stretching instabilities occur.

  16. Quantum model for entropic springs

    Wang, Chiao-Hsuan; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of nonequilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media, such as glasses, and is an additional expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1 /f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

  17. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Experiments in cold fusion

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models

  19. Cold Atmospherical Gas Discharge

    It is shown that the gas discharge with a cold neutral component and the hot electrons can exist in a relatively dry air at the standard and much low pressure. The discharge existence region have been determined with balance between the nitrogen ionization processes by an electric field and attachment of electrons to the water and oxygen atoms. A discharge can exist only at such (w≤10-2) values of relative humidity and definite reduced electric field (E/p) values which respond threshold electric field strength Elhr at given pressure ρ. At standard pressure the threshold field compose 4.65 kV/cm. A plasma parameter calculation carried out at the local temperature and charged particle density balance conditions

  20. Sonluminescence and cold fusion

    TVPrevenslik

    1996-01-01

    A theory of sonoluminescence(SL) proposed asserts bubbles collapse in a pancake shape almost isothermally at constant volume.SL induced hot fusion at -107℃is most likely impossible.By the proposed theory,the bubbles are treated as miniature IRasers with the dimension between pancake faces equal to the half wavelength of the standing wave in resonance with the IRaser cavity dimensions.Before collapse,the IRasers are filled with 5-10eV of IR radiation from the Plank energy in the ambient surroundings.During collapse,the IUR radiation is trapped within the IRaser by the high IR reflectivity of the bubble wall water molecules.As the IRaser cavity dimension dercreases,the cavity resonant frequency increases.The bubble wall molecules undergo a continuous population inversion by always being pumped to higher energy states that favor stimulated emission instead of absorption.IRaser resonant intensification produces 5-10MeV,i.e.,-106UV photons with 5-10eV.On average,SL induced cold fuison does not occur although a few X-ray photons are produced.If the IR thermal energy before collapse is enhanced to a total energy of 10keV.say by exciting the vibration modes of the water molecules at 2.73um with a HF laser,collapse produces an average X-ray energy of about 10keV.unlike hot fusion ,Sl induced cold fusion is not impossible.

  1. Interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation and its influence on East Asian climate during boreal winter and spring

    FAN; Ke; WANG; Huijun

    2006-01-01

    The interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and its influence on East Asian climate during both boreal winter and spring are addressed. The results show that the positive AAO anomaly decreases the cold activity over East Asia during both boreal winter and spring. AAO-related barotropic meridional teleconnection from Antarctic to Arctic is found through analysis of mean meridional circulations. This meridional teleconnection is remarkable over Eurasia during boreal winter and over the Pacific Ocean during boreal spring. The results also show that zonal mean zonal wind at high latitudes in Southern Hemisphere has well positive correlation with that of Eurasia during boreal winter and has negative correlation with Pacific North American teleconnection (PNA) during boreal spring, which again display the meridional teleconnection. Thus, local meridional teleconnection is a possible linkage for interaction of circulations at mid-high latitudes between both hemispheres.

  2. Give Someone the Cold Shoulder

    程炜

    2002-01-01

    The snowman in this illustration is happy to allow a bird to rest on its cold shoulder.., but that's not what this idiom means.To give someone the cold shoulder is to be un-friendly, usually by ignoring them.

  3. Cold Crystal Reflector Filter Concept

    Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical concept of a cold crystal reflector filter will be presented. The aim of this concept is to balance the shortcoming of the traditional cold polycrystalline reflector filter, which lies in the significant reduction of the neutron flux right above (in energy space) or right below (wavelength space) the first Bragg edge.

  4. The status of cold fusion

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  5. Development of cold neutron spectrometers

    Cold Neutron Triple Axsis Spectrometer (Cold-TAS) Development Ο Fabrication and Installation of the Major Cold-TAS Components Ο Performance Test of the Cold-TAS □ Cold Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectrometer(DC-TOF) Development Ο Fabrication of the Major DC-TOF Components Ο Development DC-TOF Data Reduction Software □ Expected Contribution The two world-class inelastic neutron scattering instruments measure atomic or molecular scale dynamics of meV energy range. This unprecedented measurement capability in the country will enable domestic and international scientists to observe new phenomena in their materials research to obtain world class results. Especially those who work in the fields of magnetic properties of superconductors and multiferroics, molecular dynamics, etc. will get more benefit from these two instruments

  6. Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Spring Failure

    Kainulainen, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this final project was to make an the fracture analysis for a parabolic leaf spring. The leaf spring type is used in a mining machine. The machine is designed for personnel and equipment transportation in a mine environment. The objectives were to gather information about effects of the improvement in the spring’ structure and study phenomena which eventually lead to the fracture of the spring. The project was divided into theoretical and experimental sections. The theoreti...

  7. Reactor vessel o-ring spring clip

    A reactor vessel O-ring spring clip is designed to hold a tubular metallic O-ring in the groove of a reactor vessel head flange, especially during vessel head lifting. The spring clip is designed such that the weight of the O-ring acts to increase the friction force between the spring clip and the, typically, threaded hole into which it is inserted. An end of the clip adapted to be inserted through a slot in the tubular O-ring for securement thereto, has a circular member thereon which prevents the spring clip from becoming disengaged from the O-ring during head lifting. (author)

  8. On the variability of cold region flooding

    Matti, Bettina; Dahlke, Helen E.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-03-01

    Cold region hydrological systems exhibit complex interactions with both climate and the cryosphere. Improving knowledge on that complexity is essential to determine drivers of extreme events and to predict changes under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true for cold region flooding where independent shifts in both precipitation and temperature can have significant influence on high flows. This study explores changes in the magnitude and the timing of streamflow in 18 Swedish Sub-Arctic catchments over their full record periods available and a common period (1990-2013). The Mann-Kendall trend test was used to estimate changes in several hydrological signatures (e.g. annual maximum daily flow, mean summer flow, snowmelt onset). Further, trends in the flood frequency were determined by fitting an extreme value type I (Gumbel) distribution to test selected flood percentiles for stationarity using a generalized least squares regression approach. Results highlight shifts from snowmelt-dominated to rainfall-dominated flow regimes with all significant trends (at the 5% significance level) pointing toward (1) lower magnitudes in the spring flood; (2) earlier flood occurrence; (3) earlier snowmelt onset; and (4) decreasing mean summer flows. Decreasing trends in flood magnitude and mean summer flows suggest widespread permafrost thawing and are supported by increasing trends in annual minimum daily flows. Trends in selected flood percentiles showed an increase in extreme events over the full periods of record (significant for only four catchments), while trends were variable over the common period of data among the catchments. An uncertainty analysis emphasizes that the observed trends are highly sensitive to the period of record considered. As such, no clear overall regional hydrological response pattern could be determined suggesting that catchment response to regionally consistent changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical

  9. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation.

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L; Steele, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples. PMID:24115614

  10. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, ... matter how much white stuff piles up outside. Cold-Weather Hazards Certain injuries are more common in ...

  11. Common cold - how to treat at home

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... green snot, and sneezing Sore throat Treating your Cold Treating your symptoms will not make your cold ...

  12. Difference between Sinusitis and a Cold

    ... Print Share The Difference Between Sinusitis and a Cold Page Content Article Body Sinusitis is an inflammation ... a cold or allergy . General Characteristics of Viral Colds It is often difficult to tell if an ...

  13. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    ... References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like structures called turbinates, ... which cold viruses attach. CAT Scan of the Nose and Sinuses The maxillary sinus (black) is surrounded ...

  14. Dynamics of an actin spring

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  15. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy. PMID:22149075

  16. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  17. Friendly units for coldness

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  18. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  19. South Polar Cryptic Terrain in Early Spring

    2007-01-01

    This image of the south polar region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1557 UTC (10:57 a.m. EST) on Feb. 10, 2007, near 77.55 degrees south latitude, 131.98 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 30 meters (98 feet) across. The region covered is just over 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several in which CRISM is monitoring the evaporation (or 'sublimation') of the seasonal frost cap. The Martian south polar seasonal cap consists of carbon dioxide ice and frost, whose sublimation in the Martian spring creates a variety of features unlike anything in Earth's circumpolar regions. Part of the cap known as the 'cryptic region' is so cold that it must be covered with carbon dioxide frost, but it is also unexpectedly low in brightness and exhibits a variety of unusual dark blotches. Many scientists believe that carbon dioxide gas trapped below the sublimating ice is released in bursts, which carry along dust that gradually darkens the ice. One idea is that geyser-like dust eruptions form the dark blotches, and that the blotches grow, coalesce, and eventually hide the frost under a thin layer of dust. This image was taken shortly after sunrise with the Sun only about five degrees above the horizon. The left version shows brightness of the surface at 1.3 micrometers. The right version shows strength of an absorption band due to carbon dioxide frost at 1.435 micrometers; brighter areas have a stronger absorption and more carbon dioxide frost. However, even the darkest areas still have frost. The correlation between brightness and carbon dioxide frost abundance is striking, supporting the idea that the frost is being darkened by dust. Frost in the upper right corner shows the expected dark blotches, whereas the frost over the rest of the image is more uniformly dark, hinting that another darkening

  20. Phonon forces and cold denaturatio

    Bohr, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing the...... molecule Is a continuum. The frequencies of the vibrational modes depend on the molecular dimensionality; hence, the zero-point energies for the folded and the denatured protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule such an energy is significant and may contribute to cold...... denaturing. This is consistent with the empirical observation that cold denaturation is exothermic anti hot denaturation endothermic....

  1. MR imaging findings in spring ligament insufficiency

    Yao, L. [Department of Radiology, MRI, CCC Building, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007-2197 (United States); Gentili, A. [UCLA Department of Radiological Sciences, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States); Cracchiolo, A. [UCLA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Objective. Spring ligament insufficiency is associated with chronic posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and may constitute an indication for surgical repair or reconstruction. This study examines the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of insufficiency of the spring ligament. Design and patients. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists independently scored the MRI findings in 13 cases of surgically proven spring ligament insufficiency and in 18 control subjects, using a standardized scoring system. Results. Insufficiency of the spring ligament was associated with increased signal heterogeneity on short TE spin echo images, and an increase in the thickness of the medial portion of the ligament. The sensitivity of MRI for the diagnosis of spring ligament insufficiency was 54-77%, while the specificity was 100%. MRI assessment of the plantar portion of the spring ligament was unreliable (kappa=0.33), but the assessment of global ligament integrity was substantially reproducible (kappa=0.76). Conclusion. The medial portion of the spring ligament can be reliably assessed on routine MRI. The findings of spring ligament insufficiency on MRI are only moderately sensitive but highly specific. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  2. Optimization of a Spring for Dental Attachments

    Hack, P.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

  3. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  4. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  5. Cold nuclear fusion

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  6. Cold nuclear fusion

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  7. Cold nuclear fusion

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗

  8. Sea Turtle Cold Stun Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spreadsheet includes data on sea turtle cold stun strandings from 2001 to present. These data include field number, species, stranding date, turtle...

  9. Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard

    ... fact, some older people can have a mild form of hypothermia if the temperature in their home is too cool. What Are The Signs Of Hypothermia? When you think about being cold, you probably think of shivering. That is one ...

  10. Quantifying Groundwater Recharge During Dynamic Seasonality in Cold Climates

    Pasha, E.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating groundwater recharge in cold climates, during periods of dynamic seasonality such as winter and spring freshets is challenging due to subsurface heterogeneities and the complexity of vadose zone processes under partially frozen conditions. In order to obtain robust recharge estimates, numerical models simulating these complex processes need to be based on reliable parameter estimates and closely calibrated to field observations. This study focuses on quantifying recharge under an ephemeral stream that develops in the vicinity of a municipal well field during spring and winter freshets at a site in Southern Ontario. Temperature and moisture content profiles in the vadose zone were obtained during the 2015 spring melt at three different locations, using a variety of hydrogeological instruments. Temperature thermisters and Tid-Bit transducers were both installed at 15-30 cm spacings to the depth of the water table in order to compare and calibrate the results. Similarly, Time Domain Reflectometry probes were placed to the depth of the water table and the results were calibrated to daily moisture content readings taken with a Neutron Probe. Water table fluctuations were monitored and regular water samples were taken for analysis of geochemistry and isotope fractionation. This data provided the boundary conditions for the numerical model (Hydrus 1D) and allowed for its calibration and validation. Regions of rapid infiltration were observed at the site, as well as steep temperature gradients that could be used as a tracer for estimating recharge in cold climates. The geochemistry and isotope fractionation results provided support of surface water groundwater interaction within event based time periods predicted by the numerical models. Furthermore, the surface water samples were found to have high concentrations of microbial indicator species, and therefore the intense recharge phenomena observed at the site has significant implications to groundwater

  11. Microscopic mechanism for cold denaturation

    Dias, CL; Ala-Nissila, T.; Karttunen, MEJ Mikko; Vattulainen, I.; Grant, M.

    2008-01-01

    We elucidate the mechanism of cold denaturation through constant-pressure simulations for a model of hydrophobic molecules in an explicit solvent. We find that the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic effect induces, facilitates, and is the driving force for cold denaturation. The physical mechanism underlying this phenomenon is identified as the destabilization of hydrophobic contact in favor of solvent-separated configurations, the same mechanism seen in pressure-induced denaturation. ...

  12. Response of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to environmental changes. Effect of low temperature in winter and spring wheat

    Van Praag, Esther; Degli Agosti, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Response of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to environmental changes. Effect of low temperature in winter and spring wheat - Three day old, etiolated, wheat seedlings were affected differently according to the duration of exposure to a non-freezing low temperature (5°C). Indeed, growth was only reduced after a 45 min or longer treatment. Germs exposed to a 120 min cold period were half the size 24 h after the cold treatment; in comparison to the room temperature (20°C) exposed seedlings. ln respect...

  13. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  14. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  15. Low viral predation pressure in cold hypersaline Arctic sediments and limits on lytic replication.

    Colangelo-Lillis, Jesse; Wing, Boswell A; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-04-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous drivers of microbial ecology and evolution and contribute to biogeochemical cycling. Attention to these attributes has been more substantial for marine viruses than viruses of other environments. Microscopy-based investigation of the viral communities from two cold, hypersaline Arctic springs was undertaken to explore the effects of these conditions on microbe-viral ecology. Sediments and water samples were collected along transects from each spring, from anoxic spring outlets through oxygenated downstream channels. Viral abundance, virus-microbe ratios and modelled virus-microbe contact rates were lower than comparable aqueous and sedimentary environments and most similar to deep subsurface sediments. No individual cell from either spring was visibly infected. Viruses in these springs appear to play a smaller role in controlling microbial populations through lytic activity than in marine water column or surface sedimentary environments. Relief from viral predation indicates the microbial communities are primarily controlled by nutrient limitation. The similarity of these springs to deep subsurface sediments suggests a biogeographic divide in viral replication strategy in marine sediments. PMID:26743115

  16. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  17. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  18. Radioactive disequilibrium in mound spring deposits

    The problem to be resolved was the age of the mound spring sediments on the margin of the Great Artesian Basin to the south and southwest of Lake Eyre. Nine samples from six springs and two from neighbouring dune fields were collected. The parent and daughter nuclides for the uranium and thorium decay chains have been comprehensively measured by a variety of techniques: DNA, thick-source alpha particle counting, field scintillometry, high resolution gamma spectrometry and high resolution alpha spectrometry. Gross radioactive disequilibrium in the uranium chain is found for the spring samples. The activity, in Bq kg-1, for the uranium chain at and below radium, compared with the parent uranium and its immediate daughters, ranges from an excess factor of two to a factor of six, depending on the age of the spring mound deposit. This is interpreted as evidence that radium is being carried up into the springs with artesian groundwater and deposited in the spring mound sediments. There is also evidence for a small excess of thorium. The ages of the spring mound deposits have been successfully found by thermoluminescence. They range from about 20 ka to 500 ka. The disequilibrium suggests why attempts to use uranium series dating have not been successful

  19. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  20. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    for varying the damping characteristics of the SFD as well as the dynamic forces acting on the SFD. Phase plane orbits together with Poincar´e maps are given for different arc spring damping and static and dynamic load cases. Besides, bifurcation diagrams as a function of the arc spring damping and...... forces acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and experimental result is facilitated in form of waterfall diagrams. For this, a full scale model of the arc-spring damper was...

  1. Induction of Boiling Stable Proteins by Cold and ABA Treatment in Radish Cotyledon and Hypocotyl

    Cho, B.H. [University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Boiling stable proteins of 53 kDa and 29 kDa existed natively in the cotyledons of Bak Kyoung, fall radish (Raphanus raphanistrodes L.). Boiling stable proteins of 36 kDa and 16.5 kDa were newly induced by cold stress and the proteins of 53 kDa and 29 kDa increased during the cold stress. The proteins of 53 kDa were denatured within 2 hrs after removing cotyledons from plants. Boiling stable proteins of 53 kDa existed natively in the hypocotyls whereas 24 kDa and 18 kDa proteins were increased by stress. Boiling stable proteins of 53 kDa were induced and those of the 25 kDa and 23 kDa were increased by cold treatment and ABA treatment in the cotyledons of Jangchundaehyung F1 spring white (Raphanus raphanistrodes L.). These results showed the differences of induced boiling stable proteins between fall radishes and spring radishes. Cycloheximide inhibited the induction of 25kDa and 23 kDa proteins during stress. 22kDa native protein disappeared during ABA treatment and reappeared by cycloheximide treatments. It may be explained that cycloheximide was responsible for the destruction process of proteins in the living organisms. The profile of boiling stable proteins in hypocotyls of spring radishes during stress was same as that of fall radishes. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  3. Finger and toe temperature response to cold water and cold air exposure

    Struijs, N.R. van der; Es, E.M. van; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  4. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  5. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    Abele, Hartmut; Konrad, Gertrud

    2014-01-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the \\RB drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron $\\beta$-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10$^{-4}$ level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  6. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Konrad, Gertrud

    2015-05-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10-4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  7. Hesitant birth of cold fusion

    John O'M. Bockris, a distinguished chemistry professor at Texas A ampersand M University, finds the reaction to the announcement of the discovery of cold fusion curious. Two years earlier, he notes, there had been a comparable announcement concerning the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity; it received favorable press coverage for months. The cold-fusion announcement, on the other hand, was met with dour skepticism. When other researchers failed in efforts to duplicate the findings of Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons, Bockris says, the two scientists were held up to ridicule. Bockris says he found a deep emotional opposition to cold fusion, even within his own department and university. This opposition is fueled in large part, he believes, by big science and the hot fusion lobby. A key indicator of cold fusion is the presence of tritium, Brockis claims. At Texas A ampersand M, large amounts of tritium have been found in some experiments; this also has occurred in experiments at more than 40 laboratories in nine countries, he says. Excess heat production is more difficult to attain, he acknowledges. The cold-fusion controversy has uncovered some unflattering characteristics of the scientific community, Bockris says. Among them are: scientists are no less driven by emotion that business people or politicians; research funding decisions serve to perpetuate the goals of politically powerful interest groups; and ideas have great inertia once planted in a scientist's mind

  8. Cold Fronts in CDM clusters

    Nagai, D; Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters (Vikhlinin et. al., 2001). These features, called ``cold fronts'', are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >2 over 10-50 kpc, accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter (CDM) models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging sub-cluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the ...

  9. Cold fronts in galaxy clusters

    Ghizzardi, Simona; Molendi, Silvano

    2010-01-01

    Cold fronts have been observed in a large number of galaxy clusters. Understanding their nature and origin is of primary importance for the investigation of the internal dynamics of clusters. To gain insight on the nature of these features, we carry out a statistical investigation of their occurrence in a sample of galaxy clusters observed with XMM-Newton and we correlate their presence with different cluster properties. We have selected a sample of 45 clusters starting from the B55 flux limited sample by Edge et al. (1990) and performed a systematic search of cold fronts. We find that a large fraction of clusters host at least one cold front. Cold fronts are easily detected in all systems that are manifestly undergoing a merger event in the plane of the sky while the presence of such features in the remaining clusters is related to the presence of a steep entropy gradient, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Assuming that cold fronts in cool core clusters are triggered by minor merger events, we esti...

  10. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  11. Phase 1 spring and seep report

    Pursuant to the overall objective of the WSSRAP to characterize the potential environmental and health impacts posed by the Weldon Spring Site, the Phase I Spring and Seep sampling effort was undertaken to evaluate the migration of site-related contaminants through conduit type groundwater flow. Samples were collected from springs during both high and low flow stages. Samples were analyzed for uranium, nitroaromatic compounds, CLP metals, and inorganic anions. Eight of the 27 springs which were sampled in a 2 mile radius of the site were found to contain levels of contaminants above calculated background levels. This report details the rationale, sampling and analytical methodologies, the analytical results, and the interpretation of transport mechanisms for each of the positive results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  13. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  14. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  15. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  16. [Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Summary].

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge history, natural resources and management objectives. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Biomineralization of pisoliths in hot springs

    Biological activity can produce complex patterned structures in accretionary carbonate spheres (pisoliths) from hot springs. Pisoliths from a few millimeters to 50 mm diameter were collected from a geyser at the high-salinity Arima Hot Springs near Kobe, Japan. High-resolution electron microscope images show that microorganisms produced concentric laminar layers of aragonite alternating with Si- and Fe-rich layers. STEM elemental distribution maps show that the cementation of aragonite is associated with NaCl-rich bacterial cells and elevated phosphorous and sulfur concentrations. The filamentous microbes build the concentric framework for mineral laminae with a web-like network of microbial strands. The intricate patterns of mineralogical and bacterial variation in the pisoliths correlate with the change of water chemistry in the hot spring. These patterns could improve our understanding of nano-scale biomineralization. In addition, the terrestrial hot spring pisoliths might be a counterpart of the tiny spherules recently found on Mars

  18. EASTER- a floating holiday in spring

    周雷生

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 260 million North Americans(85%) are Christians. As in other Christian lands,the greatest religious festival of the year in Canada and the United States is Easter. Easter is a joyous spring day commemorating the res-

  19. Hot spring therapy of the patients exposed to atomic bomb radiation, 15

    The patients exposed to the atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima area came to Beppu Spa to have hot spring therapy. During the fiscal year of 1982 (April, 1982, to March, 1983), 3972 persons came to the hot spring sanatorium, and 586 patients (14.8 %) received physical examination. Among them, 473 patients (80.7 %) were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation on August 6, 1945, or entered in the city of Hiroshima by August 20, 1945, according to the official notebook issued by the government. Physical examination was performed twice a week during their stay, and more than 53.5 % of the patients were older than 70, and the oldest was 93 years old. Blood pressure was measured when the patients came in and went out, and hypertensive patients were asked to observe the rule of treatment strictly. The complaints of the patients which brought them to the hot spring were mostly pain in bodies and lower extremities, and hypertension, common cold syndrome, diabetes and constipation. Patients took hot spring bath 2 - 3 times daily, and many patients had microwave and low frequency wave treatment. Soaking in a bath (containing 1.4 mg of cupric sulfate and 11.4 mg of zinc sulfate per liter) was practiced by diabetic patients. The therapeutic effects were difficult to judge because the period of stay of the most patients was about 10 days, but in most of them, subjective symptoms were relieved when they left the sanatorium. (Yamashita, S.)

  20. Bacterial community analysis of Indonesian hot springs.

    Baker, G C; Gaffar, S; Cowan, D A; Suharto, A R

    2001-06-12

    We report the first attempts to describe thermophilic bacterial communities in Indonesia's thermal springs using molecular phylogenetic analyses. 16S rRNA genes from laboratory cultures and DNA directly amplified from three hot springs in West Java were sequenced. The 22 sequences obtained were assignable to the taxa Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, including a number of clades not normally associated with thermophily. PMID:11410357

  1. The Affective Legacy of Silent Spring

    Alex Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the publication of Silent Spring, the importance of Rachel Carson’s work can be measured in its affective influence on contemporary environmental writing across the humanities. The ground broken by Silent Spring in creating new forms of writing has placed affect at the very centre of contemporary narratives that call for pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours. A critical public-feelings framework is used to explore these issues and trace their passage from the pri...

  2. Failure probability of ceramic coil springs

    Nohut, Serkan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic springs are commercially available and a detailed reliability analysis of these components would be useful for their introduction in new applications. In this paper an analytical and a numerical analyses of the failure probability for coil springs under compression is presented. Based on analytically derived relationships and numerically calculated results, fitting functions for volume and surface flaws will be introduced which provide the prediction of the failure probability of cera...

  3. Present status of SPring-8 project

    SPring-8 (Super Photon ring- 8 GeV) is the facility of a 'third generation' synchrotron radiation source in the X-ray region. The facility consists of an accelerator complex and 61 photon beamlines, and is under construction in Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The commissioning of the storage ring is expected in spring 1997 and 10 beamlines will be installed by FY 1998. The present status is described in this paper. (author)

  4. Low-temperature geothermal potential of the Ojo Caliente warm springs area, northern New Mexico

    Vuataz, F.D.; Stix, J.; Goff, F.; Pearson, C.F.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 17 waters (thermal and cold, mineralized and dilute) was performed in the Ojo Caliente-La Madera area. Two types of thermomineral waters have separate and distinctive geologic, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics. The water from Ojo Caliente Resort emerges with temperatures less than or equal to 54/sup 0/C from a Precambrian metarhyolite. Its chemistry, typically Na-HCO/sub 3/, has a total mineralization of 3600 mg/l. Isotopic studies have shown that the thermal water emerges from the springs and a hot well without significant mixing with the cold shallow aquifer of the valley alluvium. However, the cold aquifer adjacent to the resort does contain varying amounts of thermal water that originates from the warm spring system. Geothermometry calculations indicate that the thermal water may be as hot as 85/sup 0/C at depth before its ascent toward surface. Thermodynamic computations on the reaction states of numerous mineral phases suggest that the thermal water will not cause major scaling problems if the hot water is utilized for direct-use geothermal applications. By means of a network of very shallow holes, temperature and electrical conductivity anomalies have been found elsewhere in the valley around Ojo Caliente, and resistivity soundings have confirmed the presence of a plume of thermal water entering the shallow aquifer. The group of lukewarm springs around La Madera, with temperatures less than or equal to 29/sup 0/C, chemical type of NaCaMg-HCO/sub 3/Cl and with a total mineralization less than or equal to 1500 mg/l behaves as a different system without any apparent relation to the Ojo Caliente system. Its temperature at depth is not believed to exceed 35 to 40/sup 0/C.

  5. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  6. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

    Borri, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth force. Further, we briefly review the recent technological progresses in the fields of cold molecules and mid-infrared lasers, which are the tools that mainly set the limits for the resolution that is currently attainable in the measurements.

  7. Leaf spring puller for nuclear fuel rods

    Fogg, J.L.

    1981-11-03

    A fuel rod puller in the form of a collet for pulling fuel rods from a storage area into grids of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. The rod puller moves longitudinally through the grids to a storage area where projections on the end of leaf springs grasp onto an end plug in a fuel rod. Drive apparatus then pulls the rod puller and connected fuel rod from the storage area into the fuel assembly grids. The rod puller includes an outer tube having leaf springs on one end thereof in one modification, mounted within the outer tube is a movable plunger which acts to urge the leaf springs outwardly to a position to permit passing or with the end of a end plug. Upon withdrawal of the plunger, the leaf springs move into a groove formed in the end of a fuel rod end plug, and the fuel rod subsequently is pulled into the fuel assembly grids. In another modification, the leaf springs on the outer rod are biased in an outward direction and a longitudinally movable tube on the outer rod is moved in a direction to contract the leaf springs into a position where the projections thereof engage the groove formed in a fuel rod end plug.

  8. Tubular spring slip joint and jar

    The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber

  9. Tubular spring slip joint and jar

    Heemstra, T. R.

    1985-04-23

    The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber.

  10. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion. PMID:27583641

  11. Plant life in cold climates.

    Körner, C; Larcher, W

    1988-01-01

    Structural and functional features of plants from cold regions such as high mountain and tundra environments are characterized. Cold climates are not necessarily cold for plants at all times and influences of plant-growth form on canopy climate are substantial. Extreme low temperatures can cause temporal cessation of metabolic processes or partial tissue losses, but rarely represent an existential problem for plants native to cold regions. Low temperatures induce drastic changes in plant physiognomy and leaf anatomy, but dry matter allocation to the different plant compartments does not show a uniform trend. This suggests that generalizations of optimization and adaptation theories are not appropriate in this respect and that the functional importance of carbohydrate budgets is commonly over-estimated. Inconsistent with widespread beliefs, photosynthetic capacity in plants from cold regions is not essentially different from that in temperate regions, when comparable life forms are considered. Prevailing leaf temperatures exert minor limitations to seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain. Low temperatures come into play primarily in two ways: indirectly, via the length of the growing season and perhaps mineral nutrient availability, and directly, through influences on the growth process per se. Inherited slow or temporally restricted growth resembles an evolutionary response to long-term expectations of low resource availability. Within these genetic constraints the mitotic rate seems to be an essential point of action where low temperature determines the growth of an individual under respective local climates. Evidence is provided to support this view of an overruling significance of developmental processes in plant performance under cold conditions. PMID:3270208

  12. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    : Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  13. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  14. 扩展Spring MVC模块的Web应用%Web Application of Extended Spring MVC

    廖福保

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the application of Spring MVC framework. It analyzed the controller, model, and view of MVC framework. To compensate for the deficiency of Spring MVC, it introduced the AJAX technology into Spring MVC to have it extended. The extended Spring MVC is easier to maintain, and has been proved to be feasible and valid in a typical Web application.%叙述了Spring MVC模块的应用,对MVC模块中的控制器、模型和视图进行了分析,然后针对目前Spring MVC模块的不足,对此模块进行了扩展,并将AJAX技术引入到Spring MVC模块中,具有易维护性.在扩展Spring MVC模块的基础上设计了1个典型的Web应用,表明了扩展Spring MVC模块的可行性和有效性.

  15. Establishment of a Spring Design Formula for Low Temperature Use of Spring

    R. A. Yadav

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Normally the springs are designed for room temperature conditions and the equations of elasticity are used to correlate the spring parameters. However, when the spring are required for use at low temperatures, these equations do not hold fairly good for design purpose. In this paper the establishment of new formula, that can be used for designing the springs for use at low temperature conditions has been discussed. Tests have been carried out at 20 degree calcius and -40 degree calcius to check the reliability of this formula. The formula has given satisfactory results.

  16. Cold and Fuzzy Dark Matter

    Hu, Wayne; Barkana, Rennan; Gruzinov, Andrei

    2000-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) models predict small-scale structure in excess of observations of the cores and abundance of dwarf galaxies. These problems might be solved, and the virtues of CDM models retained, even without postulating {\\it ad hoc} dark matter particle or field interactions, if the dark matter is composed of ultra-light scalar particles (m ~ 10^{-22}eV), initially in a (cold) Bose-Einstein condensate, similar to axion dark matter models. The wave properties of the dark matter stabil...

  17. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  18. Precipitation impacts on vegetation spring phenology on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Cong, Nan; Zhang, Gengxin; Jassens, Ivan A

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing changes in vegetation spring phenology in temperate/cold regions are widely attributed to temperature. However, in arid/semiarid ecosystems, the correlation between spring temperature and phenology is much less clear. We test the hypothesis that precipitation plays an important role in the temperature dependency of phenology in arid/semiarid regions. We therefore investigated the influence of preseason precipitation on satellite-derived estimates of starting date of vegetation growing season (SOS) across the Tibetan Plateau (TP). We observed two clear patterns linking precipitation to SOS. First, SOS is more sensitive to interannual variations in preseason precipitation in more arid than in wetter areas. Spatially, an increase in long-term averaged preseason precipitation of 10 mm corresponds to a decrease in the precipitation sensitivity of SOS by about 0.01 day mm(-1) . Second, SOS is more sensitive to variations in preseason temperature in wetter than in dryer areas of the plateau. A spatial increase in precipitation of 10 mm corresponds to an increase in temperature sensitivity of SOS of 0.25 day °C(-1) (0.25 day SOS advance per 1 °C temperature increase). Those two patterns indicate both direct and indirect impacts of precipitation on SOS on TP. This study suggests a balance between maximizing benefit from the limiting climatic resource and minimizing the risk imposed by other factors. In wetter areas, the lower risk of drought allows greater temperature sensitivity of SOS to maximize the thermal benefit, which is further supported by the weaker interannual partial correlation between growing degree days and preseason precipitation. In more arid areas, maximizing the benefit of water requires greater sensitivity of SOS to precipitation, with reduced sensitivity to temperature. This study highlights the impacts of precipitation on SOS in a large cold and arid/semiarid region and suggests that influences of water should be included in SOS

  19. Zeaxanthin-independent energy quenching and alternative electron sinks cause a decoupling of the relationship between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthesis in an evergreen conifer during spring.

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Wong, Christopher Y S; Junker, Laura Verena; Chang, Christine Yao-Yun; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In evergreen conifers, the winter down-regulation of photosynthesis and its recovery during spring are the result of a reorganization of the chloroplast and adjustments of energy-quenching mechanisms. These phenological changes may remain undetected by remote sensing, as conifers retain green foliage during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation. The aim was to assess if the timing of the spring recovery of photosynthesis and energy-quenching characteristics are accurately monitored by the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in the evergreen conifer Pinus strobus. The recovery of photosynthesis was studied using chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, leaf spectral reflectance, and photosynthetic pigment measurements. To assess if climate change might affect the recovery of photosynthesis, seedlings were exposed to cold spring conditions or warm spring conditions with elevated temperature. An early spring decoupling of the relationship between photosynthesis and PRI in both treatments was observed. This was caused by differences between the timing of the recovery of photosynthesis and the timing of carotenoid and chlorophyll pool size adjustments which are the main factors controlling PRI during spring. It was also demonstrated that zeaxanthin-independent NPQ mechanisms undetected by PRI further contributed to the early spring decoupling of the PRI-LUE relationship. An important mechanism undetected by PRI seems to involve increased electron transport around photosystem I, which was a significant energy sink during the entire spring transition, particularly in needles exposed to a combination of high light and cold temperatures. PMID:26386258

  20. Fatigue and corrosion fatigue of beryllium-copper spring materials

    Fine gage, 0.006-in. d(0.15-mm) thick, beryllium-copper (Be-Cu) spring materials with tensile strength in the range of 70 to 145 ksi were subjected to cyclic loading in air and salt water environments. Plain and notched (center hole) hour glass specimens were subjected to sinusoidal loading with R = (minimum/maximum) stress = 0.1 at cyclic frequencies of 50 Hz in air and 1 Hz in salt water. Fatigue life was typically from 104 to 106 cycles with crack initiation as the dominant fatigue process. The excellence fatigue performance of Be-Cu alloys in salt water is well-known, however, current findings demonstrate 10 to 37% reduction in fatigue strength of unnotched specimens in this environment for a life of 3 x 105 cycles. This strength degradation is attributed to the use of a lower cyclic frequency for present than for previous tests, i.e., 1 versus about 20 Hz. There was no effect of salt water on crack initiation in notched specimens. The ratios of the fatigue strengths, namely (cold-rolled/annealed) and (aged/annealed), for plain and notched specimens tested in air, decreased from 2 to about 1.4 as fatigue life increased from 104 to 106 cycles. This effect is attributed to cyclic hardening of the annealed material. The fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf = (plain/notched) fatigue strength, increased by about 30% as fatigue cycles increased from 104 to 106. The ranking of Kf values of the various material conditions from highest to lowest was: cold-rolled, aged, and annealed

  1. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  2. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  3. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  4. Wood construction under cold climate

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and...

  5. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    R. van Dijk

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  6. HANARO Cold Neutron Source Design

    The cold neutron source (CNS) design has been completed and confirmed by the full scale mock-up test. When its licensing is expected to be issued within 2007, the CNS will be installed in HANARO in 2009 and be operated from 2010 after the commissioning. The production of cold neutrons from 2009 will enable the neutron guides and the scattering instruments to be commissioned in parallel. From 2010, a new era of neutron science will be open in the area of biotechnology, nano-technology, and material science through the probing capability of cold neutrons with nano-wavelength. The prominent research output that will be created from this cold neutron research facility will ensure the basic science and technology, which will provide the strong foundation for the advanced engineering and technology. This paper presents the design of in-pool assembly including the nuclear design of moderator cell, the manufacturing test of in-pool assembly, the full scale mock-up test, and the safety analysis

  7. Cold plasma decontamination of foods

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas such as air, oxygen, nitrogen or helium; antimicrobi...

  8. Scientists study 'cold war' fallout

    This article describes the epidemiological studies being carried out to determine radiation doses to the public from intentional and accidental releases of radioactive compounds during the Cold War. These studies at present are focused on Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Fernald, with studies beginning at Rocky Flats and Savannah

  9. Advances in cold plasma technology

    Foodborne pathogens continue to be an issue on a variety of commodities, prompting research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The prim...

  10. Gating ratchet for cold atoms

    Gommers, R.; Lebedev, V.; Brown, M.; Renzoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a gating ratchet with cold rubidium atoms in a driven near-resonant optical lattice. A single-harmonic periodic modulation of the optical potential depth is applied, together with a single-harmonic rocking force. Directed motion is observed as a result of the breaking of the symmetries of the system.

  11. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  12. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  13. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  14. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses

  15. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  16. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  17. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  18. Tuberculous cold abscess simulating pancreatic pseudocyst.

    Karia K

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with a peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic pseudocyst is reported, which was diagnosed on exploration to be a tuberculous cold abscess. The patient responded to antituberculous drugs after drainage of the cold abscess.

  19. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > ... things once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the ...

  20. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  1. Environmental conditions of boreal springs explained by capture zone characteristics

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Marttila, Hannu; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ala-aho, Pertti; Isokangas, Elina; Muotka, Timo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Springs are unique ecosystems, but in many cases they are severely threatened and there is an urgent need for better spring management and conservation. To this end, we studied water quality and quantity in springs in Oulanka National Park, north-east Finland. Multivariate statistical methods were employed to relate spring water quality and quantity to hydrogeology and land use of the spring capture zone. This revealed that most springs studied were affected by locally atypical dolostone-limestone bedrock, resulting in high calcium, pH, and alkalinity values. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering, the springs were grouped into four clusters based on their water chemistry. One cluster consisted of springs affected by past small-scale agriculture, whereas other clusters were affected by the variable bedrock, e.g., springs only 1 km from the dolostone-limestone bedrock area were beyond its calcium-rich impact zone. According to a random forest model, the best predictors of spring water chemistry were spring altitude and the stable hydrogen isotope ratio of the water (δ2H). Thus stable water isotopes could be widely applicable for boreal spring management. They may also provide a rough estimate of groundwater flow route (i.e., whether it is mainly local or regional), which largely determines the chemical characteristics of spring water. Our approach could be applied in other boreal regions and at larger spatial scales for improved classification of springs and for better targeted spring management.

  2. The cold equation of state of tantalum

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudin, Sven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Corckett, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wills, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In high-pressure isentropic compression experiments (ICE), the pressure is dominated by the cold curve. In order to obtain an accurate semi-empirical cold curve for Ta, we calculate the thermal pressure from ab initio phonon and electronic excitation spectra. The cold curve is then inferred from ultrasonic and shock data. Our empirical cold pressure is compared to density functional calculations and found to be closer to GGA results at low pressure and to approach LDA at high pressure.

  3. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of burping in irradiated cold solid methane

  4. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  5. SCIENCES IN COLD AND ARID REGIONS

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Scope Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, an international Engiish-language journal, is devoted to publishing the latest research achievements on the process and the pattern of Earth surface system in cold and arid regions. Researches in cold regions 1) emphasize particularly on the cold-region-characterized physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions, and on the response of Cryosphere to Global change and Human activities as well as its effect to environment and the acclimatizable

  6. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Yuhua Xin; Yuguang Zhou; Xiuzhu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living i...

  7. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    S. Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Selection of material is based on the cost and strength of material. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy, storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio compared to steel. This paper briefs about the research carried out for the part of three decades on design, analysis, and selection of material, experiments and fabrication of composite leaf spring.   Keywords: Composite Leaf Spring, Composite Materials, Finite Element Analysis, Weight Reduction, Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP.

  8. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    -linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time......Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  9. Thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman

    Mifune, Masaaki (Misasa Branch Hospital, Okayama Univ. Medical School, Misasa Spa, Tottori, Japan)

    1989-03-20

    Oman is situated in the southern east part of the Arabian Peninsula. Specimens of thermal algae in Oman were obtained, and the outlines of thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman are introduced. In Oman, spring waters including thermal springs are precious water resources, and widely used as farming irrigation waters as well as for drinking and bathing purposes. The ranges of temperatures and pH values of the thermal waters are 42.0 - 67.2{sup 0}C and 6.3 - 8.0 respectively. The thermal algae identified were divided into 9 species. The feature of the thermal algae in Oman is that Oscillatorious algae is the dominant species among the alage such as Synechococcus, Cyanidium, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Mostigocladus, etc. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Climate field reconstruction of East Asian spring temperature

    M. Ohyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of dendroclimatic field reconstruction, based upon five ring-width chronologies from living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM3 between 35–40° E and 125–140° N was reconstructed for the period of 1784–1990 AD. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in China and Japan. The west-Japan temperature series recovered also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. These comparisons revealed that climatic field reconstruction using tree-ring chronologies in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for East Asia.

  11. Investigation of the microbial community in the Odisha hot spring cluster based on the cultivation independent approach

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Gaur, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Deulajhari hot spring is located in the Angul district of Odisha. The significance of this hot spring is the presence of the hot spring cluster adjacent to the cold spring which attracts the attention of microbiologists to understand the role of physio-chemical factors of these springs on bacterial community structure. Next-generation sequencing technology helps us to depict the pioneering microflora of any ecological niche based on metagenomic approach. Our study represents the first Illumina based metagenomic study of Deulajhari hot spring DH1, and DH2 of the cluster with temperature 65 °C to 55 °C respectively establishing a difference of 10 °C. Comprehensive study of microbiota of these two hot springs was done using the metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA of V3‐V4 region extracting metagenomic DNA from the two hot spring sediments. Sequencing community DNA reported about 28 phyla in spring DH1 of which the majority were Chloroflexi (22.98%), Proteobacteria (15.51%), Acidobacteria (14.51%), Chlorobi (9.52%), Nitrospirae (8.54%), and Armatimonadetes (7.07%), at the existing physiochemical conditions like; temperature 65 °C, pH 8.06, electro conductivity 0.020 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.76%. About 40 phyla were detected in cluster DH2 at the existing physiochemical parameters like temperature 55 °C, pH 8.10, electro conductivity 0.019 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.58% predominated with Chloroflexi (41.98%), Proteobacteria (10.74%), Nitrospirae (10.01%), Chlorobi (8.73%), Acidobacteria (6.73%) and Planctomycetes (3.73%). Approximately 68 class, 107 order, 171 genus and 184 species were reported in cluster DH1 but 102 class, 180 order, 375 genus and 411 species in cluster DH2. The comparative metagenomics study of the Deulajhari hot spring clusters DH1, and DH2 depicts the differential profile of the microbiota. Metagenome sequences of these two hot spring clusters are deposited to the SRA database and are available in

  12. Finger cold-induced vasodilation : a review

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes prece

  13. Simulation of double cold cores of the 35°N section in the Yellow Sea with a wave-tide-circulation coupled model

    夏长水; 乔方利; 张勐宁; 杨永增; 袁业立

    2004-01-01

    Based on the MASNUM wave-tide-circulation coupled numerical model, the temperature structure along 35°N in the Yellow Sea was simulated and compared with the observations. One of the notable features of the temperature structure along 35°N section is the double cold cores phenomena during spring and summer. The double cold cores refer to the two cold water centers located near 122°E and 125°E from the depth of 30m to bottom. The formation, maintenance and disappearance of the double cold cores are discussed. At least two reasons make the temperature in the center (near 123°E) of the section higher than that near the west and east shores in winter. One reason is that the water there is deeper than the west and east sides so its heat content is higher. The other is invasion of the warm water brought by the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) during winter.This temperature pattern of the lower layer (from 30m to bottom) is maintained through spring and summer when the upper layer (0 to 30m) is heated and strong thermocline is formed. Large zonal span of the 35°N section (about 600 km) makes the cold cores have more opportunity to survive. The double cold cores phenomena disappears in early autumn when the west cold core vanishes first with the dropping of the thermocline position.

  14. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. PMID:27165627

  15. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  16. Evaluación de Spring MVC

    Mayor Martín, David

    2014-01-01

    Spring Framework cuenta con su propio framework de aplicaciones web basado en el Modelo Vista Controlador (MVC). Los desarrolladores de Spring decidieron escribir su propio framework web como una reacción a lo que percibían como el mal diseño de Jakarta Struts framework web, así como por las deficiencias en otros frameworks disponibles. En particular, sentían que no había la separación suficiente entre las capas de presentación y tratamiento de la petición, y entre las capas de...

  17. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  18. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  19. ITMill Vaadin – Spring Framework -integraatio

    Hännikkälä, Tommi

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda Affecto Finland Oy:lle integraatiokirjasto ITMill Oy:n Vaadin -näyttökomponenttikirjaston ja Spring Framework -ohjelmistokehyksen välille. Näin pyrittiin tekemään Vaadin-ohjelmistot valmiimmaksi Enterprise-ympäristöihin. Kirjasto luotiin asiakasprojektin oheistuotteena ja sen tekeminen kesti noin vuoden. Sinä aikana integrointitarpeen ratkaisuksi pohdittiin useita erilaisia vaihtoehtoja, kuten Vaadimen oma ohje Spring Frameworkin int...

  20. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  1. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  2. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers w...

  3. Cold and Slow Molecular Beam

    Rasmussen, Julia; Patterson, Dave; Lu, Hsin-I; Wright, Matthew; Doyle, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Employing a two-stage cryogenic buffer gas cell, we produce a cold, hydrodynamically extracted beam of calcium monohydride molecules with a near effusive velocity distribution. Beam dynamics, thermalization and slowing are studied using laser spectroscopy. The key to this hybrid, effusive-like beam source is a “slowing cell” placed immediately after a hydrodynamic, cryogenic source [Patterson et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 154307]. The resulting CaH beams are created in two regimes. In on...

  4. Cold denaturation of staphylococcal nuclease.

    Griko, Y. V.; Privalov, P L; Sturtevant, J M; Venyaminov SYu

    1988-01-01

    Denaturation of staphylococcal nuclease was studied in a temperature range from -7 to 70 degrees C by scanning microcalorimetry and spectropolarimetry. It was found that the native protein is maximally stable at about 20 degrees C and is denatured upon heating and cooling from this temperature. The heat and cold denaturation processes are approximated rather well by a two-state transition showing that the molecule is composed of a single cooperative system. The main difference between these t...

  5. Quantum synapse for cold atoms

    Kouzaev, G A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the quantum synaptic effect is studied that arisen in the system of two crossed wires excited by the static (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) currents. The potential barrier between the two orthogonal atom streams is controlled electronically and the atoms can be transferred from one wire to another under certain critical values of the RF and DC currents. The results are interesting in the study of quantum interferometry and quantum registering of cold atoms.

  6. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  7. The status of 'cold fusion'

    The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called 'cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological utility

  8. A Cold Strontium Ion Source

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Blaser, Kelvin; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-03-01

    We present a cold ion source for strontium 87. The source is based off of a standard Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) for strontium using permanent magnets in place of anti-Helmholtz coils. Atoms from the LVIS are then ionized in a two photon process as they pass a 20kV anode plate. The result is a mono-energetic beam of ions whose velocity is tunable. Applications for the ions include spectroscopy and ion interferometry.

  9. Cold ion-neutral reactions

    Hall, Felix Henry Joynson

    2013-01-01

    Cold ion-neutral reactive processes were studied in an hybrid trap down to average collision energies /k_B > 20 mK. The atomic ion-neutral systems Ca^+ + Rb and Ba^+ + Rb were studied, and the results interpreted with high-level quantum chemical and quantum scattering calculations. Three reactive processes were found to be in competition, namely non-radiative charge transfer induced by non-adiabatic couplings between potential energy surfaces, radiative charge transfer, and radiative associat...

  10. Cold Injury and Perniosis (Chilblain)

    Tuba Tulay Koca; Tolga Baglan; Gulbahar Sarac; Aydin Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Perniosis (chilblain) is inflammatory cutaneous lesions located on acral surfaces (fingers, toes, nose, aurikula) which present in association with cold exposure. They can appear as an idiopathic (primary) dermatosis or with an underlying autoimmune disease (secondary). The primary or idiopathic form is not associated with an underlying disease and is clinically indistinguishable from the secondary form. The secondary form is associated with an underlying condition such as connective tissue d...

  11. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    V.POZHILARASU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carrying capacity and stiffness. Therefore the objective of this paper is to present a general study on the performance comparison of composite (Glass Fibre Reinforced plastic - GFRP leaf spring and conventional leaf spring. Leaf spring is modelled in Unigraphics NX4 software and it is imported in ANSYS 11.0. The conventional steel leaf spring and the composite leaf spring were analysed under similar conditions using ANSYS software and the results are presented.

  12. The numerical investigation of seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms

    CHEN Zhenhua; QIAO Fangli; XIA Changshui; WANG Gang

    2015-01-01

    A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on the Princeton Ocean Model is established to explore the seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms. The results show that the cold water mass starts forming in March, reaches the maximum strength during June and July, and fades away since October. Strong mixing in winter transports the cold water from sea surface to bottom. The cold water mass remains in the bottom layer as the thermocline strengthens during spring, except for the shallow water where the themocline is broken by strong tidal mixing, which gradually separate the cold water mass from its surrounding warm water. Further analysis on the ocean current and stream function confirms that the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf is locally developed, with an anticlockwise circulation caused by a strong temperature gradient. Sensitivity experiments reveal that the cold water mass is controlled by the sea surface heat flux, while the terrain and tidal mixing also play important roles.

  13. Nuclear power plant as cold reserve? Short expertise

    The short expertise on NPPs as cold reserve discusses the following topics: definition and motivation of a cold reserve, focus on nuclear power plants as cold reserve, security of energy supply and requirement of additional cold reserve, conclusion and recommendations.

  14. The COLD-SAT program

    Bailey, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite is an experimental spacecraft launched from an expendable launch vehicle which is designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for efficient and reliable management of cryogenic fluid in the reduced-gravity space environment. Future applications such as Space Station, Space Transportation Vehicle (STV), external tank (ET), aft cargo carrier (ACC) propellant scavenging, storage depots, and lunar and interplanetary missions, among others, have provided the impetus to pursue this technology in a timely manner to support the design efforts. A refined conceptual approach has been developed and an overview of the COLD-SAT program is described which includes the following: (1) a definition of the technology needs and the accompanying experimental six-month baseline mission; (2) a description of the experiment subsystem, major features, and rationale for satisfaction of primary and secondary experiment requirements using LH2 as the test fluid; and (3) a presentation of the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment with emphasis on those areas which posed the greatest technical challenge.

  15. Superheavy nuclei – cold synthesis and structure

    Raj K Gupta

    2001-08-01

    The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and cluster radioactivity. Also, the structure calculations based on the axially deformed relativistic mean field (DRMF) approach are presented which predict new regions of spherical magicity, namely = 120 and = 172 or 184, for superheavy nuclei. This result is discussed in the light of recent experiments reporting the cold synthesis of = 118 element.

  16. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  17. Novel electrostatic trap for cold polar molecules

    Xu Xue-Yan; Ma Hui; Yin Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme in which cold polar molecules are trapped by an electrostatic field generated by the combination of a pair of parallel transparent electrodes (i.e., two infinite transparent plates) and a ring electrode (i.e., a ring wire). The spatial distributions of the electrostatic fields from the above charged wire and the charged plates and the corresponding Stark potentials for cold CO molecules are calculated; the dependences of the trap centre position on the geometric parameters of the electrode are analysed. We also discuss the loading process of cold molecules from a cold molecular beam into our trap. This study shows that the proposed scheme is not only simple and convenient to trap, manipulate and control cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states, but also provides an opportunity to study cold collisions and collective quantum effects in a variety of cold molecular systems, etc.

  18. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  19. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation II

    Fay, T. H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the boundary in the frequency-amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation x[umlaut] + x + [epsilon]x[cubed] = F cos[omega]t. For fixed initial conditions and for representative fixed values of the parameter [epsilon], the results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation…

  20. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

  1. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  2. The AAAI 1992 Spring Symposium Reports

    AAAI,

    1992-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1992 Spring Symposium Series on March 25-27 at Stanford University, Stanford, California. This article contains a summary of the symposia that were conducted: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Cognitive Aspects of Knowledge Acquisition, Computational Considerations in Supporting Incremental Modification and Reuse, Knowledge Assimilation, Practical Approaches to Scheduling and Planning, Producing Cooperative Explanation...

  3. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  4. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  5. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation of...

  6. Transient behaviour of a vehicle leaf spring

    C. R. Bester; M. C. van Schoor

    1994-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic force transfer characteristics of an asymmetric tapered leafspring of a South African truck were experimentally determined by measuring the direction dependent stiffnesses and lowest natural frequency. The test results were also used to verify and modify a Rayleigh-Ritz dynamic model of the spring.

  7. Keqiao Spring Expo: More Professional, More Opportunities

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009 (China-Keqiao) International Textile Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition (here named "Spring Expo" for short), organized by Shaoxing County People's Government, China Textile City Exhibition & Convention Co., Ltd., Shanghai Gehua Exhibition Plan Co.,Ltd. as well as Shaoxing City Xingji Exhibition Co.,Ltd., was held during May 8-10, 2009at the China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center.

  8. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  9. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  10. Effects of extreme spring temperatures on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on extreme events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by temperatures. An arising question is how plants respond to an extreme warm spell when following an extreme cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This extreme weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced temperature difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of extreme warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to extreme warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.

  11. The Cold man. A clinical case of the cold sensation.

    Salvatore Settineri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients’ preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients’ hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.

  12. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  13. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  14. Cold adaptation increases rates of nutrient flow and metabolic plasticity during cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Williams, Caroline M; McCue, Marshall D; Sunny, Nishanth E; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A

    2016-09-14

    Metabolic flexibility is an important component of adaptation to stressful environments, including thermal stress and latitudinal adaptation. A long history of population genetic studies suggest that selection on core metabolic enzymes may shape life histories by altering metabolic flux. However, the direct relationship between selection on thermal stress hardiness and metabolic flux has not previously been tested. We investigated flexibility of nutrient catabolism during cold stress in Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for fast or slow recovery from chill coma (i.e. cold-hardy or -susceptible), specifically testing the hypothesis that stress adaptation increases metabolic turnover. Using (13)C-labelled glucose, we first showed that cold-hardy flies more rapidly incorporate ingested carbon into amino acids and newly synthesized glucose, permitting rapid synthesis of proline, a compound shown elsewhere to improve survival of cold stress. Second, using glucose and leucine tracers we showed that cold-hardy flies had higher oxidation rates than cold-susceptible flies before cold exposure, similar oxidation rates during cold exposure, and returned to higher oxidation rates during recovery. Additionally, cold-hardy flies transferred compounds among body pools more rapidly during cold exposure and recovery. Increased metabolic turnover may allow cold-adapted flies to better prepare for, resist and repair/tolerate cold damage. This work illustrates for the first time differences in nutrient fluxes associated with cold adaptation, suggesting that metabolic costs associated with cold hardiness could invoke resource-based trade-offs that shape life histories. PMID:27605506

  15. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  16. The Spring Festival(高二适用)

    欧阳璠

    2002-01-01

    The Spring Festival, the traditional Chinese New Year's Day, is China's most important national holiday. Almost everyone in China's cities enjoy sat least three days off work to celebrate the Spring Festival. The celebration lasts even longer in the countryside,

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  18. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  19. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  20. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  1. Axinos as cold dark matter

    The connection of Dark Matter to our particle physics model is still one of the open cosmological questions. In these proceedings I will argue that axinos can be successful Cold Dark Matter candidates in models with Supersymmetry and the Peccei-Quinn solution of the strong CP problem. If they are the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), they can be produced in the right abundance by thermal scatterings and out of equilibrium decays of the Next-to-Lightest Supersymmetric Particles (NLSPs). Moreover if the NLSPs are charged, their decay could help us understand which is the LSP, e.g. between axino and gravitino. (orig.)

  2. Probing cold dense nuclear matter

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars

  3. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  4. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    Subedi, R.; Monaghan, P.; Shneor, R.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Arrington, J.; Physics; Kent State Univ.; Tel Aviv Univ.; California State Univ. Los Angeles

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  5. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  6. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Subedi, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; De Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X -C; Zhu, L; 10.1126/science.1156675

    2009-01-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, where a proton is knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in 12C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  7. Microbial Ecology at an Arctic Geothermal Spring

    Starke, V.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.; Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (Amase)

    2011-12-01

    A critical question in microbial ecology concerns how variations in environmental conditions affect microbial community makeup. Arctic thermal springs provide an exceptional opportunity to study this question because they have very steep gradients in temperature, moisture, and mobility that place strong selective pressures on microorganisms. Troll Springs, located near 79°23'N, 13°26E in the Svalbard archipelago north of Norway, is one of the northernmost documented thermal springs on land. Precipitation of travertine (calcium carbonate) from Troll's carbonate-rich waters has built a complex terrace structure. Biological materials are present at all levels of the spring structure. To investigate this microbial community in detail, we analyzed DNA extracted from wet biofilms, granular samples and endoliths with 454 parallel-tagged pyrosequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of how the community at Troll Springs changes over the gradients in environmental conditions present. The 454 and ARISA data were analyzed using multivariate methods, including non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS). Results show a gradual transition in the makeup of the microbial community as the environment changes from aquatic to lithologic. These observations suggest a mechanism by which the rocks are colonized by microorganisms: biofilm becomes entrapped during carbonate precipitation. Use of a range of parameters and techniques in the data processing and multidimensional scaling provides additional insight into how community makeup varies across the environments present at the spring. Some more adaptable species are found across most environments, but change markedly in abundance as the conditions change. Other less adaptable species are found in fewer environments, being wholly absent in most. Continued analysis will help reveal which species are the most adaptable, and how their adaptive capabilities

  8. Contemporary microbes in hypersaline springs that contain fossil carbon

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Mykytczuk, N. C.; Whyte, L.; Slater, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    On Axel Heiberg Island, near 80 oN in the Canadian Arctic, perennial hypersaline springs provide a unique environment for cold-active microbes. The neutral pH Gypsum Hill springs originate in a gypsum diaper and flow through 600 m of continuous permafrost before reaching the surface at ~6 oC, 7.5 % NaCl, low dissolved inorganic carbon and rich in both sulfate and sulfide (Pollard et al., 2009). In the first part of the year, when ambient temperatures dip as low as -40 oC, filamentous streamers are abundant under the snow covered run-off channels. These microbial assemblages are not present during the summer, when the snow cover has melted. Culture- and molecular-based analyses of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the streamers are dominated by a chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira species and under in situ conditions the streamers oxidized sulfide and thiosulfate and also fixed CO2 (Perreault et al., 2008). We characterized the isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of the microbial community biomarkers as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and glycolipid fatty acid (GLFA) methyl esters. These components represent the cell membranes of the viable microbial community, which are quickly hydrolyzed after cell death and provide insight into the carbon cycling of the organisms. Even though isotopic measurements of the bulk biomass indicate carbon and nitrogen limitation within the system, the streamers are rich in biomass with greater than 109 cells/g. While the PLFA and GLFA profiles were similar, indicating a predominantly gram-negative bacteria community, the 13C composition of these two lipid types was different. The PLFA δ13C indicated a dominant autotrophic signal, while the δ13C of the GLFA had a more heterotrophic signal. While the streamers grow yearly, their 14C age based on the lipid results was 6400 years, indicating utilization of a carbon source that is 14C depleted. We hypothesize that these microbes are using 14C depleted dissolved inorganic

  9. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    V.POZHILARASU; Dr. T.PARAMESHWARAN PILLAI

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carryin...

  10. Biogeographic congruency among bacterial communities from terrestrial sulfidic springs

    BrendanHeadd

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not ...

  11. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  12. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Hualapai Tribe, proposing to amend the Table of Allotments by allotting Channel 265A at Peach... second potential service at Peach Springs. Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona,...

  13. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  14. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  15. A modified uprighting spring for use in edgewise system.

    Tahereh, Hosseinzadeh Nik; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi

    2011-01-01

    One of the most powerful mechanics for 2nd order correction is uprighting spring. Unfortunately, the vertical tube for inserting the uprighting spring is not included in the majority of commercially available edgewise bracket systems. This article presents a simple method for inserting the uprighting spring in the horizontal slot of the bracket. PMID:22360084

  16. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  17. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve must— (a) Be set at a...

  18. Deceptively Simple Harmonic Motion: A Mass on a Spiral Spring.

    McDonald, F. Alan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the oscillatory motion of a mass on a spiral (nonhelical) spring, and calculates the lowest eigenfrequency and the associated effective spring mass for a range of values of the attached mass. Analytic and numerical comparisons are made to the helical spring problem. (HM)

  19. Cold stream stability during minor mergers

    Wang, Liang; Feng, Longlong; Macciò, Andrea V; Chang, Jiang; Kang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution Eulerian simulations to study the stability of cold gas flows in a galaxy size dark matter halo (10^12 Msun) at redshift z=2. Our simulations show that a cold stream penetrating a hot gaseous halo is stable against thermal convection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We then investigate the effect of a satellite orbiting the main halo in the plane of the stream. The satellite is able to perturb the stream and to inhibit cold gas accretion towards the center of the halo for 0.5 Gyr. However, if the supply of cold gas at large distances is kept constant, the cold stream is able to re-establish itself after 0.3 Gyr. We conclude that cold streams are very stable against a large variety of internal and external perturbations.

  20. Rational elicitation of cold-sensitive phenotypes.

    Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; VijayRaghavan, K; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-05-01

    Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994

  1. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources

  2. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  3. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  4. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  5. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  6. Taming light with cold atoms

    Much of the extraordinary progress of developments in communication (e-mail, and/or internet) has been achieved due to improvements in optical communication. This paper describes a new approach which could improve the speed of communication. The ability to stop light in its tracks by passing it through a cloud of ultracold atoms could lead to new techniques for optical storage. The described slow-light experiments have triggered new physics both on the experimental and theoretical fronts. The cold atom system allows the steepest possible refractive index profiles, and therefore the most dramatic effects, as Doppler effects are eliminated. Furthermore, cold atoms provide maximum flexibility in the choice of beam geometry. This is important for the storage and retrieval of multiple pulses of optical information in an atomic medium, as it would allow individual pulses to be selectively addressed. Slow and stopped light have many potential applications in optical communication and processing, including optical information storage, ultra-sensitive optical switches, and optical delay lines. It could also be used in quantum-information processing, in which quantum-mechanical information is used for computing and communication purposes. On a very different front, slow light provides us with a totally new way of probing the unusual properties of Bose-Einstein condensates

  7. Cold atom Clocks and Applications

    Bize, S; Abgrall, M; Marion, H; Maksimovic, I; Cacciapuoti, L; Gruenert, J; Vian, C; Dos Santos, F P; Rosenbusch, P; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Wolf, P; Clairon, A; Luiten, A; Tobar, M; Salomon, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes advances in microwave frequency standards using laser-cooled atoms at BNM-SYRTE. First, recent improvements of the $^{133}$Cs and $^{87}$Rb atomic fountains are described. Thanks to the routine use of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator as an ultra-stable local frequency reference, a fountain frequency instability of $1.6\\times 10^{-14}\\tau^{-1/2}$ where $\\tau $ is the measurement time in seconds is measured. The second advance is a powerful method to control the frequency shift due to cold collisions. These two advances lead to a frequency stability of $2\\times 10^{-16}$ at $50,000s for the first time for primary standards. In addition, these clocks realize the SI second with an accuracy of $7\\times 10^{-16}$, one order of magnitude below that of uncooled devices. In a second part, we describe tests of possible variations of fundamental constants using $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs fountains. Finally we give an update on the cold atom space clock PHARAO developed in collaboration with CNES. This ...

  8. Current status of cold fusion

    This paper reports that the term cold fusion (CF) was known up to March 1989 as the synonym of muon-catalyzed fusion, suggested by A.D. Sakharov more than 40 years ago. Broad use of this term for the last two years is associated with other kind of phenomena: fusion at ambient room temperature of nuclei of hydrogen isotopes embedded into crystal lattice. Nowadays only few remember the unbelievable resonance in the whole world, caused by the first claims of CF from Utah and associated with hopes of a simple and ecologically safe solution to the energy problems confronting humanity. The range of the interest reflected also the receptivity of our society for scientific ideas and wide development of telecommunication media. Extraordinary simplicity of CF experiments (in sharp contrast with hug complexity and high cost of thermonuclear researches) stimulated fast involvement of a large number of specialists of various profiles. Participation of small groups and even individual enthusiasts disposing of only simplest physical and chemical equipment became possible. Figuratively speaking, everybody with a pair of strong hands and a spade had a chance to find his nugget of gold in this Klondike. As a result: passion, rush and a very nonuniform composition of participants in this race for cold fusion, far from being all property prepared and having sense of responsibility

  9. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of

  10. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  11. Ozone measurements in Ushuaia: Austral spring 1994

    Rafanelli, C.; Di Menno, M.

    1995-09-01

    The preliminary results of the Brewer spectrophotometric measurements in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego (Arg), during the 1994 austral spring (September - November) are reported. During this period with an automatic measuring program, the total Ozone, NO2 and SO2 concentrations were determined; Umkehr ozone profile was also evaluated. The comparison with the satellite TOMS data shows a very good agreement. The UV-B spectra obtained were useful to study the dangerous dose (DUV).

  12. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  13. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    Rajesh, S; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  14. Reports of the AAAI 2012 Spring Symposia

    Alani, Harith; The Open University; An, Bo; University of Southern California; Jain, Manish; University of Southern California; Kido, Takashi; Rikengenesis; Konidaris, George; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Lawless, William; Paine College; Martin, David; Apple Computer; Pantofaru, Caroline; Willow Garage, Inc.; Sofge, Donald; Naval Research Laboratory; Takadama, Keiki; University of Electro-Communications; Tambe, Milind; University of Southern California; Vitvar, Tomas; Czech Technical University

    2012-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, was pleased to present the 2012 Spring Symposium Series, held Monday through Wednesday, March 26–28, 2012 at Stanford University, Stanford, California USA. The six symposia held were AI, The Fundamental Social Aggregation Challenge (cochaired by W. F. Lawless, Don Sofge, Mark Klein, and Laurent Chaudron); Designing Intelligent Robots (cochaired by George Ko...

  15. The 1995 AAAI Spring Symposia Reports

    AAAI,

    1995-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1995 Spring Symposium Series on March 27 to 29 at Stanford University. This article contains summaries of the nine symposia that were conducted: (1) Empirical Methods in Discourse Interpretation and Generation; (2) Extending Theories of Action: Formal Theory and Practical Applications; (3) Information Gathering from Heterogeneous, Distributed Environments; (4) Integrated Planning Applications; (5) Interactive Story System...

  16. AAAI 1994 Spring Symposium Series Reports

    Woods, William; Uckun, Sendar; Kohane, Isaac; Bates, Joseph; Hulthage, Ingemar; Gasser, Les; Hanks, Steve; Gini, Maria; Ram, Ashwin; desJardins, Marie; Johnson, Peter; Etzioni, Oren; Coombs, David; Whitehead, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) held its 1994 Spring Symposium Series on 19-23 March at Stanford University, Stanford, California. This article contains summaries of 10 of the 11 symposia that were conducted: Applications of Computer Vision in Medical Image Processing; AI in Medicine: Interpreting Clinical Data; Believable Agents; Computational Organization Design; Decision-Theoretic Planning; Detecting and Resolving Errors in Manufacturing Systems; Goal-...

  17. Environmental toxicology: the legacy of Silent Spring

    2004-01-01

    The period immediately following the Second World War brought great hopes of continuing benefits from widespread use of organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides and other pesticides whilst the health risks of pre-war and other later practices were largely ignored. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) coincided with the adoption of a more cautious approach to the use of pesticides, and the ensuing decades have been characterized by continued identification of both natural and man-made ...

  18. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    Winterflood, J; Blair, D G

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance.

  19. Using Euler buckling springs for vibration isolation

    Difficulties in obtaining ideal vertical vibration isolation with mechanical springs are identified as being due to the mass of the elastic element which is in turn due to its energy storage requirement. A new technique to minimize this energy is presented - being an Euler column undergoing elastic buckling. The design of a high performance vertical vibration isolation stage based on this technique is presented together with its measured performance

  20. AAAI 2007 Spring Symposium Series Reports

    Barkowsky, Thomas; Bruza, Peter; Dodds, Zachary; Etzioni, Oren; Ferguson, George; Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr; Hommel, Bernhard; Kuipers, Benjamin; Miller, Rob; Morgenstern, Leora; Parsons, Simon; Schultheis, Holger; Tapus, Adriana; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Spring Symposium Series was held Monday through Wednesday, March 26-28, 2007, at Stanford University, California. The titles of the nine symposia in this symposium series were (1) Control Mechanisms for Spatial Knowledge Processing in Cognitive/Intelligent Systems, (2) Game Theoretic and Decision Theoretic Agents, (3) Intentions in Intelligent Systems, (4) Interaction Challenges for Artificial Assistants, (5) Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, (6) Machine Reading, (7) M...

  1. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connection...

  2. Very Cold Gas and Dark Matter

    Combes, F.; Pfenniger, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new candidate for baryonic dark matter: very cold molecular gas, in near-isothermal equilibrium with the cosmic background radiation at 2.73 K. The cold gas, of quasi-primordial abundances, is condensed in a fractal structure, resembling the hierarchical structure of the detected interstellar medium. We present some perspectives of detecting this very cold gas, either directly or indirectly. The H$_2$ molecule has an "ultrafine" structure, due to the interaction be...

  3. Rapid habituation of the cold shock response

    Eglin, Clare M.; Butt, George; Howden, Stephen; Nash, Thomas; Costello, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Sudden immersion into cold water initiates a series of cardio-respiratory responses collectively known as the cold shock response (CSR) which may increase an individual's risk of drowning. The CSR is stimulated by a rapid fall in skin temperature and includes tachycardia, a reflex inspiratory gasp followed by uncontrollable hyperventilation. Repeated cold water immersions conducted over several days have been shown to reduce the magnitude of the CSR [1]. This study investigated whether an hab...

  4. Vitamin C and the common cold

    HemilÀ Harri

    2008-01-01

    The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes, and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies show a large variation and, therefore, the clinical significance may not be clearly inferred from them. The biochemical explan...

  5. Cold war in Southern Africa : review article

    Graham, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    1. Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978-1-86888-456-8, xix + 342 pp. 2. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-47420-7, 253 pp. 3. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978-0745324722, 320 pp.

  6. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  7. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  8. Reactor vessel O-ring spring clip

    This patent describes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel including a vessel closure head having a bottom surface adapted to be sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel, the vessel head having an annular groove therein for receiving a tubular O-ring having slots therein, the vessel head also having threaded apertures in the bottom surface concentrically disposed with respect to the annular groove, a reactor vessel O-ring spring clip for securing the O-ring to the vessel head. The spring clip comprising a horizontal leg having one end thereof adapted to be received within one of the slots in the O-ring and an opposite end adapted to frictionally engage one of the threaded apertures, such that the weight of the O-ring increases the friction force between the spring clip and the threaded aperture, wherein the one end of the horizontal leg adapted to engage the O-ring includes; a generally vertical leg extending upward from the one end of the horizontal leg; and a generally circular member depending from the vertical leg such that it lies in a vertical plane parallel with that of the horizontal leg

  9. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  10. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  11. Elliptical Leaf Spring Shock and Vibration Mounts with Enhanced Damping and Energy Dissipation Capabilities Using Lead Spring

    Moussa Leblouba; Salah Altoubat; Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman; Balaji Palani Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an enhancement to the existing elliptical leaf spring (ELS) for improved damping and energy dissipation capabilities. The ELS consists of a high tensile stainless steel elliptical leaf spring with polymer or rubber compound. This device is conceived as a shock and vibration isolator for equipment and lightweight structures. The enhancement to the ELS consists of a lead spring plugged vertically between the leaves (referred to as lead-rubber elliptical leaf spring (LRELS)). The lead...

  12. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  13. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  14. Cold H I in faint dwarf galaxies

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Begum, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight H I spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold H I. In the second method, the brightness temperature (TB ) is used as a tracer of cold H I. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the TB method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the TB method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by cold gas. For regions where the star formation and the cold gas overlap, we study the relationship between the star formation rate density and the cold H I column density. We find that the star formation rate density has a power-law dependence on the H I column density, but that the slope of this power law is significantly flatter than that of the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation.

  15. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  16. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    Westhoff, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  17. Numerical simulation of Tibetan Plateau heating anomaly influence on westerly jet in spring

    Xinzhou, Li; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    The intensity and location of the westerly jet (WJ) in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been closely related to weather and climate changes in Eurasia. In this paper, we analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual variations in the strength and position of the WJ, using the NCEP-DOE reanalysis II (NCEP) data. Spring is the period that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) transits from a cold to a warm condition, and at the same time the WJ weakens and moves northward. Correlation analysis showed that the westerly wind over the north (south) of the TP has a significant positive (negative) correlation with the TP surface temperature in spring during 1979-2013 (99.9% significance level). In spring, surface sensible heat release dominates thermal conditions of the TP, while the contribution of latent heat becomes important in summer. We conducted three numerical experiments to determine the effects of the TP surface sensible heat flux anomaly in spring on the intensity and location of the WJ using the community atmosphere model 5 (CAM5). Experimental results indicated that changing the TP surface sensible heat flux can produce changes in the TP heat sources. When the TP sensible heat flux is switched off (TPSHL), the TP surface has a lower temperature and no longer heats up the middle and upper troposphere, and leads to a maximum cooling of -1.2∘C at 200 hPa over the TP with a significance level of 95%. In spring, the abnormal low temperature over the TP caused the WJ to strengthen and move southward compared with the control experiment (CTL), and this results in a westerly (easterly) wind anomaly over the south (north) of the TP with a significance level of 95%. We obtained the opposite conclusion from the comparison of the enhanced TP surface sensible heat flux (TPSHH) with CTL test results. In TPSHL, the WJ is still steadily located near 30∘N in May as well as April, i.e., the first northward jump occurs from May to June which is a delay of one month compared to

  18. Isotopic, chemical and dissolved gas constraints on spring water from Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico): evidence of gas–water interaction between magmatic component and shallow fluids

    Inguaggiato, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Martin-Del Pozzo, A.L.; Instituto de Geofisica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF, 04510 Mexico; Aguayo, A.; Instituto de Geofisica UNAM, México D.F., México; Capasso, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Favara, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical research was carried out on cold and hot springs at Popocatepetl (Popo) volcano (Mexico) in 1999 to identify a possible relationship with magmatic activity. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluids is compatible with strong gas–water interaction between deep and shallow fluids. In fact, the isotopic composition of He and dissolved carbon species is consistent with a magmatic origin. The presence of a geothermal system having a temperature of 80–1008 C was estimated o...

  19. PC based transducer system for precise detection of garter spring spacers in coolant channels of Indian PHWR's

    In early generation of Indian PHWRs, loose fit Garter Spring (GS) spacers have been used to prevent Pressure Tube (PT) and Calandria Tube (CT) contact. Garter spring spacers have tendency to shift from their designed locations due to flow induced vibrations in pressure tube during hot conditioning. The shifting of GS spacers defeats the very purpose of serving as spacers to prevent PT -CT contact. Excessive span between the spacers lead to gap reduction between PT and CT due to pressure tube sag. The PTCT contact should be avoided to prevent formation of cold spot followed by hydride blisters on PT. An Integrated Garter spring Reposition System (INGRES) designed in RED require precise location and unambiguous detection of GS spacers for positioning of Garter Spring Repositioning Device (GSRD) for generating an optimum force on Garter Spring to relocate the Garter spring to new optimum position. Thus, a PC based transducer system, as a part of INGRES, has been developed for precise detection of garter spring spacers in coolant channels of PHWRs. The system consists of eddy current based sensor, Signal conditioning module, Software module and ISA bus based PC add on cards to acquire the Garter spring signal data in conditioned form. The system makes use of precise displacement optical sensor and quadrature pulse counter card for locating accurate position of the GS sensor head. The in-house developed automation software drives the transducer module in to coolant channel with the help of motor driven linear positioning mechanism for online recording of transducer signal along with the GS sensor head position information data along the length of pressure tube. All the input output signals between field and PC are optically and magnetically isolated to ohmic noise. The recorded data is passed through surge filters, digital filters, smoothing filter, interpolator, calibrators, slope finder to indicate the exact position of Garter spring spacers in automatic and

  20. New SPring-8 control room: towards unified operation with SACLA and SPring-8 II era

    We have renovated the SPring-8 control room. This is its first major renovation since its inauguration in 1997. In 2011, the construction of the SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Laser) was completed. Plans are to control it from the new control room for it to work in close cooperation with the SPring-8 storage ring. It was expected that the upcoming SPring-8 II project would require more workstations than the current control room could accommodate. We have therefore extended the control room area for these anticipated requirements. In this renovation, we employed new technologies that did not exist 14 years ago, such as a large LCD and silent, liquid-cooling workstations for a comfortable operation environment. We have incorporated many ideas which were obtained during the 14 years experience of the operation. The fish-shaped desk islands met the scalability requirement for the SACLA and SPring-8 II. The interlock panel placed at the center of the consoles and the interlock signal at the back area enabled close coordination between the safety systems and the accelerators operations, and the division between the control area and the back area helped to create an environment specific to the control area

  1. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  2. Wavelet analysis of spring climate characteristics in arid aeolian area of agro-pastoral ecotone in China

    Chun-xia ZOU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique regional climate characteristics are among the main reasons for the frequent wind-sand activity in arid and cold areas in the agro-pastoral ecotone in Inner Mongolia, China. This paper focuses on the time series of temperature and precipitation in spring when sandstorms often occur in the area. Based on meteorological data for a 46-year period from 1959 to 2004, multi-scale variations and abrupt changes in temperature and precipitation were analyzed with the Mexican hat function (MHF wavelet method, showing the multi-scale variation characteristics of temperature and precipitation, as well as the periods and change points at different time scales. The relationship between temperature and precipitation was obtained using the wavelet analysis method. Obvious staggered features of the variations of spring temperature and precipitation were observed in this agro-pastoral ecotone. The strongest oscillation periods of spring temperature variations were 1 and 22 years, while for precipitation, the strongest oscillation periods of variations were 2, 8, and 22 years. In addition, lower spring temperature corresponded to lower precipitation, whereas higher temperature yielded higher precipitation rate.

  3. Interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau forced by the North Atlantic SSTA

    Cui, Yangfan; Duan, Anmin; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Data analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the spring atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) depends largely on the intensity of the overlying subtropical westerly jet (WJ), which is closely related to the early spring (February-March-April) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) tripole pattern over the North Atlantic, i.e., the SSTA tripole pattern with a warm core to the southeast of Newfoundland and two cold cores to the south of Iceland and southeast of Bermuda, respectively. Such an SSTA pattern can be regarded as a response to the atmospheric forcing of the preceding January-February-March North Atlantic Oscillation. Numerical experiment results from both linear baroclinic model with an idealized diabatic heating profile and an atmospheric general circulation model with prescribed SSTA forcing demonstrate that the warm core alone of the tripole pattern can stimulate a steady downstream Rossby wave train, which further intensifies the spring WJ over the TP. As a result, a positive anomaly of surface sensible heating occurs over most parts of the TP, whereas the precipitation and corresponding latent heating is characterized by a seesaw pattern with a positive/negative anomaly over the northern/southern TP. Meanwhile, the air column radiation cooling effect is enhanced to a certain degree over the plateau. Further analysis suggests that the early spring SSTA over the North Atlantic may exert a seasonal-lagged impact upon the East Asian summer monsoon by modulating the thermal forcing over the TP.

  4. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of TCP

  5. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  6. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    Maria M Alonso-Peral

    Full Text Available The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1 gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare. A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  7. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy perform-ance of windows in a simple......A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a considerable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... and direct way is therefore the net energy gain, which is the solar gain minus the heat loss during the heating season. Especially in arctic climates where the heating season covers the whole year there is a large potential for exploiting the solar gain during the summer season. Furthermore the presence...

  8. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple......A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... and direct way is therefore the net energy gain, which is the solar gain minus the heat loss during the heating season. Especially in arctic climates where the heat-ing season covers the whole year there is a large potential for exploiting the solar gain dur-ing the summer season. Furthermore the presence...

  9. Status of cold fusion (2010).

    Storms, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process. Various requirements of a model are examined. PMID:20838756

  10. Cold neutron source at CMRR

    As an effective means to study structure of many materials and law of microscopic movements on atomic or molecular scale, neutron scattering technique is paid more and more attention by many countries. To promote its development in China, a set of advanced Neutron Scattering Experimental Facilities (NSEF) will be installed at China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR), currently under construction. The cold neutron source (CNS) on CMRR, one of the most important components of NSEF, is of vertical thermosiphon type, and uses single-phase liquid hydrogen moderator. Nice working capacity and safety are the benefit features of CNS on CMRR. Cooling helium from refrigerator removes the total heat load from CNS in the heat exchanger. In this paper, the in-pile parts, parameters and safety features of CNS are given in detail. At the same time, the utilization of the CNS is briefly described. (author)

  11. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D2O and mixture D2O + H2O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Qn ≤ 2x10-2 n/sxcm3 Pd, Qγ ≤ 2x10-3 γ/sxcm3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  13. Cold Injury and Perniosis (Chilblain

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perniosis (chilblain is inflammatory cutaneous lesions located on acral surfaces (fingers, toes, nose, aurikula which present in association with cold exposure. They can appear as an idiopathic (primary dermatosis or with an underlying autoimmune disease (secondary. The primary or idiopathic form is not associated with an underlying disease and is clinically indistinguishable from the secondary form. The secondary form is associated with an underlying condition such as connective tissue disease, monoclonal gammopathy, cryoglobulinemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Histopathology cannot accurately help distinguish the primary from secondary forms of chilblains. This review aims to raise the awareness of perniosis to avoid excessive investigation and anxiety and to help patients with only appropriate simple advice and treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 463-471

  14. Responses of Picea mariana to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration during growth, cold hardening and dehardening : phenology, cold tolerance, photosynthesis and growth

    Bigras, F.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada). Canadian Forest Service; Bertrand, A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    Although elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can promote growth in seedlings, CO{sub 2} may adversely affect bud phenology and cold tolerance. In this study, seedlings from a northern and southern provenance of black spruce were exposed to 37 and 71 Pa of CO{sub 2} during growth, cold hardening and dehardening in a greenhouse. The aim of the study was to assess the photosynthetic response and its impact on growth of black spruce during fall, winter and spring in the context of anticipated climate change. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on nonstructural sugars, chlorophyll and nitrogen (N) concentrations were also investigated. Bud set occurred earlier in seedlings with elevated CO{sub 2} than in ambient CO{sub 2}. An increase in seedling cold tolerance in early fall was related to early bud set in elevated CO{sub 2}. Photochemical efficiency, effective quantum yield, photochemical quenching, light-saturated rate of carboxylation, and electron transport decreased during hardening and recovered during dehardening. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced gene expression of the small subunit of Rubisco and decreased chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio and N concentration in needles, confirming down-regulation of photosynthesis. Total seedling dry mass was higher in elevated CO{sub 2} than in ambient CO{sub 2} at the end of the growing season. Results suggested that differences in photosynthetic rate observed during fall, winter and spring accounted for the inter-annual variations in carbon assimilation of the seedlings. It was concluded that the variations need to be considered in carbon budget studies. It was concluded that total dry mass was 38 per cent higher in seedlings growing in elevated CO{sub 2} at the end of the growing season. 84 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Cryogenic refrigeration for cold neutron sources

    Neutron moderation by means of a fluid at cryogenic temperature is a very interesting way to obtain cold neutrons. Today, a number of nuclear research reactors are using this technology. This paper deals with thermodynamics and technology which are used for cooling Cold Neutron Sources

  16. Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158584.html Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings Evidence favors hot water or hot packs to ease pain ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- If you're unlucky enough to suffer a jellyfish sting, new research says that heat is better than cold for easing the pain. ...

  17. Axon reflexes in human cold exposed fingers

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ducharme, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of fingers to severe cold induces cold induced vasodilation (CIVD). The mechanism of CIVD is still debated. The original theory states that an axon reflex causes CIVD. To test this hypothesis, axon reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the middle fingers of hands immersed in wat

  18. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  19. The Origins of the Cold War.

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  20. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...

  1. Italy launches the cold fusion again

    The cold fusion is a controversial subject. A collaboration agreement has been signed between E.N.E.A. and Pirelli Labs for a research activity on this theme. The international conference (Icenes 2005) has included the cold fusion among the emerging energy systems. (N.C.)

  2. Dark Matter and Cold Fractal Clouds

    Tappe, Achim

    2000-01-01

    There is strong evidence for a large fraction of dark matter in the Universe. Some of the evidence and candidates for dark matter are reviewed. Dark matter in spiral galaxies may be in the form of cold dense clouds of molecular hydrogen. This model is presented in more detail and perspectives for detecting the cold H_2 are discussed.

  3. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  4. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  5. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Cold Resistant Properties of High Modulus Polyurethane

    LI Minghua; XIA Ru; ZHANG Yuchuan; HUANG Zhifang; YAO Heping; HUANG Wanli; WANG Yifeng; HUI Jianqiang; WU Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    Six kinds of polyurethane(PU)elastomers were prepared based on different poly-esters,polyethers and chain extenders.The structure,mechanical properties and cold resistant proper-ties of PU were systematically investigated by FTIR,XRD,DMTA,universal testing machine and flex ductility machine.The results show that T_g of soft segment is the main factor of the cold resistant properties of polyurethane elastomer.Compared with the same relative molecular mass of the polyester and the polyether,the polyether flexibility is better,the glass transition temperature(T_g)is lower and the cold resistant properties is remarkable,for example the cold resistant properties of PU based on poly(tetramethylene glycol),1,4-BG and MDI achieves the fifth level.The physics performances of polyurethane elastomers,such as breakdown strength,Young's modulus and the cold resistant prop-erties,are all superior.

  7. Synthesis of superheavy elements by cold fusion

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2011-07-01

    The new elements from Z = 107 to 112 were synthesized in cold fusion reactions based on targets of lead and bismuth. The principle physical concepts are presented which led to the application of this reaction type in search experiments for new elements. Described are the technical developments from early mechanical devices to experiments with recoil separators. An overview is given of present experiments which use cold fusion for systematic studies and synthesis of new isotopes. Perspectives are also presented for the application of cold fusion reactions in synthesis of elements beyond element 113, the so far heaviest element produced in a cold fusion reaction. Further, the transition of hot fusion to cold fusion is pointed out, which occurs in reactions for synthesis of elements near Z = 126 using actinide targets and beams of neutron rich isotopes of elements from iron to germanium. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis of superheavy elements by cold fusion

    The new elements from Z = 107 to 112 were synthesized in cold fusion reactions based on targets of lead and bismuth. The principle physical concepts are presented which led to the application of this reaction type in search experiments for new elements. Described are the technical developments from early mechanical devices to experiments with recoil separators. An overview is given of present experiments which use cold fusion for systematic studies and synthesis of new isotopes. Perspectives are also presented for the application of cold fusion reactions in synthesis of elements beyond element 113, the so far heaviest element produced in a cold fusion reaction. Further, the transition of hot fusion to cold fusion is pointed out, which occurs in reactions for synthesis of elements near Z = 126 using actinide targets and beams of neutron rich isotopes of elements from iron to germanium. (orig.)

  9. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    Tulasi Satyanarayana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  10. History in the Cold War and the Cold War in the Present

    Aunesluoma, Juhano; Kettunen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to the book: This book is on the Cold War and the politics of history. It is a multidimensional subject. On one hand, it concerns the different roles of history in the confrontations called the Cold War. The topic includes, on the other hand, the many-faceted presence of Cold War experiences, interpretations and conclusions in post-Cold-War politics. The very concept of the Cold War should be seen as a historical interpretation that has varied and changed over time. The way in wh...

  11. Development of Cold Neutron Research Facility and Utilization Technology / Development of Cold Neutron Guide

    Completion of technology development, design, installation and test for the cold neutron guide and related systems which transfer the cold neutrons generated in the reactor to the beam instruments. - Layout and structural design of cold neutron guide system - Development, installation and test of in-pile plug and primary shutter - Development of in-pile plug installation tools - Development, installation of removable shielding, guide shielding, penetration shielding - Development, installation and test of guide vacuum system - Development, installation and test of secondary shutter for guides - Test and Evaluation of Cold Neutron Guide System - Operation Test and Procedure of Cold Neutron Guide System

  12. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  13. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  14. Spring-block Model for Barkhausen Noise

    A simple mechanical spring-block model is used for studying Barkhausen noise (BN). The model incorporates the generally accepted physics of domain wall movement and pinning. Computer simulations on this model reproduces the main features of the hysteresis loop and Barkhausen jumps. The statistics of the obtained Barkhausen jumps follows several scaling laws, in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The model consists of a one-dimensional frictional spring-block system. The blocks model the Bloch-walls that separate inversely oriented magnetic domains, and springs correspond to the magnetized regions. Three types of realistic forces are modelled with this system: 1. the force resulting from the magnetic energy of the neighboring domains in external magnetic field (modelled by forces having alternating orientations and acting directly on the blocks); 2. the force resulting from the magnetic self-energy of each domain (modelled by the elastic forces of the springs); 3. the pinning forces acting on the domain walls (modelled by position dependent static friction acting on blocks). The dynamics of the system is governed by searching for equilibrium: one particular domain wall can jump to the next pinning center if the resultant of forces 1. and 2. is greater then the pinning force. The external magnetic field is successively increased (or decreased) and the system is relaxed to mechanical equilibrium. During the simulations we are monitoring the variation of the magnetization focusing on the shape of the hysteresis loop, power spectrum, jump size (avalanche size) distribution, signal duration distribution, signal area distribution. The simulated shape of the hysteresis loops fulfills all the requirements for real magnetization phenomena. The power spectrum indicates different behavior in the low (1/f noise) and high (white noise) frequency region. All the relevant distribution functions show scaling behavior over several decades of magnitude with a naturally

  15. Proceedings of the KNS spring meeting

    This proceedings contains articles of 2003 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 29-30, 2003 in Gyeongju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 12 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: reactor physics and nuclear reactor design, reactor operation and control, thermodynamics and fluid flow, reactor safety, reactor fuels and nuclear materials, fuel cycle and waste management, radiation protection, nuclear fusion and laser technology, fuel cycle and waste management, nuclear fuel and nuclear materials, radiation protection, radiation application, life time management and decontamination, nuclear structure, nuclear physics and nuclear fusion, nuclear policy. (Yi, J. H.)

  16. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-01-01

    The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое) and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominan...

  17. Alpha activity in Indian thermal springs

    Background: Dissolved radon is contained in natural water due to primordial uranium in rocks and soils with which it comes in contact. There is dual exposure from radon in water i.e. due to inhalation of the radon released from the water into the ambient air and through ingestion when water is used for drinking. As radon contaminated water adversely affects the health, it is therefore fundamental from health and hygiene point of view to measure radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in water.Materials and Methods: LR-115, Type-II plastic track detectors were used to measure the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in water samples collected from various thermal springs. The alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radium concentration and subsequently radon exhalation rates were measured. Results: The radon concentration emanated from water samples(air borne) varied from 84 Bqm-3 to 827 Bqm-3 with an average of 429± 12.72 Bqm-3 and the dissolved radon concentration varied from 5.65 Bq 1-1 to 55.66 Bq 1-1 with an average of 28.88± 0.85 Bq 1-1. The radon mass exhalation rates varied from 2.37 m Bq kg-1 hr-1 to 23.39 mBq kg-1 hr-1 with an average of 12.14 ±0.36 mBq kg-1 hr-1 and surface exhalation rates from 52.34 mBq m-2 hr-1 to 515.29 mBq m-2 hr-1 with an average of 267.36 ± 7.93 from different thermal spring water samples. The radium concentration varied from 0.3 0 Bq 1-1 to 2.93 Bq 1-1 with an average of 1.52 ± 0.045 Bq 1-1. Results indicate that the thermal spring water, which is also being used for drinking, is safe as far as radium concentration is concerned with the exception of a few isolated thermal spring sources

  18. Theory of CPP magnetoresistance in spring ferromagnets

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Mitani, Seiji; Itoh, Hiroyoshi; Takanashi, Koki

    2004-05-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) for currents perpendicular to planes (CPP) is calculated for spring ferromagnets in which an artificial domain wall is formed by external magnetic fields. We consider two contributions to the MR: one is caused by a twisting of the magnetization and the other is due to a mismatch of the electronic structure at interfaces. We show that the resulting MR may show a non-monotonic dependence on the width of the domain walls and can be either positive or negative according to the magnitude of these two contributions.

  19. Theory of CPP magnetoresistance in spring ferromagnets

    Magnetoresistance (MR) for currents perpendicular to planes (CPP) is calculated for spring ferromagnets in which an artificial domain wall is formed by external magnetic fields. We consider two contributions to the MR: one is caused by a twisting of the magnetization and the other is due to a mismatch of the electronic structure at interfaces. We show that the resulting MR may show a non-monotonic dependence on the width of the domain walls and can be either positive or negative according to the magnitude of these two contributions

  20. Excitation of finite viscoelastic solid on springs

    The objective of this study is to predict the dynamic response of a finite three-dimensional cylindrical standard viscoelastic body supported on the bottom by a spring foundation and subjected to periodic axial force, twist, shear and rocking moment disturbances transmitted through a rigid circular plate bonded concentrically to the top of the body. The results of the analysis may be of use to aid in the proper design of foundations for radar towers, massive reciprocating engines or compressors, vibration and earthquake simulators, etc. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Timo Kivimäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  3. Review on the Strength Development Required for the Concrete Structure of Nuclear Power Plant under Cold Weather Conditions

    exposed to continuous cold weather conditions after the protection equipment, including the curing coat are removed, the structure's durability may lessen as compared to the concrete cured under the standard curing temperature conditions in the spring and fall, however, the studies on this status still remain poor. Accordingly, this study attempted to verify the adequacy of the insulation curing management standard, which is currently presented, during the construction period of the cold weather concrete, through reviewing the freeze-thaw resistance after curing until the point of 5 MPa, then exposing such to a certain cycle of freezethaw environment under the continuous cold weather conditions and then finally performing the standard curing for 28 days

  4. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  5. Development of a model system to identify differences in spring and winter oat.

    Aakash Chawade

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa. To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding.

  6. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  7. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF COLD STORAGE USING ENERGYPLUS

    ASHISH S. UTAGE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the study of cold storage refrigeration plant and simulation of refrigeration system to evaluate the cooling load and annual energy consumption for cold storage applications. The specific temperature and humidity range is required for properly storing any particular food and thus facilitates its preservation for a longer duration of time. The present cold storage capacity in India is grossly inadequate and with a positive future outlook for the agro, food processing, retail and pharmaceutical industry there is urgent need to scale up and develop integrated cold chain facilities across the country. In this view, a simple methodology is presented to obtain the cooling load and energy consumption for a cold storage using an energy simulation tool “EnergyPlus”. Also the attempt has been made to minimize energy consumption of cold store by replacing the Expanded Polystyrene (EPS with Poly-urethane Foam (PUF insulation. The methodology has been validated against the actual data obtained from Penguin cold storage situated in Pune, India. It is found from the simulation results that the average reduction of cooling load for summer design day is 9.78 % while for winter design day it is 9.26 %, when 150 mm thick insulation of EPS is replaced by 100 mm PUF insulation. Due to this replacement the annual cooling energy is saved by Rs. 63875 with pay-back period of 6.8 years.

  8. Cold Environment Fogs And Measurements

    Jiusto, James E.; Lala, G. Garland

    1983-09-01

    For several years radiation fog field programs have been conducted at Albany, NY, with an emphasis on understanding the basic mechanisms leading to dense fog formation. This past year a cooperative effort ("Fog Project-1982") involved nine university, federal and private research laboratories, including NCAR staff and their remote system of 25 portable automated mesonet (PAM) weather stations. A number of comprehensive data sets (boundary layer meteorology and cloud physics variables) during the 14-16 hour nocturnal evolution of fog have been obtained. In particular, the extinction of light in the visible and infrared (10.6 pm wavelength), associated visibility, drop size distributions, liquid water content, and vertical tethered-balloon soundings provided new insights into the structure of fog. A CO2 laser transmissometer was developed that yielded direct information on fog density. During October of 1981 and 1982, a number of radiation fogs occurred that were super-cooled in their lowest 20-50 m. This posed certain troublesome to critical measurement problems with several instruments. Cold environment techniques were devised to overcome some of these instrumentation difficulties.

  9. Open cold dark matter models

    Liddle, A R; Roberts, D; Viana, P T P; Liddle, Andrew R; Lyth, David H; Roberts, David; Viana, Pedro P T

    1995-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in inflationary cosmology indicating the possibility of obtaining genuinely open universes in some models, we compare the predictions of Cold Dark Matter models in open universes with a variety of observational information. We allow arbitrary variation of the density parameter \\Omega_0 and the Hubble parameter h, and take full account of the baryon content assuming standard nucleosynthesis. We normalize the power spectrum using the recent analysis of the two year COBE DMR data by Gorski et al. (1995). We then consider a variety of observations, namely the galaxy correlation function, bulk flows, the abundance of galaxy clusters and the abundance of damped Lyman alpha systems. For the last two of these, we provide a new treatment appropriate to open universes. We find that if one allows an arbitrary h, then a good fit is available for any \\Omega_0 greater than 0.35, though for \\Omega_0 close to one the required h is alarmingly low. Models with \\Omega_0 0.6, as favoured by rece...

  10. Density of cold dark matter

    The nature of dark matter is increasingly constrained by cosmological data. In this paper, we examine the implications of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy limits on the density of cold dark matter under different theoretical assumptions and combinations of data sets. We infer the constraint Ωcdmh2=0.12±0.04 (at 95% C.L.). The CDM models are compared with the shape of the linear matter power spectrum inferred from the 2dF galaxy redshift survey and with the rms mass fluctuations from recent local cluster observations. We found that a value of σ8∼1 as suggested by recent cosmic shear data is not favored by the CMB data alone nor by combined CMB+SN-Ia, CMB+HST or CMB+2dFGRS analyses. We also extrapolate our bounds on the rms linear mass fluctuations to subgalactic scales and compare them with recent lensing constraints, finding agreement with the standard ΛCDM model

  11. Cold dust in hot regions

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm–2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 103 M ☉. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r –2.36±0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  12. Surpassing the Cold War Mentality

    Yang Mingjie

    2006-01-01

    @@ Five years have passed since September 11. What has been the influence of these events on international relations? What has changed in the world since then? The majority of scholars hold that the September 11 terrorist attacks were essentially a key event, a "turning point" in the international strategy transformation after the Cold War.Yet some others believe that the September 11 terrorist attacks cannot have had so profound an impact on international relations. For example, in America's Foreign Policy, most articles commemorating the fifth anniversary of September 11 fall into the second category. These articles suggest that, five years after September 11, security issues have not slowed down the pace of globalization; potential strategic competition among the big powers has not been weakened due to their cooperation in counter-terrorism and international terrorist organizations, represented by Al Qaeda, still exist. Meanwhile, many proturning-point scholars think that, after September 11, terrorism has become the main threat to international security and that the strategic focuses of major powers have also undergone a big adjustment, valuing cooperation over competition. There is even a saying that "the central content of international relations is to meet challenges from the non-state actors represented by terrorism."

  13. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  14. Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications

    An automotive suspension system is designed to provide both safety and comfort for the vehicle occupants. In this study, finite element models were developed to optimize the material and geometry of the composite elliptical spring based on the spring rate, log life and shear stress parameters. The influence of the ellipticity ratio on the performance of woven roving-wrapped composite elliptical springs was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The study demonstrated that composite elliptical springs can be used for light and heavy trucks with substantial weight reduction. The results showed that the ellipticity ratio significantly influenced the design parameters. Composite elliptic springs with ellipticity ratios of a/b = 2 had the optimum spring parameters.

  15. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    C.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of organic carbon respired by plankton communities has been found in summer in the East China Sea (ECS, and this rate has been significantly correlated with fluvial discharge from the Changjiang River. However, respiration data has rarely been collected in other seasons. To evaluate and reveal the potential controlling mechanism of organic carbon consumption in spring in the ECS, two cruises covering almost the entire ECS shelf were conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010. These results showed that although the fluvial discharge rates were comparable to the high riverine flow in summer, the plankton community respiration (CR varied widely between the two springs. In 2009, the level of CR was double that of 2010, with mean (± SD values of 111.7 (±76.3 and 50.7 (±62.9 mg C m−3 d−1, respectively. The CR was positively correlated with concentrations of particulate organic carbon and/or chlorophyll a (Chl a in 2009 (all p 2 (fCO2 in the surface waters, even with a significant amount of inorganic carbon regenerated via CR. In 2010, even more riverine runoff nutrients were measured in the ECS than in 2009. Surprisingly, the growth of phytoplankton in 2010 was not stimulated by enriched nutrients, and its growth was likely limited by low water temperature and/or low light intensity. Low temperature might also suppress planktonic metabolism, which could explain why the CR was lower in 2010. During this period, lower surface water fCO2 may have been driven mainly by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that high organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the spring of 2009 could be attributed to high planktonic biomasses, and the lower CR rate during the cold spring of 2010 might be likely limited by low temperature in the ECS. This further suggests that the high inter-annual variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  16. Numerical simulation of Tibetan Plateau heating anomaly influence on westerly jet in spring

    Li Xinzhou; Liu Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    The intensity and location of the westerly jet (WJ) in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been closely related to weather and climate changes in Eurasia. In this paper, we analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual variations in the strength and position of the WJ, using the NCEP-DOE reanalysis II (NCEP) data. Spring is the period that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) transits from a cold to a warm condition, and at the same time the WJ weakens and moves northward. Correlation analysis showed that the westerly wind over the north (south) of the TP has a significant positive (negative) correlation with the TP surface temperature in spring during 1979–2013 (99.9% significance level). In spring, surface sensible heat release dominates thermal conditions of the TP, while the contribution of latent heat becomes important in summer. We conducted three numerical experiments to determine the effects of the TP surface sensible heat flux anomaly in spring on the intensity and location of the WJ using the community atmosphere model 5 (CAM5). Experimental results indicated that changing the TP surface sensible heat flux can produce changes in the TP heat sources.When the TP sensible heat flux is switched off (TPSHL), the TP surface has a lower temperature and no longer heats up the middle and upper troposphere, and leads to a maximum cooling of –1.2°C at 200 hPa over the TP with a significance level of 95%. In spring, the abnormal low temperature over the TP caused the WJ to strengthen and move southward compared with the control experiment (CTL), and this results in a westerly (easterly) wind anomaly over the south (north) of the TP with a significance level of 95%. We obtained the opposite conclusion from the comparison of the enhanced TP surface sensible heat flux (TPSHH) with CTL test results. In TPSHL, the WJ is still steadily located near 30°N in May as well as April, i.e., the first northward jump occurs from May to June which is a delay of one month compared to

  17. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    C.-C. Chen

    2012-11-01

    mainly been driven by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the ECS in spring might be controlled by the magnitude of planktonic activities and physical factor (e.g. temperature, and that the latter is especially important during a cold spring season. This further suggests that the high intraseasonal variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  18. Application of cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis in environmental studies of aquatic plants

    This paper describes the use of cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) to determine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the aquatic plant Typha domingensis, commonly known as cattail, during spring and fall seasons. According to studies of the Florida Everglades, cattail replaces sawgrass as a result of nutrient enrichment from farm water runoff. Nutrient enrichment, especially phosphorus, in sediment and the water column can lead to undesirable expansion. Early signs of this expansion are apparent in the Apalachicola River floodplain near Apalachicola, Florida, USA. This research project is designed to use cattails as biomonitors of nutrient enrichment in the lower Apalachicola River floodplain. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation has been developed in our previous studies at the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The results of numerous field samples, collected from the study area during spring and fall seasons in 2002, will be presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  20. Correlation between segregation and cold cracking

    An attempt is made to find a correlation between segregation in ferritic base metal and the occurrence of cold cracking. Besides describing the mechanical and engineering properties and chemical composition of the segregated areas, the paper discusses their behaviour when welded over. Characteristics and models of crack development are presented using cold cracking found in various components as an example. Suitable measures for limiting the risk of the occurrence of cold cracking are increasing the pre-heating temperature, use of weld filler material with optimum dryness, and heat treatment directly following welding. (author)