Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics
Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.
Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.
Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics
Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.
Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.
Fixing a 510(K) Loophole: In Support of The Sound Devices Act of 2012
Ho, Shuenn (Patrick)
2014-01-01
The current medical device regulatory system contains a dangerous loophole. While the voluntary recall of a harmful medical device removes it from the market, new devices that claim they are substantially equivalent to the recalled device can still reach the market through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Devices that have gained regulatory clearance in this fashion have caused considerable harm and are much more likely to be recalled for safety reasons as well. The recently propo...
Premarket Notifications (510(k)s)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medical device manufacturers are required to submit a premarket notification or 510(k) if they intend to introduce a device into commercial distribution for the...
76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements
2011-07-05
...: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011); those comments will... Register of January 6, 2011 (76 FR 737), FDA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish a... Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011)) will ``impose an incredible and unnecessary administrative...
2013-05-08
..., the Quality System Regulation, at 61 FR 52620 (October 7, 1996), in the response to comment 83... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 510(k) Device Modifications: Deciding When To Submit a 510(k... Administration (FDA) is announcing the public meeting entitled ``510(k) Device ] Modifications: Deciding When...
Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism
2010-08-05
... Decision Making Preliminary Report and Recommendations; Availability; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and... of Science in Regulatory Decision Making. Volume I is entitled ``510(k) Working Group Preliminary... Regulatory Decision Making Preliminary Report and Recommendations.'' The recommendations contained in...
Beyond Equal: From Same but Different to the Doctrine of Substantial Equivalence
Paull, John
2008-01-01
A same-but-different dichotomy has recently been encapsulated within the ill-defined concept of “substantial equivalence”. By invoking this concept the genetically modified organism (GMO) industry has escaped the rigors of safety testing that might otherwise apply. The curious concept of “substantial equivalence” grants a presumption of safety to GMO food. This presumption has yet to be earned, and has been used to constrain labelling of both GMO and non-GMO food. It is an idea that w...
Specific heat of rhenium disulfide in 360-510 K temperature range
Isobaric specific heat of rhenium disulfide was measured by the method of differential scanning calorimetry in the range of 360-510 K. Thermodynamic functions of rhenium disulfide were calculated using literature data on standard entropy of the compound for the range of 296.15-600 K. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Picone, Gianfranco; Mezzetti, Bruno; Babini, Elena; Capocasa, Franco; Placucci, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Francesco
2011-09-14
Substantial equivalence is a key concept in the evaluation of unintended and potentially harmful metabolic impact consequent to a genetic modification of food. The application of unsupervised multivariate data analysis to the metabolic profiles is expected to improve the effectiveness of such evaluation. The present study uses NMR spectra of hydroalcoholic extracts, as holistic representations of the metabolic profiles of grapes, to evaluate the effect of the insertion of one or three copies of the DefH9-iaaM construct in plants of Silcora and Thompson Seedless cultivars. The comparison of the metabolic profiles of transgenic derivatives with respect to their corresponding natural lines pointed out that the overall metabolic changes occur in the same direction, independent of the host genotype, although the two cultivars are modified to different extents. A higher number of copies not only produces a larger effect but also modifies the whole pattern of perturbed metabolites. PMID:21806070
2010-01-27
... will include no more than 10 non-FDA participants. Only one participant from an organization or company... substantial equivalence to the device's predicate(s)? If these documents are not sufficient, please describe... controls, and which risks are sufficient to make the device ineligible for de novo classification? 3. If...
Gao, Lifen; Cao, Yinghao; Xia, Zhihui; Jiang, Guanghuai; Liu, Guozhen; Zhang, Weixiong; Zhai, Wenxue
2013-01-01
Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by th...
2013-01-02
... checklists for use by FDA review staff. In the Federal Register of August 13, 2012 (77 FR 48159), FDA...; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to explain the...
Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H
2014-10-01
Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations of exemptions from section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). 862.9 Section 862.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY...
María Eugenia Villalobos Hernández
2008-07-01
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es describir la aplicación del concepto de equivalencia sustancial, el cual es utilizado y aceptado internacionalmente para realizar la evaluación de la inocuidad de un alimento nuevo derivado de cultivos genéticamente mejorados. La metodología utilizada fue revisión de literatura actualizada, considerando, información tanto de revistas nacionales como internacionales y documentos de la Organización Mundial para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO, Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, Codex Alimentarius, Organización Económica de Cooperación y Desarrollo (OECD, la Food and Drug Administration, (FDA y otras. El artículo presenta la tendencia mundial en la siembra de cultivos genéticamente mejorados, así como la situación actual en Costa Rica con respecto a la siembra de cultivos genéticamente mejorados para incremento de semilla. Además, se detalla el concepto de equivalencia sustancial y se describe el conjunto de características de calidad que se deben evaluar los procedimientos metodológicos a seguir para demostrar que un alimento, derivado de un cultivo genéticamente mejorado (adCGM, es seguro para el consumo humano y animal. Como conclusión el concepto de equivalencia sustancial es el grupo de técnicas y metodologías, vigentes y aceptadas internacionalmente para evaluar la inocuidad de un nuevo alimento desarrollado mediante biotecnología moderna.The objective of this article is to describe the complete application of the concept of substantial equivalence, which is internationally accepted and widely used for food safety evaluation of new foods. The methodology consists of a literature review of current documents from several agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, the Food and Drug Administration of the USA (FDA, and others. This article
76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements
2011-01-06
... exemptions would be requested for an unknown number of the remaining products. Although in theory the maximum... information. FDA requests comment on the burden and practical utility of the information being requested... ``any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly...
Criteria for substantiating claims.
Aggett, Peter J
2007-01-01
Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223
Kandori, Michihiro
1988-01-01
This paper provides a way to formulate a general equilibrium model with both infinite time horizon and continuous uncertainty by 2.space, and provides a si mple proof of the equiva-lence of equilibria in complete markets, inc omplete markets with sequential trading, and incomplete markets with one-shot trades in single consumer economies. The proof is general in the sense that it does not assume time-homogeneous structure nor smo othness of preferences. The result guarantees that one can avoi...
Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy
Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.
1996-01-01
The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy and...... traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....
Production of substantially pure fructose
Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.
1990-01-01
A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
2015-01-01
Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a...... state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
李良杰
2013-01-01
There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.
Characterization of revenue equivalence
Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc
2007-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly in¯nite) outcome space and many of the known results about revenue equivalence are immediate consequences.
Characterization of Revenue Equivalence
Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.J.; Uetz, M.J.; R. Vohra
2008-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds for any (possibly infinite) outcome space and many of the known results are immediate consequences. Moreover, revenue equivalence can be identified in cases where existing theor...
Characterization of revenue equivalence
Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, M.J.; Vohra, R.
2009-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds f
Characterization of revenue equivalence
Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc; Vohra, Rakesh
2008-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The cha
The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method
Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power
77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities
2012-06-12
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic...
Omidi Farshad; Molaei MohammadReza
2015-01-01
In this paper induced U-equivalence spaces are introduced and discussed. Also the notion of U- equivalently open subsets of a U-equivalence space and U-equivalently open functions are studied. Finally, equivalently uniformisable topological spaces are considered.
Correspondences. Equivalence relations
We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity
40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... market for the resulting product? Consider such constraints as capital and marketing cost,...
Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions
Changguo Wei
2010-04-01
In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.
Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?
Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.
2012-01-01
Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...
Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere
The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere
About the Substantiation of the Security Interest
Cristina PANTU
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Unlike the Civil Code of 1864, the current Code includes norms of common law and some application in different fields. The current regulation is not beyond criticisms given that part of doctrine seems tributary to the opinions formulated according to the previous norms. Starting from general provisions, we would like to point out that the substantiation of the security interest, in this new configuration, expands beyond the existence of a material connection between the receivable and the asset and the lawmaker has, upon the preparation of the Civil Code, a broader vision.
Substantial Learning Environments for Natural Differentiation
Tichá, Marie
Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého Olomouc, 2010 - (Uhlířová, M.). s. 63 ISBN 978-80-244-2512-2. [Matematické vzdělávání v kontextu proměn primární školy. 28.04.2010-30.04.2010, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Grant ostatní: Projekt COMENIUS(XE) 142453-LLP-1-2008-1-PL-COMENIUS-CMP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : natural differentiation * teachers' professional competences * substantial learning environment Subject RIV: AM - Education
Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172
Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)
2012-07-01
by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)
Equivalent Linkages of Compressor Mechanisms
Bukac, Hubert
2014-01-01
Frequently, the dynamics of a compressor’s mechanism can be simplified and better understood by analyzing compressor’s equivalent linkage. Although the equivalent linkage of a reciprocating piston compressor is well known, the equivalent linkages of other types of compressors are not. For example, it is not well understood that the equivalent linkage of a rolling piston compressor is also the same slider-crank mechanism as the one of a reciprocating piston compressor. The difference between r...
Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve
Georgeta Vintilã
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.
Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade
Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred
2016-02-01
Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.
Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.
Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M
2016-01-01
Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545
Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?
Sk., Nayem
2016-01-01
Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.
On equivalence and bioequivalence testing
Ocaña, Jordi; Sánchez, M. Pilar; Sánchez, Álex; Carrasco, Josep Lluís
2008-01-01
Equivalence testing is the natural approach to many statistical problems. First, its main application, bioequivalence testing, is reviewed. The basic concepts of bioequivalence testing (2×2 crossover designs, TOST, interval inclusion principle, etc.) and its problems (TOST biased character, the carryover problem, etc.) are considered. Next, equivalence testing is discussed more generally. Some applications and methods are reviewed and the relation of equivalence testing and distance-based...
Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence
Wellek, Stefan
2010-01-01
Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the
Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics
f Jamei
2009-06-01
Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.
Reflections on Equivalence in Translation
王皓
2011-01-01
The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence.To shed as much as possible light on theories and writings that have dealt with the notion of equivalence,this essay attempts to present a few in-depth reflections
Matching of equivalent field regions
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.
2005-01-01
In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting s...
Unitary equivalence of quantum walks
Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator
Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents
Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.
2012-01-01
Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...
Egalitarian Equivalence under Asymmetric Information
Geoffroy de Clippel; David Pérez-Castrillo and David Wettstein
2015-01-01
We propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency remain compatible, as they were under complete information. When incentive constraints are more restrictive, on the other hand,...
Egalitarian equivalence under asymmetric information
DE CLIPPEL, Geoffroy; Pérez-Castrillo, David; WETTSTEIN, David
2010-01-01
We propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency remain compatible, as they were under complete information. When incentive constraints are more restrictive, on the other hand,...
Equivalence translation of phraseological synonyms.
Yashchuk, Olena
2014-01-01
This article is devoted to phraseological English synonyms, interchangeability and translation equivalence. This paper examines the state of the phenomenon of synonymy in phraseology at present, classifies phraseological units and phraseological synonyms in particular, common translation techniques of idiomatic synonyms, according to different levels of equivalence. The scientific relevance of the work is a synthesis of the linguistic nature of phraseological synonyms, as well as organizing m...
Using tissue equivalent proportional counters to determine dose equivalent
Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used in the laboratory for over 30 years to determine neutron dose in mixed radiation fields, but they are seldom used by operational health physicists. But a number of TEPC-based instruments are being developed in Europe and in the United States. The purpose of this paper is: to introduce operational health physicists to tissue equivalent proportional counters, to examine some of the algorithms used to convert data from TEPCs into dose equivalent, to examine how TEPC measurements meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11 (DOE 1988) and 10CFR20, and to examine some of the TEPC-based instruments that are available. Many operational health physicists are not familiar with the concept of microdosimetry and the specialized terms that are used in analyzing the data from TEPCs, so a brief discussion is included. At present, quality factors are defined in terms of linear energy transfer, but TEPCs measure lineal energy
Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups
Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM
2001-01-01
Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S＇ = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S＇ and R＇ are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.
29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...
19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...
The Nature and Substantiation of Official Sexual Abuse Reports.
Eckenrode, John; And Others
1988-01-01
A sample of 796 New York sexual abuse reports was studied to explore factors associated with substantiation of the reports following an investigation. Substantiation rates increased with the child's age, and reports were more likely to be substantiated when they involved female children or came from a mandated source. (Author/JDD)
Sievert, gray and dose equivalent.
Pfalzner, P M
1983-12-01
The concepts of physical quantity and physical units of measurement are presented. The relations between quantities, the names and symbols for SI (International System) base units, derived units and special names of SI units are illustrated. From the definition of the radiation quantity dose equivalent, the SI unit for this quantity is shown to be dimensionally identical with the joule per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the special (restricted) name for the SI unit of the quantity dose equivalent, with 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. PMID:6668293
Affine varieties with equivalent cylinders
Yu, JT; Shpilrain, V
2001-01-01
A well-known cancellation problem asks when, for two algebraic varieties $V_1, V_2 \\subseteq {\\bf C}^n$, the isomorphism of the cylinders $V_1 \\times {\\bf C}$ and $V_2 \\times {\\bf C}$ implies the isomorphism of $V_1$ and $V_2$. In this paper, we address a related problem: when the equivalence (under an automorphism of ${\\bf C}^{n+1}$) of two cylinders $V_1 \\times {\\bf C}$ and $V_2 \\times {\\bf C}$ implies the equivalence of their bases $V_1$ and $V_2$ under an automorphism of ${\\bf C}^n$? We c...
Morita "equivalences" of equivariant torus spectral triples
Venselaar, Jan Jitse
2011-01-01
In general, Morita equivalence of spectral triples need not be a symmetric relation. In this paper, we show that Morita equivalence of spectral triples is an equivalence relation for equivariant torus spectral triples.
Dynamic Wavelet and Equivalent Models
Boaghe, O.M.; Billings, S A
1998-01-01
The representation of nonlinear dynamic wavelet models in the form of an equivalent global model which is valid over the operating range of the system is investigated. The results are used to analyse and interpret the nonlinear wavelet models using non-linear frequency response functions.
Comments on field equivalence principles
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1987-01-01
It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept but...
New applications of the VDmax approach to substantiation of preselected sterilization doses
Kowalski, J. B.
2012-08-01
The VDmax approach for substantiation of 25 kGy has been in use for more than 10 years. VDmax methods are included in ISO 11137-2:2006 and AAMI TIR33:2005. ISO Technical Specification, 13004, is under development that will include sterilization doses from 15 to 35 kGy. For substantiation of a sterilization dose for very low bioburden products, less than or equal to 0.3, values of VDmax have now been derived and tabulated for a sterilization dose of 12.5 kGy. Products have been encountered that have both low bioburden and a relatively low maximum dose. In several situations, existing tabulated VDmax values could not be effectively used; in one such situation, the average bioburden was too high to substantiate a 15 kGy sterilization dose and the use of a 17.5 kGy sterilization dose was not practicable due to the likelihood of exceeding the product's maximum acceptable dose. For this product, values of VDmax were derived and tabulated for substantiation of a 16.1 kGy sterilization dose. Values of VDmax have been derived and tabulated for the substantiation of sterilization doses linked to a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10-3. To offer a potential alternative to aseptic processing, the notion of using an "aseptic processing equivalent dose", 10-4 SAL, has been investigated along with the use of alternate model populations for calculation of VDmax values.
EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION
Cristina, Chifane
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.
The Constitution of the Human Embryo as Substantial Change.
Alvargonzález, David
2016-04-01
This paper analyzes the transformation from the human zygote to the implanted embryo under the prism of substantial change. After a brief introduction, it vindicates the Aristotelian ideas of substance and accident, and those of substantial and accidental change. It then claims that the transformation from the multicelled zygote to the implanted embryo amounts to a substantial change. Pushing further, it contends that this substantial change cannot be explained following patterns of genetic reductionism, emergence, and self-organization, and proposes Gustavo Bueno's idea of anamorphosis as a means to encapsulate criticism against such positions. PMID:26850033
Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures
Dallemule Marian
2015-09-01
Full Text Available There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI, which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11 since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.
Equivalent circuit analysis of sled
A direct application of equivalent circuit concepts leads to: (1) confirmation of Perry Wilson's SLED (SLAC Linac Energy Doubler) equation; (2) an equation that applies to a SLED device with input and output waveguides of different characteristic impedances; and (3) an equation that results if we demand that no power be lost by reflection from SLED. If the incident voltage is tailored as prescribed by this equation, the cavity voltage tracks the incident voltage and the reflected voltage is zero
Relative exchangeability with equivalence relations
Crane, Harry; Towsner, Henry
2016-01-01
We describe an Aldous--Hoover-type characterization of random relational structures that are exchangeable relative to a fixed structure which may have various equivalence relations. Our main theorem gives the common generalization of the results on relative exchangeability due to Ackerman \\cite{Ackerman2015} and Crane and Towsner \\cite{CraneTowsner2015} and hierarchical exchangeability results due to Austin and Panchenko \\cite{AustinPanchenko2014}.
Motor Equivalence in Speech Production
Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne
2015-01-01
International audience The first section provides a description of the concepts of “motor equivalence” and “degrees of freedom”. It is illustrated with a few examples of motor tasks in general and of speech production tasks in particular. In the second section, the methodology used to investigate experimentally motor equivalence phenomena in speech production is presented. It is mainly based on paradigms that perturb the perception-action loop during on-going speech, either by limiting the...
19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...
20 CFR 627.477 - Governor's determination of substantial violation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governor's determination of substantial... Standards § 627.477 Governor's determination of substantial violation. (a) Except as provided at paragraph (d) of this section, if, as a result of financial and compliance audits or otherwise, the...
Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*
Herbert Ernst Wiegand
2011-01-01
Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence) and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent), is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicograph...
On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works
吴娟
2013-01-01
As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.
Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency
Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut
2010-01-01
The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and du...
Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.
Benson, M D
2001-01-01
With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660
Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve
The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)
Recasting “Substantial Equivalence”: Transatlantic Governance of GM Food
Levidow, Les; Murphy, Joseph; Carr, Susan
2007-01-01
When an intense public controversy erupted around agricultural biotechnology in the late 1990s, critics found more opportunities to challenge risk-assessment criteria and test methods for GM products. In relation to GM food, they criticised the concept of “substantial equivalence”, which EU and US regulators had adopted as the basis for a harmonised “science-based” approach to risk assessment. Scientific uncertainty was framed in different ways by competing policy agendas. “Substantial equiv...
Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology
Kopeikin, Sergei M
2013-01-01
We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...
Ensemble Equivalence for Distinguishable Particles
Antonio Fernández-Peralta
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Statistics of distinguishable particles has become relevant in systems of colloidal particles and in the context of applications of statistical mechanics to complex networks. In this paper, we present evidence that a commonly used expression for the partition function of a system of distinguishable particles leads to huge fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble and, consequently, to nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. We will show that the alternative definition of the partition function including, naturally, Boltzmann’s correct counting factor for distinguishable particles solves the problem and restores ensemble equivalence. Finally, we also show that this choice for the partition function does not produce any inconsistency for a system of distinguishable localized particles, where the monoparticular partition function is not extensive.
Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem
Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.
From body burden to effective dose equivalent
The necessary data to calculate the effective committed dose equivalent and the effective dose-equivalent rate from measured body burdens are presented. Both ingestion and inhalation intakes are considered, for single intake as well as for continuous exposure
20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.
2010-04-01
... medical equivalence. For cases in the disability hearing process or otherwise decided by a disability hearing officer, the responsibility for determining medical equivalence rests with either the disability hearing officer or, if the disability hearing officer's reconsideration determination is changed...
Equivalence in Logic-Based Argumentation
Amgoud, Leila; Besnard, Philippe; Vesic, Srdjan
2014-01-01
International audience This paper investigates when two abstract logic-based argumentation systems are equivalent. It defines various equivalence criteria, investigates the links between them, and identifies cases where two systems are equivalent with respect to each of the proposed criteria. In particular, it shows that under some reasonable conditions on the logic underlying an argumentation system, the latter has an equivalent finite subsystem, called core. This core constitutes a thres...
2011-08-12
... August 5, 2010 (75 FR 47307). After reviewing public comment, CDRH issued a plan of action for.... Comments: Regardless of attendance at the public meeting, interested persons may submit either electronic... adequate information to inform the design of a new medical device regulatory framework for class II...
2013-11-20
... the draft guidance to the Office of Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM- 40), Center for... Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, MD...
Violation of the gauge equivalence
Khrapko, R I
2001-01-01
F. V. Gubarev et al. (``On the significance of the vector potential squared'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2220) have argued that the minimum value of the volume integral of the vector potential squared may have physical meaning, in defiance of the gauge equivalence of potentials. Earlier, R. I. Khrapko proposed a gauge noninvariant electrodynamics spin tensor (``Spin density of electromagnetic waves'', [1]). The standard electrodynamics spin tensor is zero. Here we point out that the Biot-Savarat formula uniquely results in a preferred, "true" vector potential field which is generated from a given magnetic field. A similar integral formula uniquely permits to find a "true" scalar potential field generated from a given electric field even in the case of a nonpotential electric field. We say that an exterior derivative of a differential form is the boundary of this form and the integration of a form results in a new form named the generation. Generating from a generation yields zero. A boundary is closed. A generatio...
Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models
Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor
2015-01-01
Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...
Justification of equivalence criteria for high-level waste from VVER-440 spent fuel reprocessing
The criterion of equivalence used in the 'Methodology for quantity calculation of high-level waste to be returned back to Ukraine after technological storage and reprocessing of VVER-440 spent fuel assemblies' is described and substantiated. It is shown that this criterion ensures radiation equivalence of high-level wastes (HLW) to be returned, as well as those from reprocessing of spent fuel assemblies of Ukrainian NPPs at all stage of subsequent treatment.
Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!
Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens
1996-01-01
languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent to...... communication free Petri nets. For this simple process language our two notions of non-interleaving equivalences agree. More interestingly, we show that they are decidable, contrasting a result of Hirshfeld that standard interleaving language equivalence is undecidable. Our result is inspired by a recent result......For finite-state systems non-interleaving equivalences are computationally at least as hard as interleaving equivalences. In this paper we show that when moving to infinite-state systems, this situation may change dramatically. We compare standard language equivalence for process description...
Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid
Cai Changchun
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are performed for the test of the equivalent model of micro-grid. The simulation results show that the equivalent model of micro-grid is effective, and the dynamic of equivalent model is similar with the detailed model of micro-grid. The equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid network and distributed components is suitable for the study of micro-grid.
The concept substantiation of selected technologies on deep coal processing
Present article is devoted to concept substantiation of selected technologies on deep coal processing. The basic aspects of coal gasification were studied. The selection state of optimal technology of coal gasification was considered. The optimal technologies of gas processing were proposed.
5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.
2010-01-01
... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement. (a) A criminal investigator shall be eligible for availability pay only if the annual average number of... (numerator) by the number of regular workdays (denominator). (b) For the purpose of this section,...
SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION
V. Y. Gurinovich
2011-01-01
Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.
2010-07-01
... posted on the Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office Web site, http://www.epa.gov/ceppo... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... form are based on the four statutory criteria found in section 322(b) of Title III. The information...
New applications of the VDmax approach to substantiation of preselected sterilization doses
The VDmax approach for substantiation of 25 kGy has been in use for more than 10 years. VDmax methods are included in ISO 11137-2:2006 and . ISO Technical Specification, 13004, is under development that will include sterilization doses from 15 to 35 kGy. For substantiation of a sterilization dose for very low bioburden products, less than or equal to 0.3, values of VDmax have now been derived and tabulated for a sterilization dose of 12.5 kGy. Products have been encountered that have both low bioburden and a relatively low maximum dose. In several situations, existing tabulated VDmax values could not be effectively used; in one such situation, the average bioburden was too high to substantiate a 15 kGy sterilization dose and the use of a 17.5 kGy sterilization dose was not practicable due to the likelihood of exceeding the product's maximum acceptable dose. For this product, values of VDmax were derived and tabulated for substantiation of a 16.1 kGy sterilization dose. Values of VDmax have been derived and tabulated for the substantiation of sterilization doses linked to a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10−3. To offer a potential alternative to aseptic processing, the notion of using an “aseptic processing equivalent dose”, 10−4 SAL, has been investigated along with the use of alternate model populations for calculation of VDmax values. - Highlights: ► Method VDmax is a safe and reliable method for substantiation of a sterilization dose. ► Values of VDmax have been calculated for a 12.5 kGy sterilization dose. ► Product-specific VDmax values can be calculated for special situations, e.g. VDmax16.1. ► Values of VDmax for SAL values other than 10−6 have been calculated and tabulated. ► VDmax values can be calculated based on alternate model microbial populations.
EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.
EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
2016-01-01
The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic ...
Health claims substantiation for probiotic and prebiotic products
Sanders, Mary Ellen; Heimbach, James T.; Pot, Bruno; Daniel J. Tancredi; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel; Bañares, Silvia
2011-01-01
The topic of >Health Claims Substantiation for Probiotic and Prebiotic Products> was discussed at the 8th annual International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) meeting. The topic is especially timely considering that the regulatory review process for health benefit claims on probiotic and prebiotic products in Europe has not resulted in a single claim being approved (120 negative opinions on probiotic claims and 19 negative opinions on prebiotic claims through Febr...
Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence
2005-01-01
The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. ...
Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*
Herbert Ernst Wiegand
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.
Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE
Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.
Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ
The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes
Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro;
1999-01-01
We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...
The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations
Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag
2010-01-01
The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... equality on ω is above equality on P (ω), the power set of ω, and any Borel equivalence relation strictly above equality on the reals is above equality modulo finite on P (ω). In this article we examine the effective content of these and related results by studying effectively Borel equivalence relations...
Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras
DING Huiru; Don Hadwin
2005-01-01
One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).
21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.
2010-04-01
... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...
21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.
2010-04-01
... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...
Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.
Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben
2016-01-01
Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if morphometric measures obtained under variable conditions can be pooled. The equivalence testing technique is
Zhongxian-Wuhan Pipeline Enters Substantial Construction Stage
无
2003-01-01
@@ The pipeline from Zhongxian in Chongqing to Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, constructed by PetroChina Pipelines Company has entered the substantial construction stage. Reportedly, this pipeline project is divided into one trunkline and three tributary lines - the QianjiangChangsha tributary, the ZhijiangXiangfan tributary and the WuhanHuangshi tributary. The total length of the pipeline is 1400 kilometers with the designed annual transmission capacity for 3 billion cubic meters. With an investment of 5.1 billion yuan, the Zhongxian-Wuhan pipeline is most difficult for construction in China owing to the very complicated geological conditions.
2010-10-01
... corporate structure of a vessel's company when determining the acceptability of an equivalent system... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at least... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has...
Arithmetic Operand Ordering for Equivalence Checking
WENG Yanling; GE Haitong; YAN Xiaolang; Ren Kun
2007-01-01
An information extraction-based technique is proposed for RTL-to-gate equivalence checking. Distances are calculated on directed acyclic graph (AIG). Multiplier and multiplicand are distinguished on multiplications with different coding methods, with which the operand ordering/grouping information could be extracted from a given implementation gate netlist, helping the RTL synthesis engine generate a gate netlist with great similarity. This technique has been implemented in an internal equivalence checking tool, ZD_VIS. Compared with the simple equivalence checking, the speed is accelerated by at least 40% in its application to a class of arithmetic designs, addition and multiplication trees. The method can be easily incorporated into existing RTL-to-gate equivalence checking frameworks, increasing the robustness of equivalence checking for arithmetic circuits.
Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer
2011-08-01
We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.
Substantiating Timing and Behavioral Anomalies in Wireless LANs Using GCL
Elankayer Sithirasenan
2008-11-01
Full Text Available With the increasing dependence on wireless LANs (WLANs, businesses, educational institutions and other organizations are in need of a reliable security mechanism. The latest security protocol, the IEEE 802.11i assures rigid security for WLANs with the support of IEEE 802.1x protocol for authentication, authorization and key distribution. Nevertheless, fresh security threats are emerging often to oust these new defense mechanisms. Further, many organizations based on superficial vendor literature, believe their wireless security is sufficient enough to prevent any unauthorized access. Having wide ranging options for security configurations, users are camouflaged into deep uncertainty. This volatile state of affairs has prevented many organizations from fully deploying WLANs for their secure communication needs, though WLANs may be cost effective and flexible. In this paper, we present a novel mechanism to detect and substantiate anomalies caused by both known and unknown security threats in WLANs. We monitor the wireless environment for timing and/or behavior anomalies during the security association process and use outlier based data association approaches to substantiate their legitimacy. The proposed concept was tested on our experimental setup. The results obtained from wireless hosts configured for EAP-LEAP, PEAP and TLS security association show high confidence for EAP group events.
COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES
Romashova Olga Vladimirovna
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.
2013-11-12
... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...
2012-06-01
... of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326- 54341). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...
2012-10-05
... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...
On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures
高新霞
2008-01-01
This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.
Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly
2008-01-01
Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…
Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia
Bilіanskyі L.S.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.
Conditions on Ramsey non-equivalence
Axenovich, Maria; Rollin, Jonathan; Ueckerdt, Torsten
2015-01-01
Given a graph H, a graph G is called a Ramsey graph of H if there is a monochromatic copy of H in every coloring of the edges of G with two colors. Two graphs G, H are called Ramsey equivalent if they have the same set of Ramsey graphs. Fox et al. [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 109 (2014), 120--133] asked whether there are two non-isomorphic connected graphs that are Ramsey equivalent. They proved that a clique is not Ramsey equivalent to any other connected graph. Results of Nesetril et al. showe...
Equivalences of twisted K3 surfaces
Huybrechts, Daniel; Stellari, Paolo
2004-01-01
We prove that two derived equivalent twisted K3 surfaces have isomorphic periods. The converse is shown for K3 surfaces with large Picard number. It is also shown that all possible twisted derived equivalences between arbitrary twisted K3 surfaces form a subgroup of the group of all orthogonal transformations of the cohomology of a K3 surface. The passage from twisted derived equivalences to an action on the cohomology is made possible by twisted Chern characters that will be introduced for a...
KIC011764567: An evolved object showing substantial flare-activity
Kitze, M; Hambaryan, V; Torres, G; Neuhäuser, R
2016-01-01
We intensively studied the flare activity on the stellar object KIC011764567. The star was thought to be solar type, with a temperature of $T_{eff} = (5640 \\pm 200)\\,$K, $\\log(g) = (4.3 \\pm 0.3)\\,$dex and a rotational period of Prot 22 d (Brown et al. 2011). High resolution spectra turn the target to an evolved object with Teff = (5300 \\pm 150) K, a metalicity of $[m/H] = (-0.5 \\pm 0.2)$, a surface gravity of $log(g) = (3.3 \\pm 0.4)\\,$dex, and a projected rotational velocity of $v sin i = (22 \\pm 1)\\,kms^{-1}$. Within an observing time span of 4 years we detected 150 flares in Kepler data in an energy range of $10^{36} - 10^{37}$ erg. From a dynamical Lomb-Scargle periodogram we have evidence for differential rotation as well as for stellar spot evolution and migration. Analysing the occurrence times of the flares we found hints for a periodic flare frequency cycle of $430 - 460 $d, the significance increases with an increasing threshold of the flares equivalent duration. One explanation is a very short activ...
Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping
2006-01-01
The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission equivalency evaluation report
This paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria
Nuclear Regulatory Commission equivalency evaluation report
Garvin, L.J.
1995-10-01
This paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria.
Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology
Mauro Francaviglia
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.
[Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].
Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L
2015-10-01
In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics. PMID:26146035
Integral equivalence of multidimensional differential systems
Gorbuzov, V. N.
2009-01-01
The bases of the theory of integrals for multidimensional differential systems are stated. The integral equivalence of total differential systems, linear homogeneous systems of partial differential equations, and Pfaff systems of equations is established.
Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation
王淼
2009-01-01
Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.
Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation
王淼
2009-01-01
Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.
Agency Full Time Equivalency Reporting System
US Agency for International Development — AFTERS provides an automated means for the Agency to report its full time equivalency work years to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and Office of...
Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection
Hernandez-Coronado, H., E-mail: hcoronado@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico); Okon, E., E-mail: eokon@filosoficas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico)
2013-11-08
The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule.
ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION
无
2006-01-01
This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.
Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data
Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.
2010-01-01
Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.
The Nonequivalence of High School Equivalents
Stephen V. Cameron; Heckman, James J.
1991-01-01
This paper analyzes the causes and consequences of the growing proportion of high-school-certified persons who achieve that status by exam certification rather than through high school graduation. Exam-certified high school equivalents are statistically indistinguishable from high school dropouts. Both dropouts and exam-certified equivalents have comparably poor wages, earnings, hours of work, unemployment experiences and job tenure. This is so whether or not ability measures are used to cont...
On the generation of equivalent hamiltonians
A new approach to the equivalence problem (in phase space) is presented. Given a Hamiltonian describing a system of particles with two degrees of freedom (and the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation), it is shown how to find the most general family of Hamiltonian functions that generates new Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the following (and essential) characteristic, here defined as equivalence: every new solution is also a solution of the original Hamilton-Jacobi equation and vice-versa. (Author)
Fucoidan Promotes the Reconstruction of Skin Equivalents
Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok
2014-01-01
In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased exp...
Dark matter and the equivalence principle
Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1993-01-01
A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.
On Equivalence Results in Business Cycle Accounting
NUTAHARA Kengo; Inaba, Masaru
2008-01-01
Business cycle accounting rests on the insight that the prototype neoclassical growth model with time-varying wedges can achieve the same allocation generated by a large class of frictional models: equivalence results. Equivalence results are shown under general conditions about the process of wedges while it is often specified to be the first order vector autoregressive when one applies business cycle accounting to actual data. In this paper, we characterize the class of models covered by th...
Notions of Equivalence in Software Design
King, David; Kimble, Chris
2004-01-01
Design methods in information systems frequently create software descriptions using formal languages. Nonetheless, most software designers prefer to describe software using natural languages. This distinction is not simply a matter of convenience. Natural languages are not the same as formal languages; in particular, natural languages do not follow the notions of equivalence used by formal languages. In this paper, we show both the existence and coexistence of different notions of equivalence...
The equivalence principle and spatial curvature
An examination is made of the connection between the equivalence principle of general relativity and the non-Euclidean properties of space. The arguments commonly advanced to suggest a necessary connection between these two features of general relativity are reviewed and critically discussed. It is shown that although gravitational time dilation is an immediate consequence of the equivalence principle the corresponding effects on space are not such immediate or logically necessary consequences of this principle. (author)
Explicit Homotopy Equivalences Between Some Operads
Hoefel, Eduardo
2011-01-01
In this work we present an explicit operad morphism that is also a homotopy equivalence between the operad given by the real Fulton MacPherson compactification of configuration spaces and the little $n$-disks operad. In particular, the construction gives an operadic homotopy equivalence between the associahedra and the little intervals explicitly. It can also be extended to the case of Kontsevich compactification and Voronov swiss-cheese operad.
Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.
Sidman, M
2000-01-01
Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...
Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.
Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A
2016-08-01
The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520
Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old
Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.
2016-02-01
Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.
Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene
Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-06
Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.
Embedding spacetime via a geodesically equivalent metric of Euclidean signature
Jonsson, Rickard
2001-01-01
Starting from the equations of motion in a 1 + 1 static, diagonal, Lorentzian spacetime, such as the Schwarzschild radial line element, I find another metric, but with Euclidean signature, which produces the same geodesics x(t). This geodesically equivalent, or dual, metric can be embedded in ordinary Euclidean space. On the embedded surface freely falling particles move on the shortest path. Thus one can visualize how acceleration in a gravitational field is explained by particles moving freely in a curved spacetime. Freedom in the dual metric allows us to display, with substantial curvature, even the weak gravity of our Earth. This may provide a nice pedagogical tool for elementary lectures on general relativity. I also study extensions of the dual metric scheme to higher dimensions. In an addendum I extend the analysis concerning the shape of an embedding of the dual spacetime of a line through a planet of constant proper density.
Markov Equivalences for Subclasses of Loopless Mixed Graphs
Sadeghi, Kayvan
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss four problems regarding Markov equivalences for subclasses of loopless mixed graphs. We classify these four problems as finding conditions for internal Markov equivalence, which is Markov equivalence within a subclass, for external Markov equivalence, which is Markov equivalence between subclasses, for representational Markov equivalence, which is the possibility of a graph from a subclass being Markov equivalent to a graph from another subclass, and finding algorithm...
Pressure equivalents in industrial gas pipelines
Metel' kov, V.P.
1980-01-01
Pressure equivalence is a mathematical concept used to explain action and load parameters for pipelines. These two parameters are congruent to pressures encountered in pipelines. The research examined pressure equivalence in 820 by 8 millimeter pipelines in the Samotlor region and took into account the influence of support jams during first and second category jamming. It was determined that the absolute dimensions to pressure pulsations were significantly larger than plus or minus ten percent from (Prab) and even exceeded (Prab) in certain instances. The ratios at which (Prab) can be exceeded vary with relation to the jam supports and the maximum variations stem from yield in the metal pipelines themselves. The above concepts can be used to study the effects of pressure equivalence upon loads and pressures of Samotlor field pipelines and to select appropriate pipeline planning and construction methods. The conclusions drawn are valid for industrial surface pipelines used at below limit pressures. Annular and daily temperature variations in the outside air are considered with regard to their effect upon the pressure equivalence within the lower sections of the pipeline. Deviations here have been noted to exceed (formula). It was observed that in the case of underground pipelines, operated at below limit pressures, pressure equivalence occured in the upper section of the pipeline.
Estimates of snow water equivalent derived from measurements of the attenuation of terrestrial gamma radiation emitted by potassium are systematically biased downward if substantial amounts of forest biomass exist in the region where the radiation measurements are obtained. The degree of underestimation is a function of the amount and type of biomass. The effects of these factors on the snow water equivalent estimate are examined, and a means of correcting for the downward bias is given. The methodology presented can aid National Weather Service hydrologists in improving river and flood forecasts, water supply forecasts, and spring flood outlooks for large areas of the United States and Canada
Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean
Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.
2012-12-01
In another presentation (Hamoudi et al., this meeting), we present the construction of a new candidate for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) over oceanic areas. This map is based on: (a) a more realistic forward modeling of the marine magnetic anomalies which includes remanent magnetization vectors taking into account the age and motion of the oceanic lithosphere; (b) evaluation of the equivalent magnetization by comparison of the synthetic and observed anomalies along ship tracks; and (c) adjustment of the synthetic anomaly maps using this equivalent magnetization prior to merging with the observed anomalies. A by-product of this approach is a global distribution of equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean. Note that, because no global basement map exists for the oceanic areas, we assume a uniform, 5 km-deep and 1 km-thick magnetized layer for the forward model. The resulting equivalent magnetization is therefore relative to this over-simplistic magnetic source. A first observation is that, within the hypotheses of the forward model, the average equivalent magnetization is about 3 A/m, a value which compares well with the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on ancient basalt samples. As expected, the mid-ocean ridges are marked by stronger equivalent magnetizations, an observation which reflects both the stronger NRM measured at ridge axes and their shallower bathymetry (not taken into account in our forward model). More interesting is the observation of significant along-axis variations. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Kolbeinsey and Reykjanes ridges around Iceland are marked by a very strong equivalent magnetization and the Azores Plateau by a strong one as well.. Again this may reflect the combined effect of shallower seafloor, thicker and/or more magnetized basaltic layer at hotspots. In contrast, the areas between 45 and 55°N and between 0 and 10°N (Equatorial FZ) correspond to a weak equivalent magnetization. Further south
Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle
A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics
Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters
To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (en/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement (tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application
On the Equivalence of Quadratic APN Functions
Byrne, Eimear; McGuire, Gary; Nebe, Gabriele
2011-01-01
Establishing the CCZ-equivalence of a pair of APN functions is generally quite difficult. In some cases, when seeking to show that a putative new infinite family of APN functions is CCZ inequivalent to an already known family, we rely on computer calculation for small values of n. In this paper we present a method to prove the inequivalence of quadratic APN functions with the Gold functions. Our main result is that a quadratic function is CCZ-equivalent to an APN Gold function if and only if it is EA-equivalent to that Gold function. As an application of this result, we prove that a trinomial family of APN functions that exist on finite fields of order 2^n where n = 2 mod 4 are CCZ inequivalent to the Gold functions. The proof relies on some knowledge of the automorphism group of a code associated with such a function.
Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems
We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in Rn of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small (*) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large (**). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy (**). (author). 18 refs
Equivalence between XY and dimerized models
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco
2010-06-01
The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.
Equivalence between XY and dimerized models
The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.
Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle
Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande
2011-01-01
The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.
Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters
Zhang, Xueqian
2011-01-01
An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.
Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence
V. DE BONIS
1998-09-01
Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.
Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions
Sheng Yong PAN
2016-01-01
Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.
Are Aryabhata's and Galilean Relativity Equivalent?
Narayan, R. H.
2008-01-01
This paper considers the question of whether Aryabhata's direct and indirect references to relativity of motion are equivalent to Galilean Relativity. Examining verses fom different sections of the text Aryabhatiya, we show that there is explicit mention of relativity of space and motion, although there is no explicit reference to the motion being uniform.
Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences
Sidman, Murray
1971-01-01
A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…
Structural Equivalence in a Journal Network.
Doreian, Patrick; Fararo, Thomas J.
1985-01-01
Techniques used in contemporary social network analysis are applied to citation data for a network of journals from three time periods--1970/71, 1975/76, 1980/81. Blocks or positions in journal network based on structural equivalence correspond closely to categorization by aims and objectives. Hypotheses concerning journal networks are advanced.…
GIT-equivalence and diagonal actions
Kotenkova, Polina Yu.
2010-01-01
We describe the GIT-equivalence classes of linearized ample line bundles for the diagonal actions of the linear algebraic groups $SL(V)$ and $SO(V)$ on ${\\mathbb{P}(V)^{m_1}\\times \\mathbb{P}(V^*)^{m_2}}$ and $\\mathbb{P}(V)^m$ respectively.
Equivalence of energy methods in stability theory
Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea
2006-01-01
We will prove the equivalence of three methods, the so called energy methods, for establishing the stability of an equilibrium point for a dynamical system. We will illustrate by examples that this result simplifies enormously the amount of computations especially when the stability can not be decided with one of the three methods.
Equivalent substitution in the control theory
Proudnikov, Igor
2012-01-01
A system of differential equations with control is considered. A rule for equivalent substitution of this system is given. The system of differential equations is changed for two systems with upper and lower approximation functions of a function on the right side of the initial system in a region of attainability.
THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES
Lin-Tian Luh
2001-01-01
In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.
Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany
Charlier, E.
1997-01-01
Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions fo
An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping
Pécseli, Hans
1976-01-01
An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....
Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking
Haberman, Shelby J.
2015-01-01
Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…
On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes
YANG Ji-Feng
2002-01-01
We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.
Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules
Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne
2014-01-01
Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...
Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes
Zesheng LU; Binghui MA
2008-01-01
In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.
Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules
Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne
2015-01-01
Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...
Average Equivalent Diameter of A Particulate Material
AL-MAGHRABI, Mohammed-Noor N. H.
2010-01-01
In the field of mineral processing, it is important to determine the size of a particle. A method of defining an average diameter for a collection of particles is presented. The theoretical basis developed for the purpose is verified by a specially designed experimental technique. Key words: mineral processing, particle size, equivalent diameter
CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence
Fitch, V. L.
1972-03-23
Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.
Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat
Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.
1960-01-01
By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.
Covering line graphs with equivalence relations
Esperet, L; King, A
2010-01-01
An equivalence graph is a disjoint union of cliques, and the equivalence number $\\mathit{eq}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of equivalence subgraphs needed to cover the edges of $G$. We consider the equivalence number of a line graph, giving improved upper and lower bounds: $\\frac 13 \\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) < \\mathit{eq}(L(G)) \\leq 2\\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) + 2$. This disproves a recent conjecture that $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ is at most three for triangle-free $G$; indeed it can be arbitrarily large. To bound $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ we bound the closely-related invariant $\\sigma(G)$, which is the minimum number of orientations of $G$ such that for any two edges $e,f$ incident to some vertex $v$, both $e$ and $f$ are oriented out of $v$ in some orientation. When $G$ is triangle-free, $\\sigma(G)=\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$. We prove that even when $G$ is triangle-free, it is NP-complete to decide whether or not $\\sigma(G)\\leq 3$.
Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data
Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.
2012-12-01
Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence
Modified Equivalent Circuit for Organic Solar Cells
Hossain, Nazmul
In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.
On the equivalence of GPD representations
Müller, Dieter
2016-01-01
Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. We review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the $t$-channel ${\\rm SO}(3)$ partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs.
Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?
Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel
2010-10-01
The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.
Orbit equivalent substitution dynamical systems and complexity
Bezuglyi, S
2012-01-01
For any primitive proper substitution \\sigma, we give explicit constructions of countably many pairwise non-isomorphic substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})}_{n=1}^{\\infty} such that they all are (strong) orbit equivalent to (X_{\\sigma}, T_{\\sigma}). We show that the complexity of the substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})} is essentially different that prevents them from being isomorphic. Given a primitive (not necessarily proper) substitution \\tau, we find a stationary simple properly ordered Bratteli diagram with the least possible number of vertices such that the corresponding Bratteli-Vershik system is orbit equivalent to (X_{\\tau}, T_{\\tau}).
Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint
Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong
2016-07-01
The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.
Galilean Equivalence for Galactic Dark Matter
Kesden, M; Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc
2006-01-01
Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way experience a tidal disruption as they orbit in the Milky Way's dark halo. While the bound core of the satellite remains dominated by dark matter, the tidally disrupted stars behave like purely baryonic tracers of the Milky Way's potential well. If dark matter experiences a stronger self attraction than visible matter, stars will preferentially gain rather than lose energy during tidal disruption. This leads to a relative enhancement in the trailing as compared to the leading tidal stream. We show that the absence of a strong asymmetry in the surface brightness of the leading and trailing tidal streams already constrains the equivalence of acceleration of dark matter and baryons in a gravitational field to less than ten percent--thus ruling out a recently proposed mechanism to clear dwarf galaxies from voids. Future observations should be sensitive at the percent level to departures from the equivalence of dark matter and baryons.
Scaling Laws for Hydrodynamically Equivalent Implosions
Murakami, Masakatsu
2001-10-01
The EPOC (equivalent physics of confinement) scenario for the proof of principle of high gain inertial confinement fusion is presented, where the key concept "hydrodynamically equivalent implosions" plays a crucial role. Scaling laws on the target and confinement parameters are derived by applying the Lie group analysis to the PDE (partially differential equations) chain of the hydrodynamic system. It turns out that the conventional scaling law based on adiabatic approximation significantly differs from one which takes such energy transport effect as electron heat conduction into account. Confinement plasma parameters of the hot spot such as the central temperature and the areal mass density at peak compression are obtained with a self-similar solution for spherical implosions.
Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle
Adunas, G Z; Ahluwalia, D V
2001-01-01
The joint realm of quantum mechanics and the general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we present arguments that support the view that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principl...
Equivalent functions for the Fresnel integral.
Umul, Yusuf
2005-10-17
Fresnel integral is modeled with three equivalent functions. The first function is derived by considering the sum of the first term of the Fresnel integral's asymptotic expansion {F(x)} and an exponential function which approaches to infinity at the zero of the Fresnel function's argument and has the properties of a unit step function. The second one is the sum of a unit step function and the transition function defined for the simplified uniform theory of diffraction. The third function considers directly eliminating the infinity coming from F(x). The amplitude and the phase of Fresnel integral and its equivalent functions are compared numerically. The result is applied to the modified theory of physical optics solution of the diffraction of edge waves from a half plane problem. PMID:19498877
Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment
Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob
2015-01-01
A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such...... bifurcation points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions
Obiekezie, Chijioke S.
2016-01-01
This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems. For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...
Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance
Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.
The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept
Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.
1978-01-01
A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.
Equivalence of polynomial conjectures in additive combinatorics
Lovett, Shachar
2010-01-01
We study two conjectures in additive combinatorics. The first is the polynomial Freiman-Ruzsa conjecture, which relates to the structure of sets with small doubling. The second is the inverse Gowers conjecture for $U^3$, which relates to functions which locally look like quadratics. In both cases a weak form, with exponential decay of parameters is known, and a strong form with only a polynomial loss of parameters is conjectured. Our main result is that the two conjectures are in fact equivalent.
Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system
Qi Dong-Lian
2006-01-01
An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.
Quantum Mechanics from an Equivalence Principle
Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco
1999-01-01
We show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action $\\S_0$ satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Möbius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schrödinger equation in any dimension.
Electromagnetic Boundaries with PEC/PMC Equivalence
Lindell, Ismo V
2016-01-01
The most general electromagnetic boundary, defined by linear and local boundary conditions, is defined in terms of conditions which can be called generalized impedance boundary conditions. Requiring that the boundary be equivalent to PEC and PMC boundaries for its two eigen-plane waves, which property is known to exist for many of its special cases, it is shown that the recently introduced Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB (GSHDB) boundary is the most general boundary satisfying this property.
Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle
The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension
Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany
Charlier, E.
1997-01-01
Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions for child allowances, social benefits and to assess the cost of children over the life-cycle for example. The latter is also interesting from a theoretical point of view, especially if future events ...
Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle
The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10-14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10-15; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10-18. Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described
Equivalence of the Einstein and Jordan frames
Postma, Marieke; Volponi, Marco
2014-01-01
No experiment can measure an absolute scale: every dimensionfull quantity has to be compared to some fixed unit scale in order to be measured, and thus only dimensionless quantities are really physical. The Einstein and Jordan frame are related by a conformal transformation of the metric, which amounts to rescaling all length scales. Since the absolute scale cannot be measured, both frames describe the same physics, and are equivalent. In this article we make this explicit by rewriting the ac...
Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle
Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)
1997-05-15
The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.
On the equivalence of GPD representations
Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill
2016-01-01
Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of...
Higgs Physics and the Equivalence Theorem
Riesselmann, Kurt
1995-01-01
The equivalence theorem is an extremely useful tool to calculate heavy Higgs {\\it and} top-quark effects for processes that have center-of-mass-energies (much) larger than the $W$ boson mass. After an explanation of the renormalization procedures involved, the results for one- and two-loop radiative corrections to the fermionic Higgs decay, $H\\rightarrow f\\bar f$, are given and discussed. Finally, the renormalization scheme dependence is examined, and the reliability of the perturbative serie...
The Equivalence Theorem and Effective Lagrangians
Grosse-Knetter, Carsten; Kuss, Ingolf
1994-01-01
We point out that the equivalence theorem, which relates the amplitude for a process with external longitudinally polarized vector bosons to the amplitude in which the longitudinal vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding pseudo-Goldstone bosons, is not valid for effective Lagrangians. However, a more general formulation of this theorem also holds for effective interactions. The generalized theorem can be utilized to determine the high-energy behaviour of scattering processes just by p...
Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector
Kroyter, Michael
2009-01-01
We extend the classical equivalence between the cubic and the non-polynomial open superstring field theories to the Ramond sector. To that end we find mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. We show that the gauge symmetry of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic theory suffers from collisions of picture changing operators. Our mapping works at the level of the linearized gauge transformation, which is well-defined. Nonetheless, the familiar form of the cubic theory is inconsistent and should be modified. Hence, at this level, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. At the non-polynomial theory the Ramond sector is described using two constrained string fiel...
Dioxin equivalency: Challenge to dose extrapolation
Brown, J.F. Jr.; Silkworth, J.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)
1995-12-31
Extensive research has shown that all biological effects of dioxin-like agents are mediated via a single biochemical target, the Ah receptor (AhR), and that the relative biologic potencies of such agents in any given system, coupled with their exposure levels, may be described in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQ). It has also shown that the TEQ sources include not only chlorinated species such as the dioxins (PCDDs), PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, but also non-chlorinated substances such as the PAHs of wood smoke, the AhR agonists of cooked meat, and the indolocarbazol (ICZ) derived from cruciferous vegetables. Humans have probably had elevated exposures to these non-chlorinated TEQ sources ever since the discoveries of fire, cooking, and the culinary use of Brassica spp. Recent assays of CYP1A2 induction show that these ``natural`` or ``traditional`` AhR agonists are contributing 50--100 times as much to average human TEQ exposures as do the chlorinated xenobiotics. Currently, the safe doses of the xenobiotic TEQ sources are estimated from their NOAELs and large extrapolation factors, derived from arbitrary mathematical models, whereas the NOAELs themselves are regarded as the safe doses for the TEQs of traditional dietary components. Available scientific data can neither support nor refute either approach to assessing the health risk of an individual chemical substance. However, if two substances be toxicologically equivalent, then their TEQ-adjusted health risks must also be equivalent, and the same dose extrapolation procedure should be used for both.
TNT equivalency of M10 propellant
Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.
1978-01-01
Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.
Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters
Sellakumar, P. [Bangalore Institute of Oncology, 44-45/2, II Cross, RRMR Extension, Bangalore-560 027 (India)]. E-mail: psellakumar@rediffmail.com; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E. [School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632 014 (India); Supe, Sanjay S. [Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 027 (India)
2007-07-15
To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}), electron density ({rho}{sub e}), photon mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), photon mass energy absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and total stopping power (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (<1%) to that of water except PAGAT, MAGAT and NIPAM which had the variation of 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The value of {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} for all polymer gels were in close agreement (<1%) with that of water beyond 80keV. The value of (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application.
Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds
Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras, Cadiz (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/ Alfonso X, n 28. 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)
2009-03-15
As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time. (author)
Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds
As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time
Approximate trace and singleton failures equivalences for transition systems
Chao Wang; Jinzhao Wu; Hongyan Tan
2015-01-01
Established system equivalences for transition systems, such as trace equivalence and failures equivalence, require the ob-servations to be exactly identical. However, an accurate measure-ment is impossible when interacting with the physical world, hence exact equivalence is restrictive and not robust. Using Baire met-ric, a generalized framework of transition system approximation is proposed by developing the notions of approximate language equivalence and approximate singleton failures (SF) equivalence. The framework takes the traditional exact equivalence as a special case. The approximate language equivalence is coarser than the approximate SF equivalence, just like the hierarchy of the exact ones. The main conclusion is that the two approximate equiva-lences satisfy the transitive property, consequently, they can be successively used in transition system approximation.
Open maps, behavioural equivalences, and congruences
Cheng, Allan; Nielsen, Mogens
Spans of open maps have been proposed by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel as a way of adjoining an abstract equivalence, P-bisimilarity, to a category of models of computation M, where P is an arbitrary sub-category of observations. Part of the motivation was to recast and generalise Milner's well...... viewed as functors preserve P-bisimilarity? We define the notion of functors being P -factorisable, show how this ensures that P-bisimilarity is a congruence with respect to such functors. Guided by the definition of P-factorisability we show how it is possible to parametrise proofs of functors being P...
Real Options Valuation Based on Certainty Equivalents
Cecilia Maya Ochoa
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This purpose of this research is to identify appropriate rates to discount the flows from real options in situations in which the risk-free rate does not apply, in particular, in incomplete markets. A methodology is proposed for valuing real options based on certainty equivalence, which requires as a principal condition the consideration of preferences represented with utility functions. A constant relative risk aversion (CRRA utility function is used to represent these preferences. The results indicate that this methodology adequately reflects how the value of a real option changes in accordance with an investor´s preferences.
Equivalent linearization technique for quantum anharmonic oscillators
Quantum dynamics means studying the evolution of an initially prescribed wave function. This is analytically tractable for special wavefunctions for the simplest of the situations—free particle and simple harmonic oscillator. The purely anharmonic oscillators are virtually impossible to handle. We show here that the study of Ehrenfest's equation provides an alternative route to studying quantum dynamics. It does not give exact answers but clarifies some basic aspects of quantum dynamics by providing a prescription for constructing equivalent simple harmonic oscillators. (paper)
The equivalence principle in a quantum world
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-09-01
We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).
Mechanical equivalent of quantum heat engines.
Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice
2008-06-01
Quantum heat engines employ as working agents multilevel systems instead of classical gases. We show that under some conditions quantum heat engines are equivalent to a series of reservoirs at different altitudes containing balls of various weights. A cycle consists of picking up at random a ball from one reservoir and carrying it to the next, thereby performing or absorbing some work. In particular, quantum heat engines, employing two-level atoms as working agents, are modeled by reservoirs containing balls of weight 0 or 1. The mechanical model helps us prove that the maximum efficiency of quantum heat engines is the Carnot efficiency. Heat pumps and negative temperatures are considered. PMID:18643212
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors
Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A
2009-08-31
We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.
The Goldstone boson equivalence theorem with fermions
Durand, Loyal; Riesselmann, Kurt
1995-01-01
The calculation of the leading electroweak corrections to physical transition matrix elements in powers of $M_H^2/v^2$ can be greatly simplified in the limit $M_H^2\\gg M_W^2,\\, M_Z^2$ through the use of the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. This theorem allows the vector bosons $W^\\pm$ and $Z$ to be replaced by the associated scalar Goldstone bosons $w^\\pm$, $z$ which appear in the symmetry breaking sector of the Standard Model in the limit of vanishing gauge couplings. In the present pape...
20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...
20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work... or profit, whether or not a profit is realized. (c) Some other activities. Generally, we do...
20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 404.1572 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work... or profit, whether or not a profit is realized. (c) Some other activities. Generally, we do...
Equivalence of open/closed strings
Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2015-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...
A new concept of equivalent homogenization method
A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The offered concept covers both those of K. Koebke and K. Smith; both of them can be simulated within framework of new concept. Also, the offered concept covers Siemens KWU approach for baffle/reflector simulation, where the equivalent homogenized reflector XS are derived from the conservation of response matrix at the interface in 1D simi-infinite slab geometry. The IM and XS of new concept satisfy the same assumption about response matrix conservation in 1D semi-infinite slab geometry. It is expected that the new concept provides more accurate approximation of heterogeneous cell, especially in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are: improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith's approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b) control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO2/MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANDOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions. 9 figs., 7 refs. (Author)
Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence
Newell, David B.
2000-04-01
Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.
Local unitary versus local Clifford equivalence of stabilizer states
We study the relation between local unitary (LU) equivalence and local Clifford (LC) equivalence of stabilizer states. We introduce a large subclass of stabilizer states, such that every two LU equivalent states in this class are necessarily LC equivalent. Together with earlier results, this shows that LC, LU, and stochastic local operation with classical communication equivalence are the same notions for this class of stabilizer states. Moreover, recognizing whether two given stabilizer states in the present subclass are locally equivalent only requires a polynomial number of operations in the number of qubits
Development of a Brachytherapy Software Nomogram Equivalent
The main objective of this project is developing a software nomogram equivalent. A nomogram is a graph typically comprised of three parallel lines. Each of the lines is graduated for a different variable, often in a non-linear scale. The lines are oriented in such a manner that if a straight line is drawn connecting two of the three variables, the value of the third variable is uniquely determined by the intersection of the connecting line and the graduated line of the third variable. The value of the third variable is determined by reading the graduated scale at the point of intersection. A nomogram as applied in brachytherapy is used for determining the required amount of radioactive material to be implanted in a diseased site. A typical brachytherapy nomogram relates the average dimension of a site, the air kerma strength per source and the number of sources required for yielding a therapeutic radiation dose to the site. More sophisticated nomograms also provide scales for recommending source and needle spacings. For decades the nomogram has been clinically employed as a brachytherapy treatment planning tool. Imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasound ushered in modern image-based brachytherapy treatment planning. These modern imaging techniques dramatically advanced the state of the art of brachytherapy, often obviating the use of nomograms. Although the routine use of nomograms has decreased, there are clinical situations where nomograms still prove useful for brachytherapy treatment planning. Often times the dimensions of a tumor or tumor bed are not known prior to surgery and delineated images of the site are not available. In such situations the tumor dimensions can be measured in the OR and a nomogram applied for rapid treatment planning. By definition a nomogram is a graphical tool, which is fixed and cannot be modified. Differences of opinion and treatment philosophies exist among physicians and institutions. These varying approaches can lead to
2013-03-04
... Federal Register of July 19, 2007 (72 FR 39631), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions... availability of the guidance entitled ``Pulse Oximeters--Premarket Notification Submissions .'' This...
2011-07-27
... the Utilization of Science in Regulatory Decision Making Preliminary Report and Recommendations... Manufacturers, International, and Consumer Assistance, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug... legally marketed device. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time....
2011-12-28
... Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and...) Paradigm Guidance. FDA recognizes and supports efforts for global convergence of regulatory systems, and...
Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test
Frápolli, Maria J.; Villanueva, Neftalí
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom–up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690
On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits
Kagan, Mikhail
2015-01-01
While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.
Equivalent topological invariants of topological insulators
Wang Zhong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Qi Xiaoliang; Zhang Shoucheng, E-mail: sczhang@stanford.ed [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2010-06-15
A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological insulator can be generally defined by the effective topological field theory with a quantized {theta} coefficient, which can only take values of 0 or {pi}. This theory is generally valid for an arbitrarily interacting system and the quantization of the {theta} invariant can be directly measured experimentally. Reduced to the case of a non-interacting system, the {theta} invariant can be expressed as an integral over the entire three-dimensional Brillouin zone. Alternatively, non-interacting insulators can be classified by topological invariants defined over discrete TR invariant momenta. In this paper, we show the complete equivalence between the integral and the discrete invariants of the topological insulator.
Theoretical Aspects of the Equivalence Principle
Damour, Thibault
2012-01-01
We review several theoretical aspects of the Equivalence Principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics while General Relativity, and its generalizations (Kaluza-Klein,..., String Theory), suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall the various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related t...
FUZZY ORDER EQUIVALENT CLASS WITH UNCERTAINTY
Wei ZHOU; Mingzhe WANG
2005-01-01
It is a new research topic to create a rational judgment matrix using the cognition theory because of the construction of judgment matrix in AHP involving the decision-maker's cognitive activities.Owing to the presence of uncertain information in the decision procedure, the improper use of the uncertain information will doubtless cause weight changes. In this paper, we add a feedforward process prior to constructing the judgment matrix so that the decision maker can use both the certain and uncertain information to get the initial uncertain rough judgment matrix, and then convert it into a fuzzy matrix. Consequently, it will be better for decision maker to obtain the rough set of order equivalent classes through the decision graph. According to the qualitative analysis, the decision maker can easily construct the final judgment matrix instructed by the rough set created earlier.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Gravitational Waves
Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jun-Jie; Fan, Xi-Long; Mészáros, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2016-01-01
A conservative constraint on the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) can be obtained under the assumption that the observed time delay between correlated particles from astronomical sources is dominated by the gravitational fields through which they move. Current limits on the EEP are mainly based on the observed time delays of photons with different energies, and it is highly desirable to develop more accurate tests involving different types of particles. The expected detection by the advanced LIGO/VIRGO systems of gravitational waves (GWs) will provide attractive candidates for constraining the EEP, which would further extend the tested particle species to the gravitons, with potentially higher accuracy. Considering the capabilities of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network and the source direction uncertainty, we propose that the joint detectioin of GWs and electromagnetic signals could potentially probe the EEP to an accuracy of $10^{-11}$, which is several orders of magnitude tighter than previous limits.
Equivalency and unbiasedness of grey prediction models
Bo Zeng; Chuan Li; Guo Chen; Xianjun Long
2015-01-01
In order to deeply research the structure discrepancy and modeling mechanism among different grey prediction mo-dels, the equivalence and unbiasedness of grey prediction mo-dels are analyzed and verified. The results show that al the grey prediction models that are strictly derived from x(0)(k) +az(1)(k) = b have the identical model structure and simulation precision. Moreover, the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence can be accomplished. However, the models derived from dx(1)/dt+ax(1) =b are only close to those derived from x(0)(k)+az(1)(k)=b provided that|a|has to satisfy|a| < 0.1; neither could the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence be achieved. The above conclusions are proved and verified through some theorems and examples.
Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures
Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2016-01-01
We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...
Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents
Guanglei Li
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.
Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle
Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath
2016-03-01
We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.
Equivalent Resistance in Pulse Electric Current Sintering
无
2002-01-01
The sintering resistance for conductive TiB2 and non-conductive Al2O3 as well as empty die during pulse current sintering were investigated in this paper.Equivalent resistances were measured by current and valtage during sintering the conductive and non-conductive materials in the same conditions.It is found that the current paths for conductive are different from those for non-conductive materials.For non-conductive materials,sintering resistances are influenced by powder sizes and heating rates,which indicates that pulse current has some interaction with non-conductive powders.For conductive TiB2,sintering resistances are influenced by heating rates and ball-milling time,which indicates the effect of powders activated by spark.
Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence
Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor
2014-01-01
In this work, we analyse two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling canonically-normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.
Klein factors and Fermi-Bose Equivalence
Lee, Taejin
2015-01-01
Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that $(1+1)$ dimensional fermion theories with arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess any nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known $(1+1)$ dimensional theories have been discussed.
Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence
Lee, Taejin
2016-06-01
Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.
Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.
Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690
Serious limitations of the strong equivalence principle
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
We study decoherent Larmor radiation from an accelerated neutral composite object. We find that the neutral object's long wavelength radiation is highly suppressed because radiation from different charges is canceled out. However, the neutral object radiates high energy or short wavelength radiation without any suppression. In that case, radiation from each particle can be treated independently, and it is called the decoherent radiation. We compare an accelerated hydrogen atom decoherent radiation with its gravitational radiation. For the long wavelengths, gravitational radiation is stronger than electromagnetic radiation, but for the short wavelengths, the situation is opposite. Our result implies that the strong equivalence principle which states that gravitational motion does not depend on an object's constitution has severe limitations.
Morita Equivalence, Picard Groupoids and Noncommutative Field Theories
Waldmann, Stefan
2003-01-01
In this article we review recent developments on Morita equivalence of star products and their Picard groups. We point out the relations between noncommutative field theories and deformed vector bundles which give the Morita equivalence bimodules.
A Solid State Tissue Equivalent Detector for Microdosimetry Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QEL proposes to construct a tissue equivalent microdosimeter using a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED). The Phase I study will produce the working...
Proposed New Test of Equivalence Principle from Rotating Bodies
ZHANG Yuan-Zhong; LUO Jun; NIE Yu-Xin
2000-01-01
We study a new kind of equivalence principle for rotating bodies and propose a test of the equivalence principle by comparing free-fall gravitational accelerations of two gyroscopes or a rotating and a non-rotating extended bodies.
Choy, T C
2011-01-01
We clarify the status of the $c$ equivalence principle ($c_u=c$) recently proposed by Heras et al \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} and show that its proposal leads to an extension of the current framework of classical relativistic electrodynamics (CRE). This is because in the MLT (mass, length and time) system of units, CRE theory can contain only one fundamental constant of nature and special relativity dictates that this must be $c$, the standard speed of light in vacuum, a point not sufficiently emphasized in most textbooks with the exception of a few such as Panofsky and Phillips \\cite{PanofskyPhillips}. The $c$ equivalence principle Heras \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} can be shown to be linked to the second postulate of special relativity which extends the constancy of the unique velocity of light to all of physics (especially to mechanics) other than electromagnetism. An interesting corollary is that both the weak equivalence principle of general relativity and the $c$ equivalence principle are in fact o...
Equivalence above Word Level in English——Chinese Translation
王奕君
2008-01-01
Translation is not accomplished by merely substituting words in a word-for-word equivalence.A word-for-word replacement is of little use,because it is only a form of words equivalent,and does not convey the force of meaning(the dynamic equivalence).The aim of this paper is to study equivalence above word level(collocation、idiom and fixed expression)in relation to English--Chinese translation process,using different approaches.
The relationship between stimulus equivalence and verbal behavior
Hall, Genae A.; Chase, Philip N.
1991-01-01
Despite the apparent similarity between stimulus equivalence and verbal behavior, these phenomena have been described in different terms. With different terminologies for each phenomenon, the precise nature of their relationship is difficult to determine. To explore this relationship, this paper first defines stimulus equivalence using a synthesis of the mathematical definition of the equivalence relation and Sidman and Tailby's (1982) definition. Selected examples of stimulus equivalence are...
49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...
46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...
Scale Efficiency and Homotheticity: Equivalence of Primal and Dual Measures
Valentin Zelenyuk
2013-01-01
We address the issue of equivalence of primal and dual measures of scale efficiency in general production theory framework. We find that particular types of homotheticity of technologies, which we refer to here as scale homotheticity, provide necessary and sufficient condition for such equivalence. We also identify the case when the scale homotheticity is equivalent to the homothetic structure from Shephard (1970).
On the equivalence classes of linear non-autonomous systems *
无
2001-01-01
In this paper, the equivalence classification of the linear non-autonomous dynamic systems near singularities is given. Under some conditions their equivalence classes are the same as the autonomous ones. Using a series of linear and nonlinear transforms, the equivalence classification is proved.
Tests of the weak equivalence principle
Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.
2012-09-01
The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser
TNT equivalency study for space shuttle (EOS). Volume 1: Management summary report
Wolfe, R. R.
1971-01-01
The existing TNT equivalency criterion for LO2/LH2 propellant is reevaluated. It addresses the static, on-pad phase of the space shuttle launch operations and was performed to determine whether the use of a TNT equivalency criterion lower than that presently used (60%) could be substantiated. The large quantity of propellant on-board the space shuttle, 4 million pounds, was considered of prime importance to the study. A qualitative failure analysis of the space shuttle (EOS) on the launch pad was made because it was concluded that available test data on the explosive yield of LO2/LH2 propellant was insufficient to support a reduction in the present TNT equivalency value, considering the large quantity of propellant used in the space shuttle. The failure analysis had two objectives. The first was to determine whether a failure resulting in the total release of propellant could occur. The second was to determine whether, if such a failure did occur, ignition could be delayed long enough to allow the degree of propellant mixing required to produce an explosion of 60% TNT equivalency since the explosive yield of this propellant is directly related to the quantities of LH2 and LO2 mixed at the time of the explosion.
16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.
2010-01-01
... substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and... deceptive or unsubstantiated environmental advertising claims. A current list of environmental...
Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials
Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs
On flow equivalence of one-sided topological Markov shifts
Matsumoto, Kengo
2015-01-01
We introduce notions of suspension and flow equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts, which we call one-sided suspension and one-sided flow equivalence, respectively. We prove that one-sided flow equivalence is equivalent to continuous orbit equivalence on one-sided topological Markov shifts. We also show that the zeta function of the flow on a one-sided suspension is a dynamical zeta function with some potential function and that the set of certain dynamical zeta functions is invar...
Mass, Special Relativity and the Equivalence Principle
Vayenas, Constantinos G.; Souentie, Stamatios N.-A.
The equivalence principle states that inertial mass of a particle, i.e. the ratio of force and acceleration, is equal to the gravitational mass, i.e. equal to the quantity responsible for the gravitational force. Special relativity dictates that this inertial or gravitational mass of a particle equals γ3 m o where m o is the rest mass of the particle and γ(=(1-v2/c2)-1/2) is the Lorentz factor. The latter is unbound when the particle velocity relative to a laboratory observer approaches the speed of light c. This is a well-known result for linear motions and, using instantaneous frames of reference, is shown here to be valid also for arbitrary particle motion. Thus it is the gravitational mass γ3 m o, rather than the relativistic mass, γm o, defined from Einstein's famous E = γm o c 2 which must be used in Newton's gravitational law. This difference is totally negligible for non-relativistic velocities, e.g. v particles involved. This is consistent with the expectation, based on general relativity, that Newton's gravitational law when used with rest or the relativistic masses, may not be valid under highly relativistic conditions. The implications are quite significant for fast subatomic particles.
The Equivalence Postulate of Quantum Mechanics
Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco
2000-01-01
Implementation of the equivalence principle, stating that all physical systems can be connected by a coordinate transformation (trivializing map) to the free system with vanishing energy, uniquely leads to the quantum analogue of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. A property of the formalism is manifest $p-q$ duality, a consequence of the involutive nature of the Legendre transformation and of the recently observed relation with second-order differential equations. This makes clear the intrinsic $\\psi^D-\\psi$ duality between linearly independent solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Being a third-order non-linear differential equation, the Quantum Stationary HJ Equation (QSHJE) gives rise to initial conditions which cannot be seen in the Schrödinger equation. Solutions of the QSHJE provide a trajectory representation of quantum mechanics, depending on the Planck length. Unlike Bohm's theory, there is a non-trivial action even for bound states and no wave guide is present. A fundamental aspect of the formul...
Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.
Song, Miri
2014-03-01
We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716
Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies
Mori, Takashi
2016-08-01
The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.
Çilingir, Halime Didem; Cilingir, Halime Didem
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators and two “equivalent” materials parameters for their design and performance assessments: electromechanical coupling coefficient and elastic modulus. The “equivalent” parameters not being material constants are derived from equivalent bimorph beam model. The Nafion membrane based IPMC actuator strips of several thicknesses are manufactured by electrochemical platinization method. The effect of the thickness and operating ...
20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work that is considered substantial gainful... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Any Regular Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to...
46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...
Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)
Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...
Coohey, Carol
2007-01-01
The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…
Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same
de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas
2009-04-07
Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.
Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon
Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer
Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence
Zhang, Tianxi
2016-06-01
Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.
Rituximab and biosimilars – equivalence and reciprocity
Qureshi, Zaina P; Magwood, Jametta S; Singh, Sarveshwari; Bennett, Charles L
2014-01-01
Cancer is a debilitating disease affecting millions of people daily. Over the years, cancer treatment has advanced in leaps and bounds. Antibodies are important breakthrough therapeutic agents for cancer. These agents, proteins produced by B lymphocytes of the immune system in response to antigens, bind to receptors on cell surfaces so that the antigen–antibody complexes can be recognized and destroyed by phagocytes. While each B cell synthesizes only one kind of antibody, an entire population of different types of B cells and their respective antibodies are produced in response to various antigens to which the organism had been exposed. However, to be useful clinically, substantial amounts of a single antibody must be generated from a single ancestral B cell. These antibodies produced by a specific population of B cells are the monoclonal antibodies that have become the cornerstone of treatment for cancer and many immunologic illnesses. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the clinical development of biosimilars in clinical oncology, focusing on rituximab and like biosimilars. PMID:24829884
General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background
Changchun Cai
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.
Evaluation of effective dose equivalent for personal dosimetry
The concept of effective dose equivalent was recommended as a primary limit in the ICRP publication 26. And dose equivalent index and ALI were introduced as the secondary limits for external and internal dose limitation system respectively. The evaluation method of effective dose equivalent and its application to a routinal dosimetry were studied as the followings, 1). For the external dose evaluation, the measuring method of 1 cm deep dose equivalent by a TL-dosemeter using Li2B4O7(Cu) element is shown. Also the relationship between 1 cm deep dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent is disscused. 2). For the internal dose evaluation, the monitering methods and the dose evaluation method are shown for the case of 239Pu or 137Cs intake. (author)
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)
Equivalence revisited: a key concept in modern translation theory
Bolaños Cuéllar, Sergio
2010-01-01
This paper attempts to discuss the importance, relevance and validity of the concept of equivalence as a constitutive notion in translation theory. Equivalence is defined as a relation that holds between a Source Language (SL) text and a Target Language (TL) text. Our conception of equivalence is supported by a modern text-linguistic theory that considers that the text is the unit of analysis of the communicative event and, as translation itself is seen as a communicative event, then l...
Toward an equivalence criterion for Hybrid RANS/LES methods
Friess, Christophe; Manceau, R.; Gatski, T.B.
2015-01-01
International audience A criterion is established to assess the equivalence between hybrid RANS/LES methods, called H-equivalence, based on the modeled energy of the unresolved scales, which leads to similar low-order statistics of the resolved motion. Different equilibrium conditions are considered, and perturbation analyses about the equilibrium states are performed. The procedure is applied to demonstrate the equivalence between two particular hybrid methods, and leads to relationships ...
On the Lexicographical Description of Equivalent Open Class Expressions*
Herbert Ernst Wiegand
2011-01-01
Abstract: The contribution proceeds from the assumption that linguistic equivalence is already determined, and therefore only deals with questions of the lexicographical description of equiva-lent open class expressions in completely condensed dictionary articles in bilingual printed dic-tionaries, with the purpose of establishing a notion of lexicographical equivalence. Firstly, the most important differences between non-condensed, partially condensed and completely condensed dictio...
Scale Efficiency: Equivalence of Primal and Dual Measures
Valentin Zelenyuk
2011-01-01
In this paper we address an issue of equivalence of primal and dual measures of scale efficiency in general production theory framework. We find that particular types of homotheticity, which we refer to as scale homotheticity, provide necessary and sufficient condition for such equivalence. Specifically, we show that the input scale homotheticity of technology is necessary and sufficient condition for equivalence of primal and dual scale efficiency measures in the input/cost oriented case. Si...
Equivalent thermo-mechanical parameters for perfect crystals
Kuzkin, V. A.; Krivtsov, A. M.
2010-01-01
Thermo-elastic behavior of perfect single crystal is considered. The crystal is represented as a set of interacting particles (atoms). The approach for determination of equivalent continuum values for the discrete system is proposed. Averaging of equations of particles' motion and long wave approximation are used in order to make link between the discrete system and equivalent continuum. Basic balance equations for equivalent continuum are derived from microscopic equations. Macroscopic value...
Martin-Ordas, G.; Call, J.; Colmenares, F.
2008-01-01
Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool a...
Stable auto-equivalences for local symmetric algebras
Dugas, Alex
2014-01-01
We construct nontrivial auto-equivalences of stable module categories for elementary, local symmetric algebras over a field k. These auto-equivalences are modeled after the spherical twists of Seidel and Thomas and the $\\mathbb{P}^n$-twists of Huybrechts and Thomas, which yield auto-equivalences of the derived category of coherent sheaves on a variety. For group algebras of p-groups in characteristic p we recover many of the auto-equivalences corresponding to endo-trivial modules. We also obt...
Apparent dose equivalents resulting from severe heating of film dosimeters
Unusual reported dose equivalents due to high-energy photons for two individuals prompted the investigation of the effects of severe heating conditions expected in closed vehicles during southwestern summer months on commercial film dosimeters. A historical review of dosimetry records revealed several additional reported high-energy photon exposures for individuals using only beta-emitting radioisotopes during hot summer months. Between 20-100% of experimentally heated badges had apparent dose equivalents exceeding the minimal detectable dose equivalent that were not flagged as being heat damaged or having unusual exposure patterns by the dosimetry companies. Reported dose equivalents for these badges were as high as 2.1 mSv
An improved model of Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model
无
2010-01-01
The Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model can be used only in calculating shielding effectiveness of enclosure with the same multi-holes in one wall, but cannot be used in different multi-holes in two walls. According to the practical requirement, this article uses Konefal’s and Farhana’s characteristic impedance of apertures to improve the equivalent circuit analytical model in different multi-holes in two walls. The improved equivalent circuit analytical model is more useful than Robinson equivalent circuit analytical model. In the article, all kinds of enclosures are simulated by TLM (Transmission-Line Matrix method) to prove that this improved model is feasible in multimode.
Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.
Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron;
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...
Methodology of thermal hydraulic analysis for substantiation of reactor vessel brittle fracture resistance is presented in this article. This procedure was used during PTS study for SUNPP Unit 1 and represents generally accepted international approach.
Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer
Ankeny, Mark
2016-03-29
A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.
Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio
2002-01-01
This paper attempts to discuss the importance, relevance and validity of the concept of equivalence as a constitutive notion in translation theory. Equivalence is defined as a relation that holds between a Source Language (SL) text and a Target Language (TL) text. Our conception of equivalence is supported by a modern text-linguistic theory that considers that the text is the unit of analysis of the communicative event and, as translation itself is seen as a communicative event, then...
Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.
Goldfinger, M D
2005-06-01
In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of
Mimura Chizu
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of a Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and examines the equivalence between the original and translated version. The PSS is one of the few instruments to measure a global level of perceived stress, and has been widely used in a range of clinical and research settings. The PSS has already been translated into several languages, but there is no validated Japanese version. Methods A forward-backward procedure was implemented. Multiple forward and backward translations were produced, and a panel of reviewers verified conceptual and semantic equivalence between the source and final versions. Non-professional translators who were not brought up in bilingual families were used in order to enhance representativeness of language in the target populations. The PSS was administered to 222 native English speakers and the Japanese version (PSS-J to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Results Factor analysis showed similar factor loadings of the items and satisfactory factorial agreement between the PSS and PSS-J. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high for both versions and for each factor. Conclusion It is concluded that the PSS and PSS-J are substantially equivalent and suited for use in comparative cross-cultural studies.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line engine equivalence ratio measurements.
Ferioli, Francesco; Puzinauskas, Paulius V; Buckley, Steven G
2003-09-01
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to measure the equivalence ratio of a spark-ignited engine in a laboratory setting. Spectral features of C (711.3 nm), O (776.6 nm), N (746.3 and 743.8 nm), and CN (broad emission 707-734 nm) were used to quantify the equivalence ratio over a range from phi = 0.8 to phi = 1.2. The C/N and C/O peak ratios were found to be successful measurement metrics, compared with a standard exhaust gas oxygen analyzer, for averaged measurements. Some variation in the measurements was observed as a function of engine load. Single-shot data based on a CN/air peak ratio were evaluated using a separate calibration from averaged measurements, and the average of the single-shot data was found to agree well with the exhaust gas oxygen analyzer. The scatter in the single-shot data was substantially higher at lower equivalence ratios. The measurements including the CN peak were slightly sensitive to load, possibly due to pressure changes in the sample as the load increases, or possibly due to changes in the particle size distribution in the gas stream. PMID:14611051
On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases
Nielsen, Morten; Borup, Lasse
2005-01-01
We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results on...
On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results on...
Assessment Battery for Communication: Development of Two Equivalent Forms
Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with…
Equivalence of dynamical ensembles and Navier Stokes equations
Gallavotti, Giovanni
1996-01-01
A reversible version of the Navier Stokes equation is studied. A conjecture emerges stating the equivalence between the reversible equation and the usual Navier Stokes equation. The latter appears as a statement of ensembles equivalence in the limit of infinite Reynolds number, which plays the role of the thermodynamic limit.
Neutron detector simultaneously measures fluence and dose equivalent
Dvorak, R. F.; Dyer, N. C.
1967-01-01
Neutron detector acts as both an area monitoring instrument and a criticality dosimeter by simultaneously measuring dose equivalent and fluence. The fluence is determined by activation of six foils one inch below the surface of the moderator. Dose equivalent is determined from activation of three interlocked foils at the center of the moderator.
A graphical representation of equivalence classes of AMP chain graphs
Roverato, A.; Studený, Milan
2006-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 6 (2006), s. 1045-1078. ISSN 1532-4435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chain graph * AMP Markov equivalence * strong equivalence * largest deflagged graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2006
14 CFR 21.261 - Equivalent safety provisions.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equivalent safety provisions. 21.261 Section 21.261 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....261 Equivalent safety provisions. The manufacturer shall obtain the Administrator's concurrence on...
Derivation of equivalent continuous dilution for cyclic, unsteady driving forces
Sherman, Max H.; Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.
2011-01-01
This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilutio...
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1996-01-01
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...
40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...
When is a background equivalent? Sparse chromatic context revisited
Brenner, E; Cornelissen, FW
1998-01-01
Jenness and Shevell (Vision Res 1995,35:797-805) reported that a red background with white dots scattered on it has a different influence on a target's apparent colour than an equivalent uniform background. We show that this finding depends on what one considers an equivalent background. Jenness and
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat--Software for a Thermistor
Boleman, Michael
2008-01-01
The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus from PASCO scientific provides the means for doing a simple experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, "J." A necessary step of this experiment is to determine the temperature of an aluminum cylinder. By measuring the resistance of a thermistor embedded in the cylinder, one is able to…
The Equivalence of Rater Sources on Job Analysis Ratings.
Camara, Wayne J.
Previous efforts to investigate the equivalence of rating sources for job analysis ratings have reported conflicting results. In the present research, correlational and generalizability analyses were conducted to examine the equivalency of rating sources for over 70 state civil service job classifications. Incumbent and supervisor ratings (N=697)…
Graphene-based THz modulator analyzed by equivalent circuit model
Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Xie, Zhiyi;
2016-01-01
A terahertz (THz) modulator based on graphene is proposed and analysed by use of equivalent transmission line of a homogeneous mediumand the local anisotropic model of the graphene conductivity. The result calculated by the equivalent circuit is consistent with that obtained byFresnel transfer...
Cubical abelian groups with connections are equivalent to chain complexes
Brown, R.; Higgins, Philip J.
2002-01-01
The theorem of the title is deduced from the equivalence between crossed complexes and cubical $\\omega$-groupoids with connections proved by the authors in 1981. In fact we prove the equivalence of five categories defined internally to an additive category with kernels.
The Public Market Equivalent and Private Equity Performance
Sørensen, Morten; Jagannathan, Ravi
2015-01-01
The authors show that the public market equivalent approach is equivalent to assessing the performance of private equity (PE) investments using Rubinstein’s dynamic version of the CAPM. They developed two insights: (1) one need not compute betas of PE investments, and any changes in PE cash flow...
IMPROVED RANDOMIZED ALGORITHM FOR THE EQUIVALENT 2-CATALOG SEGMENTATION PROBLEM
无
2005-01-01
An improved randomized algorithm of the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is presented. The result obtained in this paper makes some progress to answer the open problem by analyze this algorithm with performance guarantee. A 0.6378-approximation for the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is obtained.
Dynamic REI equivalents for short circuit and transient stability analyses
Milano, Federico [Dept. of Electrical Eng., Univ. of Castilla - La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Srivastava, Kailash [ABB AB Corporate Research, SE-721 78 Vaesteraas (Sweden)
2009-06-15
This paper proposes a systematic approach for dynamic power system equivalents based on power transfer distribution factors. The proposed method divides the original network into an internal interconnected system and an external one. Static equivalents are computed at frontier buses that separate the retained internal system from the external one. The equivalents are formed using REI (Radial, Equivalent and Independent) networks and generator model aggregation. Generator parameters are computed based on power transfer distribution factors of the generated active power. The equivalent models are able to accurately approximate the behavior of the original system for short circuit and transient stability analyses. Two test systems, namely the Kundur's 2-area test system and a 1213-bus network that model a real transmission system are used to illustrate and test the proposed technique. (author)
There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. -- Highlights: • Interactive effects between air pollution and equivalent temperature result in augmented excess mortality. • High levels of ozone and particulate matter increase adverse heat effects on human mortality. • Cold effects are mostly unaffected by air pollution. • Findings underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat-related mortality. -- Interactive effects between air pollution and elevated (equivalent) temperatures underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating the adverse effects of heat
Prentice Philippa
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Augmenting validated paper versions of existing outcome measures with an equivalent online version may offer substantial research advantages (cost, rapidity and reliability. However, equivalence of online and paper questionnaires cannot be assumed, nor can acceptability to respondents. The aim was to test whether online and written versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, a standard measure of functional disability in back pain, are equivalent at both group and individual levels to establish whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods This is a within-participants equivalence study. 167 participants with back pain fully completed both the paper and online versions of the RMDQ in random order. Participants were recruited from a chiropractic clinic and patient support groups in Southern England. Limits of equivalence were pre-defined as 0.5 RMDQ points, the Bland-Altman range was calculated, and participants' comments were examined using content analysis. Results The mean score difference was 0.03 (SD = 1.43, with the 95% Confidence Interval falling entirely within our limits of equivalence (-0.19 to 0.25. The Bland-Altman range was -2.77 to 2.83 RMDQ points. Participants identified unique advantages and disadvantages associated with each version of the RMDQ. Conclusions The group and individual level data suggest that online and paper versions of the RMDQ are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. The Bland-Altman range appears to reflect the known measurement properties of the RMDQ. Furthermore, participants' comments confirmed the potential value to be had from offering them the choice of completing the RMDQ online or on paper.
Full text: In the radiation protection research programme of the European Union, as part of the DIMOND concerted action, constancy check protocols for fluoroscopic systems have been developed. For practical reasons copper filters are preferred to patients and tissue equivalent, water or PMMA, phantoms. The objectives are to derive patient entrance surface dose rates and the dose rate at the image intensifier input. The protocol states that copper sheets of either 1 mm or 1.5 mm thick may be used. The present study investigates the equivalent thickness of copper filters compared to PMMA phantoms in terms of attenuation for both geometries and different tube voltage and filter combinations. The geometry to determine the patient entrance surface dose is with the copper filter close to the image intensifier. The ionisation chamber is placed on the side of the copper sheet nearest to the X-ray tube. The inverse square law is used to correct for differences in position. Measurements are performed with different settings and with and without the use of an anti-scatter grid. The geometry to determine the air kerma rate at the image intensifier is with the copper filter attached to the X-ray tube diaphragm. The ionisation chamber is placed on the surface of the image intensifier housing. Again measurements are performed with different settings and with and without anti-scatter grid. If necessary, the inverse square law correction is applied. Two different radiation beam sizes are used, i.e., a small beam with a diameter of 0.10 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus and a large beam with a diameter of 0.23 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus. The applied tube voltages and PMMA phantom thickness combinations are 60 kV, 13 cm; 80 kV, 14 cm; 100 kV, 16 cm; 120 kV, 17 cm; 150 kV, 18 cm; 150 kV, 20 cm and 150 kV, 30 cm. The spectra for the different tube voltages are generated with the IPEM Report 78 software at an anode angle of 16 degree, 0% ripple and 2.5 mm added
The ANISN code has been used in this study to evaluate the attenuation of neutron beams of various spectra incident normally on slabs of different kinds of concrete. Spectra of the most common sources (Am-Be and Cf-252) and those of giant resonance neutrons, produced at electron accelerators, were studied. The concretes examined had densities between 2.1 and 4.64 g.cm-3. The calculation were made in terms of the deep dose equivalent index, the effective dose equivalent and the ambient dose equivalent. Values of attenuation length in the various materials were derived from the attenuation curves. The results found should allow for useful evaluations in every day practice for health physicist
Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks
Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H., E-mail: chw@mst.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 16th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)
2015-01-14
We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.
Inference systems for observation equivalences in the π-calculus
林惠民
1999-01-01
Inference systems for observation equivalences in the pi-calculus with recursion are proposed, and their completeness over the finite-control fragment with guarded recursions are proven. The inference systems consist of inference rules and equational axioms. The judgments are conditional equations which characterise symbolic bisimulations between process terms. This result on the one hand generalises Milner’s complete axiomatisation of observation equivalence for regular CCS to the pi-calculus, and on the other hand extends the proof systems of strong bisimulations for guarded regular pi-calculus to observation equivalences.
Pragmatic Equivalence in Different Translations of The Merchant of Venice
白婕
2015-01-01
Pragmatic equivalence, meaning to transfer the implied meaning of the source text to the target text, usually involves the receiver to whom the translation is directed. Two notions are crucial in translation to achieve pragmatic equivalence:context and optimal relevance. In light of these two element, the author in this paper conducts a case study by using Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice and two Chinese versions from Zhu Shenghao and Sun Dayu as data, by comparing these two versions to explore how pragmatic equivalence in translation can be achieve at lexical, semantic and cultural levels.
Spaces of homotopy self-equivalences a survey
Rutter, John W
1997-01-01
This survey covers groups of homotopy self-equivalence classes of topological spaces, and the homotopy type of spaces of homotopy self-equivalences. For manifolds, the full group of equivalences and the mapping class group are compared, as are the corresponding spaces. Included are methods of calculation, numerous calculations, finite generation results, Whitehead torsion and other areas. Some 330 references are given. The book assumes familiarity with cell complexes, homology and homotopy. Graduate students and established researchers can use it for learning, for reference, and to determine the current state of knowledge.
A Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence for skew Laurent polynomial rings
Parks, James William Alexander
2009-01-01
The work of Dixmier in 1977 and Moeglin in 1980 show us that for a prime ideal $P$ in the universal enveloping algebra of a complex finite-dimensional Lie algebra the properties of being primitive, rational and locally closed in the Zariski topology are all equivalent. This equivalence is referred to as the Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence. In this thesis we will study skew Laurent polynomial rings of the form ${mathbb{C}}[x_1,ldots,x_d][z,z^{-1};sigma]$ where $sigma$ is a ${mathbb{C}}$-algebra au...
Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids
In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described
Determination of the effective dose equivalent in gynecologic radium therapy
In this study, the authors describe how to determine the effective dose equivalent absorbed by occupationally exposed persons during a gynecologic radium therapy. The observed irradiation conditions of the physician and the medical staff are approximated by a standard geometry, for which conversion factors between the measured personal dose, the effective dose equivalent and different organ doses, respectively, are calculated. The results are job-specific conversion factors between dose to a personal dosimeter and the effective dose equivalent for the occupationally exposed persons involved. According to the individual tasks, these factors are between 0.59 and 1.13. (orig.)
Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm2 field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64±0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm2 fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm2 field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm2 field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm2 field compared to the 4x4 cm2 field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.
Substantial Molecular Evolution In Prolonged Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections In Humans
Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;
2015-01-01
well as evidence for distinct processes such as oxidative damage or natural selection having contributed to mutation accumulation. Conclusions: Our study shows that distinct processes can shape Mtb genomes during latent infection. Most importantly, we document substantial molecular evolution of Mtb...
26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.
2010-04-01
... the relevant aspects of Federal tax law. (5) Pass-through entities. In the case of tax shelter items... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...
42 CFR 414.222 - Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items requiring frequent and substantial servicing. 414.222 Section 414.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...
75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers
2010-05-17
... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers AGENCY: Consumer Product... this document, the Commission is proposing a rule to determine that any hand-held hair dryer without... requirements for certain household appliances, including hand-held hair dryers. The current...
40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.
2010-07-01
... business information. 68.152 Section 68.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.152 Substantiating claims of confidential business information. (a) An owner or operator claiming that information...
Piminov O.F.; Biriucova S.V.,; Shulga L.I.
2011-01-01
During this work, possibility of using of licorice roots, sedge cane rootstocks as well as burnet rootstocks with its roots as components of a complex tincture for periodontitis treatment was experimentally substantiated, and an optimal raw material-extractant ratio, based on results of microbiological studings, was proved.
Equivalence Between Out-of-Sample Forecast Comparisons and Wald
Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Timmermann, Allan
We establish the equivalence between a commonly used out-of-sample test of equal predictive accuracy and the difference between two Wald statistics. This equivalence greatly simpliﬁes the computational burden of calculating recursive out-of-sample tests and evaluating their critical values. Our r...... results shed new light on many aspects of the test and establishes certain weaknesses associated with using out-of-sample forecast comparison tests to conduct inference about nested regression models.......We establish the equivalence between a commonly used out-of-sample test of equal predictive accuracy and the difference between two Wald statistics. This equivalence greatly simpliﬁes the computational burden of calculating recursive out-of-sample tests and evaluating their critical values. Our...
The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids
An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)
On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing
Linkov, Alexander
2012-01-01
The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...
Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?
We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs
ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information...
Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method
Yun-xing YANG; Hui-chang ZHAO; Cui DI
2014-01-01
An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is air)takes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.
Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method
Yun-xing Yang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is airtakes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.
Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...
On the Equivalence between (Quasi)-perfect and sequential equilibria
Carlos Pimienta; Jianfei Shen
2011-01-01
We prove the generic equivalence between quasi-perfect equilibrium and sequential equilibrium. Combining this result with Blume and Zame (1994) shows that perfect, quasi-perfect and sequential equilibrium coincide in generic games.
New Wilf-equivalence results for dashed patterns
Kasraoui, Anisse
2012-01-01
We give a sufficient condition for the two dashed patterns $\\tau^{(1)}-\\tau^{(2)}-\\cdots-\\tau^{(\\ell)}$ and $\\tau^{(\\ell)}-\\tau^{(\\ell-1)}-\\cdots-\\tau^{(1)}$ to be (strongly) Wilf-equivalent. This permits to solve in a unified way several problems of Heubach and Mansour on Wilf-equivalences on words and compositions, as well as a conjecture of Baxter and Pudwell on Wilf-equivalences on permutations. We also give a better explanation of the equidistribution of the parameters $\\MAK+\\bMAJ$ and $\\MAK'+\\bMAJ$ on ordered set partitions. These results can be viewed as consequences of a simple proposition which states that the set valued statistics "descent set'' and "rise set'' are equidistributed over each equivalence class of the partially commutative monoid generated by a poset $(X,\\leq)$.
Equivalence of light-front and conventional thermal field theory
Kvinikhidze, A.; Blankleider, B.
2003-01-01
It is shown that light front thermal field theory is equivalent to conventional thermal field theory. The proof is based on the use of spectral representations, and applies to all Lagrangians for which such equivalence has been proven at zero temperature. It is also pointed out that conventional spectral functions can be used to express light-front finite temperature free propagators. As an application of our approach, we derive the light-front finite temperature spin 1/2 fermion propagator i...
On the Equivalence of Linear Dimensionality-Reducing Transformations
Loog, Marco
2008-01-01
In this JMLR volume, Ye (2008) demonstrates the essential equivalence of two sets of solutions to a generalized Fisher criterion used for linear dimensionality reduction (see Ye, 2005; Loog, 2007). Here, I point out the basic flaw in this new contribution.......In this JMLR volume, Ye (2008) demonstrates the essential equivalence of two sets of solutions to a generalized Fisher criterion used for linear dimensionality reduction (see Ye, 2005; Loog, 2007). Here, I point out the basic flaw in this new contribution....
L^2-Betti Numbers of Algebras and Equivalence Relations
2008-01-01
In this thesis, we consider the L^2-Betti numbers associated to algebras and equivalence relations. For algebras, we expand upon the motivation between Connes and Shlyakhtenko's definition of L^2-Betti numbers of tracial algebras, and give an alternative definition of these numbers through an excision-type theorem. For equivalence relations we consider the definitions given by Gaboriau and Sauer and show that they coincide, in the process proving a theorem of Gaboriau. The methods used are st...
Equivalence in Translation through German, French and Macedonian Examples
Marolova, Darinka; Velinova, Eva
2015-01-01
This paper aims towards a review of the history of determining and debating about the term equivalence in the translation studies and by giving examples from German, French and Macedonian, it tries to apply the theoretical statements into practicing translation. The notation equivalence has caused heated controversy in the translation theory as well as many different analyzes of its concept, especially of its definition, relevance and applicability within the field of translation ...
Equivalent electric circuit of a carbon nanotube based molecular conductor
Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, GuanHua; Zheng, Xiao; Matsuda, Yuki; Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A
2008-01-01
We apply our first-principles method to simulate the transient electrical response through carbon nanotube based conductors under time-dependent bias voltages, and report the dynamic conductance for a specific system. We find that the electrical response of the carbon nanotube device can be mapped onto an equivalent classical electric circuit. This is confirmed by studying the electric response of a simple model system and its equivalent circuit.
Egalitarian Equivalence And Strategyproofness In The Queueing Problem
Youngsub Chun; Manipushpak Mitra; Suresh Mutuswami
2013-01-01
We investigate the implications of egalitarian equivalence (Pazner and Schmeidler [22]) together with queue efficiency and strategyproofness in the context of queueing problems. We completely characterize the class of mechanisms satisfying the three requirements. Though there is no mechanism in this class satisfying budget balance, feasible mechanisms exist. We also show that it is impossible to find a mechanism satisfying queue efficiency, egalitarian equivalence and a stronger notion of str...
Egalitarian-Equivalent Cost Sharing of a Public Good.
Moulin, Herve
1987-01-01
In an economy with one public and one private good, egalitarian-equivalent cost sharing consists of finding the highest public good level, x*, such that consuming x* for free yields a feasible utility distribution. The corresponding feasible allocation (typically unique), called egalitarian-equivalent, is in the core of the economy. Conversely, any cost sharing method satisfying Pareto optimality, cost monotonicity (nobody suffers a utility loss if the production technology improves upon, cet...
Sufficiency-based Filtering of Invariants for Sequential Equivalence Checking
Hu, Wei
2011-01-01
Verification, as opposed to Testing and Post-Silicon Validation, is a critical step for Integrated Circuits (IC) Design, answering the question â Are we designing the right function?â before the chips are manufactured. One of the core areas of Verification is Equivalence Checking (EC), which is a special yet independent case of Model Checking (MC). Equivalence Checking aims to prove that two circuits, when fed with the same inputs, produce the exact same outputs. There are broadly two ways...
On the Equivalence of Euler-Lagrange and Noether Equations
Faliagas, A. C., E-mail: apostol.faliagas@gmail.com [University of Athens, Department of Mathematics (Greece)
2016-03-15
We prove that, under the condition of nontriviality, the Euler-Lagrange and Noether equations are equivalent for a general class of scalar variational problems. Examples are position independent Lagrangians, Lagrangians of p-Laplacian type, and Lagrangians leading to nonlinear Poisson equations. As applications we prove certain propositions concerning the nonlinear Poisson equation and its generalisations, and the equivalence of admissible and inner variations for the systems under consideration.
An Equivalence Between Momentum and Charge in String Theory
Horne, James H.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Steif, Alan R.
1991-01-01
It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light.
Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing
Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike
2008-01-01
The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...
The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local P^2
Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Guerra, Stefano
2013-01-01
In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of P^2 and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results in Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the right physical mirror equivalence between D^b(K_{P^2}) and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map between moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov--Witten invariants.
Hurwitz equivalence of braid monodromies and extremal elliptic surfaces
Degtyarev, Alex
2009-01-01
We discuss the equivalence between the categories of certain ribbon graphs and subgroups of the modular group $\\Gamma$ and use it to construct exponentially large families of not Hurwitz equivalent simple braid monodromy factorizations of the same element. As an application, we also obtain exponentially large families of {\\it topologically} distinct algebraic objects such as extremal elliptic surfaces, real trigonal curves, and real elliptic surfaces.
TNT Equivalency of Unconfined Aerosols of Propylene Oxide
A. Apparao; C. R. Rao
2014-01-01
The unconfined aerosols of propylene oxide (PO) are formed by dispersing the fuel in air. These aerosols undergo detonation by suitable initiation and produce high impulse blast. Tri-nitro Toluene (TNT) equivalence is an important parameter used to represent the power of explosive materials and compare their relative damage effects wrt TNT. The parameters commonly used for estimation of TNT equivalency are total energy of explosive source and properties of resulting blast wave, viz., blast pe...
H I Lyman-alpha Equivalent Widths of Stellar Populations
Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus
2013-12-01
We have compiled a library of stellar Lyman-alpha (Lyα) equivalent widths in O and B stars using the model atmosphere codes CMFGEN and TLUSTY, respectively. The equivalent widths range from about 0 to 30 Å in absorption for early-O to mid-B stars. The purpose of this library is for the prediction of the underlying stellar Lyα absorption in stellar populations of star-forming galaxies with nebular Lyα emission. We implemented the grid of individual equivalent widths into the Starburst99 population synthesis code to generate synthetic Lyα equivalent widths for representative star formation histories. A starburst observed after 10 Myr will produce a stellar Lyα line with an equivalent width of ~ - 10 ± 4 Å in absorption for a Salpeter initial mass function. The lower value (deeper absorption) results from an instantaneous burst, and the higher value (shallower line) from continuous star formation. Depending on the escape fraction of nebular Lyα photons, the effect of stellar Lyα on the total profile ranges from negligible to dominant. If the nebular escape fraction is 10%, the stellar absorption and nebular emission equivalent widths become comparable for continuous star formation at ages of 10-20 Myr.
David eGarratt-Reed
2016-05-01
Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment
On the Lexicographical Description of Equivalent Open Class Expressions*
Herbert Ernst Wiegand
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: The contribution proceeds from the assumption that linguistic equivalence is already determined, and therefore only deals with questions of the lexicographical description of equiva-lent open class expressions in completely condensed dictionary articles in bilingual printed dic-tionaries, with the purpose of establishing a notion of lexicographical equivalence. Firstly, the most important differences between non-condensed, partially condensed and completely condensed dictionary articles are explained. In completely condensed dictionary articles, which are not natural language texts, addressing relationships are present. These relationships have a vital role in the lexicographical description of equivalent open class expressions. They are, therefore, explained in more detail. A further assumption for the development of a notion of lexicographical equivalence is the notion of semantic-pragmatic equivalence, which is therefore introduced briefly. Next, there is a stepwise development, by means of examples, of what one can understand by the notion of lexi-cographical equivalence. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence can on the one hand form the point of departure for the lexicographical textualisation of semantic-pragmatic equiva-lence, and on the other hand it takes into consideration that the linguistic equivalence relationship has to be inferred first by the user-in-action by means of complex results of lexicographical textu-alisation. The developed notion of lexicographical equivalence presents a firm foundation for the optimisation of the presentation of lexicographical equivalence.
Keywords: ADDRESSING, SEMANTIC-PRAGMATIC EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPH-ICAL EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHICAL TEXT CONDENSATION, CONDENSED DIC-TIONARY ARTICLES
Abstrakt: Zur lexikographischen Beschreibung nennlexikalischer äquiva-lenter Wortschatzeinheiten. Der Beitrag setzt voraus, dass die sprachliche Äquivalenz bereits ermittelt
Frequency and collective effective dose equivalent of medical exposures
According to ICRP recommendation, medical exposure refers to the intentional exposure of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and to the exposures resulting from the artificial replacement of body organs or functions. Since the objective of radiotherapy is to give a large amount of radiation dose to the patient to kill cancer cells, neither individual nor collective effective doses are directly relevant for comparisons with doses from other sources, not even with diagnostic procedures. For this reason, in present report, therapeutic uses of radiations and radiopharmaceuticals are not included in the medical exposures. Medical exposures in Japan have been investigated by the nationwide surveys on the type and the frequency of radiological procedures and by the dose determinations with phantom experiments or calculations since 1960. Present report reviews the frequency of diagnostic radiological procedures and the collective effective dose equivalents from these procedures, and excess deaths from the medical exposures in Japan. In 1986, the number of X-ray diagnostic examinations was estimated to be about 1.41 x 108. The preliminary result in 1991 shows the number will be about 1.8 x 108. The resultant collective effective dose equivalent from X-ray diagnosis in 1986 was about 1.84 x 105 person Sv. Consequently per Caput mean effective dose equivalent was about 1.48 mSv/person in 1986. The total collective effective dose equivalent from all the diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was estimated to be about 2.96 x 105 person Sv/year. per Caput mean effective dose equivalent from the total diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was evaluated to be about 2.3 mSv/year. This value may be comparable to the mean annual effective dose equivalent received from natural radiations for the worldwide population. Mean effective dose equivalent per diagnostic radiological examination was calculated to be about 1.00 mSv/examination. (author)
Juhani Tuominen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL, have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim.
Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips
Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.
2016-07-01
In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.
Lee, Alex K. Y.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Li, Shao-Meng; Sjostedt, Steve J.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Liggio, John; Macdonald, Anne Marie
2016-01-01
Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA...
Substantiation of an express-method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials
S.G. Nikolskiy; O.N. Pertseva; V.I. Ivanova
2015-01-01
An express method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was offered and substantiated in this article. The proposed measurement technology of concrete frost resistance is based on the computation of the value z which is the ratio of the relative decrease of compression resistance R to the relative permanent set ε in the direction which is perpendicular to the pressure. It was found that this ratio is constant for a given composition of the concrete and does not depe...
Schaper, Niclas
2004-01-01
In the article it is tried to substantiate further developments in human resource management with reference to the competency approach in work and organisational psychology. First the objectives of scientific and applied research in work and organisational psychology are lined out. Then the competency approach is discussed as a helpful concept to different challenges of human resource management. With reference to this assumption three different theoretical and methodological perspectives are...
Hayek and Rawls about social justice: are the differences "more verbal than substantial"?
Gamel, Claude
2008-01-01
Hayek (theoretician of "the mirage of social justice") seems to be completely opposed to Rawls (author of "Theory of justice"), but the economist can have written that the differences between himself and the philosopher are "more verbal than substantial". In spite of opposed paradigms (evolutionism versus contractualism), the stages are quite comparable in the setting of norms (anti-utilitarianism, impartiality, experimentation) and induce two versions of the same conception of justice in soc...
Juhani Tuominen; Niina M. Saarinen; Liisa Pylkkänen; Risto Santti
2010-01-01
Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL), have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological stu...
Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection
Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)
Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.
2011-01-01
The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipl...
The Role of Primacy of Existence and Analogical Gradation on Substantial Movement's Theory
Mohsen Kadivar; Maryam Khoshdel Rouhani
2006-01-01
According to the theory of Molla Sadra, primacy of existence (esalat-e wujood) constitutes reality. Existence is one but graded in intensity. These (tashkik-e wujood) two principles namely reality of existence and analogical gradation hold a definite role in the foundation of accepted concept in this paper. Non-acceptance of the two mentioned principles leads one to various results particularly in this case the consequent non-acceptance of substantial movement to understand reality of existen...
Carl J Yeoman; Yildirim, Suleyman; Thomas, Susan M; Durkin, A. Scott; Torralba, Manolito; Sutton, Granger; Buhay, Christian J.; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon P.; Muzny, Donna M.; Qin, Xiang; Gibbs, Richard A; Leigh, Steven R.; Stumpf, Rebecca; White, Bryan A.
2010-01-01
Background Gardnerella vaginalis is described as a common vaginal bacterial species whose presence correlates strongly with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Here we report the genome sequencing and comparative analyses of three strains of G. vaginalis. Strains 317 (ATCC 14019) and 594 (ATCC 14018) were isolated from the vaginal tracts of women with symptomatic BV, while Strain 409-05 was isolated from a healthy, asymptomatic individual with a Nugent score of 9. Principal Findings Substantial genomic...
Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Berechet (Dragnea)
2014-01-01
The present article deals with a number of existing paradigms of the concepts and principles substantiating the elaboration and presentation of the financial reporting situations throughout the world. There are presented and commented the accounting postulates, principles, conventions and doctrines, available in different accounting systems, both across the European continent, and across the American continent. The present article concludes with the authors’ comments on the accounting concept...
TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION
KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.
Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost
2006-03-01
Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.
Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio
2002-06-01
Full Text Available
This paper attempts to discuss the importance, relevance and validity of the concept of equivalence as a constitutive notion in translation theory. Equivalence is defined as a relation that holds between a Source Language (SL text and a Target Language (TL text. Our conception of equivalence is supported by a modern text-linguistic theory that considers that the text is the unit of analysis of the communicative event and, as translation itself is seen as a communicative event, then logically, it should be studied from a modern textlinguistic approach. A brief background is provided to support this perspective. However, this is a point of view not necessarily shared by all modem translation theorists and, therefore, two antagonistic positions in translation theory as well as the criticism against Linguistics/Text-oriented Theories (TOT are analyzed. Then arguments for and against the notion of equivalence within tot and cot (Non-Linguistics/Context-oriented Theories are discussed in detail and new perspectives reviewed. Finally, equivalence within the framework of a Dynamic Translation Model (DTM is discussed and a brief illustration of its application in translation criticism is provided.
This paper attempts to discuss the importance, relevance and validity of the concept of equivalence as a constitutive notion in translation theory. Equivalence is defined as a relation that holds between a Source Language (SL text and a Target Language (TL text. Our conception of equivalence is supported by a modern text-linguistic theory that considers that the text is the unit of analysis of the communicative event and, as translation itself is seen as a communicative event, then logically, it should be studied from a modern textlinguistic approach. A brief background is provided to support this perspective. However, this is a point of view not necessarily shared by all modem translation theorists and, therefore, two antagonistic positions in
Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding
Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.
2009-01-01
The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater
Equivalence relations for the 9972-9975 SARP
Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogeneous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the -SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included
Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence
Shuler, Robert L., Jr.
2010-01-01
Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.
Scale Dependence of Equivalent Permeability Tensor in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Azizmohammadi, S.; Matthäi, S. K.; Paul, J. D.
2012-04-01
Fracture geometries in naturally fractured reservoirs are usually inferred from sparse subsurface observations from well logs or cores. Since the largest fractures tend to be the least frequent, they are often undersampled. Therefore, interpretations based on samples taken at any scale smaller than that of interest contain a bias, misrepresenting the true characteristics of the fracture system. This bias may lead to the incorrect characterisation of the reservoir, upscaling and gridding. In this work, we investigate the variation of the equivalent permeability and its anisotropy in naturally fractured rocks as a function of sample size. We use a two dimensional linear elastic model of fracture aperture, taking into account the far-field stresses in conjunction with the parallel plate model, to determine fracture permeability. These apertures are applied to fractured reservoir analogues mapped in the field to numerically estimate permeability. We then employ a finite element scheme to compute equivalent permeability tensors for random samples of the fractured porous medium at specific length scales. We find that the distribution of the principle component of equivalent permeability tensor computed at each scale size appears to be dependent upon the underlying attributes of the fracture networks. We notice a clear trend between the mean equivalent permeability and sample size. Our findings suggest that fracture geometries in naturally fractured reservoirs should be sampled at the scales of interest; if not, the equivalent permeability of such reservoirs might be significantly underestimated.
HI Lyman-alpha equivalent widths of stellar populations
Pena-Guerrero, Maria A
2013-01-01
We have compiled a library of stellar Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in O and B stars using the model atmosphere codes CMFGEN and TLUSTY, respectively. The equivalent widths range from about 0 to 30 \\AA in absorption for early-O to mid-B stars. The purpose of this library is the prediction of the underlying stellar Lyman-alpha absorption in stellar populations of star-forming galaxies with nebular Lyman-alpha emission. We implemented the grid of individual equivalent widths into the Starburst99 population synthesis code to generate synthetic Lyman-alpha equivalent widths for representative star-formation histories. A starburst observed after 10 Myr will produce a stellar Lyman-alpha line with an equivalent width of $\\sim$ -10$\\pm$4 \\AA in absorption for a Salpeter initial mass function. The lower value (deeper absorption) results for an instantaneous burst, and the higher value (shallower line) for continuous star formation. Depending on the escape fraction of nebular Lyman-alpha photons, the effect of stellar...
A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2016-01-01
This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch. The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...
Committed dose equivalent in the practice of radiological protection
In the case of internal exposure, the dose is not received at the moment of exposure, as happens with external exposure, since the incorporated radionuclide irradiates the various organs and tissues during the time it is present in the body. By definition, the committed dose equivalent corresponds to the received dose integrated over 50 years from the date of intake. In order to calculate it, one has to know the intake activity and the value of the committed dose equivalent per unit of intake activity. The uncertainties of the first parameter are such that the committed dose equivalent can only be regarded as an order of magnitude and not as a very accurate quantity. The use of it is justified, however, for, like the dose equivalent for external exposure, it expresses the risk of stochastic effects for the individual concerned since these effects, should they appear, would do so only after a latent period which is generally longer than the dose integration time. Moreover, the use of the committed dose equivalent offers certain advantages for dosimetric management, especially when it is simplified. A practical problem which may arise is that the annual dose limit is apparently exceeded by virtue of the fact that one is taking account, in the first year, of doses which will actually be received only in the following years. These problems are rare enough in practice to be dealt with individually in each case. (author)
Gel dosimetry based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been shown to provide verification of calculated dose distributions in soft tissue equivalent homogeneous phantoms. This study demonstrates how measurements of dose distribution can also be achieved in a phantom containing porous, lung-equivalent, Fricke gel. A phantom was made of Fe2+-infused low-density gel and conventional ferrous sulphate gel, filled in separate compartments in a Perspex container. Absorbed dose measurements were accomplished by MR imaging and by calibrating the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate (R1) versus absorbed dose by means of TLD measurements. This study shows that the production of lung-equivalent low-density (LD) dosimeter gel (mean CT number of -610 HU) is feasible. The MR signal detected in the LD gel dosimeter was substantially more noisy (i.e. displayed larger random fluctuations) than the signal from conventional gel, as expected. A deviation between calculated (TPS) and measured dose of about 3% (6 MV) and 4-7% (15 MV) was found in the LD region of the phantom. These results correspond well with data from other studies of dose distribution in lung-equivalent phantoms. The Fe2+-infused LD gel therefore seems suitable for measurement of absorbed dose distribution in phantoms that contain lung tissue compartments. (author)
Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.
Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie
2016-06-01
Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices. PMID:26780106
Equivalent medium theory of layered sphere particle with anisotropic shells
Li, Xingcai; Wang, Minzhong; Zhang, Beidou
2016-08-01
Researches on the optical properties of small particle have been widely concerned in the atmospheric science, astronomy, astrophysics, biology and medical science. This paper provides an equivalent dielectric theory for the functional graded particle with anisotropic shells, in which inhomogeneous and anisotropic particle was equivalently transformed into a new kind of homogeneous, continuous and isotropic sphere with same size but different permittivity, and then greatly simplify the calculation process of particle's optical property. Meanwhile, the paper also discusses whether the charge on the particle can change the expression of its equivalent permittivity or not. These results proposed in this paper can be used to simulate the electrical, optical properties of layered sphere, it also meet the research requirement in the design of functional graded particles in different subjects.
Equivalence Principles, Spacetime Structure and the Cosmic Connection
Ni, Wei-Tou
2015-01-01
After reviewing the meaning of various equivalence principles and the structure of electrodynamics, we give a fairly detailed account of the construction of the light cone and a core metric from the equivalence principle for the photon (no birefringence, no polarization rotation and no amplification/attenuation in propagation) in the framework of linear electrodynamics using cosmic connections/observations as empirical support. The cosmic nonbirefringent propagation of photons independent of energy and polarization verifies the Galileo Equivalence Principle [Universality of Propagation] for photons/electromagnetic wave packets in spacetime. This nonbirefringence constrains the spacetime constitutive tensor to high precision to a core metric form with an axion degree and a dilaton degree of freedom. Thus comes the metric with axion and dilation. Constraints on axion and dilaton from astrophysical/cosmic propagation are reviewed. E\\"otv\\"os-type experiments, Hughes-Drever-type experiments, redshift experiments ...
A semi-quantitative equivalence for abstracting from fast reactions
Galpin, Vashti; Ciocchetta, Federica; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.5
2011-01-01
Semantic equivalences are used in process algebra to capture the notion of similar behaviour, and this paper proposes a semi-quantitative equivalence for a stochastic process algebra developed for biological modelling. We consider abstracting away from fast reactions as suggested by the Quasi-Steady-State Assumption. We define a fast-slow bisimilarity based on this idea. We also show congruence under an appropriate condition for the cooperation operator of Bio-PEPA. The condition requires that there is no synchronisation over fast actions, and this distinguishes fast-slow bisimilarity from weak bisimilarity. We also show congruence for an operator which extends the reactions available for a species. We characterise models for which it is only necessary to consider the matching of slow transitions and we illustrate the equivalence on two models of competitive inhibition.
Minimal coupling and the equivalence principle in quantum mechanics
Laemmerzahl, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, Paris (France)]|[Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany)
1998-04-01
The role of the Equivalence Principle (EP) in classical and quantum mechanics is reviewed. It is shown that the weak EP has a counterpart in quantum theory, a Quantum Equivalence Principle (QEP). This implies that also in the quantum domain the geometrization of the gravitational interaction is an operational procedure similar to the procedure in classical physics. This QEP can be used for showing that it is only the usual Schroedinger equation coupled to gravito-inertial fields which obeys our equivalence principle. In addition, the QEP applied to a generalized Pauli equation including spin results in a characterization of the gravitational fields which can be identified with the Newtonian potential and with torsion. Also, in the classical limit it is possible to state beside the usual EP for the path an EP for the spin which again may be used for introducing torsion as a gravitational field. (author) 20 refs, 2 figs
Minimal coupling and the equivalence principle in quantum mechanics
The role of the Equivalence Principle (EP) in classical and quantum mechanics is reviewed. It is shown that the weak EP has a counterpart in quantum theory, a Quantum Equivalence Principle (QEP). This implies that also in the quantum domain the geometrization of the gravitational interaction is an operational procedure similar to the procedure in classical physics. This QEP can be used for showing that it is only the usual Schroedinger equation coupled to gravito-inertial fields which obeys our equivalence principle. In addition, the QEP applied to a generalized Pauli equation including spin results in a characterization of the gravitational fields which can be identified with the Newtonian potential and with torsion. Also, in the classical limit it is possible to state beside the usual EP for the path an EP for the spin which again may be used for introducing torsion as a gravitational field. (author)
Application of reactivity equivalence relations to MOX fuel systems
In the paper on hand it is demonstrated that reactivity equivalence relations can be applied to MOX fuel systems. The key making this possible is the definition of a bounding Pu vector as a continuous function of the Pu quality of the MOX fuel. The applicability of reactivity equivalence relations to MOX systems is demonstrated for a fuel assembly storage configuration assumed to be moderated with pure water with densities ranging from 10-5 g/cm3 to 1 g/cm3. The changes in the reactivity worth of the Pu isotopes with changing moderation degree and hence the changes in the definition of the bounding Pu vector are analyzed. A reactivity equivalence curve is generated specifying the maximum allowable Pufiss content of the fuel assemblies as a function of the Pu quality of the MOX fuel for the design limiting case of the storage configuration analyzed. (author)
Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics
Sivaram, C
2012-01-01
The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have strong gravitational fields. In recent years the generalised uncertainty principle has been invoked to connect gravity and curvature with quantum physics and now we may also need an extended equivalence principle to connect quantum theory with gravity.
Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency
In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 109 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)
Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs
Aufderheide, Helge; Gross, Thilo
2012-01-01
A present challenge in complex systems is to identify mesoscale structures that have distinct dynamical implications. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of a previously observed dynamical equivalence of certian ecological food webs. We show that this equivalence is rooted in mesoscale symmetries that exist in these webs. Certain eigenvectors of the Jacobian describing dynamical modes of the system, such as specific instabilities or responses to perturbations, localize on these symmetric motifs. On the one hand this means that by removing a symmetry from the network one obtains a system which has identical dynamics except for the removal of the localized mode. This explains the previously observed equivalence. On the other hand it means that we can identify dynamical modes that only depend on the symmetric motif. Symmetric structures thus provide an example for mesoscale network motifs having distinct and exact implications for the dynamics.
Steganographic Capacity of Images, based on Image Equivalence Classes
Hansen, Klaus; Hammer, Christian; Andersen, Jens Damgaard;
2001-01-01
The problem of hiding information imperceptibly can be formulated as the problem of determining if a given image is a member of a sufficiently large equivalence class of images which to the Human Visual System appears to be the same image. This makes it possible to replace the given image with a ...... modified image similar in appearance but carrying imperceptibly coded information. This paper presents a framework and an experimental algorithm to estimate upper bounds for the size of an equivalence class.......The problem of hiding information imperceptibly can be formulated as the problem of determining if a given image is a member of a sufficiently large equivalence class of images which to the Human Visual System appears to be the same image. This makes it possible to replace the given image with a...
TNT Equivalency of Unconfined Aerosols of Propylene Oxide
A. Apparao
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The unconfined aerosols of propylene oxide (PO are formed by dispersing the fuel in air. These aerosols undergo detonation by suitable initiation and produce high impulse blast. Tri-nitro Toluene (TNT equivalence is an important parameter used to represent the power of explosive materials and compare their relative damage effects wrt TNT. The parameters commonly used for estimation of TNT equivalency are total energy of explosive source and properties of resulting blast wave, viz., blast peak overpressure and positive impulse. In the present study, the unconfined aerosols of 4.2 kg PO were formed by breaking open the cylindrical canister with the help of axially positioned central burster charge and then detonated using a secondary explosive charge after a preset time delay. The resulting blast profiles were recorded and the blast parameters were analysed. Being a non-ideal explosive source, the TNT equivalency depends on fraction of total energy utilised for blast formation, the rate of energy release, cloud dimensions, and concentration of fuel. Hence, various approaches based on energy release, experimental blast profiles, triangulated blast parameters, and ground reflected blast parameters were considered to determine the TNT equivalency of unconfined PO aerosols. It was observed that the TNT equivalency is not a single value but vary with distance. The paper provides various options for weapon designer to choose a suitable approach for considering TNT equivalency. The scaling laws established from the experimental data of unconfined aerosols of PO for blast peak over pressure and scaled impulse help in predicting the performance for different values of fuel weight and distance.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.431-437, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6851
Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics
Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.
2012-12-01
The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.
Probing students' ideas of the principle of equivalence
The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The tool of assessment is a diagnostic questionnaire administered to a group of 30 senior undergraduates going through the course. The analysis of responses reveals a number of significant conceptual vulnerabilities in several aspects of the topic. The most important among these is related to the notion of an inertial frame that follows naturally from the principle of equivalence.
Idiomaticity of English Business Terms and Their Equivalents in Lithuanian
Pavel Skorupa
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the survey of idiomatic English business terms and their Lithuanian equivalents. The study was based on the theory of idioms and idiomaticity, highlighting the idea that idiomaticity can affect single words, word combinations, and longer text passages. Idiomatic business terms were taken from different English and Lithuanian general and special dictionaries, course books, as well as business texts. The analyzed terms were classified into distinct groups according to their meaning. The key problem encountered was the lack of Lithuanian translation equivalents to certain idiomatic English business terms. Possible Lithuanian translation was provided.
Density isomer of nuclear matter in an equivalent mass approach
The equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter is studied with an equivalent mass model. The equivalent mass of a nucleon has been expanded to order 4 in density. We first determine the first-order expansion coefficient in the quantum hadron dynamics, then calculate the coefficients of the second to fourth order for the given binding energy and incompressibility at the normal nuclear saturation density., It is found that there appears a density. isomeric state if the incompressibility is smaller than a critical value. The model dependence of the conclusion has also been checked by varying the first-order coefficient. (authors)
Equivalent Equations of Motion for Gravity and Entropy
Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James
2016-01-01
We demonstrate an equivalence between the wave equation obeyed by the entanglement entropy of CFT subregions and the linearized bulk Einstein equation in Anti-de Sitter pace. In doing so, we make use of the formalism of kinematic space [arXiv:1505.05515] and fields on this space, introduced in [arXiv:1604.03110]. We show that the gravitational dynamics are equivalent to a gauge invariant wave-equation on kinematic space and that this equation arises in natural correspondence to the conformal Casimir equation in the CFT.
Equivalent sample theory of networked control systems and its application
无
2008-01-01
The equivalent sample theory and its application in analysis of networked control system (NCS) are presented. After analyzing NCS's scheduling in master-slave mode, the characteristics of time delay and sample are summarized. Looking on master station visiting the slave station as a special sample process, the theory of equivalent sample is presented. And based on it, the stability of a kind of NCS is analyzed. The criterion to determine the upper bound of transmission delay is introduced, which guarantees the stability. Finally, an example with simulation shows the availability and usability of this analysis method.
An equivalent doping profile for CMOS substrate characterization
Quaresma, Henrique J.; Mendonça dos Santos, P.; Cruz Serra, A.
2013-01-01
This work presents a non-destructive methodology to accurately estimate an equivalent substrate doping profile of a typical CMOS process. The methodology is based on simple experimental resistive measurements at different temperatures, obtained from a set of basic integrated test structures, and in 3D semiconductor simulations, to compute an estimate for the unknown CMOS process parameters. It is demonstrated that the resultant box distribution equivalent doping profile could be used to evaluate the variation of the substrate impedance as a function of temperature and substrate contact distance.
Fuzzy logic systems are equivalent to feedforward neural networks
无
2000-01-01
Fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks are equivalent in essence. First, interpolation representations of fuzzy logic systems are introduced and several important conclusions are given. Then three important kinds of neural networks are defined, i.e. linear neural networks, rectangle wave neural networks and nonlinear neural networks. Then it is proved that nonlinear neural networks can be represented by rectangle wave neural networks. Based on the results mentioned above, the equivalence between fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks is proved, which will be very useful for theoretical research or applications on fuzzy logic systems or neural networks by means of combining fuzzy logic systems with neural networks.
Equilibrium polymerization on the equivalent-neighbor lattice
Kaufman, Miron
1989-01-01
The equilibrium polymerization problem is solved exactly on the equivalent-neighbor lattice. The Flory-Huggins (Flory, 1986) entropy of mixing is exact for this lattice. The discrete version of the n-vector model is verified when n approaches 0 is equivalent to the equal reactivity polymerization process in the whole parameter space, including the polymerized phase. The polymerization processes for polymers satisfying the Schulz (1939) distribution exhibit nonuniversal critical behavior. A close analogy is found between the polymerization problem of index the Schulz r and the Bose-Einstein ideal gas in d = -2r dimensions, with the critical polymerization corresponding to the Bose-Einstein condensation.
Equivalent Bar Conceptions for Computer Analysis of Pantographic Foldable Structures
陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟
2003-01-01
An equivalent bar conception is firstly developed for the computer analysis of pantographic foldablestructures. The uniplet of two three-node beam elements is assumed as a six-bar assembly with respect to leastnorm least square solution for the elastic strain energy equality. The equilibrium equation is developed for the e-quivalent models, and the internal forces formulated sequently for backup calculation. This procedure is provedpractical for some engineering, and some interesting concepts proposed. Finally, three numerical tests are present-ed.
Chaotic memristive circuit: equivalent circuit realization and dynamical analysis
Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Zhou Guo-Hua; Ma Zheng-Hua; Zou Ling
2011-01-01
In this paper,a practical equivalent circuit of an active flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth piecewise-quadratic nonlinearity is designed and an experimental chaotic memristive circuit is implemented.The chaotic memristive circuit has an equilibrium set and its stability is dependent on the initial state of the memristor.The initial state-dependent and the circuit parameter-dependent dynamics of the chaotic memristive circuit are investigated via phase portraits,bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents.Both experimental and simulation results validate the proposed equivalent circuit realization of the active flux-controlled memristor.
Interaction of dense ionizing radiations with tissue-equivalent media
Physical values used in dosimetry and microdosimetry (acts of energy transfer, specific and linear energy, kerma) are considered. The problem of heavy charged particle interaction with tissue-equivalent media is interpreted in detail. Separately discussed are the following problems: particle recharging, elastic scattering, excitation, ionization, total cross section of the interaction, linear energy transfer and parths of heavy charged particles. Attention is paid to the interaction of neutrons with tissue-equivalent substances. Microdosimetric characteristics of dense ionizing radiation are presented and microdosimetric approach to the estimation of a relative number of one-strand ad two-strand breaks of DNA is considered
Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs of irreducible sextics
Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo
2009-01-01
The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example.......The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example....
Determination of equivalent diffusion theory parameters. Final report
Ideal equivalent group diffusion theory constants are defined in a rigorous manner and the failure of standard flux-weighting procedures to yield these ideal constants is discussed. An iterative scheme based upon the Response Matrix Technique is then developed for finding improved two-group, two-dimensional equivalent group diffusion constants for symmetric assemblies. The use of these constants in a full-core criticality calculation results in a much more accurate prediction of integrated absorption rates and power densities than those predicted using the standard flux-weighted constants
NP-Logic Systems and Model-Equivalence Reductions
Yuping Shen
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of model-equivalence reduction between NP-logic systems which are logic systems with model existence problem in NP. It is shown that among all NP-systems with model checking problem in NP, the existentially quantified propositional logic (∃PF is maximal with respect to poly-time model-equivalent reduction. However, ∃PF seems not a maximal NP-system in general because there exits a NP-system with model checking problem D^P-complete.
Equivalent Higher-order Guiding-center Hamiltonian Theories
Brizard, A J
2016-01-01
Equivalent guiding-center Hamiltonian theories are constructed based on higher-order Lie-transform perturbation methods. Higher-order guiding-center theories are distinguished on the basis of whether correction terms associated with magnetic-field nonuniformity appear either in the guiding-center symplectic (Poisson-bracket) structure, in the guiding-center Hamiltonian, or both. These theories are called equivalent because they describe the same guiding-center magnetic-moment invariant. The present work presents the detailed derivations of results that were summarized in a recent paper by Tronko and Brizard [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112507 (2015)].
Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls
The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10-2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author)
Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities
Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.
2008-08-01
The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.
Radiation sterilization -- evaluation of a new approach for substantiation of 25 kGy
The fundamentals of a prototype method for substantiation of a sterilization dose of 25 kGy have been described in a recent report (Kowalski, J.B., Tallentire, A., 1999. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 54, 55). The method, whose basis is the conservative Standard Distribution of Resistances (SDR), incorporates an approach to identifying the maximal dose to be used in the verification experiment (VDmax). The approach has been subjected to computer evaluations involving challenging with hypothetical microbial populations of various sizes and resistances. The evaluations utilised the SDR (Distribution C), Distributions A and B which both have resistances less than that of the SDR, and Distribution D that is greater in resistance than the SDR. Fifty-four modified distributions, which varied in resistance in a graded and systematic manner from that of the SDR, were also utilised. Where appropriate, the outcomes from challenging the VDmax approach were compared with those of the dose substantiation method specified in ISO TR 13409 (Method TR) and dose setting Method 1. The results of the evaluations revealed uniformly safe and unambiguous outcomes with Distributions A, B and the SDR. For Distribution D, such outcomes were observed at low and high bioburden levels, whereas, at intermediate bioburden levels, ambiguous outcomes were observed. From an analysis of the evaluations that employed Distribution D and the modified distributions, the latter outcomes were found to be inevitable with challenges having widely differing bioburden levels and resistances which exceed that of the SDR. To examine the influence of the individual components of the SDR on substantiation outcomes, 'impact factors' were calculated. Differences in the most influential components were seen for the VDmax approach and Method TR. A comparison of such factors for the VDmax approach and Method 1 has affirmed the conservativeness and credibility of VDmax. (author)
Radiation sterilization -- evaluation of a new approach for substantiation of 25 kGy
Kowalski, John B.; Aoshuang, Yan; Tallentire, Alan E-mail: tallent@adl.u-net.com
2000-03-01
The fundamentals of a prototype method for substantiation of a sterilization dose of 25 kGy have been described in a recent report (Kowalski, J.B., Tallentire, A., 1999. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 54, 55). The method, whose basis is the conservative Standard Distribution of Resistances (SDR), incorporates an approach to identifying the maximal dose to be used in the verification experiment (VD{sub max}). The approach has been subjected to computer evaluations involving challenging with hypothetical microbial populations of various sizes and resistances. The evaluations utilised the SDR (Distribution C), Distributions A and B which both have resistances less than that of the SDR, and Distribution D that is greater in resistance than the SDR. Fifty-four modified distributions, which varied in resistance in a graded and systematic manner from that of the SDR, were also utilised. Where appropriate, the outcomes from challenging the VD{sub max} approach were compared with those of the dose substantiation method specified in ISO TR 13409 (Method TR) and dose setting Method 1. The results of the evaluations revealed uniformly safe and unambiguous outcomes with Distributions A, B and the SDR. For Distribution D, such outcomes were observed at low and high bioburden levels, whereas, at intermediate bioburden levels, ambiguous outcomes were observed. From an analysis of the evaluations that employed Distribution D and the modified distributions, the latter outcomes were found to be inevitable with challenges having widely differing bioburden levels and resistances which exceed that of the SDR. To examine the influence of the individual components of the SDR on substantiation outcomes, 'impact factors' were calculated. Differences in the most influential components were seen for the VD{sub max} approach and Method TR. A comparison of such factors for the VD{sub max} approach and Method 1 has affirmed the conservativeness and credibility of VD{sub max}. (author)
Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry
Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.
1989-01-01
Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.
AN ESTIMATION OF FUNDAMENTALLY SUBSTANTIATED REAL EXCHANGE RATE OF THE RUBLE
Alexandra Bozhechkova; Pavel Trunin
2015-01-01
The key factor in the strengthening of the real exchange rate of the ruble in the 2000s was the transformation based growth of Russia’s economy (the Balassa–Samuelson eff ect) coupled with the improving foreign trade conditions. As can be concluded on the basis of data for Q4 2014, for the ruble’s real exchange rate to return to its fundamentally substantiated level, it was to be increased by 6.2%. In view of expectations of inflation in the RF and her trade partners at the rates of 12–14% an...
Substantiation of vibration strength of nuclear reactor and steam generator internals. Main problems
The report details the scope and priority of studies necessary for substantiation of vibration strength of steam generator tube bundles and reactor fuel assemblies, and design modifications helping to reduce flow-induced vibration of the internals specified. Steam generator tube bundles are studied on the basis of a standard establishing vibration requirements at various stages of design, manufacture and operation of a steam generator at a nuclear power station. The main vibration characteristics of tubes obtained through model and full-scale tests are compared with calculation results. Results are provided concerning test-stand vibration tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. (author)
Lead exposure at an early age substantially increases lead retention in the rat.
Han, S.; Qiao, X.; Kemp, F W; Bogden, J D
1997-01-01
It has been hypothesized that the high rate of bone remodeling during childhood and the consequent high calcium and lead turnover result in a substantial reduction in bone lead stores so that much of the lead incorporated in bone during childhood does not persist into adulthood. We studied the effect of age at lead exposure on blood and organ concentrations of lead, calcium, and zinc 1-5 months after termination of lead ingestion. Blood and organ lead concentrations and contents 4 weeks after...
To what extent can isotopes help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes?
Badin, A.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Hunkeler, D.
degree to which isotopes could help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes at the field scale. Our work hence aims at exploring the latter based on data acquired in 2006 in a site located in Denmark which is contaminated with PCE and its end-products TCE, cDCE, and VC. Previous work on...... this site has enabled to demonstrate that PCE and TCE were undergoing reductive dechlorination while cDCE would be at least partially degraded through reductive dechlorination1. However, the magnitude of the contaminants attenuation by biodegradation was not evaluated. Based on simple modeling...
Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles
Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)
1996-12-01
This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.
Cell-Like Equivalences and Boundaries of CAT(0) Groups
Guilbault, Craig
2010-01-01
In 2000, Croke and Kleiner showed that a CAT(0) group G can admit more than one boundary. This contrasted with the situation for word hyperbolic groups, where it was well-known that each such group admitted a unique boundary---in a very stong sense. Prior to Croke and Kleiner's discovery, it had been observed by Geoghegan and Bestvina that a weaker sort of uniquness does hold for boundaries of torsion free CAT(0) groups; in particular, any two such boundaries always have the same shape. Hence, the boundary really does carry significant information about the group itself. In an attempt to strengthen the correspondence between group and boundary, Bestvina asked whether boundaries of CAT(0) groups are unique up to cell-like equivalence. For the types of space that arise as boundaries of CAT(0) groups, this is a notion that is weaker than topological equivalence and stronger than shape equivalence. In this paper we explore the Bestvina Cell-like Equivalence Question. We describe a straightforward strategy with th...
Estimates of dose equivalent rates from natural background radiation
Environmental monitoring in Khartoum is being conducted using thermoluminescent dosimetry.The purpose of the study is to estimate dose-equivalent rates from natural background radiation.TL phosphorus LiF.Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Mn were used to measure the exposure over land for natural background radiation of terrestrial origin plus cosmic radiation and at position over the Blue Nile to account for natural background radiation of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic rays).The associated dose-equivalent rates have been determined.It was found that the dose-equivalent rates from cosmic radiation obtained through this work using the two types of the TLD phosphorus GR-200 A and CaSO4 are 0.295 mSv per year and 0.265 mSv per year, respectively.While the dose-equivalent rates from total natural background radiation obtained through this work are 0.395 mSv per year using GR-200 A and CaSO4 phosphorus, respectively. (Author)
Actions for adoption of effective dose equivalent standards
Regulations related with radiological protection have been revised to adopt SI units and to accept the ICRP recommendation requesting to use the effective dose equivalent for radiation exposure control. The present report mainly deals with actions to be taken in the field of radiation instrumentation to promote the adoption of effective dose equivalent standards. In the past, exposure in roentgen has been generally used as a quantity to represent the intensity of a X-ray or alpha-ray field, because it can be measured relatively easily and accurately. The introduction of the effective dose equivalent is intended to establish annual exposure limits to ensure that the possibility of death of workers in a radioactive environment and that of development of hereditary disorders in their children or grandchildren will be maintained below permissible levels. The quantity is expressed as the sum of each organ's dose equivalent multiplied by a weight that reflects risks. Presently, such weights are assigned to seven organs including the gential glands and red marrow. Fixed-type area monitors and portable survey meters are used for work environment monitoring while film badges, TLDs, dosimeters, etc., are employed for personnel monitoring. (Nogami, K.)
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor
El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan
2000-01-01
In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...
One-to-One Play Promotes Numerical Equivalence Concepts
Mix, Kelly S.; Moore, Julie A.; Holcomb, Erin
2011-01-01
Young children spontaneously engage in a variety of one-to-one correspondence activities during play. The present study tested whether one of these activities--pairing objects with containers--supported the development of numerical equivalence judgments. Three-year-olds were given sets of toys to take home. In one condition, the toys were…
ON MEROMORPHIC EQUIVALENCE OF LINEAR DIFFERENCE-OPERATORS
IMMINK, GK
1990-01-01
We consider linear difference equations whose coefficients are meromorphic at infinity. We characterize the meromorphic equivalence classes of such equations by means of a system of meromorphic invariants. Using an approach inspired by the work of G.D. Birkhoff we show that the system is free.
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor
El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan
2000-01-01
In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about the...
Phase-equivalent potentials from supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Phase-equivalent potentials, i.e potentials with the same phase shifts as a given potential but an arbitrarily different bound spectrum, are derived with an extension of supersymmetric factorizations where potentials which are singular at finite distances are employed in intermediate steps of the calculation. (orig.)
On Structuralism and Equivalence-oriented Approaches in Translation Studies
Li; Xuemin; Yin; Xiaorong
2014-01-01
The present paper is intended to examine the concept of equivalence in translation studies by presenting typical advocates and their influential statement,meanwhile,how structuralism influences in the studies is also investigated.The advantages and disadvantages are figured out,and further tendencies are stated.
Limit groups, positive-genus towers and measure equivalence
Bridson, Martin R.; Tweedale, Michael; Wilton, Henry
2005-01-01
By definition, an $\\omega$-residually free tower is positive-genus if all surfaces used in its construction are of positive genus. We prove that every limit group is virtually a subgroup of a positive-genus $\\omega$-residually free tower. By combining this with results of Gaboriau, we prove that elementarily free groups are measure equivalent to free groups.
Electromagnetic Field Calculation of IM for Different Equivalent Circuit Parameters
Skalka, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Ondrůšek, Č.
Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2008, s. 108-111. ISBN 978-80-214-3795-1. [International Conference on Low Voltage Electrical Machines. Brno (CZ), 06.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction machine * field distribution * equivalent circuit Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Derived equivalences between matrix subrings and their applications
Chen, Yiping
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct derived equivalences between matrix subrings. As applications, we calculate the global dimensions and the finitistic dimensions of some matrix subrings. And we show that the finitistic dimension conjecture holds for a class of Harada algebras and a class of tiled triangular algebras.
43 CFR 426.11 - Class 1 equivalency.
2010-10-01
..., successful irrigation farming; and (iii) Is estimated to have the highest relative productive potential... equivalency determination at least 6 months prior to the maturity of the recordable contract, the district... under recordable contract be sold at a price approved by Reclamation does not apply to land which...
Modelling of multilayer piezoelectric transducers for echographic applications Equivalent circuits
In this paper, the main equivalent circuits of pulse-echo, single element, multilayer piezoelectric transducers, are analysed. The analogy of matching layers with lossless transmission lines is described. Finally, using the KLM model, the effects of backing and matching layers on the bandwidth and impulse response is analysed. (Author)
Neutron kerma factors and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes
The Kerma factors and Kerma relative to the air and water of 24 compounds that are used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energies ranging from 2.53×10−8 to 29 MeV. The Kerma ratios of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies of 100 eV. The Kerma ratio relative to the air for poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon were nearest to unity at very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV, respectively. It was found that the natural rubber was a water-equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the Kerma factors in our investigation show good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the Kerma factors and Kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds were approximately the same, but though the differences were large for energies below 100 eV. - Highlights: • We calculated the neutron kerma factors of tissue substitutes up to 29 MeV. • Water equivalence was observed above neutron energy 100 eV. • Natural rubber was found to be a water equivalent material. • Kerma factors are in agreement with those published in literatures
Quantum and classical advantage distillation are not equivalent
Kaszlikowski, D; Kwek, L C; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Yang, Lim Jenn; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2003-01-01
We report that, for the generation of a secure cryptographic key from correlations established through a noisy quantum channel, the quantum and classical advantage distillation procedures are not equivalent, when coherent eavesdropping attacks are duly taken into account. The quantum procedure can tolerate markedly more noise in the channel than the classical procedure.
Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence
Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind
2011-01-01
The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…
State-Dependent Implication and Equivalence in Quantum Logic
Fedor Herbut
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ideal occurrence of an event (projector leads to the known change of a state (density operator into (the Lüders state. It is shown that two events and give the same Lüders state if and only if the equivalence relation is valid. This relation determines equivalence classes. The set of them and each class, are studied in detail. It is proved that the range projector of the Lüders state can be evaluated as , where denotes the greatest lower bound, and is the null projector of . State-dependent implication extends absolute implication (which, in turn, determines the entire structure of quantum logic. and are investigated in a closely related way to mutual benefit. Inherent in the preorder is the state-dependent equivalence , defining equivalence classes in a given Boolean subalgebra. The quotient set, in which the classes are the elements, has itself a partially ordered structure, and so has each class. In a complete Boolean subalgebra, both structures are complete lattices. Physical meanings are discussed.
Equivalent Circuit of a High Q Tunable PIFA
Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2011-01-01
This paper presents an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) for a high Quality factor (Q) tunable Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA). A PIFA is described and simulated with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The resonance behavior of the proposed ECM is compared to the FDTD results and shows...
The Equivalence Forms of Random Kolmogorov Forward (Backward) Equations
HU Di-he; HU Xiao-yu
2005-01-01
The concepts of Markov process in random environment, q-matrix in random environment and q-process in random environment are introduced. Three forms of random Kolmoogrov farward (or backward) equations are introduced and the equivalence of these three forms are also proved. Moreover any conservative q-process in random environment satisfies random Kolmogrov backward equation.
A computational theory for the learning of equivalence relations
Sergio E Lew
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Equivalence relations are logical entities that emerge concurrently with the development of language capabilities.In this work we propose a computational model that learns to build equivalence relations by learning simple conditional rules. The model includes visual areas, dopaminergic and noradrenergic structures as well as prefrontal and motor areas, each of them modeled as a group of continuous valued units that simulate clusters of real neurons. In the model, lateral interaction between neurons of visual structures and top-down modulation of prefrontal/premotor structures over the activity of neurons in visual structures are necessary conditions for learning the paradigm. In terms of the number of neurons and their interaction, we show that a minimal structural complexity is required for learning equivalence relations among conditioned stimuli. Paradoxically, the emergence of the equivalence relation drives a reduction in the number of neurons needed to maintain those previously specific stimulus-response learned rules, allowing an efficient use of neuronal resources.
Morita equivalence and characteristic classes of star products
Bursztyn, H; Waldmann, S
2009-01-01
This paper deals with two aspects of the theory of characteristic classes of star products: first, on an arbitrary Poisson manifold, we describe Morita equivalent star products in terms of their Kontsevich classes; second, on symplectic manifolds, we describe the relationship between Kontsevich's and Fedosov's characteristic classes of star products.
Dehydrogenation of ammonia borane through the third equivalent of hydrogen.
Zhang, Xingyue; Kam, Lisa; Williams, Travis J
2016-05-01
Ammonia borane (AB) has high hydrogen density (19.6 wt%), and can, in principle, release up to 3 equivalents of H2 under mild catalytic conditions. A limited number of catalysts are capable of non-hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB beyond 2 equivalents of H2 under mild conditions, but none of these is shown directly to derivatise borazine, the product formed after 2 equivalents of H2 are released. We present here a high productivity ruthenium-based catalyst for non-hydrolytic AB dehydrogenation that is capable of borazine dehydrogenation, and thus exhibits among the highest H2 productivity reported to date for anhydrous AB dehydrogenation. At 1 mol% loading, (phen)Ru(OAc)2(CO)2 () effects AB dehydrogenation through 2.7 equivalents of H2 at 70 °C, is robust through multiple charges of AB, and is water and air stable. We further demonstrate that catalyst has the ability both to dehydrogenate borazine in isolation and dehydrogenate AB itself. This is important, both because borazine derivatisation is productivity-limiting in AB dehydrogenation and because borazine is a fuel cell poison that is commonly released in H2 production from this medium. PMID:27052687
The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...
Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides
Shyroki, Dzmitry
2008-01-01
Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling o...
Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges
Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.
1993-07-01
Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.
Electrical Equivalent Circuits of d.c. MHD Generators
A simple electric system can be found in which the dependence between electrical parameters is identical with those in MHD generators. Such an electric system, called an electrical equivalent circuit of the MHD generator, makes it possible to calculate all electrical parameters of the generator based on the elementary principles of the theory of electrical circuits. To determine the equivalent circuit it is necessary to find out the appropriate connection system of the internal resistance and electromotive forces and to determine their values. In the paper the equivalent circuits of the generators with the segmented electrodes electrically connected in various ways are determined (generators with the electrodes connected in series, with Hall- and Faraday-connected electrodes). Constant gas dynamic parameters, constant generator cross-section, constant.magnetic field, uniformity of current density and electric field were assumed. Electrode effects, end effects and ''ion slip'' are neglected. From the equivalent circuits the following electrical terminal values of generator as voltage, current, internal resistance, electric power, brake power, ohmic losses, electrical efficiency can be easily determined. Terminal values are given as a function of geometric dimensions of the generator. Hall parameter and connection system of electrodes. (author)
Snow water equivalent modeling components in NewAge-JGrass
Formetta, G.; Kampf, S. K.; David, O.; Rigon, R.
2014-05-01
This paper presents a package of modified temperature-index-based snow water equivalent models as part of the hydrological modeling system NewAge-JGrass. Three temperature-based snow models are integrated into the NewAge-JGrass modeling system and use many of its components such as those for radiation balance (short wave radiation balance, SWRB), kriging (KRIGING), automatic calibration algorithms (particle swarm optimization) and tests of goodness of fit (NewAge-V), to build suitable modeling solutions (MS). Similarly to all the NewAge-JGrass components, the models can be executed both in raster and in vector mode. The simulation time step can be daily, hourly or sub-hourly, depending on user needs and availability of input data. The MS are applied on the Cache la Poudre River basin (CO, USA) using three test applications. First, daily snow water equivalent is simulated for three different measurement stations for two snow model formulations. Second, hourly snow water equivalent is simulated using all the three different snow model formulae. Finally, a raster mode application is performed to compute snow water equivalent maps for the whole Cache la Poudre Basin.
On Equivalence of Two Realizations for a Nonlinear Lie Algebra
阳星; 寻大毛; 荣小平; 单磊; 刘全慧
2012-01-01
Recently,there are two independent approaches related to a class of nonlinear Lie algebras of three generators;and the realizations of these generators are achieved respectively in Schwinger-boson and position representation.However,by use of the representation transformation between these two representations,the equivalence of the two realizations is therefore proved.
Equivalent Skin Analysis of Wing Structures Using Neural Networks
Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.
2000-01-01
An efficient method of modeling trapezoidal built-up wing structures is developed by coupling. in an indirect way, an Equivalent Plate Analysis (EPA) with Neural Networks (NN). Being assumed to behave like a Mindlin-plate, the wing is solved using the Ritz method with Legendre polynomials employed as the trial functions. This analysis method can be made more efficient by avoiding most of the computational effort spent on calculating contributions to the stiffness and mass matrices from each spar and rib. This is accomplished by replacing the wing inner-structure with an "equivalent" material that combines to the skin and whose properties are simulated by neural networks. The constitutive matrix, which relates the stress vector to the strain vector, and the density of the equivalent material are obtained by enforcing mass and stiffness matrix equities with rec,ard to the EPA in a least-square sense. Neural networks for the material properties are trained in terms of the design variables of the wing structure. Examples show that the present method, which can be called an Equivalent Skin Analysis (ESA) of the wing structure, is more efficient than the EPA and still fairly good results can be obtained. The present ESA is very promising to be used at the early stages of wing structure design.
A Few Equivalences of Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture
Saha, Arpan; Karthik, C S
2011-01-01
In this paper, we prove a few lemmas concerning Fibonacci numbers modulo primes and provide a few statements that are equivalent to Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture. Further, we investigate the conjecture through heuristic arguments and propose a few additional conjectures for future research.
Real-time external equivalent modeling and linearized sensitivity analysis
The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a real-time, steady-state equivalent model of a large, external interconnected electrical power system that can be utilized by transmission system control centers with limited computer resources. The external equivalent model developed is a part of a network-analysis program which is based on the Newton-Raphson power flow solution technique. Other researchers have found the selection of the circuit elements retained in the external equivalent model affects the accuracy and reliability of the results as much as the selection of the solution technique. However, there are no established procedures available to select the circuit elements. A new method for analyzing the sensitivity of the internal system's control variables is developed. This new method greatly reduces the effort required to select the retained external system components and it significantly improves the reliability of the results. The new external equivalent model proved to be a very accurate and reliable tool for simulating the response of the external system to internal system line outage contingencies. Validation showed that the model retained its accuracy and reliability even during external system transmission line outages
Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study
Barbe MA Pieters
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer′s dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer′s room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient.
Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.
Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R
2016-01-01
Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963
Petric, Martin Peter
This thesis describes the development and implementation of a novel method for the dosimetric verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields with several advantages over current techniques. Through the use of a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator sheet viewed by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, this method provides a truly tissue equivalent dosimetry system capable of efficiently and accurately performing field-by-field verification of IMRT plans. This work was motivated by an initial study comparing two IMRT treatment planning systems. The clinical functionality of BrainLAB's BrainSCAN and Varian's Helios IMRT treatment planning systems were compared in terms of implementation and commissioning, dose optimization, and plan assessment. Implementation and commissioning revealed differences in the beam data required to characterize the beam prior to use with the BrainSCAN system requiring higher resolution data compared to Helios. This difference was found to impact on the ability of the systems to accurately calculate dose for highly modulated fields, with BrainSCAN being more successful than Helios. The dose optimization and plan assessment comparisons revealed that while both systems use considerably different optimization algorithms and user-control interfaces, they are both capable of producing substantially equivalent dose plans. The extensive use of dosimetric verification techniques in the IMRT treatment planning comparison study motivated the development and implementation of a novel IMRT dosimetric verification system. The system consists of a water-filled phantom with a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator sheet built into the top surface. Scintillation light is reflected by a plastic mirror within the phantom towards a viewing window where it is captured using a CCD camera. Optical photon spread is removed using a micro-louvre optical collimator and by deconvolving a glare kernel from the raw images. Characterization of this
Preliminary Assessment of Equivalency for a New Eddy Current System
The Steam Generator Management Program (SGMP) guidelines require that Examination Technique Specification Sheets (ETSS) define essential variables for equipment, techniques, and analysis. Examination techniques with essential variables that vary within the ranges identified in the ETSS are considered equivalent. Steam generator tubes have been inspected using the ZETEC system, which is qualified in ETSSs, in Korea. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has developed a new eddy current testing system for steam generator tubing inspection. This system is composed of SM-25 fixture controller, eddy current tester, probe push-puller control system, data acquisition and analysis software. The control system of SM-25 remote fixture is used to place the guide-tube at the correct and accurate position of each steam generator tube. The eddy current tester is composed of synthesizer, analog processor, and analog-to digital conversion board. The probe push-puller system is used to move the bobbin and rotating probe for data acquisition. The newly developed data acquisition, analysis, and management programs are based on the Windows operating system, while the ZETEC on the Unix-based. This paper describes characteristics of the new system and preliminary assessment of equivalency to the qualified system in detail. The KHNP is developing a new eddy current testing system for steam generator tubing inspection. Performance of the new system should be verified in accordance with requirements for the equivalency in order to be used for field inspections. Preliminary assessment of equivalency was carried out in this study. The results show that the new system is satisfied with the equivalency requirements for bobbin probe data. Further study for rotating probe data will be conducted to determine whether the new system can be used for steam generator tubing inspection in nuclear power plants
Equivalence principles, spacetime structure and the cosmic connection
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-03-01
After reviewing the meaning of various equivalence principles and the structure of electrodynamics, we give a fairly detailed account of the construction of the light cone and a core metric from the equivalence principle for photons (no birefringence, no polarization rotation and no amplification/attenuation in propagation) in the framework of linear electrodynamics using cosmic connections/observations as empirical support. The cosmic nonbirefringent propagation of photons independent of energy and polarization verifies the Galileo Equivalence Principle (Universality of Propagation) for photons/electromagnetic wave packets in spacetime. This nonbirefringence constrains the spacetime constitutive tensor to high precision to a core metric form with an axion degree and a dilaton degree of freedom. Thus comes the metric with axion and dilation. Constraints on axion and dilaton from astrophysical/cosmic propagation are reviewed. Eötvös-type experiments, Hughes-Drever-type experiments, redshift experiments then constrain and tie this core metric to agree with the matter metric, and hence a unique physical metric and universality of metrology. We summarize these experiments and review how the Galileo equivalence principle constrains the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) theoretically. In local physics this physical metric gives the Lorentz/Poincaré covariance. Understanding that the metric and EEP come from the vacuum as a medium of electrodynamics in the linear regime, efforts to actively look for potential effects beyond this linear scheme are warranted. We emphasize the importance of doing Eötvös-type experiments or other type experiments using polarized bodies/polarized particles. We review the theoretical progress on the issue of gyrogravitational ratio for fundamental particles and update the experimental progress on the measurements of possible long range/intermediate range spin-spin, spin-monopole and spin-cosmos interactions.
María Eugenia Villalobos Hernández; Ana Mercedes Espinoza Esquivel
2008-01-01
El objetivo del presente artículo es describir la aplicación del concepto de equivalencia sustancial, el cual es utilizado y aceptado internacionalmente para realizar la evaluación de la inocuidad de un alimento nuevo derivado de cultivos genéticamente mejorados. La metodología utilizada fue revisión de literatura actualizada, considerando, información tanto de revistas nacionales como internacionales y documentos de la Organización Mundial para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO), Organiz...
Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete's Freeze-Thaw Resistance
Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.
2016-04-01
It has been analytically proved that using concrete's rate of set e as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance's accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete's freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and e received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.
Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development
Liu Yong Qiang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.
Color filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial cross talk.
Anzagira, Leo; Fossum, Eric R
2015-01-01
Digital image sensor outputs usually must be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction amplifies noise, thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In subdiffraction-limit (SDL) pixels, where optical and carrier cross talk can be substantial, this problem can become significant when conventional color filter arrays (CFAs) such as the Bayer patterns (RGB and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNR deterioration caused by cross talk in these SDL pixels. We demonstrate an improvement in the color reproduction accuracy and SNR in high cross-talk conditions. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between color accuracy and SNR for the different CFA patterns. PMID:26366487
Substantial optical dielectric enhancement by volume compression in LiAsSe2
Zheng, Fan; Brehm, John A.; Young, Steve M.; Kim, Youngkuk; Rappe, Andrew M.
2016-05-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we predict a substantial increase in the optical dielectric function of LiAsSe2 under pressure. We find that the optical dielectric constant is enhanced threefold under compression along all three axes by 3%. This enhancement is mainly due to the dimerization strength reduction of the one-dimensional (1D) As-Se chains in LiAsSe2, which significantly alters the wave function phase mismatch between two neighboring chains and changes the transition intensity. By developing a tight-binding model of the interacting 1D chains, the essential features of the low-energy electronic structure of LiAsSe2 are captured. Our findings are important for understanding the fundamental physics of LiAsSe2 and provide a feasible way to enhance the material optical response that can be applied to light harvesting for energy applications.
Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome
Adithya Sivaraju
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.
Substantial increase in concurrent droughts and heatwaves in the United States.
Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir
2015-09-15
A combination of climate events (e.g., low precipitation and high temperatures) may cause a significant impact on the ecosystem and society, although individual events involved may not be severe extremes themselves. Analyzing historical changes in concurrent climate extremes is critical to preparing for and mitigating the negative effects of climatic change and variability. This study focuses on the changes in concurrences of heatwaves and meteorological droughts from 1960 to 2010. Despite an apparent hiatus in rising temperature and no significant trend in droughts, we show a substantial increase in concurrent droughts and heatwaves across most parts of the United States, and a statistically significant shift in the distribution of concurrent extremes. Although commonly used trend analysis methods do not show any trend in concurrent droughts and heatwaves, a unique statistical approach discussed in this study exhibits a statistically significant change in the distribution of the data. PMID:26324927
Substantiation of an express-method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials
S.G. Nikolskiy
2015-12-01
Full Text Available An express method for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was offered and substantiated in this article. The proposed measurement technology of concrete frost resistance is based on the computation of the value z which is the ratio of the relative decrease of compression resistance R to the relative permanent set ε in the direction which is perpendicular to the pressure. It was found that this ratio is constant for a given composition of the concrete and does not depend on the values of R and ε. It was also proved that the values are not sensitive to the replacement of mechanical thermal cycles. These aspects will decrease the time for determining the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete and reduce the labor intensity of the tests conducted. The proposed method has been implemented on 10 samples of concrete with the following composition: Portland cement 400 (12.3 %, sand (24.7 %, granite macadam of dimensions 5…20 mm (55.6 %, water (7.4 %. Specimen cubes, according to the proposed method, were saturated with water, measured, subjected to alternate freezing and thawing and axial compression to achieve extreme loads. Then the frost resistance for each sample and the mean sample value F were calculated. The resulting value was compared with the freeze-thaw resistance, which was received for the mixture by the basic method. Thus, a new accelerated method for the determination of the freeze-thaw resistance of cellular materials was substantiated. It is highly efficient, simple, and has a low cost.
This paper summarizes the results of a series of experimental and theoretical studies carried out in 2003-2010 on the substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of BN-600 core. This work caused BN-600 transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a., need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience in anticipation of the end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years, development and introduction of new methods of analysis, in particular, the beginning of use for BN-600 core calculation precision method of Monte Carlo, free from most of the limitations of traditional diffusion codes. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques. By the beginning of this work cycle energy-release of BN-600 had not been measured for about 10 years. As a result of experimental and calculating studies was created the coordinated and consistent database of neutron-physical characteristics for the fast sodium reactor of medium power. With the account of long-term operating experience of the BN-600 were finally brought and tested measurement methods of reactivity characteristics based on the new reactimeter methodology and gamma scanning of fuel assemblies. The development and application of new programs for neutronic calculations (new version of GEFEST and JARFR codes based on ABBN-93 constant system, the ModExSys system and MMKKENO code based on the Monte Carlo method) has allowed at a new level to understand and evaluate the methodological features of calculation of basic parameters of the BN-600 core. Substantiated values of the basic neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core with high level of accuracy. (author)
Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease
Reist Martin
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs.
Zhang, J.; Xin, L.; Shan, B.; Chen, W.; Ma, B.
2011-01-01
Objective: To substantially improve the peptide identification sensitivity and accuracy from the Orbitrap ETD data with computational methods. Method: The algorithm takes full advantage of the characteristics of the Orbitrap ETD data, including: (1) high mass resolution of the precursor ions, and (2) the distributions of different fragment ion types in the MS/MS scans. For the first characteristic, a pre-search step is conducted to determine the precursor mass error distribution. This does not only make the precursor mass more accurate by a software recalibration, but also allows the use of the mass error as an important feature in the peptide-spectrum matching score function. For the second characteristic, the frequencies of different fragment ion types at different precursor charge states are statistically learned, and used in the score calculation. Moreover, the precursor-related ions in the MS/MS spectra are removed. Additionally, the score function makes use of the similarity between a database peptide and the de novo sequencing result. Result: PeaksDB was compared against three other search engines: MSGF-DB, Mascot, and ZCore. The same shuffled decoy database was appended to the target database and searched together to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) of each individual engine. The same search parameters were used for all engines except that MSGFDB does not support variable PTMs. If no variable PTM is allowed, the numbers of identified peptides of different engines at 1% FDR are: PeaksDB (2356) > MSGF-DB (2147) > Mascot (1459) > ZCore (1030). If a few common PTMs are allowed, the numbers change to PeaksDB (3501) > Mascot (2677) > MSGF-DB (2147) > ZCore(1125). Conclusion: PeaksDB substantially improved the sensitivity and accuracy of peptide identifications on Orbitrap ETD data. At 1% false discovery rate, PeaksDB identified 1.3 to 1.6 times as many peptides as Mascot 2.3.
Carl J Yeoman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is described as a common vaginal bacterial species whose presence correlates strongly with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Here we report the genome sequencing and comparative analyses of three strains of G. vaginalis. Strains 317 (ATCC 14019 and 594 (ATCC 14018 were isolated from the vaginal tracts of women with symptomatic BV, while Strain 409-05 was isolated from a healthy, asymptomatic individual with a Nugent score of 9. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Substantial genomic rearrangement and heterogeneity were observed that appeared to have resulted from both mobile elements and substantial lateral gene transfer. These genomic differences translated to differences in metabolic potential. All strains are equipped with significant virulence potential, including genes encoding the previously described vaginolysin, pili for cytoadhesion, EPS biosynthetic genes for biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance systems, We also observed systems promoting multi-drug and lantibiotic extrusion. All G. vaginalis strains possess a large number of genes that may enhance their ability to compete with and exclude other vaginal colonists. These include up to six toxin-antitoxin systems and up to nine additional antitoxins lacking cognate toxins, several of which are clustered within each genome. All strains encode bacteriocidal toxins, including two lysozyme-like toxins produced uniquely by strain 409-05. Interestingly, the BV isolates encode numerous proteins not found in strain 409-05 that likely increase their pathogenic potential. These include enzymes enabling mucin degradation, a trait previously described to strongly correlate with BV, although commonly attributed to non-G. vaginalis species. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that all three strains are able to thrive in vaginal environments, and therein the BV isolates are capable of occupying a niche that is unique from 409-05. Each strain has significant virulence
Superluminality and the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics
Faraggi, Alon E. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
2012-03-15
An interpretation of the recent results reported by the OPERA collaboration is that neutrinos propagation in vacuum exceeds the speed of light. It has been further been suggested that this interpretation can be attributed to the variation of the particle average speed arising from the Relativistic Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. I derive an expression for the quantum correction to the instantaneous relativistic velocity in the framework of the relativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is derived from the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics. While the quantum correction does indicate deviations from the classical energy-momentum relation, it does not necessarily lead to superluminal speeds. The quantum correction found herein has a non-trivial dependence on the energy and mass of the particle, as well as on distance travelled. I speculate on other possible observational consequences of the equivalence postulate approach. (orig.)
The equivalence principle of quantum mechanics: Uniqueness theorem
Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)
1997-10-28
Recently the authors showed that the postulated diffeomorphic equivalence of states implies quantum mechanics. This approach takes the canonical variables to be dependent by the relation p = {partial_derivative}{sub q}S{sub 0} and exploits a basic GL(2,C)-symmetry which underlies the canonical formalism. In particular, they looked for the special transformations leading to the free system with vanishing energy. Furthermore, they saw that while on the one hand the equivalence principle cannot be consistently implemented in classical mechanics, on the other it naturally led to the quantum analogue of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, thus implying the Schroedinger equation. In this letter they show that actually the principle uniquely leads to this solution. The authors also express the canonical and Schroedinger equations by means of the brackets recently introduced in the framework of N = 2 SYM. These brackets are the analogue of the Poisson brackets with the canonical variables taken as dependent.
Constructing skin-equivalents using hair follicle stem cells
无
2006-01-01
Objective: To establish the method of constructing skin-equivalents (SE) using hair follicle stem cells(HFSC).Methods: K19 positive cells derived from hair were cultivated using serum-free medium KGM and seeded on dermal equivalents (DE).After the culture between the air-liquid interface for 14 days, SE were harvested and used for evaluation. Results: K19 positive cells chosen as HFSC were located in bulge of out root sheet in hair follicle. Cultivated HFSC could build a fully developed, multi-layered epidermis on the basis of DE, resembling the skin structure. Conclusion: HFSC located in out root sheet can differentiate into keratinocyte in vitro and be used for SE construction.
Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO
Lo C. Y.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.
Development of a neutron personal dose equivalent detector
A new neutron-measuring instrument that is intended to measure a neutron personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) was developed. This instrument is composed of two parts: (1) a conventional moderator-based neutron dose equivalent meter and (2) a neutron shield made of borated polyethylene, which covers a backward hemisphere to adjust the angular dependence. The whole design was determined on the basis of MCNP calculations so as to have response characteristics that would generally match both the energy and angular dependencies of Hp(10). This new instrument will be a great help in assessing the reference values of neutron Hp(10) during field testing of personal neutron dosemeters in workplaces and also in interpreting their readings. (authors)
Development and characterization of a neutron personal dose equivalent monitor
The authors developed a new neutron-measuring instrument that was designed to measure a neutron personal dose equivalent, Hp(10). This instrument is composed of a conventional moderator-based neutron dose equivalent meter and a neutron shield made of borated polyethylene which covers a backward hemisphere to adjust the angular dependence. The whole design was determined on the basis of MCNP calculations so as to have response characteristics which would generally match both the energy and angular dependencies of Hp(10). The verification experiments for energy and angular responses were done using monoenergetic neutrons produced by the accelerator and polyenergetic neutrons from the moderated 252Cf source. Experiments showed that the new instrument has reasonably acceptable responses as a reference neutron dosemeter. The authors conclude that this new instrument will be a great help in assessing the reference values of neutron Hp(10) during field testing of personal neutron dosemeters in the workplace and also in interpreting their readings. (author)
Analysis of reinforced concrete beams by the equivalent section method
Schulz, Mauro
2014-01-01
This research investigates the analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined axial load, bending moment and shear force. Cross-sections of general shape are divided, along the height, into plane elements. The biaxial behavior is represented according to the smeared rotating crack approach. Using traditionally accepted hypotheses for beams, the shear flow is determined by applying the Jouravski formula to an "equivalent section", which takes into account the nonlinear material behavior. The "Equivalent Section Method", originally proposed by Diaz (1980) and Diaz and Schulz (1981), is improved and simplified. The formulation is implemented applying the bidimensional constitutive model A, proposed by Vecchio and Collins (1993). The tension-stiffening effect is considered as adopted by Polak and Vecchio (1993). Shear slip at crack surfaces, Poisson's ratio and other secondary effects are not considered. Validation is undertaken by comparison with experimental results obtained by other researchers. T...
Derived Equivalences of K3 Surfaces and Twined Elliptic Genera
Duncan, John F R
2015-01-01
We use the unique canonically-twisted module over a certain distinguished super vertex operator algebra---the moonshine module for Conway's group---to attach a weak Jacobi form of weight zero and index one to any symplectic derived equivalence of a projective complex K3 surface that fixes a stability condition in the distinguished space identified by Bridgeland. According to work of Huybrechts, following Gaberdiel--Hohenegger--Volpato, any such derived equivalence determines a conjugacy class in Conway's group, the automorphism group of the Leech lattice. Conway's group acts naturally on the module we consider. In physics the data of a projective complex K3 surface together with a suitable stability condition determines a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, and supersymmetry preserving automorphisms of such an object may be used to define twinings of the K3 elliptic genus. Our construction recovers the K3 sigma model twining genera precisely in all available examples. In particular, the identity symmetry r...
Contribution to the study of the transport-scattering equivalence
The algorithm of the TERMINUS code that analytically resolves the equations of multigroup scattering in one dimensional plane geometry is described in this report. This code has been written and utilized to test the mathematical methods of transport-scattering equivalence. The results are then given of a comparison between the APOLLO, NEPTUNE and TERMINUS codes. The mathematical problem having been formulated, the reasons which led to the choice from among the alternative methods are explained thus enabling the ANACREON and KALGAN programmes to be written. The results achieved with these programs, both of which use TERMINUS as scattering code, are presented. The problems raised by coupling the ANACREON and KALGAN codes to the NEPTUNE system are mentioned and the results achieved with the equivalence module coupled to NEPTUNE are given
Strategies as sheaves and interactive equivalences for CCS
Hirschowitz, Tom
2011-01-01
Seeking a general framework for reasoning about and comparing programming languages, we derive a new view of Milner's CCS. We construct a category E of 'plays', and a subcategory V of 'views'. We argue that presheaves on V adequately represent 'innocent' strategies, in the sense of game semantics. We equip innocent strategies with a simple notion of interaction. We then prove decomposition results for innocent strategies, and, restricting to presheaves of finite ordinals, prove that innocent strategies are a final coalgebra for a polynomial functor derived from the game. This leads to a translation of CCS with recursive equations. Finally, we propose a notion of 'interactive equivalence' for innocent strategies, which is close in spirit to Beffara's interpretation of testing equivalences in concurrency theory. In this framework, we consider analogues of fair testing and must testing. We show that must testing is strictly finer in our model than in CCS, since it avoids what we call 'spatial unfairness'. Still,...
On Poetic Advertisements Translating by Functional Equivalence in Skopostheory
肖枫霄
2016-01-01
A hot issue was once the advertisement translation as a pragmatic one. But it is surprising how little attention has been paid to a new kind of advertisement-poetic advertisement, which has caught a great significance in the world of business. In this paper it attempts to do a poetic translation study by Nida’s theories that stand for the German functional translation school. Through the research for some translation cases, it is found that the theory functional equivalence is feasible for repres-enting the poetic beauty, the readers’acceptability and the functions of advertisements. What is shown thereby is that the theory functional equivalence can work as guiding principle in the translation of English poetic advertisement.
Classification of positive convex functions according to focal equivalence
Simon, Peter L.
2006-08-01
The number of solutions of the differential equation [graphic: see PDF] subject to the boundary conditions x(t1) = x1, x(t2) = x2 is studied. The set of the points (t1, t2, x1, x2) for which the boundary value problem has i solutions is denoted by {Sigma}i(g). These sets for i = 0, 1, 2, E.. form a partition of [graphic: see PDF] which is called a focal decomposition. Two differential equations are called focally equivalent if there is a homeomorphism of [graphic: see PDF] mapping their focal decompositions into each other. Here the equations with convex positive g are classified according to focal equivalence. It is shown that there are at least four classes, and the focal decomposition is determined by the asymptotic properties of g at infinity.
The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space
Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik
2001-01-01
The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...
Global versus Local -- Mach's Principle versus the Equivalence Principle
Singleton, Douglas
2016-01-01
The equivalence principle is the conceptual basis for general relativity. In contrast Mach's principle, although said to have been influential on Einstein in his formulation of general relativity, has not been shown to be central to the structure of general relativity. In this essay we suggest that the quantum effects of Hawking and Unruh radiation are a manifestation of a {\\it thermal} Mach's principle, where the local thermodynamic properties of the system are determined by the non-local structure of the quantum fields which determine the vacuum of a given spacetime. By comparing Hawking and Unruh temperatures for the same local acceleration we find a violation of the Einstein elevator version of the equivalence principle, which vanishes in the limit that the horizon is approached.
Equivalent circuit model of semiconductor nanowire diode by SPICE.
Lee, SeHan; Yu, YunSeop; Hwang, SungWoo; Ahn, Doyeol
2007-11-01
An equivalent circuit model of nanowire diodes is introduced. Because nanowire diodes inevitably involve a metal-semiconductor-metal structure, they consist of two metal-semiconductor contacts and one resistor in between these contacts. Our equivalent circuit consists of two Schottky diodes and one resistor. The current through the reverse-biased Schottky diode is calculated from the thermionic field emission (TFE) theory and that of the forward-biased Schottky diode is obtained from the classical thermionic emission (TE) equation. Our model is integrated into the conventional circuit simulator SPICE by a sub-circuit with TFE and TE routines. The results simulated with our model by SPICE are in good agreement with various, previously reported experimental results. PMID:18047126
Projective equivalence of Einstein spaces in general relativity
There has been some recent interest in the relation between two spacetimes which have the same geodesic paths, that is, spacetimes which are projectively equivalent (sometimes called geodesically equivalent). This paper presents a short and accessible proof of the theorem that if two spacetimes have the same geodesic paths and one of them is an Einstein space then (either each is of constant curvature or) their Levi-Civita connections are identical. It also clarifies the relationship between their associated metrics. The results are extended to include the signatures (+ + + +) and (- - + +), and some examples and discussion are given in the case of dimension n > 4. Some remarks are also made which show how these results may be useful in the study of projective symmetry.
Projective equivalence of Einstein spaces in general relativity
Hall, G S [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Fraser Noble Building, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Lonie, D P, E-mail: g.hall@maths.abdn.ac.u, E-mail: DLonie@aol.co [108e Anderson Drive, Aberdeen, AB15 6BW (United Kingdom)
2009-06-21
There has been some recent interest in the relation between two spacetimes which have the same geodesic paths, that is, spacetimes which are projectively equivalent (sometimes called geodesically equivalent). This paper presents a short and accessible proof of the theorem that if two spacetimes have the same geodesic paths and one of them is an Einstein space then (either each is of constant curvature or) their Levi-Civita connections are identical. It also clarifies the relationship between their associated metrics. The results are extended to include the signatures (+ + + +) and (- - + +), and some examples and discussion are given in the case of dimension n > 4. Some remarks are also made which show how these results may be useful in the study of projective symmetry.
Markovian Testing Equivalence and Exponentially Timed Internal Actions
Bernardo, Marco
2009-01-01
In the theory of testing for Markovian processes developed so far, exponentially timed internal actions are not admitted within processes. When present, these actions cannot be abstracted away, because their execution takes a nonzero amount of time and hence can be observed. On the other hand, they must be carefully taken into account, in order not to equate processes that are distinguishable from a timing viewpoint. In this paper, we recast the definition of Markovian testing equivalence in the framework of a Markovian process calculus including exponentially timed internal actions. Then, we show that the resulting behavioral equivalence is a congruence, has a sound and complete axiomatization, has a modal logic characterization, and can be decided in polynomial time.
Equivalent Effect Function and Fast Intrinsic Mode Decomposition
Lu, Louis Yu
2011-01-01
The Equivalent Effect Function (EEF) is defined as having the identical integral values on the control points of the original time series data; the EEF can be obtained from the derivative of the spline function passing through the integral values on the control points. By choosing control points with different criteria, the EEF can be used to find the intrinsic mode function(IMF, fluctuation) and the residue (trend); to fit the curve of the original data function; and to take samples on original data with equivalent effect. As examples of application, results of trend and fluctuation on real stock historical data are calculated on different time scales. A new approach to extend the EEF to 2D intrinsic mode decomposition is introduced to resolve the inter slice non continuity problem, some photo image decomposition examples are presented.
A simple demonstration when studying the equivalence principle
Mayer, Valery; Varaksina, Ekaterina
2016-06-01
The paper proposes a lecture experiment that can be demonstrated when studying the equivalence principle formulated by Albert Einstein. The demonstration consists of creating stroboscopic photographs of a ball moving along a parabola in Earth's gravitational field. In the first experiment, a camera is stationary relative to Earth's surface. In the second, the camera falls freely downwards with the ball, allowing students to see that the ball moves uniformly and rectilinearly relative to the frame of reference of the freely falling camera. The equivalence principle explains this result, as it is always possible to propose an inertial frame of reference for a small region of a gravitational field, where space-time effects of curvature are negligible.
The Derived Equivalent Circuit Model for Magnetized Anisotropic Graphene
Cao, Ying S; Ruehli, Albert E
2015-01-01
Due to the static magnetic field, the conductivity for graphene becomes a dispersive and anisotropic tensor, which complicates most modeling methodologies. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit model is proposed for graphene with the magnetostatic bias based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE). To characterize the anisotropic property of the biased graphene, the resistive part of the unit circuit is replaced by a resistor in series with current control voltage sources (CCVSs). The CCVSs account for the off-diagonal parts of the surface conductivity tensor for the magnetized graphene. Furthermore, the definitions of the absorption cross section and the scattering cross section are revisited to make them feasible for derived circuit analysis. This proposed method is benchmarked with several numerical examples. This paper also provides a new equivalent circuit model to deal with dispersive and anisotropic materials.
Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.
Heller, Richard E
2014-02-01
Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029
Optimization of Land Use Structure Based on Ecological GREEN Equivalent
无
2002-01-01
Optimization of land use structure consists of economic and social and ecological optimization.Applying the minds of system engineering and principles of ecology,this paper presents such thoughts:the optimal forest-coverage rate calculated according to the reality of a district is set as main standard of ecological rationality in the district;through considering the value of ecosystem services of the land with GREEN equivalent (mainly cultivated land and grassland)and based on the rule,GREEN equivalent,this paper introduces the area conversion between woodland and cultivated land,also between woodland and grassland;this paper establishes a multi-dimension controlling model of optimization of land use structure.In addition,a multi-objective linear programming model for optimization of land use structure is designed.In the end,this paper tests and verifies this theory of ecological optimization,taking Qionghai city in Hainan Province as an example.
Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO
Lo C. Y.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO’s design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein’s theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein’s equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne’s formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein’s equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.
Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: a software solution
Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri
2013-01-01
The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. We therefore propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to the equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers.
Determination of dose equivalent and risk in thorium cycle
In these report are presented the calculations of dose equivalent and risk, utilizing the dosimetric model described in publication 30 of the International Comission on Radiological Protection. This information was obtained by the workers of the thorium cycle, employed at the Praia and Santo Amaro Facilities, by assessing the quantity and concentration of thorium in the air. The samples and the number of measurements were established through design of experiments techniques, and the results were evaluated with the aid of variance analysis. The estimater of dose equivalent for internal and external radiation exposure and risk associated were compared with the maximum recommended limits. The results indicate the existence of operation areas whose values were above those limits, requiring so an improvement in the procedures and services in order to meet the requirements of the radiological protetion. (author)
From body burden to effective dose equivalent. Part 2
A compact set of data is presented for the evaluation of measurements performed with a whole body counter. For each nuclide the following information is collected: physical halflife; metabolic data; the relation between chemical compound and inhalation class; the fraction of intake in the human body at 18 points in time after a single intake; the relation between intake and effective committed dose equivalent; the equilibrium body burden following continuous intake; the relation between a constant body burden and dose-equivalent rate. This report is an extension of an earlier paper (ECN-116). It completes the list of nuclides, i.e. apart from noble gas nuclides almost all nuclides with a physical halflife exceeding 12 hours have been considered, either in this paper or in part I. (Auth.)
Design of the Sequential System Automata using Temporal Equivalence Classes
A. Ursu
1997-10-01
Full Text Available A design method of sequential system automata using temporal logic specifications is proposed in this paper. The method is based on well-known Z.Manna and P.Wolper temporal logic satisfiability analysis procedure [1] and is extended to include past time temporal operators. A new specification method which uses temporal equivalence classes is proposed to specify the behaviour of large digital circuits. The impact of the composition and decomposition operations of the temporal equivalence classes on the final automata has been studied. A case study is carried out which deals with the design of the synchronous bus arbiter circuit element. The SMV tool has been used to verify the temporal properties of the obtained automata.