WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5-year-old children study

  1. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

    F Majlesi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritional status was estimated via weight/age index and the data were analysed by chi-square test. The results show 7.7% malnutrition among the children in this area. Factors that influence the nutritional status were: Frequency of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, birth weight, duration of breast feeding and milk formula.

  2. Ethnic Background and Overweight among 5-Year-Old Children: The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Lydian Veldhuis; Mara van Dooremaal; Willemieke Kroeze; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A.; Hein Raat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates the association between ethnic background and overweight (obesity included) among 5 year olds. Methods. We used baseline data from 5 year olds (n = 7801) and their parents collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. A child was considered to be of non-Dutch ethnic background when at least one of the parents was born abroad. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results. Compared to children of Dutch ethnic background, f...

  3. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry; HiraSing, Remy; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods: This study us...

  4. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    Fatemeh Hasanati; Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi; Mehdi Abdolvahab

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phoneti...

  5. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  6. A Comparative Study on Motor Skills in 5-Year-Old Children with Phonological and Phonetic Disorders

    Fatemeh Hasanati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech as a motor phenomenon requires repetitive and rapid function of articulatory organs performing extremely fine movements. Practice on motor skills results in facilitation in treatment progress of children with phonological disorders. The purpose of this study was to compare motor skills in 5-year-old children with phonological and phonetic disorders.Methods: Thirty-two children age 5 years, 16 with phonemical speech sound disorders and 16 with difficulty at a phonetic level participated in this study. TOLD Test was performed for linguistic skills investigation among children. Phonetic test, Wepman test, diadochokinesis and oral assessment was used for diagnosis between phonological and phonetic disorders. The children were also evaluated with Oseretsky motor developmental scale .Results: In comparison, mean scores of movement skills between both groups showed significant difference (p=0.006 and children with phonetic disorder got significantly higher scores on all part of this test.Conclusions: The findings of this study support the idea that speech sound disorders are frequently associated with motor problems, and that type of articulation disorder affects the motor performance in a different way. Phonological disorders seem to have more impact on motor performance than phonetic disorders. The results authenticate the need to pay more attention to the motor skills of children with articulation disorders.

  7. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mo...

  8. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD. PMID:25774437

  9. Assessment of caries prevalence among children below 5 years old

    Prabhu, Poornima; Rajajee, K. T. S. S.; Sudheer, K. A.; Jesudass, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children ...

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  11. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  12. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this stud

  13. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study

    Stronks Karien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Methods/design Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI, pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ, depressive symptoms (CES-D, parenting stress (PDH scale and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire. Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7 are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis, autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction. Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Discussion Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood, the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during

  14. Overweight in 5-year-old Children: Assessment and Risk Factors (The Be Active, Eat Right Study)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, about one in ten children at the age of 5 to 17 years have overweight (obesity included). In the last decades there has been a dra

  15. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI......BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with...

  16. Risk Factors for Death among Children Less than 5 Years Old Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2005–2007: A Cohort Study

    O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Williams, Kara A.; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Vulule, John; Kayla F. Laserson; Breiman, Robert F.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Diarrhea—passing three or more loose or liquid stools per day—kills about 1.5 million young children every year, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. Globally, it is the second leading cause of death in under-5-year olds, causing nearly one in five child deaths. Diarrhea, which can lead to life-threatening dehydration, is a common symptom of gastrointestinal infections. The pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) that cause diarrhea spread through conta...

  17. EVALUATION OF IRON STATUS IN 9-MONTH TO 5-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE SEIZURES: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN THE SOUTH WEST OF IRAN

    Ali Akbar MOMEN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile convulsions are prevalent in children aged between 9 months and 5 years, with an incidence of 2-5%. On the other hand, iron deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic disease of infancy and childhood with a period of incidence that coincides with the time of developing febrile convulsions.Therefore, it is hypothesized that there is a possible association between these conditions. This study was designed to elucidate this association.Materials & MethodsTwo sex and age matched groups (n=50 in each of 9-month to 5-year-old febrile children who were admitted to Abuzar Hospital between September 2003 and October 2004 were selected. The first group, or the case group, included children with the first attack of febrile seizure and the second group, or the control group, included febrile children without seizure. Blood samples were collected for measuring complete blood count (CBC indices, serum Iron,ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels.ResultsBoth groups were comparable for age, sex, and the type of febrile illness at admission, except for seizure. There was no significant difference in CBC, Iron and TIBC between two groups but a signicant difference was seen in MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume, especially in females (P= 0.017. The ferritin level in the case group was significantly lower (30.3 ±16.5 µg/dl than the control group (84.2 ±28.5 µg /dl (P= 0.000.ConclusionThe findings of this study suggested a positive association between iron deficiency and the first febrile seizure in children. Supplemental iron may prevent the recurrence of febrile seizure. Prudently, further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods need to be undertaken to substantiate this hypothesis.Keywords: Febrile seizure, Iron, ferritin level, Anemia, Children

  18. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9% children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118, Campylobacter in 5% (57, and Shigella in 4% (42 of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196 of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9, and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0 identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8. Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7; having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8; having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8; and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1. A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on

  19. Nutrition and mental development of 4-5-year old children on macrobiotic diets.

    Herens, M.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Kleber, R.J.; Mol, M.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mental development of 4–5-year old children on macrobiotic diets (almost devoid of animal foods and fat) with long-term growth deficits, was studied using the Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence (SON) scale. In addition, food consumption and behavioural style of the children, and family and paren

  20. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Lydian Veldhuis; Ineke Vogel; Lenie van Rossem; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hein Raat

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mot...

  1. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  2. Development of Speech Intelligibility Measurement Test for 3 to 5 Years Old Normal Children

    Fatemeh Hoseyni; Zahra Agha Rasouli; Farhad Torabi Nezhad; Sara Heydari

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech intelligibility is defined as a measure of effectiveness of understanding speech. It has many applications such as nomination of speech disorder intensity. Different methods and speech tasks have been designed for assessment of speech intelligibility amongst which word identification tasks have high validity. This study aimed to provide a test to measure speech intelligibility among children aged 3 to 5 years old.Methods: Many words were collected and content validi...

  3. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  4. Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative, valence attributions. Anglo-British children (N = 136) between 3 and 5 years of age with different levels of interracial contact undertook a racial stere...

  5. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  6. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; Jansen, Wilma; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 770...

  7. Development of Speech Intelligibility Measurement Test for 3 to 5 Years Old Normal Children

    Fatemeh Hoseyni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech intelligibility is defined as a measure of effectiveness of understanding speech. It has many applications such as nomination of speech disorder intensity. Different methods and speech tasks have been designed for assessment of speech intelligibility amongst which word identification tasks have high validity. This study aimed to provide a test to measure speech intelligibility among children aged 3 to 5 years old.Methods: Many words were collected and content validity was assessed by 9 speech-language pathologists and 1 linguist. Thirty four words with a content validity above 70% were chosen as the test words and the speech-language pathologists collected suitable pictures for the words. One hundred boys and girls aged 3 to 5 years participated in the study. Inter-rater reliability was administered to assess the test reliability.Results: An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 and spearman correlation coefficient of 0.81 was obtained for the speech intelligibility test.Conclusion: Speech intelligibility test has appropriate validity and reliability and is suitable for assessment of intelligibility in 3 to 5 years old children.

  8. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  9. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM. PMID:24698432

  10. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  11. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and...... auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...

  12. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh; Zeraati, H

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran,...

  13. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  14. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success. Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence. Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence. Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:158-63.].

  15. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  16. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    Devanand Gupta; Rizwan K Momin; Ayush Mathur; Kavuri Teja Srinivas; Ankita Jain; Neelima Dommaraju; Deepak Ranjan Dalai; Rajendra Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Chil...

  17. How do parents of 4- to 5-year-old children perceive the weight of their children?

    Luttikhuis, H. G. M. Oude; Stolk, R. P.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A heavier weight in adults is becoming the norm rather than an abnormal weight. Whether the same trend is happening in children is unknown. Objective: To assess the perception of the weight of 4- to 5-year-old children and the recognition of overweight by both parents. Design:

  18. Association between estimated fluoride intake and dental caries prevalence among 5-year-old children in Korea

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Han-Na; Jun, Eun-Joo; Ha, Jung-Eun; Han, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2015-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to estimate the fluoride intake from food and drink in 5-year-old Korean children, and to measure the association between estimated fluoride intake and dental caries prevalence. Methods The study involved a secondary analysis of raw data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES; 2007–2009). The study subjects were 167 boys and 147 girls aged 5 years who had undergone both physical and nutritional examination as par...

  19. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Ali Vahidi A; Mohammad Torabinejad; Marayam Shamspour; Niloofar Golmohammadi; Mohammad Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in children and have a good prognosis. Many theories about the role of neurotransmitters and trace elements in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are introduced as the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. Among these elements, the element can be noted. The purpose of this study to comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without febrile and normal children. Methods...

  20. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran, 400 children between the ages of three and five years were randomly selected and participated in this study. Their deciduous teeth were examined and the health index of dmft was determined for each child. The collected data were analyzed using the oneway ANOVA (with Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons test for Post Hoc test, t test,and chi square test.Results: In this age group, only 48.3% of the children had no tooth decay. This information shows how far we are from accomplishing the aforementioned goal. A significant increase in tooth decay in these children was correlated with neglecting oral and dental hygiene, and also failing to brush the teeth regularly and wash the mouth after consuming sweets (P<0.001. Unfortunately, visits to dentists for regular checkups are not frequent enough, and dental caries was seen more in children who did not have regular visits than those who did (P<0.001.Conclusion: More accurate planning seems necessary to achieve 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children. More emphasis must be placed on prevention programs and educating public to observe dental hygiene by brushing the teeth regularly, washing the mouth after consuming sweets, and paying their dentists regular visits.

  1. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  2. Oral glucose retention, saliva viscosity and flow rate in 5-year-old children.

    Negoro, M; Nakagaki, H; Tsuboi, S; Adachi, K; Hanaki, M; Tanaka, D; Takami, Y; Nakano, T; Kuwahara, M; Thuy, T T

    2000-11-01

    There are significant differences of glucose retention in site-specificity and individuals. Sixty-two 5-year-old nursery schoolchildren participated in this study on the relation between the viscosity of saliva and flow rate and glucose retention. Each child was instructed to rinse his/her mouth with a glucose solution (0.5 M, 5 ml) and then to spit out. Three minutes after rinsing, glucose retention was determined. Resting saliva was collected by a natural outflow method, then the flow rate was determined. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity. Glucose retention and flow rate were correlated at the left maxillary primary molars, and glucose retention and viscosity were correlated at the maxillary central primary incisors. It was concluded that glucose retention after glucose mouth rinsing was site-specific, and that glucose retention and the index of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) were slightly correlated with the salivary viscosity and flow rate. PMID:11000387

  3. Molecularly assessed shifts of Bifidobacterium spp. and less diverse microbial communities are characteristic of 5-year-old allergic children

    Stsepetova, J.; Sepp, E.; Julge, K.; Vaughan, E.E.; Mikelsaar, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The composition of intestinal microbiota and the Bifidobacterium group community in 20 allergic and 20 nonallergic 5-year-old children was visualized by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The number of dominant bands in the DGGE profiles was smaller in allergic children than in nona

  4. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  5. Cross-sectional study on oral health behaviors among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang City,Sichuan%四川省绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现况调查

    申洋; 刘凡; 蒋莹; 曾庆奇; 常春; 王燕玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康现状,为进一步开展口腔健康教育提供参考依据。方法采用多阶段抽样的方法,抽取绵阳市3所幼儿园285名5岁儿童家长,参照《全国第三次口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中5岁儿童家长问卷对儿童家长进行调查。结果家长对于“窝沟封闭能预防儿童龋齿”的知晓率为11.6%,口腔知识主要来源是电视/广播(64.9%)和报纸/杂志(55.4%);90.2%的家长认同“保护孩子六龄牙很重要”;每天进食含糖食品的儿童为69.0%,75.8%儿童曾有睡前吃甜食行为;3岁以前开始刷牙的儿童占73.0%,每天帮助孩子刷牙和检查刷牙效果的家长占18.6%和19.6%;75.8%的儿童过去1年未进行任何口腔检查,其中46.7%的家长认为儿童牙齿没问题,不需要检查;最近一次口腔就诊的主要原因是急、慢性牙痛,定期检查牙齿的仅占4.2%;知识得分与态度得分之间存在正相关(r =0.285),同行为得分之间存在正相关(r =0.213)。结论绵阳市5岁儿童口腔健康行为有待改善,虽然多数儿童家长有较好的口腔健康态度和一定的口腔健康知识,但是转化为实际行动的能力较弱,仍需有针对性的开展健康促进活动,以使儿童形成正确的口腔卫生行为。%Objective To understand the oral health behaviors status among children aged 5-year old in Mianyang city,and provide evidence for further implementing oral health education.Methods Using multistage sampling,285 par-ents of children aged 5-year old were selected in Mianyang city according to 3rd Chinese national oral health investigation cri-teria and children’s oral health behaviors were investigated by questionnaire.Results The awareness rate of parents’for‘Dental sealant could prevent caries for children’ was 11.6%,the main sources of oral knowledge were TV /radio (64.9%),newspaper

  6. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    Zafer Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children. The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%. Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children.

  7. Recognition of Chord Changes by 4- and 5-Year-Old American and Argentine Children.

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of young children's abilities to discriminate between two chords played as the accompaniment of a melody and played alone with no melody. Finds that age, type of stimulus, and the interaction of these two variables affected children's performance significantly. (CFR)

  8. Effects of Adjacent Teeth on Caries Status of a Deciduous Tooth in 3-5 Years-Old Children

    S Afroughi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Based on the carried out studies, the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children is high and ranges from 31.64 to 83.7 percents in Iran. The dmft criterion is not able to compute the impact of neighboring teeth on caries status of a tooth in deciduous teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the above issue in a sample of 3-5 years old children in Tehran during 2008-2009. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a group of 400, 3–5 years old children who lived in Tehran and referred to Pediatric Dentistry Department of the Dentistry Faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, for treatment of their deciduous teeth were investigated The demographic variables and mouth health cares data were collected by a questionnaire and the caries status of deciduous teeth were diagnosed by standard methods. The caries statuses were considered as spatially correlated binary data. The auto logistic regression model was implemented for inspecting the association of a tooth and its neighboring teeth which consists of two adjacent teeth and the opponent tooth. The effects of factors were tested using z-score. Results: The fitted model and the computed criteria showed that there was a strong dependency between caries statuses of a tooth and its three neighbors (including the two adjacent and the vertically opponent teeth (p=0.0001. Also the effect of spatial auto covariate which is equivalent to the sum of statuses of nearest neighbors of a tooth is highly significant. Furthermore, the effects of local variables such as jaw and posterior-anterior positions were also highly significant (p=0.0001. Conclusions: In deciduous teeth, the three nearest neighbors have a high effect on a tooth. As a result, the teeth in maxilla and posterior locations are decayed sooner than the other ones. These findings may be considered in preventive programs of health of mouth and tooth in children.

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan; Bikin Suryawan; Lanang Sidiartha; Arimbawa *

    2013-01-01

    Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sam...

  10. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Veldhuis Lydian; Struijk Mirjam K; Kroeze Willemieke; Oenema Anke; Renders Carry M; Bulk-Bunschoten Anneke MW; HiraSing Remy A; Raat Hein

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised with...

  11. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  12. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Struijk, Mirjam; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Renders, Carry; Bulk-Bunschoten, Anneke; Hirasing, Remy; Raat, Hein

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. METHODS AND DESIGN: A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised...

  13. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Visual Memory of 5-Year Olds and Adults

    Arabie, Phipps; And Others

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of memory development using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Judgments of similarities between complex objects were obtained from 5-year-olds and adults under two conditions: (1) when objects were simultaneously present at the time of comparison, and (2) when the objects were not simultaneously present and had to be compared on…

  14. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Grace S. Marquis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.

  15. High cortisol in 5-year-old children causes loss of DNA methylation in SINE retrotransposons: a possible role for ZNF263 in stress-related diseases

    Nätt, Daniel; Johansson, Ingela; Faresjö, Tomas; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Thorsell, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood stress leads to increased risk of many adult diseases, such as major depression and cardiovascular disease. Studies show that adults with experienced childhood stress have specific epigenetic changes, but to understand the pathways that lead to disease, we also need to study the epigenetic link prospectively in children. Results Here, we studied a homogenous group of 48 5-year-old children. By combining hair cortisol measurements (a well-documented biomarker for chronic s...

  16. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  17. Improving Executive Function in childhood: Evaluation of a training intervention for 5- year-old children

    Laura eTraverso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for five-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility. The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted one month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  18. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Stéphane Bernard; Joëlle Proust; Fabrice Clément

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated ...

  19. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  20. Fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as indicators of fat intake in 5-year-old children in the STRIP project

    Hagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Seppänen, Ritva; Salo, Pia; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Helenius, Hans; Simell, Olli

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between dietary fat composition and the proportion of fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as biomarkers of previous dietary fat quality in 5-year-old children. Using 4-consecutive-day food records, the food consumption of half (n=50) of a group of randomly selected children who are participating in a prospective randomized coronary risk factor intervention project (STRIP; n=1062 at recruitment at 7 months of age) was estim...

  1. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

    Navdeep Kaur; Sharda Sidhu

    2013-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls) to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age) from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg)/ height (m)². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined u...

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    J. Mahmodian

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890 and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933 have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, type and quantity of microorganisms and diet are the most important factors that can lead to tooth decay. Since the manner and type of child nutrition during infancy is considered as a significant factor in development and progression of dental caries and also there has not been published any research on this subject in Iran yet, this study was designed and carried out to find the association between the type of milk intake in infancy and the rate of dental caries in 3-5 year old children.

  3. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Cold air challenge (CACh) has been shown to discriminate between children with asthma and healthy young children. Hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air is a simplified alternative. We compared responsiveness in young children with asthma between two standardized, single-step ...... seemed to induce refractoriness in contrast to DACh, probably because of the additional stimulus from airway cooling. This finding suggests CACh as the preferred method of challenge....

  4. Development of Phonological Sensitivity in 2- to 5-Year- Old Children.

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Barker, Theodore A.

    1998-01-01

    Phonological sensitivity was examined in 238 children ages two to five years from middle-to-upper-income families and 118 children from lower-income families across different levels of linguistic complexity. Overall, results indicated an increase in phonological sensitivity with age, as well as increasing stability and significant social class…

  5. Prevalence of obesity among 2- 5 years old children of Amritsar: A comparison of three criteria

    Navdeep Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study of 1879 subjects (949 boys and 930 girls to define the prevalence of overweight and obesity using three reference standards. The study involved affluent preschool children (2-5 years of age from six crèches, fifteen play-pen and three public schools of Amritsar city. Weight and height was obtained for each child and body mass index was calculated according to the formula weight (kg/ height (m². The prevalence of overweight and obesity was then determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and World Health Organization (WHO standards. All three methods gave different results. The present study revealed that WHO standards gave higher estimates of overweight and obesity while IOTF gave lower estimates. The level of agreement (k=0.94 between the WHO and CDC standards was higher. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  6. The Effect of Frostig Developmental Program for Visual Perception on Development of Visual Perception of 4-5 Years Old Children Attending Pre-School Education Institutions

    YUKAY YÜKSEL, Müge; YURTSEVER KILIÇGÜN, Müge

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Frostig Developmental Program for Visual Perception on development of visual perception of 4-5 years old children who attended pre-school education institutions. The study was carried out inaccordance with pre-test and post-test control group experimental design. The study group of the research was made from children ongoing pre-school education institutions. Totally 322 children were included in this study, 161of children were chosen ...

  7. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Leila Golpour; Dr. Reza Nilipour; Dr. Belghais Roshan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Me...

  8. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Gubbels Jessica S; Kremers Stef PJ; Stafleu Annette; Goldbohm R; de Vries Nanne K; Thijs Carel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight) development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth...

  9. Clustering of energy balance-related behavioural in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    J. S. Gubbels; Kremers, S.P.; Stafleu, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; de Vries, N. K.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight) development up to age 8. Methods: Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort...

  10. Growth decelerations among under-5-year-old children in Kasongo (Zaire). II. Relationship with subsequent risk of dying, and operational consequences

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between growth decelerations (in terms of various anthropometric parameters) and death occurring during the subsequent 100 days was studied among under-5-year-old children in Kasongo, Zaire. A significant association, more pronounced for large decelerations, was demonstrated for some anthropometric parameters. The observations provide support for the hypothesis that the frequency of stress due to malnutrition and infection party explains the high mortality. Although the assoc...

  11. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., ...

  12. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  13. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers were studied. After filling the questionnaire about demographic characteristics of children and mothers, the hemoglobin and ferritin of both children and their mothers were measured.Results: 12.6 % of the children and 16.1% of the mothers had iron deficiency, 16.8 % of children and 15.4 % of mothers had iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in both children and mothers was significantly higher especially among working mothers. Both children’s iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia had a significant and direct relation with mother’s iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.Conclusion: It is recommended to elevate the awareness of mothers, especially the working ones about the danger of iron deficiency and its anemia in their children and themselves, educate them about the correct nutritional habits for their family and themselves, screen the children of 1-5 years old for iron deficiency and its anemia and also investigate mothers’ children with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

  14. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Childrens Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:One of the most significant problems in pediatric dentistry is behavioral resistance of preschool children in the first visit. There is a debate on parental presence in operation room. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Iranian 5-year-old childrens behavior including anxiety and cooperation relative to parental presence in the first and second dental appointments. Methods:The study was conducted on sixty seven 5-year-old children selected according to inclusion criteria and randomly divided into two subgroups. Children in group I were visited in parents presence and in group II in parents absence. Before the childs first dental visit, parents were interviewed. Forty eight of the children receiving the initial examination were recalled for a second visit. The childrens responses during the Holst procedure of the first visit and restorative second visit were assessed using a combination of two measures including heart rate and clinical behavior. The dentist-patient interactions were regulated by standardized scripts and recorded on videotape. Then, the behavior of the child on the recording during each visit was quantified by two pediatric dentists independently according to Venham 6-point rating scale and Frankle 4-point rating scale. Findings:There were no significant differences between the heart rate measures of children in group I and II in the first and second visit (0.67, 0.8 respectively. There were also no significant differences between the clinical anxiety scores of children in the two groups in the first and second visit (0.98, 0.42 respectively. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the clinical cooperation scores of children in group I and group II in the first and second visit (0.88, 0.40 respectively, neither were there any significant differences between response measures of each child between two visits (P>0.05. In addition, there were no significant differences related to sex, parental

  15. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  16. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine the...... effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and the child's gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal...

  17. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  18. A Comparison between Morphological and Syntactic Features of 4 to 5 Years Old in Education Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired and Normal Children

    Leila Golpour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning Language is a skill which is acquired in early childhood. So, language gradually developed and new words and new structures slowly added to language knowledge. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for of language and hearing disorder is a barrier for natural language acquiring .The purpose of this study is comparison between morphological and syntactic features of 4 to 5 years old severe to profound hearing impaired and normal children. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study performed on 10 normal-hearing children with mean age of 4-5, from Gazvin kindergartens and 10 hearing impaired children with similar IQ and age from Nioosha Rehabilitation Center. The language and non language information was received by spontaneous and descriptive speech, and questionnaire, respectively and for comparing syntax comprehension, Specific language impairment test was used. Then these results were compared between two groups. Results: Difference between spontaneous speech and descriptive speech in hearing impaired child is just like normal child. These differences are that the number of utterance, the mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme in spontaneous speech is greater than descriptive speech but the mean length of utterance and richness of vocabulary in descriptive speech is greater than spontaneous speech. Mean of lexical morpheme, functional morpheme and richness of vocabulary related to morphological part and the number of utterance, the mean length of utterance and syntax comprehension related to syntax, in spontaneous and descriptive speech of normal children speech is greater than hearing impaireds`. Conclusion: According to recent researches, compared with normal child, the hearing impaired child nearly never to reach equal level, and for this reason, training for this group is necessary. It is concluded that although these children have severe to profound hearing loss they are developing their

  19. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    Dezateux Carol; Dowda Marsha; Griffiths Lucy J; Pate Russell

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour), and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys) participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohor...

  20. Evaluation of Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Pattern of Nursing Caries in 3-5 Year-Old Children at Kindergartens in Tehran During 2009-2010

    Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

  1. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    Dezateux Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Time spent participating in sports clubs outside of school, and using screen-entertainment, was reported by the child's mother at child age 5 years, when mental health was also measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results 45% of children did not participate in sport clubs and 61% used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day. Children who participated in sport had fewer total difficulties; emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention and peer relationship problems; and more prosocial behaviours. These relationships were similar in boys and girls. Boys and girls who used screen-entertainment for any duration, and participated in sport, had fewer emotional and behavioural problems, and more prosocial behaviours, than children who used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day and did not participate in sport. Conclusions Longer durations of screen-entertainment usage are not associated with mental health problems in young children. However, our findings suggest an association between sport and better mental health. Further research based on longitudinal data is required to examine causal pathways in these associations and to determine the potential role of this and other forms of physical activity in preventing mental health disorders.

  2. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Ihuoma U. Eneli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI, an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1, development of the FDI content (Study 2, and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3. Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57% of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ g≥0.8 occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p<0.01 and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p<0.001. The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  3. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  4. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  5. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  6. Conversational repair strategies in 3 and 5 year old normal Persian-speaking children in Ahwaz, Iran

    Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The ability of conversational repair is a subset of pragmatic language. When the listener does not understand the speaker's intention, and the speaker cannot find a way of repairing the conversation to make his/her massage clear, communication will fail. This study aims to examine and compare the conversational repair skill in two groups of three and five year old children, to determine different conversational repair strategies and compare these skills among these groups.Methods: One hundred and twenty Persian speaking children of three and five years of Ahwaz, Iran, were selected. The study tools were two series of pictures. During the retelling of the pictures the examiner created a situation to elicit a conversational repair strategy. Percentages of the usage of different kinds of conversational repair in each group were calculated and compared using student's t-test.Results: The usage of repetition and inappropriate response is decreased in the group of five year olds compared to the three year olds, but cue-repair and repetition method is increased. The addition method has remained relatively constant. There was a significant difference between average percentage of using repetition (p=0.04 and cue-repair (p=0.001 of the two groups. The percentage of application of repetition method in three year olds and cue-term method in five year olds were significantly higher than other conversational repair strategies.Conclusion: With the increase in age and development of language skills the probability of using more complex and difficult strategies, like the cue-repair method, increases.

  7. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  8. A case control study on the risk factors of viral diarrhea in children below 5 years old%5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素配对病例对照研究

    许可; 霍翔; 祖荣强; 李亮; 汤奋扬; 朱凤才; 羊海涛; 汪华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors of viral diarrhea among children below 5 years old. Methods:A case-control study was conducted on two groupe of children matched by sex, age with or without viral diarrhea from hospitals in Xuzhou and Zhenjiang area. The pathogen of diarrhea was confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. Interview was carried out with uniform designed questionnaires. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was then performed. Results:Factors that were independently associated with the development of viral diarrhea, would include children's address, weight, parents' Schooling and profession, washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, raising pets, cooker washing hands before cook, the children contacting animals and taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. Anamnesis and rotavims vaccine inoculation were not found associating with viral diarrhea. Multivariate logistic regression model was then fitted with three variables, including washing-up sink in kitchen, cutting cooked and uncooked foods by different kitchen knife and target, taking antibiotics one week ago before diarrhea. The 95% CI of OR was 0.340~0.852, 0.295~0.705 and 2.153~6.227 separately. Conclusion:The risk of viral diarrhea increased with worse hygienic habits and antibiotics taken.%目的:探讨5岁以下婴幼儿病毒性腹泻的危险因素.方法:采用性别、年龄匹配的1:2配对病例对照研究,对江苏省徐州、镇江市县级医疗机构2007年10月至2008年10月收治的5岁以下腹泻儿童500例和对照儿童1 000例进行问卷调查.腹泻的病原体采用酶联免疫吸附剂测定(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)或反转录PCR(reverse transcription-PCR,RT-PCR)进行检测确认.数据采用Cox比例风险模型拟合Logistic回归.结果:单因素分析显示病毒性腹泻患儿的城乡差异、父母受教育程度、职业、家庭饮食卫生(包括厨

  9. Study on relationship between subclinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia in children under 5 years old with respiratory infection and its precautions%5岁以下儿童维生素A亚临床缺乏与贫血和呼吸道感染的关系及预防措施

    李丽梅; 李伟英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨5岁以下儿童维生素A亚临床缺乏与贫血及呼吸道疾病之间的关系及相关的预防措施。方法选取2013年1~11月期间收治的儿童100例,其中50例存在维生素A亚临床缺乏,50例无维生素A亚临床缺乏。比较两组儿童的基本资料、贫血发生情况、呼吸道感染发生情况以及各项血常规指标。结果维生素A亚临床缺乏患儿发生贫血及呼吸道感染几率明显增加,其血常规检查发现血红蛋白、转铁蛋白、淋巴细胞计数、炎症因子白介素1( IL-1)、免疫球蛋白IgG均较正常者降低。结论维生素A亚临床缺乏具有隐匿性,使患儿易贫血和呼吸道感染,补充维生素A,膳食平衡,定期体检是预防维生素A亚临床缺乏的重要途径。%Objective To explore the relationship between anemia and respiratory diseases in children under 5 years old with subclinical vitamin A deficiency and related preventive measures in order to guide the measures for clinical prevention and treatment. Methods A total of 100 cases including 50 cases with subclinical vitamin A deficiency and 50 cases without the presence of subclinical deficiency in this hospital during January to November,2013 were selected for this study,and the basic data including incidence rates of anemia and respiratory tract infection and blood routine indices in these children of these two groups were compared. Results The rates of subclinical anemia and respiratory tract infection in children with vitamin A deficiency were significantly increased,the blood routine examination found that levels of hemoglobin,transferrin,lym-phocyte count,inflammatory factor IL-1 and immunoglobulin IgG were lower than those of normal children. Conclusion The subclinical defi-ciency of vitamin A is occult,usually with anemia and respiratory tract infection. The supplementation of vitamin A,balanced diet and regular physical examination are important ways to prevent subclinical

  10. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  11. Hypomineralized second primary molars: Prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  12. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: Lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    Gubbels Jessica S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA and sedentary screen-based behavior in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight development up to age 8. Methods Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Results Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a ‘Television–Snacking’ pattern, a ‘Sports–Computer’ pattern, a ‘Traditional Family’ pattern, and a “Fast’ Food’ pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television–Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p p = 0.06. In addition, the Sports–Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p  Conclusions The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking.

  13. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  14. Cognitive and Emotional Control and Perspective Taking and Their Relations to Empathy in 5-Year-Old Children

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…

  15. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  16. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: A comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds

    Yi Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called ‘game’ where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception- no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors. However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. Such behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflected strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering effects of competitive contexts on children’s behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  17. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5–3.5 year-olds with 5.5–6.5 year-olds

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5–3.5 years of age and 5.5–6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called “game” where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception—no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5–3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5–6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children’s social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  18. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  19. Analysis and preventive measures for the death of children under 5 years old in panyu district%番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析与预防措施

    陈伦能

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Panyu, and study the measures of decreasing the children mortality. [Method] The death information of children under 5 years old in Panyu during 2007-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 5.83%, 43. 18%of them were neonates, 70. 62% of them were infants; The male children mortality were higher than female children; The mortality rate of children in floating population was significantly higher than that of inhabitant; Top 3 causes of were accidental death.congenital malformation and premature low birth weight; 24.19% of them death without treatment. [Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates, especially the care of floating population. It is important to preventing the accidental death and congenital malformation.%[目的]了解番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及变化情况,为制定降低5岁以下儿童死亡的措施提供依据.[方法]对番禺区2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡进行回顾分析.[结果]4年来,番禺区5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为5.83‰;新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡分别占5岁以下儿童死亡的43.18%和70.62%;男童死亡率大于女童,流动人口儿童死亡率大于常住人口儿童死亡率;意外死亡、先天畸形、早产低出生体重是5岁以下儿童主要死因;仍有24.19%的儿童死前未接受治疗.[结论]降低婴儿、新生儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键,预防儿童意外死亡和降低出生缺陷率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的当务之急,进一步加强对流动人口的保健管理.

  20. Study on effects of eating behaviors intervention for 3 -5 years old children in Beijing and Shanghai%北京和上海3~5岁儿童饮食行为干预效果的研究

    潘丽莉; 张红梅; 赖建强; 邹淑荣; 董文兰; 杨静; 杨青俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 为改善北京和上海3~5岁儿童的不健康饮食行为及其父母的营养相关知识和态度,采用多途径健康教育进行干预,并对干预效果进行评估.方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样的方法,从北京、上海各选取810名3~5岁儿童及其家长作为研究对象,根据《中国居民膳食指南》(2007)和《中国孕期、哺乳期妇女以及0-6岁儿童膳食指南》(2007)开展为期6个月的健康教育干预,采用问卷调查的方法分别在干预前后收集儿童饮食行为及其父母营养相关知识、态度等信息.结果 干预后,北京和上海3~5岁儿童偏食、喝含糖饮料的人数比例分别从干预前的44.5%和70.4%降低到35.5%和31.7%,有固定进餐时间、地点、可独立进餐、吃饭定时定量、能专心吃饭的儿童比例分别由干预前的80.0%、87.3%、73.4%、32.1%和27.1%升高到91.7%、91.9%、83.7%、45.9%和41.2%;干预后,儿童父母营养知识的知晓率显著提高,对待儿童饮食行为的态度也有所改善.结论 通过健康教育干预,改善了儿童的不健康饮食行为,丰富了儿童家长的营养知识,改善了其对儿童的饮食行为态度,为其正确指导儿童健康饮食提供了理论基础.%Objective To improve the unhealthy eating behaviors in 3 - 5 years old children and enrich the nutrition knowledge of their parents by the multi-channel health education intervention, and evaluate the effects of intervention. Methods By random multi-stage cluster sampling, 810 children (3-5 years old) and their parents were selected from Beijing and Shanghai respectively. The period of intervention was 6 months. Questionnaire surveys about children' s eating behavior and the knowledge of their parents were conducted before and after the intervention. Results After the intervention, the proportion of partial eclipse and drinking beverage declined from 44. 5% and 70. 4% to35. 5% and 31.7% respectively. The

  1. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  2. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (Pbreakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent. PMID:23915700

  3. ANALYSIS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OLD IN RURAL AREAS OF HENAN PROVINCE%河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童营养状况分析

    钞凤; 张书芳; 叶冰; 詹瑄

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童营养状况,为制定农村地区营养干预措施提供科学依据.[方法]采用横断面调查设计和分层多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,抽取1195名5岁以下儿童,测量身高(身长)和体重,采用2006年WHO儿童生长发育标准,用Z评分法评价儿童的身高体重发育状况. [结果]河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童平均身高为90.44 cm,平均体重为12.99 kg.生长迟缓、低体重的发生率分别为7.62%、3.18%,均低于全国平均水平.消瘦率是4.10%,高于全国平均水平.[结论]河南省农村地区5岁以下儿童的营养状况较好,但仍存在营养不良,应有针对性地加以改善.%[Objective] To analyze the nutritional status of children under 5 years old in rural areas of Henan province for evidence-based policy making. [Methods] 1 195 children under 5 years old were selected randomly in measure of cross-sectional study and multi-stage cluster sampling, whose height and weight were measured by standard method. Malnutrition was evaluated using Z scores, with 2006 WHO standard of the growth development [Results] The average height and weight of the children were 90.44 cm and 12.99 kg. The prevalences of stunting and underweight were 7.62% and 3.18%, which were all under the average levels of China. The prevalence of wasting was 4.10%, which was above the average level in China. [Conclusion] The nutrition and health status of children under 5 years old in rural areas of Henan province are better than the average level in China except some malnutrition, which should be improved pertinently.

  4. Estudo exploratório de opiniões de mães sobre a saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos Estudio exploratorio de opiniones de madres, sobre la salud de niños menores de 5 años An exploratory study: opinions of mothers on the health of children under 5 years old

    Débora Falleiros de Mello

    1996-07-01

    ón sobre la atención al niño, prestada por la red básica de salud en Ribeirão Preto.This study presents opinions of mothers about aspects of children health, 0-59 months, living in suburbs of the city of Ribeirão Preto, using home interviews. Several social-economic characteristics of this population were noted, especially the concerns of mothers related to: childhood disease, general core of their children, distribution of milk tickets, immunization, children's growth and development process. Mothers opinions present concerns about diseases, signs and symptoms, mothers' care, criteria for inclusion-exclusion in the Program of Food Supplementation and aspects about the utilization of the immunization in time Local Basic Health Unit, offering several elements which can contribute to a reflection on the care given to children at the basic level of health services in the city of Ribeirão Preto.

  5. Investigation of 5-year-old children' s deciduous caries from kindergartens in Shenyang%沈阳市幼儿园5岁儿童乳牙龋病流行病学抽样调查报告

    丛芳; 张桂荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the situation of deciduous teeth caries of 5-year-old children from kindergartens in Shenyang. Methods Four hundred and forty resident 5-year-old children from 5 districts of Shenyang, 220 male and 220 female, were collected at random. The dentists checked the condition of deciduous teeth caries and calculated the caries prevalence rate and decayed, filled and missed (dfm) index, compared the data with the data of 1995, and conducted a questionnaire survey on the parents of children's eating habits and brushing habits. Results Prevalence rate of deciduous teeth caries was 67. 05% , and dfm index was 3. 10. Filling rate of deciduous teeth was 5.51% , the number of dental caries been filled was 8.41%. Compared with the data of 1995, the caries prevalence rate declined (P <0.001), and dfm index declined too (P < 0. 001). The ratio of children who ate sweet food before sleeping was 41.28% and the ratio of having a regular check for teeth was only 2. 04% according to questionnaire survey. Brushing teeth effectively with parental supervision accounted for 10. 17% , and parents who were satisfied with oral health status of children accounted for 82.91%. Conclusion Although caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children in Shenyang kindergarten has declined compared with 1995 , but proportion was still high. Parents' lack of knowledge on oral health was related with high caries prevalence, and oral health education for parents should be strengthened.%目的 调查沈阳市幼儿园5岁儿童乳牙龋患病情况.方法 采用分层等容量随机抽样的方法,抽取沈阳市内5区5岁常住人口440人及其家长,男女各半.检查儿童全口乳牙牙冠龋病情况,统计患龋率、龋均等,将所得数据与本地区1995年的调查数据进行比较;并对家长进行儿童饮食习惯、刷牙情况等的问卷调查.结果 乳牙患龋率为67.05%,龋均为3.10,龋齿充填完好率5.51%,曾接受过龋齿治疗的占8.41%.与1995

  6. 辽阳市2008~2012年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析%Analysis on death of children under 5 years old from 2008-2012 in Liaoyang city

    赵昕

    2014-01-01

    Objective The paper is to analyze tendency and leading causes on death of children under 5 years old, and to make rational or effective intervention measures for children death from 2008-2012 in Liaoyang city. Methods The death surveillance data of children under 5 years old in Liaoyang city from 2008-2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The average mortality of children under 5 years old takes 7.43 percent and descends year by year;among the mortality of children under 5 years old, infants takes large percentage;and the mortality of newborns are mainly occurred in the infants. The top five reasons for children death involves preterm and low birth weight, other anomalies, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, and birth asphyxia. Conclusion The effective measures of reducing death rate of children under 5 years old is supposed to enhance the health care management in child birth period, improving the quality of management in disease screening to prevent birth defects, strengthening cooperation of obstetrics and upgrading the level of asphyxiated resuscitation.%目的:分析辽阳市2008~2012年5岁以下儿童死亡变化趋势,制定合理、有效的干预措施。方法对2008~2012年辽阳市5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行回顾性分析。结果5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为7.43‰,呈逐年下降趋势;5岁以下儿童死亡中以婴儿为主,婴儿死亡中以新生儿为主;5岁以下儿童死亡前五位死因主要为:早产或低出生体重、其他先天异常、先心病、肺炎、出生窒息。结论提高围生期保健水平,做好疾病筛查工作,预防出生缺陷,加强产儿科合作,提高窒息复苏技术水平,是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的有效措施。

  7. Surgical treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in children over 5 years old%年龄大于5岁儿童先天性肌性斜颈的手术治疗

    苏涛; 王晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the surgical treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in the children aged over 5 years old. Methods A total of 37 patients with congenital muscular torticollis were treated surgically in this study. The distal portion of the sternoeleidomastoid muscle clavicle head and sternal head was cut, the sternocleidomastoid insertion tendon in the mastoid process was incised, and the contraeture tissue was released. The oeeipito - mandibular traction treatment was performed after the operation. Results All the patients were followed up for 2 to 5 years with an average of 2.6 years. All the children's function and appearance were improved. The clinical efficacy was excellent in 28 patients(75.7% )and good in 9 patients(24. 3% ). Conclusion Incision of amphi - sternocleidomastoid muscle in combination with post - operative traction is the treatment of choice for congenital muscular tortieollis in children over 5 years old.%目的 观察大年龄儿童(年龄大于5岁)先天性肌性斜颈的手术治疗效果.方法 手术治疗大年龄肌性斜颈患儿37例,切断胸锁乳突肌锁骨头、胸骨头,于乳突处切断胸锁乳突肌止点腱,并充分松解挛缩组织,术后均作枕颌牵引.结果 所有病例均获随访,随访时间2~5年,平均随访2.6年,所有患儿的功能和外观均有改善,其中优28例(75.7%),良9例(24.3%).结论 胸锁乳突肌上、下端切断术加术后牵引是治疗大龄儿童先天性肌性斜颈的首选手术治疗方式.

  8. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Uicab-Pool, Gloria de Los Angeles; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Gomes, Romeu; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1) feeding and 2) an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition. PMID:20126934

  9. 中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点的研究%The characteristics of animal life cognition among the 4-5 years old kindergarten children

    张冯青

    2015-01-01

    The present study adopted 4(life cognition :growth ,reproduction ,senility ,death)×2(cognitive felids :animal , non-living things)research design to study the cognitive features of the animal cognition among the 4 -5 years old children. There are 78 children participated in this research.The results are as followings:There are significant differences between the children’s animal cognition and non-living things cognition.In either animal or the non-living things,the children’s under-standing of growth,reproduction and death ,is better than that of senility.%以78名中班幼儿为研究对象,采用4(生命认知维度:生长、繁殖、衰老、死亡)×2(认知领域:动物、非生物)两因素被试内研究设计,试图揭示中班幼儿对动物生命认知特点,发现中班幼儿对动物和非生物在生命认知各维度上的认知差异显著,不论是在动物领域还是非生物领域,他们对生长、繁殖、死亡的理解都好于对衰老的理解。

  10. Analysis of monitoring results of death for the children under 5 years old in Tongling%铜陵市5岁以下儿童死亡监测结果分析

    方红英; 朱莉莉; 高红琼

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To know the current death situation and the change of children under 5 years old in Tongling city and explore the feasibility of intervention measures.[Method] A retrospective investigation method was used to analyze the monitoring data of death of children under 5 years old from 2006 to 2012.[Results] During the 7 years,in neonates,infants and children under 5 years old,the average mortality rates were 3.26 ‰,5.17 ‰ and 7.07 ‰,respectively.Infant deaths accounted 73.08% for the death number of children under 5 years old.Congenital anomaly,various types of accidents,preterm delivery and low birth weight were the main cause of death in children under 5 years old.[Conclusions] The key to reduce the death rate of children under 5 years old is to reduce the death of infant and neonates.To improve the quality of perinatal health care and obstetric quality,take birth defect intervention,strengthen health education,improve safety awareness,the popularity of simple and effective emergency rescue technology are effective measures to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old.%[目的]了解铜陵市城区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及动态变化规律,探索可行性的干预措施. [方法]采用回顾性调查方法,对2006-2012年5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析. [结果]7年间,新生儿、婴儿及5岁以下儿童平均死亡率为3.26‰、5.17‰、7.07‰.婴儿死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡数的73.08%.先天异常、各类意外、早产和低出生体重是5岁以下儿童的主要死因. [结论]降低新生儿及婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.提高围生期保健质量和产科质量,采取出生缺陷干预措施,加强健康教育宣传,提高安全防范意识,普及简单有效的现场应急抢救技术等都是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的有效措施.

  11. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children : Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); M.K. Struijk (Mirjam); W. Kroeze (Willemieke); A. Oenema (Anke); C.M. Renders (Carry); A.M.W. Bulk-Bunschoten (Anneke); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence

  12. Growth decelerations among under-5-year-old children in Kasongo (Zaire). I. Occurrence of decelerations and impact of measles on growth

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of growth decelerations in children was studied in more than 16 000 two-to-four-month time intervals, ending at ages 6 through 59 months, during a multi-round survey in Kasongo. Decelerations were measured as changes in standard deviation scores which were compared with international and local weight-for-age, weight-for-height, arm-circumference-for-age and arm-circumference-for-height reference data. Decelerations were strikingly frequent, particularly at younger ages. An impo...

  13. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents

  14. The effect of inhaled budesonide on symptoms, lung function, and cold air and methacholine responsiveness in 2- to 5-year-old asthmatic children

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    ) with moderately severe asthma in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study involving 8 wk of treatment. Budesonide (BUD) 400 microgram twice daily was administered via a pressurized metered-dose inhaler and metal spacer device. Symptom scores (SSc) and use of......, whereas no improvement was found on MCh. In conclusion, inhaled BUD at a total dose of 800 microgram daily significantly improved SSc, asthma exacerbation rates, lung function, and BHR as assessed by CACh in asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr....

  15. 5岁以下有喘息症状儿童过敏原检测及临床意义%Detection of Serum Allergen in Wheezing Children Under 5 Years Old and Its Significance

    何莉; 王健; 刘莲香

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨5岁以下有喘息症状儿童血清过敏原特异性IgE检测在儿童哮喘诊断中的临床意义.[方法]采用德国Mediwiss公司Allergy-screen Analytic GmbH过敏原检测系统,对73例有喘息症状的5岁以下儿童患儿进行血清吸入性和食入性过敏原特异性IgE检测,对过敏原状况进行分析.[结果]大多数5岁以下有喘息症状的儿童具有特异性体质.吸入性过敏原阳性率为19.36%,食入过敏原阳性率为10.87%.[结论]血清特异性过敏原阳性是有喘息症状的儿童发展成为生哮喘的高危因素之一.检测5岁以下有喘息症状的患儿血清吸入性和食入性过敏原特异性IgE,有利于早期识别有可能发展为哮喘的儿童.%[Objective]To explore the detection of serum inhalant and ingestive allergen specific IgE in wheezing children under 5 years old and its significance in the diagnosis of childhood asthma. [Methods]Getman Mediwiss Company Λllergy-screen Λnalytic GmbH allergen detection system was used to detect serum inhalant and ingestive allergen specific IgE in 73 wheezing children under 5 years old. The status of allergens was analyzed. [Results]Most of wheezing children under 5 years old had atopic asthmatic constitution. The positive rate of inhalant allergen and ingestive allergen was 19.36 % and 10.87%, respectively. [Conclusion] Positive serum allergen is one of the risk factors for wheezing children developing to asthma. The detection of serum inhalation and ingestive allergen specific IgE in wheezing children under 5 years old is helpful for the early identification of possible asthma children developed from wheezing.

  16. The Frequency of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus spp.in 3-5-year- old Children with and without Dental Caries

    Moulana, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship

  17. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. PMID:27112725

  18. Translation and validation of the instrument for the oral health-related quality of life assessment in 3 to 5 years old children in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Amra Hadžipašić Nazdrajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During 2007. in the U.S. was developed the questionnaire for caregivers with 13 items for assessing the oral health-related quality of life in children 3-5 years of age, The Early Childhood Oral Health ImpactScale, The ECOHIS. The aim of this study was to perform the fi rst part of the adaptation process for this instrument in Bosnia-Herzegovina: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and the comprehensibility testing.Methods: ECOHIS was translated from English into the one of the languages in Bosnia-Herzegovina using a standardized forward-backward translation method. Two licensed, professional English-language translators, one dentist and one pediatrician, participated in the development of the preliminary BH-ECOHIS version. All translators were native Bosnian speakers. After translation and adaptation of ECOHIS to Bosnia and Herzegovina setting, pilot-research was performed in order to check the comprehensibility of the questionnaire.Results: The original and the back-translated version were the same. Because not all children in Bosnia-Herzegovina attend preschool, school or daycare, we replaced the question number fi ve from the originalEnglish version “missed preschool, daycare or school“ with “had difficulties in everyday activities”. Translated and culturally adapted version of the ECOHIS was applied in a form of an interview (N=16. Parents/caregivershad no diffi culties to understand the questionnaire.Conclusions: BH-ECOHIS showed excellent comprehensibility. Next step in the validation process should be the testing of its measurement characteristic.

  19. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, C H;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  20. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  1. Episodic future thinking in 3- to 5-year-old children: the ability to think of what will be needed from a different point of view.

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind. PMID:19781693

  2. Monitoring And Analysis of Accidental Death in Children under 5 Years Old in Fujian Province%福建省5岁以下儿童意外死亡5年监测分析

    陈曦; 陈鲁闽; 池小希; 欧阳莹; 杨式薇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic alteration and trend of the accidental death in children under 5 years old in Fujian Province.Methods We analyzed the data of the accidental death in children under 5 years old from 1995 to 1999(5 years) in the monitoring areas in our province.Results The accidental death in children under 5 years old increased 51.3% in 5 years in the monitoring areas.The ratio of accidental death to total death in children under 5 years old increased 7.26% with a more significant increase in the children aged 1~4 years;compared to city,the ratio tended to decrease in otskirt and increase in the rural area.The main causes of death in children aged less than one year were asphyxia(86.1%),aged more than one years were drown and traffic accident.Asphyxia predominantly happened in winter and spring,and drown mainly in summer and autumn.Conclusions The accidental death increased significantly in children under 5 years old;the different measures pointed toward the different ages,seasons and causes have to be developed soon in order to control the accidental children death;intervention should be centered in rural area,and healthcard is the foundmental measure.%目的 了解5岁以下儿童意外死亡的动态变化规律和趋势。方法 对我省5岁以下儿童生命监测区1995年/1999年5a监测资料进行分析。结果 监测区5岁以下儿童意外死亡率5a上升51.2%。5岁以下儿童意外死亡占总死亡比5a上升7.26%。城乡比较城市呈下降趋势,农村呈逐年上升趋势。年龄分组表现1岁~4岁组上升比其他组高,在主要死因分布上,0岁组意外窒息死亡占86.1%,1岁~4岁儿童主要死于溺水、交通意外。季节分布上,意外窒息多发生于冬春季,溺水多发生于夏秋季。结论 5岁以下儿童意外死亡率上升速度快,严重威胁儿童生存和健康,应尽快制定控制措施,针对不同年龄,不同季节,不同死因应有不

  3. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  4. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  5. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良状况分析%Malnutrition status of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    张继国; 翟凤英; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 苏畅; 张伋; 马玉霞; 高强; 徐少泽

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良状况.方法 利用科技支撑项目"贫困农村地区儿童营养缺乏改善适宜技术的研究"资料,对8141名调查对象营养状况进行分析.采用WHO 2006的身高标准体重参考值作为评价标准计算Z评分,应用SAS 9.1软件进行统计分析.结果 2009年,中国西部6省(自治区)贫困农村5岁以下儿童的生长迟缓率为14.9%,低体重率为7.4%,消瘦率为3.5%.结论 我国西部贫困农村儿童营养不良状况仍然较为严重.在改善儿童营养状况时,应因地制宜,根据不同类型地区的特点和引起儿童营养不良发生的因素采取综合措施.%Objective To analyze malnutrition status of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas.Methods The 8141 subjects were from the program of "Study on appropriate technology of children under-nutrition improvement in poverty rural areas".Age-and sex-specific height and weight reference of WHO standards was used to calculate the Z-scores, the data were analyzed by software SAS 9.1.Results In 2009, the stunting prevalence of children under 5 years in poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 14.9%, the underweight prevalence was 7.4% and the wasting prevalence was 3.5%.Conclusion The study demonstrated that malnutrition was still a serious health problem in western poverty rural areas.When improving the children nutrition, we should take comprehensive intervention measures according to the characteristics of different regions and the factors contributing to children malnutrition.

  6. 2011~2013年某医院5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析%Surveillance on death monitoring of children less than 5 years old in a hospital during 2011 to 2013

    周翠云; 陈惠清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the dynamic tendency in variation of death in children under 5 years old in hospital,as well as the main causes for death,and to find out the effective measures for intervention. Methods The data of death surveillance of children under 5 years old in the hospital during 2011 to 2013 had been carried out. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old including neonates were decreased year by year;the mortality rate of infants in 2013 had been slightly increased;there was no child at 1~4 years old died in 2011 and 2012,and only 3 death cases had been reported in 2013,the reason was that the hospital carried out a large number of liver transplantation. Conclusion The key point for reducing the mortality of children under-five years old is to reduce the occurrence of complications after liver transplantation in children and to control nosocomial infections. Secondly the screening and diagnosis of immunodeficiency in newborns should be strengthened,and the ability of recovery of neonatal asphyxia must be raised and the death of accidental injury in children under-five years old should also be pre-vented.%目的:了解某医院5岁以下儿童的死亡动态变化与主要死亡原因,寻找有效的干预措施。方法对2011~2013年某医院5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料汇总分析。结果5岁以下儿童死亡率和新生儿死亡率逐年下降;婴儿死亡率2013年略有升高,1~4岁儿童死亡2011年和2012年为0,2013年仅报告3例,原因是该院新开展了大量肝移植手术。结论降低5岁以下儿童死亡率关键是减少移植术后的并发症,控制院内感染;其次加强新生儿免疫缺陷筛查和诊断技术,同时提高新生儿窒息复苏能力;预防意外伤害。

  7. 5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因分析%The etiology analysis of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old

    陈信; 彭万胜; 瞿色华; 张阵; 武玉猛; 赵武

    2016-01-01

    目的::分析5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因,以提高儿科医生对年幼儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的病因诊断及治疗水平。方法:回顾性分析85例5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的临床资料。结果:85例非特异性慢性咳嗽患儿病因分布如下:咳嗽变异性哮喘27例(31.8%),上气道咳嗽综合征32例(37.6%),感染后咳嗽16例(18.8%),胃食管反流性咳嗽3例(3.5%),过敏性咳嗽2例(2.4%),病因不明5例(5.9%)。结论:5岁及以下儿童非特异性慢性咳嗽的主要病因构成比依次为上气道咳嗽综合征、咳嗽变异性哮喘、感染后咳嗽及其他病因。%Objective:To explore the causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old for improving its diagnosis and treatment. Methods:The clinical data of 85 children 5 or under 5 years old with nonspecific chronic cough were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The etiologic distribution of the 85 children with nonspecific chronic cough included 27 cases of cough variant asthma (31. 8%),32 cases of upper airway cough syndrome(37. 6%),16 cases of post-infection cough(18. 8%),3 cases of gastroesophageal reflux cough(3. 5%),2 cases of atopic cough(2. 4%) and 5 cases of unknown etiology(5. 9%). Conclusions:The main causes of nonspecific chronic cough in children 5 or under 5 years old are the upper airway cough syndrome,cough variant asthma,post-infection cough and other causes in turn.

  8. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBWAcademic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  9. Sleep disorders and starting time to school impair balance in 5-year-old children Distúrbios do sono, período escolar e equilíbrio em crianças com 5 anos de idade

    Cristiane Aparecida Moran

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if sleep disorders and differents starting time to school have impaired motor skills in 5-year-old children. METHOD: Cross-sectional design consisting of 132 children with sleep disorders and 136 normal controls of the public school in the city of São Paulo. The group with sleep disorders was identified based on a questionnaire, and motor tests for global motor coordination, fine motor coordination, perceptual-motor coordination, and static and dynamic balance were applied in all children. RESULTS: In the static balance test, more specifically in the sharpened Romberg (Tandem test, 34% of boys from the study group, who studied in the morning, failed the test (p OBJETIVO: Verificar se distúrbios do sono e diferentes períodos escolares comprometem as habilidades motoras de crianças de 5 anos. MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 132 crianças com distúrbio do sono e 136 controles normais de escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo. Foram utilizados questionários para distúrbios do sono e testes para coordenação motora global, motora fina, percepto-motora, equilíbrio estático e dinâmico. RESULTADOS: No teste de equilíbrio estático, mais especificamente na prova pé ante pé, 34% dos meninos do grupo estudo, que estudavam no período da manhã, falharam no teste (p < 0,05. Na prova de apoio monopodal, 62% dos meninos do grupo estudo, que estudavam no período da manhã, falharam no teste (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que os distúrbios do sono podem interagir com o período escolar e alterar a performance motora, principalmente de meninos que estudam no período da manhã.

  10. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves. PMID:26977573

  11. 540例5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡相关因素研究%Analysis of Accidental Death in 540 Cases of Children under 5 Years Old

    喻贵清; 杨泽红

    2000-01-01

    【Objective】 To investigate level and characteristics of accident death in children under 5 years old. 【Methods】 Cases of accident death were collected from life monitor program for chldren under 5 years old, during 1991~1998 years in Guizhouprovince. The epidemic analysis was done with Epi Info 5.0 software. 【Results】 Accident death were the fourth death cause ofchildren under 5 years old and the second death cause of children aged 1~4 years in Guizhou province. Most death cases occured inraral areas.The main accident death cause were accidental suffocation,drowning,falling,poisoning,which occupied of 68.70% totalcases, the death of rate population of all accident death causes much higher than those of ordinary . 【Conclusions】 Health edu-cation should be widely developed which was the simple and effective interfere measure to prevent and reduce the occurance of acci-dent death.%【目的】了解贵州省5岁以下儿童意外伤害死亡水平及特点。【方法】收集1991~1998年贵州省5岁以下儿童生命监测意外伤害死亡病例,用Epi Info 5.0软件进行流行病学分析。【结果】意外死亡是贵州省5岁以下儿童死亡的第4位分类死因,1~4岁儿童的第2位分类死因。绝大部分死亡发生在农村。意外窒息、溺水、跌落、中毒占意外伤害死亡的68.7%,以上几种死因死亡率远高于自然人群。【结论】开展社区健康教育是预防意外伤害简便有效的方法。

  12. 2001-2010年北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡状况分析%Mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years old in Beijing, 2001 - 2010

    朱雪娜; 闫淑娟; 李东阳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解2001-2010年北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡的变化趋势.[方法]采用北京市儿童生命监测网收集的数据,计算出5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡专率、构成比和年龄分布情况.[结果]1)北京市5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡专率由2001年的227.1/105下降至2010年的97.1/106;2)北京市城市先天心脏病、神经管畸形、先天愚型均显著下降;农村神经管畸形、先天愚型下降不显著;3)先天异常死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡的比例由2001年的29.2%下降至20lO年的23.1%;4)5岁以下儿童先天异常死亡主要发生在婴儿期,尤其是新生儿期.[结论] 北京市先天发育异常儿童死亡已经成为5岁以下儿童主要死因,需进一步加强农村地区相关疾病的预防水平.%[Objective] To identify the trend of mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years oldin Beijing from 2001 to 2010. [Methods] Data were obtained from the Beijing children mortality surveillance network. A descriptive analysis was performed on birth defect-specific mortality in children under 5 years old(U5MR). [Results] 1)The birth defect-specific U5MR decrease from 227.1 /105 live births in 2001 to 97.1/105 live births in 2010; 2)Congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, Dowr's syndrome were significantly decreased in urban and neural tube defects, Down,s syndrome was not significant decrease in rural; 3)The Proportion of mortality due to major congenital malformation decrease from 29.2% in 2001 to 23.1% in 2010; 4)Mortality from congenital malformation in children under 5 years old mainly in infant, especially in neonate. [Conclusions] Congenital malformation has been the leading causes of death in children under 5 years old. Strengthen prevention and reduce congenital malformation of death in rural have been the important work for us.

  13. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  14. Epidemiological analysis of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old from 2007 to 2010%宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学分析

    韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of obesity in children under 5 years old in Baoji city and to explore the influencing factors of childhood obesity and intervention measures so as to promote children' s health. Methods Data was collected through physical examination and questionnaire survey, and rate and chi-square analysis were made by using SPSS 13.0. Results The prevalence of obesity in Baoji children under 5 years old lingered between 11.65% and 18.71% in the period of 2007 to 2010, which was a rather high level. The prevalence in different years was significantly different ( x2 = 65.421, P < 0.05 ). There were significant differences in the prevalence among children of different ages and of different genders (x2 was 12. 821 and 14. 247 respectively, P < 0.05 ). In addition, the prevalence of obesity between urban children and rural children was statistically different ( x2 = 4. 454, P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Combined with the obesity epidemiologic characteristics, key intervention objects were determined. Comprehensive measures such as strengthening health education, promoting children's health care and advocating breastfeeding can reduce childhood obesity rate.%目的 了解宝鸡市5岁以下儿童肥胖流行病学特征,探索儿童肥胖的影响因素和干预措施,促进儿童健康.方法 通过体格检查和问卷调查收集资料,并对结果进行率和卡方检验分析.结果 宝鸡市2007~2010年5岁以下儿童肥胖患病率徘徊在11.65%~18.71%,处于一个较高的水平,年度之间患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=65.421,P<0.05);不同年龄段儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.821,P<0.05);不同性别儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.247,P<0.05);城市与农村间儿童肥胖患病率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.454,P<0.05).结论 结合肥胖的流行病学特点,确定重点干预对象,通过加强健康教育、促进儿童保

  15. Death Analysis of 0~5 Years Old Children from 2003 to 2010 in Ulanhot City%乌兰浩特市2003~2010年0~5岁儿童死亡情况分析

    刘丽媛

    2012-01-01

    儿童死亡率是《中国儿童发展纲要(2001-2010年)》的重要指标之一,也是衡量一个国家或地区的经济文化、卫生状况、妇幼卫生工作质量和服务水平的主要指标.通过对兴安盟乌兰浩特市2003-2010年儿童死亡报告卡进行整理分析,旨在了解乌兰浩特市5岁以下儿童死亡情况,分析死亡率及主要死亡原因,为进一步采取有效干预措施,降低儿童死亡率提供依据.%Child mortality is one of the important indexes in Chinese children development program(2001~2010 year),but also is the main index to measure a country or region’s economic and cultural,health status,maternal and child health work quality,and service level.Through analysis the death report cards from 2003~2010 of Ulanhot city in Xingan league,this article aims to know the children death below 5 years old in Ulanhot,to analyze the mortality and main death reason,and to provide a basis for taking further effective intervention measures to reduce child mortality.

  16. How do 5 year olds understand questions?

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria; Andjelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Farizio; Arvam, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskienė, Ineta; De Lopez, Kristine M. Jensen; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; Hout, Angeliek van; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiené, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovačević, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska,, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popović, Maša; Ruzaitè, Juratè; Savić, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. We present the the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by five year old, typically...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. We studied the effects of two factors on question formation: a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and b) whether the question...... facilitate children’s understanding of questions: having overt case morphology, having a single lexical item for both ‘who’ and ‘which’, and the use of synthetic verbal forms. [156 words]...

  17. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Malnutrition in Children under 5 Years Old in Shaoguan City in 2012%2012年韶关市5岁以下儿童营养不良的影响因素分析

    徐晓梅; 魏明香; 韩锦英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the influencing factors of malnutrition in children under the age of 5 years old. Meth-ods 2800 children under 5 years old in the local area were selected. The nutritional status, diet, birth situation, knowledge of family members and so on of the children were investigated;adverse factors of malnutrition in children under 5 years old were ex-plored. Results Of the investigated 2800 cases of children under 5 years old, there were varying degrees of malnutrition in 348 children,accouting for 12.4%, Among them, there were 92 cases of low weight, accounting for 3.3%, 104 cases of overweight, ac-counting for 3.7%, 152 cases of delayed growth and development, accounting for 5.4%. The degree of education of a total of 264 family members of the 348 children with malnutrition was or below junior secondary school level, accounting for 75.9%. The more common supplementary food in the children diet were grain, potato, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and so on. Conclusion The main influencing factors of malnutrition in children under age 5 are the degree of education of the children's family members, the diet and the birth situation. Therefore, the diet of the children should be improved as far as possible and breast feeding is rec-ommended, which are of great significance for the healthy growth of the children in later life.%研究分析5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项影响因素。方法选取该地区2012年5岁以下儿童2800人,对所有儿童的营养状况、饮食情况、出生情况以及家庭各成员知识程度等方面进行调查,探讨5岁以下儿童营养不良的各项不良因素。结果该次调查的2800名5岁以下儿童中,有348名儿童存在不同程度的营养不良,占12.4%,其中:体重偏低92人,占3.3%。体重偏重104人,占3.7%。生长发育延缓152人,占5.4%。在348名营养不良儿童中,家庭成员文化程度在初中及以下的共有264人,占75.9%。儿童

  18. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word…

  19. 婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性研究%Correlation between infants weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old

    严学勤; 上官予梅; 冯华俊; 廖艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation between infant weight gain and simple obesity of children under 5 years old.Methods From 2006 to 2011 6 746 infants born at Zhongshan Humanitarian Hospital were registered and followed up .Relevant data were recorded . Totally 567 children with simple obesity were chosen in obesity group , and control group was matched with 1:1 in age and gender .Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influencing factors of children ’ s simple obesity in the aspects of parents ’ educational level , infant birth weight and feeding .Results Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that simple obesity in children had significant correlation with infant birth weight (OR=1.94, 95%CI=1.56,2.32), average weight gain during the first 6 months (OR=2.17, 95%CI=2.11,2.36) and average weight gain during the later 6 months (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.61,2.19) (all P<0.05). Conclusion Children’ s simple obesity is closely correlated with infant birth weight , average weight gain during the first 6 months and average weight gain during the later 6 months when supplementary food is added .%目的:探讨婴儿期增重与5岁以下儿童单纯性肥胖的相关性。方法选取2006年至2011年在中山市博爱医院出生的6746例婴儿进行随访登记,统计相关数据,从中筛选出单纯性肥胖的567例儿童设为肥胖组,并按年龄、性别匹配原则1:1配对者设为对照组,进行父母文化程度、婴儿出生体重、喂养等方面的单因素分析,并进行影响儿童单纯性肥胖的多因素logistics回归分析。结果多因素logistics回归分析显示:与儿童单纯性肥胖显著相关的变量为婴儿出生时的体重( OR=1.94,95%CI=1.56,2.32)、婴儿期前6个月平均增重量(OR=2.17,95%CI=2.11,2.36)及婴儿期后6个月的平均增重量(OR=1.90,95%CI=1.61,2.19),均P<0.05。结论与儿童单纯性肥

  20. The status of malnutrition among the children aged 2~5 years old and the effect factors%2~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素调查

    程进; 魏锁; 王君; 宋丹丹

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解安徽省某市城区2-5岁在园儿童营养状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善该地区儿童营养状况提供依据.方法:采用分层整群抽样的方法,随机抽取4所公立幼儿园和8所私立幼儿园,对每所幼儿园在园儿童进行一般情况调查、体格发育测量和口腔检查,并采末梢静脉血检测血红蛋白.结果:共调查2 993例儿童,男1 424例,女1 569例,平均月龄为(51.23±11.73)个月,公立幼儿园儿童占64.O%,低体重、生长发育迟缓和消瘦检出率分别为4.2%、4.1%和3.7%,儿童营养不良检出率为7.9%,儿童贫血检出率为33.0%,龋齿检出率为47.4%.单冈素分析显示,男童、贫血、私立幼儿园儿童营养不良检出率较高,月龄越大儿童营养不良检出率越低,患龋齿儿童营养不良检出率较低.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,女童[0.525(0.397~0.693)]、月龄高[0.976(0.964~0.987)]和牙齿数[0.783(0.624~0.983)]多为儿童营养不良的保护因素,私立幼儿园[2.522(0.397~3.336)]为儿奄营养不良的危险因素.结论:该地区私立幼儿园和低龄儿童营养不良检出率较高,应针对私立幼儿园和低龄儿童实施针对性干预,控制营养不良儿童的发生.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status of children aged 2 ~5 years old from kindergartens of the urban area of one city, analyze the related effect factors, provide a basis for improving the nutritional status of children in the local area. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling method was used to abstract 4 public kindergartens and 8 private kindergartens from the urban area of one city randomly, the general conditions of all the children in kindergartens were surveyed, physical development examination and oral examination were carried out, and their peripheral blood samples were obtained to detect hemoglobin level. Results: 2 993 children were investigated, including 1 424 boys and 1 569 girls, the average age was ( 51.23 ± 11

  1. 南京郊区3~5岁儿童龋病流行情况及相关因素研究%Primary tooth caries and associated factors among 3-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing

    陈婷; 朱玲; 刘子晗; 李虎; 蔡晨星; 吴婴南

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of caries among 3-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing. Methods Apply the method of multistage and random sampling and get on the samples of 384 3-to-5-year-old children in suburban areas of Nanjing. Collect the survey data completed by the parents. The related factors of dental caries were analyzed by chi-square test and Logistic regression. Results The caries prevalence rate of primary tooth was 60.68%. The mean dmft and dmfs were 2.70 and 4.08 respectively. The factors associated with caries were:age,preference to eating sweet food and mother level of education. Conclusions There is high prevalence of primary tooth caries among children from 3 to 5 years old in suburban areas of Nanjing. It is necessary to reinforce early preventive measures.%目的 调查南京郊区3~5岁儿童龋病的流行情况及相关因素.方法 采用多阶段、随机抽样的方法抽取南京郊区384名3~5岁儿童,对其进行口腔检查并发放问卷,由家长填写后统一收回.对龋病相关因素调查结果采用x2检验和Logistic回归分析.结果 南京郊区3~5岁儿童患龋率为60.68%,龋均及龋面均分别为2.70和4.08;年龄、甜食的喜好程度及母亲文化程度与儿童乳牙龋相关.结论 南京郊区3~5岁儿童的患龋率较高,需开展早期预防工作.

  2. Analysis of relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior%1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题与喂养行为的相关性

    邓成; 张雯; 金宇; 冯华俊; 何晓玲; 刘庆嘉; 刘玉玲; 廖艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究父母喂养行为与1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题之间的关系.[方法]采用一般情况问卷、儿童饮食行为干预问卷(IMFeD)及自编父母喂养和营养行为问卷,调查广东省某市就诊于儿童保健门诊、儿童营养门诊的70名1~5岁具有饮食行为问题的儿童的社会人口学资料、饮食行为及喂养行为资料.[结果]喂养焦虑情绪(r=0.591)、不良喂养习惯(r=0.665)均与IMFeD总分呈正相关;喂养焦虑情绪(β=0.49)、不良喂养习惯(β=0.32)进入IMFeD总分的最终方程,是儿童饮食行为问题的危险因素,喂养中情感交流(β=-0.24)与前述两者一同进入了不良进食习惯得分的最终方程,是避免儿童不良进食习惯的保护因素.[结论]家庭不良喂养习惯、家长喂养焦虑情绪可能引发或增强儿童不良饮食行为问题,喂养时家长与儿童的情感交流能在一定程度上对避免和缓解儿童不良进食习惯有积极作用.%[Objective] To analyze the relationship between eating problems of 1~5 years old children and the feeding behavior. [Methods] Cross-sectional survey was conducted. The questionnaire data, containing general state, identification and management of feeding difficulty (IMFeD) , as well as self-compiled questionnaire about parents feeding behavior, which reflect children's socio-demographic,eating problems,as well as parents' feeding behavior. [Results] Both feeding anxiety and adverse feeding behavior of parents were positive relationship with IMFeD total score,the coefficients were respectively 0. 591 and 0. 665; Feeding anxiety(β=0. 49) ,as well as adverse feeding behavior of parents(β = 0. 32),entering the final formula of IMFeD total score, were risk factors of eating problem; feeling communication,in contract, was protective factor. [Conclusion] Adverse feeding behavior and parents' anxiety possibly raise or enhance children's eating problem, feeling communication between parents and child

  3. 1217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍调查及其相关因素分析%Survey on Sleep Disorders in 1217 Children Aged 2 to 5 Years Old and Analysis of the Correlation Factors

    易彩霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解长沙市开福区1 217名2~5岁儿童睡眠障碍(sleep disorder,SD)状况及其影响因素,为儿童SD的预防和干预提供科学依据.[方法]选取长沙市开福区门诊和入园体检中的1 217名儿童作为调查对象,对其家长进行儿童睡眠状况问卷调查.[结果]1 217名2~5 岁儿童SD总发生率为26.86%,其中常见的睡眠障碍类型如:入睡困难发生率占8.05%,白天多睡,夜间少睡1.07%,磨牙6.33%,用口呼吸1.23%,梦话2.05%,打鼾5.34%;SD的分布存在性别差异,男童打鼾、用口呼吸和磨牙发生率高;儿童SD的主要危险因素为腺样体肥大、肥胖、居室嘈杂、与家人或保姆同睡一床等.[结论]2~5岁儿童SD相关症状发生率较高;儿童保健工作者应加强睡眠健康教育,开展儿童SD筛查,预防儿童SD的发生.%[Objective] To understand the status of sleep disorder(SD) in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old in Kaifu district of Changsha and its influential factors in order to provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of SD children. [Methods] Totally 1217 children in the clinic services and physical examina tion before the kindergartens were enrolled in this study. Their parents were interviewed with sleep questionnaires of children. [Results] The total incidence rate of SD in 1217 children aged 2 to 5 years old was 26.86 %,among which the incidence rate of the common SD such as difficult falling asleep, more sleep time in daytime and few sleep time in night, bruxism, mouth breathing, sleep talking and snoring was 8. 05%, 1. 07%,6.33 %,1.23 %, 2.05 % and 5.34 %, respectively. The distribution of SD had gender difference, and the incidence of snoring, mouth breathing and bruxism in boys was high. The main risk factors of SD in children were adenoidal hypertrophy, obesity, noisy room, sleeping with family numbers or housekeeper in a bed and so on.[Conclusion] The incidence of the related symptoms of SD in children aged 2

  4. 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用关系的研究%Effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas

    苏畅; 张兵; 刘爱东; 杜文雯; 张继国; 张伋; 马玉霞; 张强; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况与医疗费用的关系.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,于2009年在西部6省12县贫困农村共调查8141名5岁以下儿童.按WHO推荐标准将调查儿童分为营养不良与营养良好两组,用SAS9.1软件进行分析比较.结果 西部贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养不良率为18.9%;男孩营养不良率(19.9%)显著高于女孩(17.7%,P<0.05);营养不良组近两周内腹泻患病率(9.0%)以及上呼吸道感染患病率(27.9%)显著高于营养良好组(6.9%,25.4%,P<0.05);营养不良组的医疗费用(785.1元)显著高于营养良好组的医疗费用(696.6元,P<0.05);营养不良儿童的门诊就诊率(27.5%)显著高于营养良好儿童的门诊就诊率(25.0%,P<0.05).结论 西部贫困农村儿童营养不良问题仍有待改善,营养状况对儿童的患病率及医疗费用有影响.%Objective To study the effects of nutritional status on clinical expenditure of children under 5 years old in western poverty rural areas. Methods The randomized multi-stage cluster method was used to sample study subjects from poverty rural areas of six western provinces in China. The survey included 8141 children under 5 years old and was carried out in 2009. All of children were divided into two groups, malnutrition group and normal group by WHO standard.Difference of two groups was analyzed with SAS 9. 1. Results In western poverty rural areas, the malnutrition rate of children under 5 years old was 18. 9%. The rate for boys ( 19. 9% ) was significantly higher than that for girls ( 17.7%, P <0. 05). Malnutrition group had higher rate of upper respiratory tract infection (27.9%) and diarrhea (9. 0% ) than those in normal group (25.4% and 6. 9% ) within recent two weeks ( P < 0. 05 ). Mean clinical expenditure of malnutrition group was 785. 1 yuan per year, significantly higher than that of normal group (696. 6 yuan, P <0. 05). Also outpatient

  5. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  6. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  7. 江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童十年死亡原因分析%Analysis of the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi

    俞秋霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析江苏省无锡市惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡原因及保健服务状况,为降低5岁以下儿童死亡率提出有效干预措施.方法 按照《江苏省5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对辖区内5岁以下儿童死亡监测资料进行分析.结果 2001-2010年惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡率6.87‰,婴儿死亡率5.06‰,新生儿死亡率3.75‰,早期新生儿死亡率2.66‰.5岁以下儿童死因前5位顺位分别为意外伤害、早产低出生体质量、先天畸形、先天性心脏病、出生窒息.结论 惠山区5岁以下儿童死亡呈下降趋势,意外伤害、早产低出生体质量为主要死因.有效降低5岁以下儿童死亡率,应加强安全教育,减少意外事故发生,大力提倡婚前医学检查,加强孕期保健及孕期监测,减少出生缺陷,提高产科、儿科医疗质量和急救技术.%Objective To analyze the death cause of children less than 5 years old in Huishan district of Wuxi,in order to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age and put forward effective intervention measures.Methods According to “monitoring project of children below 5 years old died in Jiangsu Province”,the death surveillance data of this area of children below 5 years old were analyzed.Results The mortality of children under 5 years of age in Huishan district from 2001 to 2010 was 6.87‰,infant mortality was 5.06‰,the neonatal mortality was 3.75‰ and early neonatal mortality rate was 2.66‰.Death cause of children under 5 years old,the 5 cis-position were accident,premature and low birth weight,congenital malformation,congenital heart disease,birth asphyxia.Conclusion The death of children under 5 years old in Huishan area decreased,accidental injury,premature and low birth weight were the main causes of death.To reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old,should strengthen the safety education,reduce the accident,vigorously promote the pre-marital medical examination

  8. 甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔健康知识调查%An investigation of dental caries status of 5-year-old Zang nationality children and their parents′oral health knowledge in Tewo County,Gansu Province

    朱燕燕; 胡晓潘; 李志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解甘肃省迭部县藏族5岁儿童龋病发病情况及家长口腔健康知识,为少数民族地区儿童制定龋病防治措施提供参考。方法:参照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,随机选取迭部县5所幼儿园400名藏族5岁儿童进行龋病检查,并对其家长进行龋病流行病学及相关因素问卷调查。结果:迭部县藏族5岁儿童的乳牙患龋率、龋均分别为59.64%、2.53;54.57%的儿童有睡前吃甜点习惯,48.48%的儿童过去12个月没有到医院看过牙,父母大多未了解儿童口腔健康状况,家长口腔卫生知识的知晓率农村组低于城市组。结论:藏族5岁儿童龋病发病率高,儿童口腔健康行为及家长口腔卫生知识有待进一步改进。%AIM:To investigate the dental caries prevalence and their parents′oral health knowledge of 5 -year-old children of Zang nationality in Tewo County,Gansu Province.METHODS:According to the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Investigation Standard and Method,400 five-year-old children in five kindergartens in Te-wo country were randomly selected in this study.Oral health examination was made to determine dental caries status,a questionnaire was answered for the investigation of the parents′oral health knowledge and the childrens′oral health be-havior.RESULTS:The dental caries prevalence rate and average caries teeth of the children were 59.64%and 2.53 respectively.54.57% of the children had the habit for having dessert before sleeping,48.48%of the children did not see a dentist in the past 12 months.The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the parents living in countryside had less oral hygiene knowledge than those living in city.CONCLUSION:Dental caries prevalence is high in 5-year-old Zang nationality children in Tewo county.The oral health behavior of the chil-dren and the oral health knowledge of their

  9. Status of dental caries of primary dentition and the effect of oral health behavior of family in 5-year-old children in Hainan province%海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋状况及家庭影响因素

    袁芳华; 廖天安; 谢莉莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral health behavior of family on the dental caries status in the primary dentition of 5-year-old children in Hainan province. Methods By multi-stage, stratified and random sampling, 758 children of five years old selected from the urban and rural areas of Hainan province were investigated for dental caries status, according to World Health Organization criteria. Their parents were also investigated. Results 633 of the 758 questionnaires were filled and withdrawn, accounting for 84.4%. The prevalence of dental caries of 5-year-old children in Hainan province was 76.1%, with the draft of 4.88 and the variance of 21.91, which was 70.3% for children from urban areas and 82.2% for those from rural areas. The consumption of sweets, chocolate, water with sugar and beverage were more in urban children then the rural children. Urban children tend to have better oral health behavior, such as the time of beginning tooth brushing, the frequency of brushing and daily use of fluoridated paste. Conclusion The implementation of a systematic education on oral health behavior of family is in urgent need in Hainan province, especially in the rural areas.%目的 研究家庭口腔健康行为对海南省城乡儿童乳牙患龋状况的影响.方法 采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样的方法,按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中牙列状况的检查方法和标准对海南省城乡758例5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,并对受检者的家长进行问卷调查.结果 共下发问卷758份,收到有效问卷633份,应答率为84.4%.包括:(1)海南省5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为76.1%,龋均为4.88,方差为21.91;其中城市儿童乳牙患龋率为70.3%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率为82.2%,农村儿童乳牙患龋率高于城市.(2)口腔健康行为分析表明,农村儿童进食糖果、巧克力、糖水、碳酸饮料等频率高于城市.城市儿童开始刷牙时间、频率、用含氟牙膏的

  10. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  11. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Lakhno E.G.; Kozina Zh.L.; Jagiello Marina

    2012-01-01

    A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball deve...

  12. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Lakhno E.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball develop an orientation in space, regulate force and exactness of throw, develop measurement with naked an eye, adroitness, speed of reaction; normalize a volitional sphere emotionally. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical device is instrumental in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.

  13. Avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro e anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas Nutritional assessment of iron status and anemia in children under 5 years old at public daycare centers

    Ana Cláudia F. Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro e a prevalência de anemia em crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas da cidade do Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 162 crianças, de 6 a 59 meses. O estado nutricional de ferro foi avaliado em termos de reservas corporais (ferritina sérica, transferrinemia (ferro sérico, capacidade total de ligação do ferro e % de saturação da transferrina, eritropoiese (protoporfirina eritrocitária livre e hemoglobinogênese (hemoglobina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia (hemoglobina 40 µmol/mol heme em 69,6% (IC95% 61,0-77,1 das crianças. Os parâmetros de ferro não apresentaram correlação com o gênero (p > 0,05. No entanto, crianças 24 meses. A significante correlação observada entre reserva, transferrinemia e eritropoiese representa achado compatível com o esperado ciclo de vida do ferro no organismo. CONCLUSÕES: A deficiência de ferro e a anemia parecem ser um importante problema de saúde pública entre as crianças menores de 5 anos de creches públicas do Recife. Logo, ações efetivas direcionadas à prevenção e ao controle dessa deficiência são fortemente recomendadas nesse contexto ecológico.OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional iron status and anemia prevalence in children less than 5 years old at public daycare centers in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, with a systematic random sampling of 162 children aged 6 to 59 months. Nutritional iron status was assessed in terms of body iron reserves (serum ferritin, transferrinemia (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation %, erythropoiesis (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin production (hemoglobin. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin 40 µmol/mol heme in 69.6% (95%CI 61.0-77.1 of the children. Iron parameters were not correlated with sex (p > 0.05. However, children 24 months. The significant

  14. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jeonju (Korea); Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonju (Korea); Yoo, Wan Hee [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Rheumatology, Jeonju (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  15. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  16. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per

  17. Death analysis of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013%重庆市渝中区2009~2013年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析

    廖义琛; 黄健; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand death status and related factors of children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District of Chongqing from 2009 to 2013 to provide scientific basis for reducing the mortality rate of children below 5 years old. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out by the surveillance data of death of children below 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013. Upon the investigation and quality control to the children birth and death by the three-tertiary medical and preven-tive health care network under the jurisdiction according to China′s Maternal and Child Health Monitoring Programme and Death Monitoring Programme of Children under 5 Years Old Programme in China concerning regulations related to death monitoring of children under 5 years old and ICD-10 code of international disease classification.The data adoptedχ2 test. Results The mortality rate of infant,newborns and children under 5 years old in Yuzhong District from 2009 to 2013 was decreased firstly and then in-creased. There was no statistical significance of mortality rate between the male and female children[0.378%(50/13 225) vs. 0.311%(39/12 536)](χ2=0.838,P>0.05). The proportion of premature and low birth weight in the constitution of causes of death was raised significantly,of which,the premature ratio was from 11.76% up to 56.00%,whose difference had statistical significance (trend inspectionχ2=11.650,P<0.05),and the low birth weight was from 23.53%to 56.00%,the difference was statistically sig-nificant(trend inspectionχ2=9.950,P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthening the perinatal health care,reducing the occurrence of birth defect and premature,increasing business skills training for the maternal and child health care,it improves the diagnostic abili-ty of children′s diseases. Meanwhile,relying on the family doctor service mode to strengthen children health management system, strengthening the social medical security ability are the important measures to reduce the mortality

  18. 汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡对比分析%Contrastive analysis of the death of children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong

    彭海玲; 白倩; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the death oi children under 5 years old in urban and rural areas of Hanzhong and to explore possible interventional measures. Methods Death data of 5 years old children from 2000 to 2010 in both of urban and rural areas of Hanzhong was analyzed retrospectively. Results The mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Hantai and Nanzheng was 13.65‰ and 20. 32‰, respectively. The mortality rate of newboms , infants , children of 1-4 years old and children under 5 years old in urban area ( Hantai) was much lower than that in rural area ( Nanzheng ) (χ2 value was 16. 89, 42. 69, 17. 54 and 59. 04, respectively, all P 0. 05 ). The causes of death of children under 5 years old in two areas were different. The first five causes of death in the urban were congenital malformation , asphyxia neonatomm , contretemps, premature and low birth weight, and pneumonia, while they were asphyxia neonatorum , pneumonia, contretemps, congenital malformation , and premature and low birth weight in the rural area. Conclusion In the past 11 years, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old of each age groups decreases year by year', and the death rate in the urban area is lower than that in the rural area . Infants and newboms death takes the majority of the death of children under 5 years old. The top five causes of children 's death in the urban and rural area are different , which indicates different impact of economics , culture and medical care on children in urban and rural area . Therefore, the future work in different areas should have their own focus .%目的 对汉中市农村与城区5岁以下儿童死亡进行对比分析,并探讨其干预措施.方法 将2000至2010年汉中市城市与农村5岁以下儿童死亡资料进行回顾性分析.结果 汉台区、南郑县5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为13.65‰和20.32‰;城区(汉台)的新生儿、婴儿、1~4岁、5岁以下死亡率明显低于农村(南郑)(χ2值分别为16.89、42

  19. 武汉市洪山区近10年5岁以下儿童死亡情况分析%Analysis of the Death of Children under 5 Years Old During the Past Ten Years in Hong-shan District,Wuhan City

    喻玉珍; 彭陈岑

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the distribution,the causes and the influencing factors of the death among children under 5 years old in Hongshan district.Methods A retrospective method was used to analyze the deaths of children under 5 years old during the past 10 years’.Results The average mortality rate among children under 5 years was 8.42 ‰ during the past 10 years.The top five causes of death were:prematurity,congenital heart dis-ease,birth asphyxia,pneumonia,and accidental death.Conclusions The key point of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years old is reducing neonatal mortality,correcting prenatal abnormalities,increasing collaboration between obstetric and neonatal department,and actively preventing intrapartum and post-natal abnormalities.%目的:探讨武汉市洪山区5岁以下儿童死亡的分布规律、主要死因构成及其影响因素。方法采用回顾性方法,对洪山区近10年来5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行统计分析。结果10年间5岁以下儿童死亡率平均为8.42‰。死亡原因前5位依次是:早产、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、肺炎、意外死亡。结论降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键是降低新生儿死亡率,纠正产前异常,加大产科和新生儿科协作,积极预防产时、产后异常,减少儿童死亡。

  20. Research on gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors%复合凝乳酶胶囊治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻及影响因素研究

    葛丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻和影响因素。方法:选取儿童腹泻患儿100例,均在5岁以下,按年龄比例分为观察组和对照组,观察组在服用复合凝乳酶胶囊的基础上同时进行常规抗炎治疗,对照组只进行常规抗炎治疗。比较两组疗效。结果:观察组总有效率(94.8%)高于对照组(83.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。影响腹泻治疗效果的因素主要有药的用量、腹泻程度、小儿的年龄等多种因素有关。结论:复合凝乳酶胶囊对治疗5岁以下儿童腹泻症状有着显著的疗效,并且无明显的不良反应,在临床应用上值得推广。%Objective:To research gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea of children under 5 years old and the influence factors.Methods:100 children with childhood diarrhea were selected.They were all under 5 years old. According to the ratio of age,they were divided into the observation group and the control group.The observation group were also given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment on the basis of taking gastropylor complex capsules.The control group were only given conventional anti-inflammatory treatment.Results:The total effective rate of the observation group(94.8%) was higher than 83.3% of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The factors affecting the treatment of diarrhea effect were drug dosage,the severity of diarrhea,the age of the children and other factors.Conclusion:Gastropylor complex capsules in the treatment of childhood diarrhea symptoms of children under 5 years old has a significant effect, and no significant adverse reactions.It is worthy to be popularized in clinical application.

  1. Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Dongxiang, Baoan and Yugu nationalities%东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查

    陈琰; 李志强; 聂红兵; 周海静; 练维娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解东乡族、保安族和裕固族5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为,制定有效的防治措施.方法 采用2005年第3次全国口腔健康流行病学抽样调查方案设计的儿童母亲问卷调查表,整群、分层抽样,抽取东乡族、保安族和裕同族5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果 东乡族儿童乳牙患龋率为76.47%.龋均为3.89颗,保安族儿童乳牙患龋率为56.36%,龋均为2.42颗,裕固族儿童乳牙患龋率为66.89%,龋均为3.16颗.保安族儿奄家长的口腔卫生知识的知晓情况低于其他两个民族.3个民族中多数父母没有真正了解孩子的口腔健康状况,没有认识到定期口腔检查的重要性.结论 针对3个民族儿童乳牙患龋率高以及就诊率低的特点,有必要加强父母的口腔健康教育,维护和提高儿童口腔健康水平.%Objective To understand thc epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-old children in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationalities and to make an effective prevention and cure measure. Methods The questionnaire and schedule table ac- cording to standard and method used in the third national oral health were devised. The epi- demiological investigation of dental cavies of 5-year-old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Dongxiang,Baoan and Yugu nationality by the means of whole and stratified sampling. Results The caries prevalence rate and average caries of 5-year- old children were respectively 76.47% and 3.89 teeth in Dongxiang nationality,56.36% and 2.42 teeth in Baoan nationality,66.89% and 3.16 teeth in Yugu nationality. The parents in Yugu and Dongxiang nationalities had more oral hygiene knowledge than those in Baoan nationality. The majority of the parents knew little about the oral health of their children and the significance of regular oral examination

  2. A Report of Epidemiological Investigation of Deciduous Tooth Caries in Children Aged 3-5 Years Old of Zhengzhou City%郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙龋病流行病学调查

    王云霞; 张安民; 隋丽娜; 王鹏飞; 严枭

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To know the condition of Deciduous tooth caries in children aged 3-5 years old of Zhengzhou city,and provide basis to population prevention genesis and the development of Deciduous tooth caries of children.Methods:By clustersampling and multi-stage stratified random sampling , children aged 3-5 years old in Zhengzhou city were selected to Investigate the status of Deciduous tooth caries, the result was analyzed by SPSS12.0 statistical software.Result: The whole incidence of Deciduous tooth caries was 51.28%, DMFT was 2.86,DMFS was 5.77, incidence of Deciduous tooth caries of boy was 52.29%, incidence of girl was 50.27%, it is no statistical difference. The DMFT of children with dmft≥6 was7.10,the DMFS was20.79;The incidence of Deciduous tooth caries and DMFT and DMFS increased gradual y as the children were growing up (P0.05).Conclusion:Although the incidence of Deciduous tooth caries in children aged 3-5 years old of Zhengzhou city was high, fil ing rate was lower. Necessary measures for early population prevention of Deciduous tooth caries for preschool children must be taken, in order to promote children's physical and mental health.%目的:了解郑州市区3~5学龄前儿童乳牙龋患状况,为群体预防儿童乳牙龋的发生和发展提供依据。方法:采用整群、分层随机多阶段抽样方案抽取郑州市区的适龄儿童,对其患龋状况进行调查,结果采用SPSS12.0统计软件进行分析。结果:郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙整体患龋率51.28%,龋均2.86,龋面均5.77,男童52.29%,女童50.27%,差异无统计学意义。龋失补牙数≥6的髙龋儿童龋均、龋面均为7.10和20.79。随着年龄的增长,其患龋率及龋均、龋面均增高,不同年龄组之间的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:郑州市区3~5岁儿童乳牙龋发病率高,龋齿充填率却较低。提示应尽早加强对学龄前儿童乳牙龋病的群体的预防和治疗,促进儿童的身心健康。

  3. Effects of nutritional status on intelligence development of children under 5 years old in poverty areas%贫困地区5岁以下儿童营养状况对智力发育的影响研究

    杜文雯; 石剑; 翟凤英; 张兵; 苏畅; 张继国; 马玉霞; 刘爱东; 张强; 张伋; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析贫困地区5岁以下儿童营养状况与智力发育的关系.方法 对广西、甘肃4个贫困县404名5岁以下儿童进行问卷调查,神经心理发育测验,体格测量,血样检测.按发育商水平将调查对象分为智力正常和智力低下两组,分析比较两组儿童的社会人口学因素、贫血率、血中微量营养素水平的差异.对发育商与生长发育指标做相关性分析.结果 404名5岁以下儿童的智力低下率为12.62%.两组儿童间父亲文化程度和母亲文化程度的分布差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),智力低下组儿童父母文化程度水平较智力正常组低.智力低下组儿童血浆维生素A水平(232.5±117.89 ng/mL)明显低于智力正常组(286.64±107.46 ng/mL,P<0.05).年龄别身高Z评分(HAZ)、年龄别体重Z评分(WAZ)均与发育商呈显著性正相关,相关系数分别为0.1558(P<0.05)和0.1495(P<0.05).结论 5岁以下儿童智力发育与营养状况有关,应通过营养教育、营养改善等措施提高父母知识水平,促进儿童正常生长发育,提高体内微量营养素水平.%Objective To analyze the relationship of nutritional status and intelligence development of children under 5 years old in poverty areas. Methods 404 children under 5 years old from 4 counties of Guangxi and Gansu provinces were concluded as subjects. Questionnaire survey, neuropsychological examination, physical examination and biochemical tests were conducted in the survey. According to the development quotient ( DQ), children were divided into normal mental group and mental retardation group, which were compared in the following aspects: social demographic factors,anemia rate and micronutrients levels in blood. Results Mental retardation rate of 404 children was 12. 62%. Distribution of parental education levels were significantly different in the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ), which indicated that parents of children in mental retardation group had lower education levels

  4. The Death Monitoring and Analysis of Children Under 5 Years Old in Huaihua From 2010 To 2014%2010~2014年度怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡监测分析及干预措施

    张爱平; 黄志

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析近5年怀化市0~4岁儿童死亡监测中儿童死亡率的变化趋势及主要死因构成,为政府制定进一步降低5岁以下儿童死亡率措施提供科学依据。结果:5年来,监测地区5岁以下儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势。主要死亡原因按顺位依次为早产和低出生体重、肺炎、先天性心脏病、出生窒息、其他先天异常、意外窒息、交通意外和溺水等8种因素。新生儿死亡前5位死因依次为早产和低出生体重、出生窒息、肺炎、先天性心脏病和其他先天异常等。死前接受住院治疗的儿童呈现明显上升趋势。结论:采取多种措施,减少新生儿死亡是降低怀化市5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键。另外,加大儿童疾病综合管理技术在基层医疗机构的推广应用;减少出生缺陷;加强宣传教育,降低意外的发生;均可有效的减少5岁以下儿童死亡。%Objective changes through the analysis of child mortality surveillance of death of children aged 0~4 in Huaihua city in recent 5 years and the leading cause of death, provide scientific basis to further reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old measures for the government. Results for 5 years, and the mortality of children under 5 years of age the monitor-ing area decreased year by year. The main causes of death according to the sequence in 8 factors of preterm birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, other congenital anomalies, accidental suffocation, traffic accident and drowning. Neonatal death 5 major causes of death were premature and low birth weight, birth asphyxia, pneumonia, con-genital heart disease and other congenital disorders. Before the death of hospitalized obvious upward trend therapy in children. Conclusion adopt a variety of measures, reduce the neonatal death is the key to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old in Huaihua city. In addition

  5. 绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为调查%Investigation of dental caries of 5-year-old children and their parents' oral hygienic knowledge and behavior in Mianyang

    徐柄权; 文献英; 郭洪菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of dental caries and their parents' oral health knowledge of 5-year-ol children in Mianyang city.Methods:According to standard,questionnaire and schedule table was executed and effective prevention and cure measure were made.Method used in the third national oral health was devised.The epidemiological investigation of dental caries of 5-year old children and oral hygiene knowledge and behavior of their parents were made in Mianyang by the means of whole and stratifie sampling.Results:The caries prevalence rate of 5-year-old children was 54.9% in Mianyang.The caries prevalence rate of urban an rural was 51.4% and 57.8% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =3.07,P > 0.05).The caries prevalenc rate of boy and girl was 55.5% and 54.2% respectively.The difference was not statistically significant (x2 =0.12,P > 0.05).The ma jority of the parents knew the significance of the oral health,but they lacked the basic oral hygiene knowledge.Conclusion:The caries prey alence rate of 5-year-old children is high,it is essential to reinforce the oral health education for the parents and intervention measure in order to promote children's oral health level.%目的:了解绵阳市5岁儿童患龋情况及家长口腔卫生知识和行为.方法:参考《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》的标准,采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,对5岁儿童和家长进行儿童龋齿的流行情况调查和家长口腔卫生知识和行为的调查.结果:绵阳市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率为54.9%,城、乡患龋率分别为51.4%和57.8%,差异无统计学意义(x2=3.07,P>0.05),男女患龋率分别为55.5%和54.2%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.12,P>0.05),大多数家长认识到儿童口腔健康的重要性,但基本口腔卫生知识缺乏.结论:绵阳市5岁儿童患龋率高,应加强儿童家长口腔健康教育和干预措施,有助于提高儿童口腔健康水平.

  6. Status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009-2010%2009~2010年云南省广南县0~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素

    赵江; 陈升文; 万蓉; 路涛; 王竹; 郑克勤

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析2009 ~2010年云南贫困农村地区0~5岁儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素.方法 采用随机整群分层抽样的方法,抽取云南省广南县贫困县农村地区1002名0~5岁儿童,通过询问调查、血红蛋白检测和膳食调查进行问卷调查,并测量身高、体重,采用Z评分法进行营养状况评价,计算营养不良率.采用非条件Logistic回归多因素分析.结果 2009 ~2010年云南贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童低体重率为18.8%,生长迟缓率为34.3%,消瘦率为3.1%.排除了其他变量的影响后显示,2岁以下儿童未喂过母乳的比喂过母乳的儿童容易发生营养不良;2岁以下儿童过去7天添加辅食蔬菜和水果天数较多的比少的不容易发生营养不良;2岁以下儿童与同龄孩子比较情况好的比差的和差不多的不容易发生营养不良.结论 云南贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良状况不容忽视.儿童营养不良的影响因素主要有2岁以下儿童的喂养方式、2岁以下婴幼儿辅食添加、2岁以下儿童与同龄孩子比较情况等.%Objective To analyze the status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009 - 2010. Methods By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 1002 children within 5 years old in rural areas were selected from poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthronpometric measurement and dietary survey such as height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z score was used for evaluating the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis was finished by non condition Logistic regression in software. Results During 2009 -2010, of all children under the age of 5 years old, the underweight rate is 18. 8% , stunted growth rate is 34. 3% and emaciation

  7. Sudden Onset Monoparesis and Dysarthria in a 5-Year-Old boy: A Case Report

    Okhovat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moyamoya disease (MD is a disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain. As the normal blood vessels narrow and become blocked, a person may suffer a stroke. The MD mainly affects children, although adults may have the condition. This is a rare condition, with a marked prevalence gradient between Asian countries. Case Presentation We report a 5-year-old boy, who was presented with sudden right hand monoparesis and dysarthria. Conclusions The patient was investigated with magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosed as MD.

  8. An Investigation of Dental Caries and the Correlative Factors Analysis in 5-year-old Children in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%某地5岁儿童龋病的情况调查及影响因素分析

    哈斯巴根

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Inner Mongolia 5-year-old children's teeth caries disease status and inlfuencing factors, for the children's teeth caries disease prevention and control of oral health education and provide a theoretical basis. Methods According to the third national oral health epidemiological survey scheme, adopting multistage, stratiifed, such as capacity, the method of random sampling, extraction of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of urban and rural children aged 5, 660 and three cavities case investigation, and at the same time random questionnaire survey was conducted for parents of children tested, using SPSS13.0 software package for data collection and analysis. Results 5 years old children have the caries rate was 70%, caries average of 3.59. Developing rural caries rate slightly higher than the city, but there was no signiifcant difference (P>0.05), between men and women baby teeth had no signiifcant difference of caries rate (P>0.05), caries were rural higher city (P0.05). Good habits of brushing your teeth, oral health checks on a regular basis, the use of lfuoride toothpaste can reduce children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05); often eat fruits, vegetables, can obviously reduce the children's teeth caries disease occurs, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P0.05),男女之间乳牙患龋率差异也无显著性(P>0.05),龋均农村高于城市(P0.05)。良好的刷牙习惯、定期口腔保健检查、含氟牙膏的使用均能降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);经常食用水果、蔬菜可明显降低儿童乳牙龋病的发生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论内蒙古自治区5岁儿童患龋率、龋均仍都高于我国平均水平,所以仍应大力贯彻实施学龄前儿童乳牙龋病综合干预试点工作,广泛普及口腔健康教育,提高儿童家长口腔保健意识,培养儿童良

  9. 上海市0~5岁小于胎龄儿超重及肥胖的分布特点%Distribution characteristics of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children born small for gestational age in Shanghai city

    郭翀; 葛品; 陈津津

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity in 0-5 years old children who were born small for gestational age ( SGA) in Shanghai through a cross-sectional investigation. Methods All resident children aged 0-5 years were included, covering all 18 districts in Shanghai. Health-check cards were prepared for SGA children. The check-up included weight,length/height and head circumference. Body mass index ( BMI) was used to evaluate the overweight and obesity according to the standard of World Health Organization ( WHO) . Results This study investigated 728 602 children aged 0-5 years in Shanghai,and ultimately 23 871 of them were defined as SGA,a-mong whom 9 805(41. 4%) were boys and 14 066(58. 9%) were girls. The BMI of SGA children were higher than that of appropriate for gestational age( AGA) from 4 to 18 months,while for the rest of the time,they were basically the same. There was no difference in changing tendency of BMI between SGA children and those AGA children. The distri-bution of overweight and obesity according to the standard of WHO in SGA boys among different ages was 7. 7% to 20. 7%, and 15. 7% in average;the distribution of SGA girls among different ages was 5. 9% to 18. 3%,and 12. 9% in average. The proportion of overweight at the age of 4-18 months was significantly higher than that of other ages. There was no correlation between overweight at 0-2 years old and overweight at the age of 5(P>0. 05). Conclusions Com-pared with SGA girls,overweight and obesity in SGA boys were more serious. The age of 4-18 months were the period of high incidence of overweight. There was no correlation between overweight at 0-2 years old and overweight at the age of 5.%目的:通过对上海市小于胎龄儿( SGA )的超重及肥胖问题进行横断面现况调查,了解上海市0~5岁SGA儿童超重及肥胖的分布特点。方法对上海市18个市辖区内所有0~5岁的常住儿童展开普查,为SGA儿童建卡,体格检查包

  10. 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢测量及影响因素分析%Levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and influencing factors

    高鑫鑫; 时清; 杨圣辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oral cavity of 3-5 years old healthy children and analyze the influencing factors. Methods The levels of volatile hydrogen sulfide in oral cavity were examined in a sample of 340 healthy children aged 3-5 years old. Oral malodor was measured with both organoleptic measurements and a portable volatile hydrogen sulfide monitor. Oral clinical status were assessed Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship between organoleptic scores ( OS), the levels of volatile H2S and clinical parameters. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect the degree of association between OS and clinical parameters. Results The mean level of volatile H2S was 46. 72 ± 23. 27. The correlation coefficient of OS and H2S was 0. 807. Tongue coating score and oral hygiene index were significantly associated with OS. Conclusion The portable hydrogen sulfide monitor could be used to diagnose oral malodor in children. Tongue coating and debris are the important factors that influence oral malodor in healthy children.%目的 通过检测3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平,评估幼儿口腔健康状况,分析幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.方法 对340名3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢进行感官分析法评分及分析仪测量,记录多项口腔健康指数,分析感官分析法评分与仪器测量数值的关系,以及与口腔健康指数的多因素Logistic回归关系.结果 3~5岁健康幼儿口腔挥发性硫化氢水平均值为(46.72±23.27)×10-9.感官分析法评分和硫化氢分析仪读数之间相关系数r=0.807.舌苔指数、简化口腔卫生指数纳入以感官分析法评分为因变量的多因素Logistic回归方程.结论 挥发性硫化氢分析仪可用于临床检测幼儿口腔异味.舌苔、软垢为幼儿口腔异味的重要影响因素.

  11. Amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e oclusopatias em crianças de cinco anos de idade em São Pedro, SP Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil

    Isaura Maria Ferraz Rochelle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a frequência de oclusopatias e suas associações com o tipo e o período de amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e informações recebidas pelas mães no pré-natal, em crianças com cinco anos de idade que frequentavam creches municipais. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 162 crianças residentes no município de São Pedro, SP. Em entrevista com cada mãe, informações sobre o tempo e a forma de aleitamento, a presença de hábitos deletérios, e orientações recebidas pela mãe durante o pré-natal foram coletadas. O exame epidemiológico foi realizado nas dependências das creches, por um único examinador, previamente calibrado, sob iluminação direta. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: presença e severidade de oclusopatias [ligeiro apinhamento e espaçamento (AE, mordida aberta (MA, sobremordida (SM, mordida cruzada uni ou bilateral (MC, overjet positivo (OV e relação terminal dos segundos molares decíduos (RTM]. A análise dos dados consistiu de análise univariada (teste qui-quadrado e de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de oclusopatias foi de 95,7% (AE = 22,8%; MA = 24,7%; SM = 20,4%; MC = 14,8%; e OV = 13,0%. Na RTM, o terminal reto foi predominante (85,0%. Dentre os hábitos bucais deletérios, o uso de chupeta foi o único indicador de risco (OR = 5,25; p = 0,001 para mordida aberta em crianças que a utilizaram por mais de três anos, detectado nas regressões logísticas. CONCLUSÃO: a prevalência de oclusopatias e de hábitos bucais deletérios na amostra estudada foi alta. As crianças que usavam chupeta por mais de três anos mostraram maior probabilidade de apresentar mordida aberta.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of malocclusion and their associations with the type and period of breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits, and information received by mothers during the pre-natal period, in 5-year-old children attending municipal daycare centers. METHODS: The

  12. Investigation on the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang city%沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为问题的家庭环境影响因素研究

    李静; 黄彦红; 董颖; 曹春兰; 李荔荔; 张雪娇; 董爽; 倪佳; 马辉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解影响沈阳市1~5岁儿童饮食行为的家庭环境影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据. [方法]采用多阶段抽样方法随机抽取8个社区和4所幼儿园共1 594名儿童作为调查对象,采用单因素和多因素分析方法进行分析. [结果]多因素分析结果显示,语言鼓励、固定餐桌、使用围嘴为儿童不良饮食行为的保护性因素(P均=0.00),父亲低学历为危险因素(P=0.05). [结论]针对儿童饮食行为家庭环境影响因素,加强父母的健康教育,尤以父亲为重点,提高科学的育儿理念,同时探索有效的干预措施.%[Object] To investigate the family environment influence factors about the eating behavior problems of children aged 1 to 5 years old in Shenyang,and provide the scientific evidence for drawing up effectually intervening measure.[Method] 1 594 healthy children in eight communities and four kindergartens were randomly selected with the method of multiple stage,and analyzed by single factor and multifactor analytical method.[Results] Logistic regression model analysis showed that language encourages and fixed dining table and using bib were these protective factors for the eating behavior problems of children,and the father's low qualifications was the risk factor.[Conclusion] The health education of parents should be enhanced about family environment influencing factors for children's eating behavior problems,especially the father,science philosophy of parents should improve and explore effective interventions.

  13. 甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况调查%Malnutrition and anemia status of children under 5 years old in poverty rural areas of Gansu Province

    赵文莉; 杨海霞; 陈瑞; 王文龙; 李慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况及其影响因素,为制定儿童营养相关的策略和政策提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法,对1398名调查对象的营养状况进行分析,用Z评分法和血红蛋白值评价儿童营养和贫血状况,用Logistic回归分析可能的影响因素,应用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计分析.结果 调查儿童中低出生体重儿占5.4%;近2周有腹泻和上呼吸道疾病的儿童分别占15.1%和31.1%;6个月内婴幼儿的母乳喂养率、混合喂养率和人工喂养率分别为45.3%、43.2%和11.4%.儿童的生长迟缓率为11.7%、低体重率为7.8%、消瘦率为6.6%、贫血率为11.7%,儿童生长迟缓率、低体重率、消瘦率和贫血率在各月龄组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),其中24 ~36月龄组生长迟缓率最高,低体重率、消瘦率和贫血率的患病高峰在6~12月龄,各月龄组性别间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).多因素分析结果表明,儿童生长迟缓的影响因素是出生体重(OR=1.001),低体重的影响因素有月龄(OR=1.019)、出生体重(OR=1.001),消瘦的影响因素有月龄(OR=1.054)和出生体重(OR=1.001),贫血的影响因素为月龄(OR=1.029).结论 甘肃省贫困农村地区5岁以下儿童营养不良和贫血状况仍然较为严重,应针对各年龄段儿童营养不良状况特点制定相应干预措施,从而改善甘肃省贫困地区儿童营养健康状况.%Objective To analyze malnutrition and anemia status and its possible influence factors among children under 5 years old in poverty rural areas of Gansu Province, and provide evidence for establishment of children nutrition related policies. Methods 1398 subjects were selected by multistage cluster sampling to analysis the nutrition status. The situation of malnutrition and anemia of children were evaluated by Z-scores and hemoglobin concentration, and its influence

  14. Analysis of the prevalence and the etiology of deciduous crossbite for the children aged 3-5 years old in Baotou City%包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合患病率及病因分析

    李婧; 樊永杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况,为乳牙反牙合预防和治疗提供参考。方法采取随机抽样的方法,对包头市1414名3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合情况进行调查,对收集的资料进行统计学分析。结果乳牙反牙合患病率为12.02%,男女差异无统计学意义(P<0.05)。个别牙反牙合和前牙反牙合最为常见,构成比分别为47.06%和30.59%。乳尖牙磨耗不足、喂养习惯及口腔不良习惯是导致乳牙反牙合最为常见的原因,构成比分别为33.53%和28.82%。结论应针对包头市3~5岁儿童乳牙反牙合常见的类型和病因,积极防治。%Objective To investigate the situation of the deciduous crossbite in baotou for providing theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of deciduous crossbite. Methods A total of 1 414 children between 3 to 5 years old in Baotou were randomly sampled and investigated. The data collected was analyzed by the software SPSS 13. 0. Results The prevalence of deciduous crossbite was 12. 02%, which had no statistical difference in gender. Individual dental crossbite and anterior teeth crossbite was the most common, constituted 47. 06% and 30. 59%. The most common reason led to deciduous crossbite was the inadequate wearness of deciduous canine and poor feeding and oral habits, whose con-stituent ratio was 33. 53% and 28. 82% respectively. Conclusion The prevention and treatment to different categories and etiology of deciduous anterior crossbite should be adopt aggressively.

  15. Giant mucocele originating from the middle concha in a 5-year-old child: a case report

    Aslan, Gaffar; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Nuray BAŞSÜLLÜ

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are mucus-filled, epithelial-lined sacs that slowly develop in the paranasal sinuses when sinus or concha bullosa drainage is obstructed by inflammatory processes, trauma, or prior surgery. They are extremely rare in children. Symptoms usually arise from the nasal obstruction or compression of neighboring structures. Case presentation This case report describes a 5-year-old Turkish boy with a 3-year history of nasal obstruction. A computed tomography scan showed a well-...

  16. Giant mucocele originating from the middle concha in a 5-year-old child: a case report.

    Aslan, Gaffar; UĞUR, Mehmet Birol; Nuray BAŞSÜLLÜ

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are mucus-filled, epithelial-lined sacs that slowly develop in the paranasal sinuses when sinus or concha bullosa drainage is obstructed by inflammatory processes, trauma, or prior surgery. They are extremely rare in children. Symptoms usually arise from the nasal obstruction or compression of neighboring structures. Case presentation This case report describes a 5-year-old Turkish boy with a 3-year history of nasal obstruction. A computed tomograph...

  17. A modified surgical approach to a case of mandibular fracture in a 5-year-old girl

    Attiguppe R Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the face are far more uncommon than other injuries in children. However, when they occur they can pose considerable management challenges to concerned specialists and the subsequent functional and esthetic impact to the growing child can be overwhelming. Here is a report of a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with fracture of the body of the mandible and an associated fracture of the parasymphysis. This paper presents a unique treatment modality considering the various anatomic and developmental factors in such young children.

  18. Fulminate Hepatic Failure in a 5 Year Old Female after Inappropriate Acetaminophen Treatment

    Kasmi, Irena; Sallabanda, Sashenka; Kasmi, Gentian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a drug widely used in children because of its safety and efficacy. Although the risk of its toxicity is lower in children such reactions occur in pediatric patients from intentional overdoses and less frequently attributable to unintended inappropriate dosing. The aim of reporting this case is to attract the attention to the risk of the acetaminophen toxicity when administered in high doses. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a 5 year old girl who developed fulminate liver failure with renal impairment and acute pancreatitis, as a result of acetaminophen toxicity caused from unintentional repeated supratherapeutic ingestion, with a total administered dose of 4800 mg in three consecutive days, 1600 mg/day, approximately 90 mg/kg/day. The blood level of acetaminophen after 10 hours of the last administered dose was 32 mg/l. The patient presented with high fever, jaundice, lethargic, agitating with abdominal pain accompanied by encephalopathy. The liver function test revealed with high level of alanine aminotransferase 5794 UI/l and aspartate aminotransferase 6000 UI/l. Early initiation of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after biochemical evidence of liver toxicity was beneficial with rapid improvement of liver enzymes, hepatic function and encephalopathy. During the course of the illness the child developed acute pancreatitis with hyperamylasemia 255 UI/L and hyperlypasemia 514 UI/L. Patient totally recovered within 29 days. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  20. Jejunal Intramural Hematoma with Bowel Obstruction in a 5-year-old Boy: A Case Report

    Intramural hematoma of the jejunum is rare and can be classified as trauma-related or occurring spontaneously. Spontaneous intramural hematoma commonly occurs in patients treated with warfarin. We report a case of intramural hematoma of the jejunum with intestinal obstruction in a 5-year-old boy who had neither a definite history of trauma nor the tendency to bleed

  1. Haematoma-like primary intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma in a 5-year-old girl

    We present CT and MRI of an intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma in a 5-year-old girl with headache and vomiting. This case is unusual particular by virtue of its radiological appearances and the young age of the patient. (orig.)

  2. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  3. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  4. Delayed tumor resection in a 5-year-old child with bilateral Wilms tumor

    Carmichael, Samuel P.; Pulliam, Joseph F.; D'Orazio, John A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl whose abdominal pain and distension were caused by Wilms tumor of the kidney. Because of the bilateral nature of her disease, she was spared biopsy or initial nephrectomy as part of her treatment course. Rather, she was treated presumptively for Wilms tumor based primarily on radiologic findings. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin was given to facilitate nephron-sparing surgery for tumor resection. Her ini...

  5. Renal Stone Associated with the Ketogenic Diet in a 5-Year Old Girl with Intractable Epilepsy

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal s...

  6. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  7. Trisomy 3 mosaicism in a 5-year-old boy with multiple anomalies: A very rare case.

    Yang, Yong-Jia; Yao, Xu; Guo, Jihong; Zhao, Liu; Tu, Ming; Qiou, Jun; Zhao, Rui; Luo, Yongqi; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2016-06-01

    Trisomy 3 mosaicism in live birth is exceedingly rare. In this study, we report a 5-year-old boy with trisomy 3 mosaicism who exhibits skeletal anomalies, atypical form of ectodermal dysplasias, refractory diarrhea, and normal intelligence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite marker analyses confirmed the existence of trisomy 3 mosaicism and suggested that the parental origin of the additional chromosome 3 in the trisomic cells was maternal. This report further delineated the trisomy 3 mosaicism in live births. The authors propose that both common phenotypes and phenotypic diversity exist on cases with trisomy 3 mosaicism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004455

  8. Impact assessment of nutritional education and motivation of mothers in food supplementation of malnourished 2-5 years old in an urban slum of Ludhiana: A field trial

    Ragini .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in all its forms remains a major public health problem throughout the developing world and is an underlying factor in child mortality. India is home to 40 percent of the world’s malnourished children. 2 million children die in India, accounting for one in five child deaths in the world. More than half of these deaths could be prevented if children were well nourished.  Objectives: To assess the impact of maternal education and motivation in the nutritional supplementation of malnourished 2-5 years olds in an urban slum area of Ludhiana. Methodology: A community-based interventional study was carried out in 101 eligible children in an urban slum of Ludhiana. The mothers were given nutritional and health education and were also taught how to prepare different types of low cost energy-dense supplementary foodstuffs for the children. The results were seen in terms of continuation of the practice after educating and motivating the mothers of malnourished under-fives to provide the supplementary nutrition. The data was analyzed using Epi-Info version-6 software and SPSS version 16. Result: Post intervention showed that number of days in a month the mother gave nutritional supplement declined from mean 17.5 days to 10.5 days from first to sixth month follow up. Conclusion: Nutritional status of the children improves with continued nutrition and health education of the mothers.

  9. A 5-year old male with “leukemic form” of disseminated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder

    Saadiya Haque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD represents an abnormal lymphoid proliferation that occurs in recipients of solid organ or bone marrow allograft. It includes a diverse group of diseases ranging from polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia to frank malignant lymphoma. Clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to generalized lymphadenopathy, mononucleosis-like syndrome, nodal or extranodal tumors (usually gastrointestinal tract, systemic lymphomatous involvement, and rare (less than 1% of cases fulminant disseminated disease. PTLD is more common in children than in adults. Younger patients usually present with mononucleosis-like symptoms. We present an unusual case of a 5-year old male who developed a widely disseminated leukemic form of PTLD, involving lymph nodes, tonsils, multiple organs, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood.

  10. Diffuse, retroperitoneal mesenteric and intrahepatic periportal plexiform neurofibroma in a 5-year-old boy

    We present a case of plexiform neurofibroma involving the retroperitoneum, mesentery, and liver in a 5-year-old boy who underwent evaluation for extent of a palpable left neck mass. The mass had intrathoracic extension with great vessel encasement and extension into the abdomen. Abdominal CT revealed a diffuse low-attenuation non-enhancing mass encasing the retroperitoneal vessels with serpiginous extension into the liver along the portal vein. This spread pattern of plexiform neurofibroma is an unusual manifestation of neurofibromatosis in a young child. (orig.)

  11. Diffuse, retroperitoneal mesenteric and intrahepatic periportal plexiform neurofibroma in a 5-year-old boy

    Fenton, L.Z. [Dept. of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Foreman, N. [Dept. of Oncology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Wyatt-Ashmead, J. [Dept. of Pathology, The Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States)

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of plexiform neurofibroma involving the retroperitoneum, mesentery, and liver in a 5-year-old boy who underwent evaluation for extent of a palpable left neck mass. The mass had intrathoracic extension with great vessel encasement and extension into the abdomen. Abdominal CT revealed a diffuse low-attenuation non-enhancing mass encasing the retroperitoneal vessels with serpiginous extension into the liver along the portal vein. This spread pattern of plexiform neurofibroma is an unusual manifestation of neurofibromatosis in a young child. (orig.)

  12. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    Hemant V Savant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  13. Contexto familiar e alterações oclusais em pré-escolares no município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Influence of familiar context and malocclusion in children aged 0-5 years-old in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Thaís Regis Aranha Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência e a associação entre variáveis sócio-ambientais e a maloclusão infantil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, em crianças de 1-5 anos, residentes em seis áreas do Programa de Saúde da Família, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Foram sorteadas 360 famílias pré-estratificadas, pelo cadastro das famílias das Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF (415 pré-escolares. Após a identificação, foram realizadas visitas domiciliares onde foram entrevistados os pais/responsáveis e as crianças examinadas. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a ficha A - Sistema de Atenção Básica, e o exame oclusal - presença ou ausência de alteração e tipo de desvio. A análise de regressão logística foi utilizada (pOBJECTIVES: the purpose was to investigate the prevalence and the association between social and environmental variables and the children malocclusion. METHODS: the population for this cross-sectional study comprised 360 families (415 schoolchildren resident in six areas where the Family Health Program is running in Salvador in the Brazilian State of Bahia. The dental examinations were carried out using criteria identifying the presence and type of malloclusion and a structured interview conducted with children's mothers or guardians. "Document A" and CAGE were used to report the social and environmental variables. Logistic regression (stepwise forward procedure, p<0.05 analyses were performed. RESULTS: the prevalence of malocclusion was 34.5%. Most families (77.2% lived in dwellings with thick partition walls. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 64.8% and of these, 50.6% for the duration of the first seven months of life or more. 89.6% did not have the habit of digital suction, but the use of a pacifier was registered in 47%. The multivariate analysis identified an association with malocclusion: the number of individuals aged under 14 years in the household (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 1.02 - 2.26, digital sucking (OR=1.75; 95%CI: 1

  14. [Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old) in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Schnack, Felice Jaqueline; Fontana Ld, Lidiani de Medeiros; Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Loraine Storch Meyer da; Baillargeon, Clair Maria Martinello; Barichello, Tatiana; Póvoa, Marinete Marins; Cavasini, Carlos Eug nio; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas

    2003-01-01

    Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1%) topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4%) and Giardia lamblia (4.3%). Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%). Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%). PMID:12973585

  15. Analysis on death causes of children under 5 years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010%2005~2010年兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因分析

    马铭; 张淑文; 胡晓婷; 李坚

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析兰州市城关区2005~2010年5岁以下儿童死亡情况及主要死亡原因,为降低兰州市5岁以下儿童死亡率提供依据.方法:按照《中国5岁以下儿童死亡监测方案》,对2005~2010年兰州市城关区447例5岁以下儿童死亡情况进行分析.结果:2005年~2010年兰州市城关区活产数为55 868例,新生儿死亡356例,婴儿死亡408例,5岁以下儿童死亡447例,死亡率分别为6.37‰、7.30‰、8.00‰.5岁以下儿童死亡率呈下降趋势,死亡率最高和最低的年份分别为2007年和2010年.兰州市城关区5岁以下儿童死因顺位前三位依次是新生儿窒息、早产(低出生体重)、其他新生儿疾病.结论:城关区5岁以下儿童死亡仍以新生儿和婴儿死亡为主,积极做好孕期和儿童保健宣传工作,提高保健意识及质量,是降低新生儿和婴儿死亡率,最终减少5岁以下儿童死亡率的关键.%Objective: To analyze the death status and main death causes of children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010, and provide a basis for reducing mortality of children under five years old. Methods: According to China death monitoring program of children under five years, the death status of 447 children under five years old in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was analyzed. Results: The number of live neonates in Chengguan district of Lanzhou city from 2005 to 2010 was 55 828, the number of neonatal death was 356, the number of infantile death was 408, the number of children death under five years old was 447, the mortalities were 6.37‰, 7.30‰, and 8.00‰,respectively. The mortality of children under five years old showed a decreasing trend, the mortality in 2007 was the highest, and the mortality in 2010 was the lowest. The top three causes of children death under five years old were neonatal asphyxia, premature birth (low birth weight) , and other neonatal diseases. Conclusion

  16. Evaluation on booster immunization efficacy of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques in polymorpha yeast of variant dosage in children aged over 5 years old%5岁以上儿童5μg重组乙型肝炎疫苗(酵母)加强免疫效果评价

    陈永弟; 梁晓峰; 姚军; 崔富强; 王富珍; 沈灵智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of booster immunization with domestic 5ug Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Techniques in Polymorpha Yeast ( HepB-Y) of variant dosage, in order to provide evidence for establishing immunization strategy. Methods 1728 children, with ages over 5 years were selected, who had been finished the basic immunization of hepatitis B vaccine in age under 1 year old. Blood plasma specimens of all sampled children were detected for hepatitis B virus ( HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (Anti-HBs) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus core antigen (Anti-HBc) by chemiluminescence. They were then classified into two groups of Anti-HBs positive and negative. Children of positive group were immunized one dosage of 5ug HepB-Y, while children of negative group were immunized three dosages of the same vaccine. Blood samples were collected after 1 month,and detected for Anti-HBs. Results The Anti-HBs positive rates were 40. 10%, 94. 04% and 99. 54% respectively of pre-immunization, post-immunization with one dosage and post-immunization with three dosages, there were statistical significant difference between any two among three rates (all P<0. 05). The Anti-HBs positive conversion rate of post-immunization with one dosage and three dosages were 88. 50% and 99. 42% respectively, the difference of positive conversion rate showed statistical significance between two groups (P< 0. 05). After immunization with one dosage in negative group, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion were dropping with age (P<0. 05). However, after immunization with three dosages, the aged rates of Anti-HBs positive conversion showed no relationship to age (P>0. 05). The average GMT of Anti-HBs negative children immunized with one dosage and three dosages were 450. 47mlu/ml and 664. 95mlu/ml respectively, while the average GMT of Anti-HBs positive children were 3663. 68mlu/ml after one

  17. Delayed tumor resection in a 5-year-old child with bilateral Wilms tumor.

    Carmichael, Samuel P; Pulliam, Joseph F; D'Orazio, John A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl whose abdominal pain and distension were caused by Wilms tumor of the kidney. Because of the bilateral nature of her disease, she was spared biopsy or initial nephrectomy as part of her treatment course. Rather, she was treated presumptively for Wilms tumor based primarily on radiologic findings. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and doxorubicin was given to facilitate nephron-sparing surgery for tumor resection. Her initial chemotherapeutic course was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome manifested by elevated serum uric acid and was treated effectively with hyperhydration and alkalization of intravenous fluids. The patient's disease responded well to chemotherapy, and she underwent successful tumor excision after 12 weeks of chemotherapy. The resected tumor was identified as anaplastic Wilms tumor, illustrating that pathologic identification of Wilms tumor is possible even after multiple cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and marked tumor shrinkage. PMID:24964423

  18. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications. PMID:24832710

  19. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  20. Symptomatic imperforate Cowper's syringocele in a 5-year-old boy

    Background. Cowper's syringocele is a rare anomaly in childhood. It is caused by the obstruction of the duct of Cowper's gland. Depending of the type and size of the syringocele, and the age of the patient, the treatment for symptomatic lesions could be endoscopic deroofing or open perineal surgery. Case report. We report a case of symptomatic imperforate syringocele in a 5-year-old boy. Although the syringocele are usually best shown on voiding cysto-urethrography, there was not any detectable extrinsic impression or filling defect in the bulbar urethra. Ultrasonography guided perineal puncture with contrast filling of the cystic lesion was used to detect the connection of the Cowper's duct to the ventral surface of bulbar urethra. Conclusions. In imperforate syringocele, ultrasonography could be useful imaging technique especially in young patients, to evaluate urethra and perineal lesions and for percutaneous guided procedures. (author)

  1. On Differences of Emotional Display Rules Cognition of 3-5-year-old Children in Different Emotional Situations%3~5岁幼儿在不同情境中情绪表达规则认知差异的研究

    王军利; 卢英俊

    2012-01-01

    The researchers chose 101 children of 3-5 relation upon their cognition of emotional display rules to observe the influence of age, emotional situation and interpersonal Results indicated that children started to differentiate displayed and real emotions at 3; emotional display rules cognition developed rapidly at 4; preschool children's purpose for emotion adjustment was self-protection and it tended to be more socially oriented with increase of age; children had a better understanding of sadness display rules and their emotional display was more compatible with social expectations while they tended to be more self- centered when angry; with presence of friends, children's emotional adjustment was more effective, especially in happy and sad situations. In order to promote children's development in cognition of emotion display rules, adults should foster children's empathy for better social development; they should development children's emotional adjustment ability at the critical age of 4; guide children in reasonable release and adjustment of negative emotion and create a harmonious emotional environment for them.%本研究选取了101名3~5岁幼儿,考察年龄、情绪情境和人际关系背景等对幼儿情绪袁达规则认知的影响。结果显示,幼儿在3岁时开始认识到外部表情和真实情绪的区别;4岁时情绪表达规则认知能力迅速发展;在早期,幼儿进行情绪调节的目的以自我保护目标为主,随着年龄增长而日渐趋向社会定向目标;幼儿对伤心情绪表达规则的理解相对较好,情绪表达更符合社会期望,而在生气情境中表现得更自我中心:当好朋友在场时.幼儿的情绪调节更有效,尤其是在高兴和伤心情境中,其外部情绪表现更符合社会期望。为促进幼儿情绪表达规则认知能力的发展,成人要注意培养幼儿的同理心,促进其交往能力的发展;抓住4岁这个关键期,培养

  2. Custo-efetividade da escovação dental supervisionada convencional e modificada na prevenção da cárie em molares permanentes de crianças de 5 anos de idade Cost-effectiveness of conventional and modified supervised toothbrushing in preventing caries in permanent molars among 5-year-old children

    Paulo Frazão

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O custo-efetividade de um programa modificado de escovação dental supervisionada foi comparado ao programa convencional. Participaram 284 crianças de 5 anos com, pelo menos, um molar permanente com a superfície oclusal irrompida/hígida. Nas unidades de controle, o programa convencional composto de atividade educativa com distribuição de escova e creme dental fluorado foi desenvolvido quatro vezes por ano. Nas unidades de teste, as crianças receberam também escovação profissional nas superfícies oclusais desses dentes, realizada por auxiliar de saúde bucal, empregando-se a técnica de escovação vestíbulo-lingual cinco vezes por ano. Cárie de esmalte/dentina foi registrada nas superfícies vestibular, oclusal e lingual dos molares permanentes durante 18 meses. A razão da densidade de incidência (RDI foi estimada usando o modelo de regressão de Poisson, sendo 50% menor entre os meninos no grupo de teste (p = 0,016. O programa modificado custou R$ 3,04 por criança. A razão de custo-efetividade marginal foi de R$ 10,71 por lesão evitada entre os meninos. O programa modificado foi custo-efetivo nos meninos.The cost-effectiveness of a modified supervised toothbrushing program was compared to a conventional program. A total of 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In the control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice was carried outfour times per year. With the test group, children also underwent professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a dental assistant five times per year. Enamel/dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars for a period of18 months. The incidence density (ID ratio was estimated using Poisson's regression model. The ID was 50% lower among boys in the test group (p = 0.016. The cost of the

  3. Differentiating technical skill and motor abilities in selected and non-selected 3-5year old team-sports players.

    Archer, David T; Drysdale, Kristian; Bradley, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the difference in 22 3-5year old boys selected to an advanced or non-advanced group on an English community-based professional club training program. Time to complete 15m linear sprint and 15m zig-zag agility tests, with and without a ball, were used to assess the children's technical skill and motor ability. Age and body mass of both groups were the same, whereas height was greater and BMI was lower in the selected group (p<0.01). Linear sprint times without and with the ball were 3.98±0.35 and 4.44±0.36s, respectively for the selected and corresponding times were 4.64±1.04 and 11.2±5.37s for the non-selected (p<0.01, ES 0.8, 1.8). Similar results were found when a change of movement was included, both with and without the ball. A model of selection indicated that performance in an agility test with the ball and height had the greatest discriminatory power and explained 95.5% of between group variance. Selected players performed significantly better in tests when ball control was required. These findings suggest that technical proficiency and physical differences may influence team selection in three to five year old children. PMID:26904973

  4. The sodium and potassium intake of 3 to 5 year olds.

    Allison, M E; Walker, V

    1986-01-01

    The sodium intake of preschool children in their home environment was investigated and the major sources of sodium other than added table salt identified. Thirty five children from a Southampton general practice were studied. Twenty four hour urinary sodium excretion was measured as a reliable indicator of daily total sodium intake. The daily intake of sodium other than that from added table salt, and of potassium and other nutrients, was also calculated from three day dietary diaries collect...

  5. Why Do Some but not All 5-year-Old Dutch Children Draw Scalar Implicatures?

    Faber, Myrthe; Overweg, Jennigje; van Hout, Anna; Stravakaki, Stravoula; Lalioti, Marina; Konstantinopoulou, Polyxeni

    2013-01-01

    This book contains 51 chapters based on papers presented at the GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 2011. It thus reflects the GALA 2011 scientific presentations and discussions and raises issues that are currently at the centre of languag

  6. A CASE REPORT OF A 2.5-YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH ANGELMAN SYNDROME (AS

    Mohammad Reza SALEHI OMRAN,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAngelman Syndrome (AS is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with AS mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele (75-80% while some of them show paternal uniparental disomy (~2% or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly, mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome (15q11q13-snrpn/ic Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS.

  7. Water fluoridation, tooth decay in 5 year olds, and social deprivation measured by the Jarman score: analysis of data from British dental surveys.

    Jones, C M; Taylor, G O; Whittle, J. G.; Evans, D.; Trotter, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of water fluoridation, both artificial and natural, on dental decay, after socioeconomic deprivation was controlled for. DESIGN: Ecological study based on results from the NHS dental surveys in 5 year olds in 1991-2 and 1993-4 and Jarman underprivileged area scores from the 1991 census. SETTING: Electoral wards in three areas: Hartlepool (naturally fluoridated), Newcastle and North Tyneside (fluoridated), and Salford and Trafford (non-fluoridated). SUBJECTS: 5...

  8. A Case Study:The Role of Block Building Games in Improving the Social Ability of a 3.5-year-old Child with Hearing Impairment%听障儿童积木建构游戏社会性水平的个案研究

    王段霞; 张倩; 王丽燕; 罗薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of teachers’ instructions on the social ability of a hearing-impaired child in the block building games. Methods By a single-subject A-B experimental design, the instructions were provided for a hearing-impaired child for playing block building games and the follow-up outcomes were observed. The experimental results were then analyzed with SPSS17.0 software. Results After 3 months of teachers’ instructions in block building games, the scores of the subjects showed significant differences in parallel games(P<0.05) and complementary games(P<0.05)as compared with those scores at baseline. The number of simple parallel games decreased and complementary games increased, which indicated the improvement of social ability. Conclusion The instructions of teachers in the block building games can effectively enhance the social skills of hearing-impaired children while playing games.%  目的通过个案研究探讨教师指导对听障儿童积木建构游戏中社会性水平的影响.方法采用单一被试单基线A-B实验设计,对1例听障儿童积木建构游戏进行指导,跟踪指导效果,采用SPSS 17.0进行数据分析.结果经过教师为期3个月的积木建构区游戏指导,个案简单平行游戏(P<0.05)、互补游戏(P<0.05)在基线期和处理期均有显著性差异,即简单平行游戏减少,互补游戏增多,游戏社会性水平显著提高.结论教师在听障儿童积木建构游戏中的指导能有效提高其游戏社会性水平.

  9. A Proposal to Strengthen the Values of Solidarity and Empathy of 4-5-year old Children Attending a Private Institution, in the Province of Heredia (Costa Rica, Through Playful-creative Workshops Aplicación de la propuesta para fortalecer la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años, de una institución privada de Heredia, por medio de talleres lúdicos-creativos

    Mónika Vargas Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project was to analyze how solidarity and empathy may be strengthened in 4-5-year old children through playful-creative workshops. The project was conducted in a private institution, in the province of Heredia, Costa Rica. This qualitative research was composed of three stages. First, a diagnostic stage helped us to identify the background of participants in relation to the values being studied; it included interviews and observation of participants. In the second stage, playful-creative workshops were put into practice to strength the values. The last stage was a comparative analysis of the information collected before and after carrying out the activities; it helped us to see if the children’s experience in relation to the values of empathy and solidarity was influenced by the workshops. One of the main conclusions is that by sharing and working with students through this methodology, children became more aware of the feelings of other people, and it improved their relations with other children. Recibido 29 de noviembre de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de mayo de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013El objetivo fue analizar, en qué forma, el desarrollo de talleres lúdico-creativos fortalecen la vivencia de los valores de solidaridad y empatía con niños y niñas de 4 a 5 años que asisten a una institución privada en Heredia. Esta investigación fue de tipo cualitativa y se desarrolló en tres etapas. Una etapa diagnóstica para describir los conocimientos previos de las personas participantes con dichos valores, la cual se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas y observaciones no participantes. La segunda etapa consistió en formular y aplicar talleres lúdico-creativos que fortalecieran estos valores en el estudiantado. La última etapa fue un análisis comparativo entre la información recolectada inicialmente y los datos recopilados después de implementada la propuesta, para así verificar si la aplicación de

  10. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom.

    Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-06-01

    Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within  ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k  =  1), for the scan settings considered in the study. PMID:27192093

  11. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom

    Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-06-01

    Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within  ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k  =  1), for the scan settings considered in the study.

  12. Mothers' Mediational Style and the Effects on Language Development in 3 to 5 Year-olds

    Jeffrey, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Mothers and their children aged 3 -5.5 (14 girls and 26 boys) were videotaped in two situations: a) mother reading with the child and b) child constructing a puzzle with the mother. Children's language development was assessed with the CELF, a norm referenced language test. Two scorers rated the videotapes for mediational and interactions and directive interactions. Using Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience criteria (MLE) mediational interactions were coded: Regulation of Behavior, Shar...

  13. T-condylar fracture delayed for 10 days in a 5-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Shashidhar B Kantharajanna; Vijay Goni; Pebam Sudesh; Nirmal Raj Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    T-condylar fracture is rare in paediatric age group,especially in skeletally immature children less than 9 years old,with very few cases reported in available literature.We present such a case in a 5 year old child that was initially managed as a supracondylar fracture at another centre before referral to us,10 days after the injury.The child was diagnosed as having a displaced T-condylar fracture on plain radiograph.Open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires was performed.At 2 years follow-up,the child had good range of motion at elbow with 5°of cubitus varus.With this background we discuss the pertinent principles of management of T-condylar fractures in skeletally immature children.

  14. Input Effects on the Acquisition of a Novel Phrasal Construction in 5 Year Olds

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Thomson, Jennifer; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiments demonstrate that children as young as five years old (M = 5:2) generalize beyond their input on the basis of minimal exposure to a novel argument structure construction. The novel construction that was used involved a non-English phrasal pattern: VN[subscript 1]N[subscript 2], paired with a novel abstract meaning:…

  15. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  16. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost prima...

  17. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predicto...

  18. Premature Menarche Associated with Primary Hypothyroidism in a 5.5-Year-Old Girl

    Akshay Saxena; Dhrubajyoti Sharma; Anju Gupta; Devi Dayal

    2011-01-01

    Children with hypothyroidism generally have delayed pubertal development. Rare association with precocious puberty may occur especially in long standing untreated patients. The cardinal features of hypothyroidism induced pseudo precocious pubertal development include thelarche, galactorrhea and menarche. Other characteristics features are an absence of sexual hair and retardation of linear growth. Its manifestation as isolated menarche has been rarely reported. Recently, a five and half year ...

  19. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: an explorative study

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  20. Phonological Neighborhood Density in the Picture Naming of Young Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Study

    Arnold, Hayley S.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of phonological neighborhood density on the speech reaction time (SRT) and errors of children who do and do not stutter during a picture-naming task. Participants were nine 3-5-year-old children who stutter (CWS) matched in age and gender to nine children who do not stutter (CWNS). Initial…

  1. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: An explorative study

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  2. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico Representaciones sobre la alimentación y el programa de nutrición entre mujeres responsables de niños mexicanos menores de 5 años Representação da alimentação e de programa alimentar entre mulheres responsáveis por crianças mexicanas menores de 5 anos

    Gloria de los Ángeles Uicab-Pool

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1 feeding and 2 an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.El estudio fue realizado con 14 responsables del cuidado del menor de 5 años en Tizimín, México, durante el período de enero la abril de 2008. Se buscó comprender las representaciones sociales de estas personas en relación a la alimentación y la los componentes de nutrición del Programa Oportunidades, considerando el contexto social y cultural. La investigación cualitativa con abordaje antropológico, tipo etnográfico tuvo como base la observación participante y las entrevistas semiestructuradas, dirigidas a las responsables. De los resultados emergieron dos categorías empíricas: 1 dar de comer y 2 una ayuda. La primera se refiere a cómo las responsables representan la alimentación del menor de 5 años y la segunda reveló que el Programa es considerado una ayuda y que las apoya a solucionar, en parte, sus necesidades. Se alcanzaron los objetivos al comprender a las responsables en esa tarea compleja que realizan de alimentar a los niños y así proponer estrategias, en varias esferas

  3. Utilidad de la espirometría en preescolares de 4 y 5 años Utility of spirometry in 4 to 5 -years old preschool patients

    Jury Hernández C

    2006-03-01

    respectively. Expiratory time was 6 s in 9.6% (n=17 of patients. Expiratory time was larger in children >5- compared to <5- years old (4.1 ± 1.3 s versus 3.1 ± 0.49 s; p < 0.018. VEF1 variability in 162 children having 2 or 3 acceptable maneuvers was < 0.1 L in 67%, < 5% in 50% and < 10% in 80%. Spirometry was normal in 80.5%, obstructive in 19% and restrictive in one patient. Conclusions:We confirmed that most of the preschool patients are able to perform an adequate spirometric test in terms of acceptability and reproducibility. We suggest to study a normal population of preshool children in order to have normal local data available

  4. Validade do padrão de higiene bucal de crianças aos cinco anos de idade relatado pelas mães Validación del patrón de higiene bucal de niños de cinco años de edad relatado por las madres Validity of 5-year-old children's oral hygiene pattern referred by mothers

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2011-08-01

    niños no son buenas sustitutas del patrón real de higiene bucal medido por medio de examen clínico bucal de placa dental.OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of oral hygiene questions for children, as commonly used in epidemiological studies, and assess their validity by family income and mother's education. METHODS: A subsample of 1122 children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Southern Brazil (who had participated in a 2009 oral health study was analyzed. The children received dental examinations, and their mothers were interviewed at home. The gold standard for oral hygiene was the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index; from its total score, the outcome was dichotomized into the absence (total score = 0 or presence (total score ≥ 1 of dental plaque. The mothers answered questions related to their child's oral hygiene, including daily toothbrushing, toothbrushing before sleeping and the combination of the two (oral hygiene. These responses were dichotomized into regular and irregular. The validity was determined by calculating the percentages and respective 95% confidence intervals for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dental plaque was 37.0%. The following sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were observed: 29.6%, 82.5%, 49.8% and 66.6%, respectively, for irregular daily toothbrushing; 41.8%, 64.6%, 40.9% and 65.5%, respectively, for irregular toothbrushing before sleeping; and 48.8%, 60.8%, 42.2% and 67.0%, respectively, for irregular oral hygiene. The validity of the oral hygiene reporting varied across different levels of family income and mother's education. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were higher among children with lower incomes and less educated mothers, while opposite associations were observed for specificity and negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Oral hygiene questions answered by mothers of five

  5. The influence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch. and irrigation on yield of 5-years-old apple trees

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae on yield of apple trees was investigated. The experiment was conducted on rrigated and non-irrigated 5-years-old apple trees of 'Close' and 'Jonagold' cultivars grafted on M.9. The population size of the pest exceeded four and two times the valid (in Poland economic injury level on trees of 'Close' and 'Jonagold' cultivars respectively. No significant influence of mites on yield and its quality (mean fruit weight and fruit colour was observed on both apple cultivars. Irrigation had positive effect on yield and quality of 'Jonagold'. On the contrary, trees of ' Close' cultivar were positively influenced by irrigation only regarding fruits colour. Results of the study support opinion that the economic injury level for apple orchards, with respect to two-spotted spider mite, should be higher than it is up to now.

  6. Bilingual Children in the Nursery: A Case Study of Samia at Home and at School.

    Drury, Rose

    2000-01-01

    Presents case study of 4.5-year-old to highlight aspects of socialization for young bilingual children learning English as a second language. Identifies social rules/routines, child-adult interaction, and the stage of English language development as areas providing important educational insights. Highlights how children in early stages of second…

  7. The Timeline of Influenza Virus Shedding in Children and Adults in a Household Transmission Study of Influenza in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Ng, Sophia; Lopez, Roger; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-05-01

    In a household transmission study in Nicaragua, children under 6 years old had a longer duration of presymptomatic influenza virus shedding than adults. The duration of postsymptomatic influenza virus shedding was longest in children 0-5 years old, followed by children 6-15 years of age and adults. PMID:26910589

  8. Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Filippo Camerota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint.

  9. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    J. Mahmodian; Naghavi; H. Nekoie

    1994-01-01

    Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890) and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933) have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, t...

  10. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  11. False-positive “halo” sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy

  12. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    El-kholy Amany A; El-anany Mervat G; Mansi Yasmeen A; Fattouh Aya M; El-karaksy Hanaa M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED) of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one-...

  13. 2.5-Year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty

    Scott, RM; Fisher, C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Her...

  14. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Her...

  15. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  16. A compreensão da gratidão e teoria da mente em crianças de 5 anos The understanding of gratitude and theory of mind in 5-year-olds

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se relações entre compreensão da gratidão (GRA e desenvolvimento de uma teoria da mente (TOM com 228 crianças norteamericanas (53% meninas de 5 anos. Testaram-se as seguintes hipóteses: (a não há diferença de sexo em GRA ou TOM, (b as crianças com melhor desempenho nas tarefas de TOM têm melhor GRA, (c TOM é condição necessária para GRA. Utilizaram-se três tarefas para avaliar TOM: consideração da perspectiva visual, crença falsa de primeira e de segunda ordem. Contaram-se às crianças duas histórias sobre gratidão. Avaliou-se GRA a partir de suas respostas a perguntas feitas após a leitura de cada história. As duas primeiras hipóteses foram confirmadas. A hipótese de que TOM seria condição necessária para GRA não encontrou suficiente suporte empírico.We examined relations between the understanding of gratitude (GRA and the development of a theory of mind (TOM. The study was done with 228 5-year-old North American children (53% female. We tested the following hypotheses: (a there are no sex differences in GRA or TOM, (b children who perform better on TOM tasks have better GRA, (c TOM is a necessary condition for GRA. We used three tasks to evaluate TOM: visual perspective taking, first-order false belief, and second-order false belief. The children were read two vignettes about gratitude. GRA was evaluated based on children's responses to questions asked after each vignette was read. The first two hypotheses were supported. The hypothesis that TOM would be a necessary condition for GRA did not receive sufficient empirical support.

  17. Sudden Onset of Life-Threatening Methaemoglobinaemia After Intake of Inappropriately Stored Vegetable (Collard Greens) Meal in a 2.5-Year-Old Child

    Yılmaz, Özlem Çakmak; Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Yiğithan, Ayhan; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Acquired methaemoglobinaemia most commonly occurs due to intake of or contact to certain drugs, such as local anesthetics. However, intake of certain vegetables which are essential for a healthy diet may also cause methaemoglobinaemia due to their high nitrate or nitrite content, and prolonged and inappropriate storage after preparation of vegetable meals increases the risk. We present a 2.5-year-old girl with Down’s syndrome who presented with central cyanosis due to severe methaemoglobinemi...

  18. Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Individual Differences in the Appropriation Bias among 4- and 5-Year-Olds

    Ford, Ruth M.; Lobao, Sheila N.; Macaulay, Catrin; Herdman, Lynsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence that young children often claim ownership of their partner's contributions to an earlier collaborative activity, the "appropriation bias", has been attributed to shared intentionality ("Cognitive Development" (1998) 13, 91-108). The current investigation explored this notion by examining individual differences in the bias among 4- and…

  19. 2.5-Year-Olds Use Cross-Situational Consistency to Learn Verbs under Referential Uncertainty

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only…

  20. The Dominance of Spatial Memory over Color or Form in 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Pattern Reconstructions.

    Cocking, Rodney R.

    The relative importance of spatial-position as a memory aid in a block pattern reproduction task was investigated by analyzing the object-selection and object-placement strategies of 69 nursery school children. Subjects were given a task modeled on Piaget's assessment of Static Reproductive Images and Action that had been modified into a…

  1. Mathematical Skills in 3- and 5-Year-Olds with Spina Bifida and Their Typically Developing Peers: A Longitudinal Approach

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months o...

  2. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p......® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age...

  3. Extra-axial primary non-Hodgkin's CNS lymphoma mimicking meningioma, in a 5-year-old immunocompetent child: a rare entity.

    Bhaskar, Mukesh Kumar; Ojha, Balkrishna; Jaiswal, Manish; Sagar, Mala

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 5-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with features of raised intracranial pressure with left eye ptosis of 1-month duration. CT scan and MRI of the brain showed an extra-axial, intensely contrast enhancing lesion in the left temporoparieto-occipital region, consistent with meningioma. On open tissue biopsy and immunohistochemistry staining, a diagnosis of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. Six cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were given and showed a good clinical outcome without any recurrence during follow-up of 5 months. PMID:27118750

  4. Pott's puffy tumour in a 5-year old boy: the role of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT imaging; surgical case report.

    Vanderveken, O M; De Smet, K; Dogan-Duyar, S; Desimpelaere, J; Duval, E L I M; De Praeter, M; Van Rompaey, D

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Pott's puffy tumour, a subperiosteal abscess of the frontal bone associated with an underlying frontal osteomyelitis, in a 5-year-old boy. Ultrasonography played a crucial role in the diagnosis of our patient, suggesting the presence of a Pott's puffy tumour with epidural abscess by showing a subperiosteal abscess associated with erosion of the frontal bone. Subsequently, the diagnosis of Pott's puffy tumour with epidural abscess was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT scanning. Prompt neurosurgical intervention with drainage of abscesses and debridement of bone sequestrate, together with prolonged antibiotic therapy, significantly contributes to a favorable outcome. PMID:22896932

  5. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  6. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; ABELAIRAS-GOMEZ, CRISTIAN; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  7. Changing the main indicators to assess motor function in children with cerebral palsy spastic form by hydrokinesitherapy

    Taran I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the efficiency of the developed technique hydrokinetic system of physical rehabilitation for children 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. Examined the impact of comparing the effectiveness of exercise in the water by two techniques: the author and accepted. In experiment involved 24 people aged 3-5 years old with cerebral palsy spastic form. The experiment lasted one year, classes were held hydrokinesitherapy 2 times a week. In the study recorde...

  8. Raquianestesia com a mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica (S75-R25 em crianças com idades de 1 a 5 anos para cirurgia ambulatorial Raquianestesia con mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica (S75-R25 en niños con edad de 1 a 5 años para cirugía ambulatorial Spinal anesthesia for outpatient pediatric surgery in 1 - 5 years old children with 0.5% isobaric enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2002-06-01

    enantiomérica de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% isobárica produce una anestesia segura en pacientes de 1 a 5 años en régimen ambulatorial, con alto índice de suceso, bloqueo motor de corta duración de acción, relativa baja incidencia de efectos colaterales y un costeo menor. Cefalea pós-punción parece ser rara en pacientes abajo de 5 años cuando se utiliza agujas de calibre fino. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la raquianestesia es segura y fácilmente realizable en niños de 1 a 5 años en régimen ambulatorial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Commercially available bupivacaine is a racemic mixture of S(- and R(+ enantiomers. Although the S(- bupivacaine enantiomer is less toxic than R(+ bupivacaine to cardiovascular and central nervous systems, its relative efficacy has not yet been determined in spinal anesthesia for pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spinal anesthesia with a 0.5% isobaric mixture of S(- bupivacaine(75% + R(+ bupivacaine(25% in 40 children aged 1 to 5 years scheduled for outpatient surgery. METHODS: Participated in this prospective study 40 patients aged 1 to 5 years submitted to spinal anesthesia with 0.5 mg.kg-1 of a 0.5% isobaric mixture of 75% S(- bupivacaine + 25% R(+ bupivacaine. The following parameters were observed: onset of analgesia, degree of motor block, duration of effects, cephalad spread of analgesia, cardiovascular changes, incidence of headache and transient neurological symptoms. RESULTS: Mean onset time was 2.29 ± 0.64 min. Duration of analgesia was 4.13 ± 0.89 h. Time to ambulate was 3.50 ± 0.81 h. Mean PACU stay was 43.80 ± 31.34 min. Motor block duration was 1.89 ± 0.78 h. Sensory block level varied from T9 to T4 (Mode=T6. Motor block onset time was less than two minutes in all children, all reaching grade 3 motor block (modified Bromage scale in the beginning of surgery. Over 55% of all patients recovered to motor block 1 or zero at the end of the surgery. No patient developed

  9. “Stop eating lollies and do lots of sports”: a prospective qualitative study of the development of children’s awareness of dietary restraint and exercise to lose weight

    Rachel F. Rodgers; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Damiano, Stephanie R; Gregg, Karen J; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Beliefs surrounding the usefulness of dietary restriction and physical activity as means of body shape and size modification is already present in children as young as 5-years-old, and these beliefs may increase the risk of unhealthy weight control behaviours later in life. To date, however, little is known regarding the development of these beliefs in younger children. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore young (aged 3- to 5-years old) children’s conceptualisati...

  10. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  11. A Cross-sectional Study for Determinations of Prevention Behaviors of Domestic Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- year

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar; Kamyar Mansori; Mahnaz Solhi; Syyedeh Shahrbanou Hashemi; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Salman Khazaei; Shiva Mansouri hanis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5- year, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of prevention behavior of domestic accidents in mothers of children fewer than 5 years old based on protection motivation theory )PMT(. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 190 mothers were randomly selected. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire about prev...

  12. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. Methods The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor...

  13. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  14. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  15. Children's Social Category-Based Giving and Its Correlates: Expectations and Preferences

    Renno, Maggie P.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Do young children use information about gender and race to guide their prosocial gestures, and to what extent is children's selective prosociality related to other intergroup phenomena? Two studies tested 3- to 5-year-old children's allocation of resources to, social preferences for, and expectations about the behaviors of unfamiliar people who…

  16. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  17. Multisensory Information Boosts Numerical Matching Abilities in Young Children

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Baker, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first evidence that preschool children perform more accurately in a numerical matching task when given multisensory rather than unisensory information about number. Three- to 5-year-old children learned to play a numerical matching game on a touchscreen computer, which asked them to match a sample numerosity with a…

  18. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  19. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects.

    Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E

    2005-09-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  1. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen; Aysel Köksal Akyol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months) children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence C...

  2. Knowing When to Be "Rational": Flexible Economic Decision Making and Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Lee, Wendy S. C.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to delay gratification may not indicate poor control or irrationality, but might be an adaptive response. Two studies investigated 3.5- and 4.5-year-old children's ability to adapt their delay and saving behavior when their preference (e.g., to delay or not delay) became nonadaptive. In Study 1 (N = 140), children's delay preference was…

  3. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event.

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Ch

  4. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  5. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and ...

  6. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  7. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training to Prevent Gun Play in Children

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…

  8. Evaluation of behavioral skills training to prevent gun play in children.

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training.

  9. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  10. Effects of Discrete Emotions on Young Children's Ability to Discern Fantasy and Reality

    Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 128; 54% girls) ability to discriminate emotional fantasy and reality. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real events that elicited several emotions, reported whether each event could occur, and rated their emotional reaction to the image. Children were also administered the Play Behavior…

  11. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  12. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  13. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  14. Cultural Variations in the Socialization of Young Children's Anger and Shame

    Cole, Pamela M.; Tamang, Babu Lal; Shrestha, Srijana

    2006-01-01

    Tamang and Brahman Nepali children have culturally specific emotion scripts that may reflect different emotion socialization experiences. To study emotion socialization, the child-adult interactions of 119 children (3-5 years old) were observed and 14 village elders were interviewed about child competence in Tamang and Brahman villages. Tamang…

  15. A Study of Bones = Un Estudio de Huesos.

    Kogan, Yvonne

    Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…

  16. Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Cross-Sectional Study of Preschool Children in Kanpur District, India

    Santhebachalli Prakasha Shrutha; Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit; Kolli Yada Giri; Sarwar Alam

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3–5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3–5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur distr...

  17. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  18. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  19. Deciduous teeth caries status and impact factors in a 5 year old Guangxi cohort%广西5岁儿童乳牙龋病相关因素分析

    李晓捷; 黄华; 黄高明; 何克新

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the status of deciduous caries in a population 5-year olds in Guangxi and the possible relative influencing factors, thus to provide scientific basis for the establishment of oral health care policies in Guangxi. METHODS: An Equal-sized stratified multi-stage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain a representative sample group consisted of Guangxi residents aged 5 years, with a gender ratio of 1:1. The caries on the crown of deciduous teeth was assessed; thereafter the data including their oral health habits, diet condition, and family -related factors etc. were obtained through questionnaires from children's parents. RESULTS: In the group aged 5, the caries rate was 80.7% , and the mean dmft(decayed, missed and filled teeth) was 6.06, there was no significant difference of prevalence between two sexes (P >0.05). In a multivariale logislic regression model, three factors including Zhuang nationality, the knowledge of fluoride toothpaste and checking the effect of children' s teeth brushing were proved to be relevant to deciduous teeth caries, although in single variable analysis the data showed that except these key variables more factors such as the frequency of intake of dairy products and the start age of bushing teeth also exhibited obvious impact on the status of deciduous caries. CONCLUSION: More efforts are in crucial need to help the rural and Zhuang children with their oral health behavior through promoting their parents' awareness, attitude and behavior of oral health.%目的:调查广西5岁儿童乳牙患龋情况及相关影响因素,为儿童龋病预防提供资料.方法:采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法抽取广西420名5岁儿童进行乳牙龋病检查,同时对其家长进行现场问卷调查.对调查结果采用卡方检验分析和多因素非条件Logistic回归分析.结果:乳牙患龋率和龋均分别为80.7%、6.06,男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).单因素分析表

  20. Behavioral impact of sickle cell disease in young children with repeated hospitalization

    Bakri, Mohamed H.; Ismail, Eman A.; Elsedfy, Ghada O.; Mostafa A Amr; Ahmed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination c...

  1. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  2. Self-reported health-related quality of life in kindergarten children : psychometric properties of the Kiddy-KINDL

    Villalonga-Olives, E.; Kiese-Himmel, C.; Witte, C.; Almansa, J.; Dusilova, I.; Hacker, K.; von Steinbuechel, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the psychometric properties of the German self-reported version of the Kiddy-KINDL that measures Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 3 to 5 year old kindergarten children. Study design: The population of the study comprised baseline data of a longitudinal study whose main

  3. Behavioral and emotional effects of repeated general anesthesia in young children

    Bakri, Mohamed H.; Ismail, Eman A.; Ali, Mohamed S.; Elsedfy, Ghada O.; Sayed, Taher A.; Ahmed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and clinical data suggest the possibility of neurotoxicity following exposure of young children to general anesthetics with subsequent behavioral disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of repeated general anesthesia on behavior and emotions of young children aged 1½-5 years old, compared to healthy children. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five children underwent repeated anesthesia and surgery were matched with the same number of healthy ...

  4. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

  5. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  6. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  7. Time Estimation in Young Children: An Initial Force Rule Governing Time Production.

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    1998-01-01

    Studied time estimation for a button-pressing response in 3- and 5.5-year-olds under "minimal,""temporal," and "force" instructions. Found that force--but not temporal--instructions improved 3-year-olds' timing accuracy. When instructed to press harder, they pressed longer. Older children were more accurate with temporal than with force…

  8. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  9. Links between Preschool Children's Prosocial Skills and Aggressive Conduct Problems: The Contribution of ADHD Symptoms

    Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…

  10. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  11. Using the Microcomputer to Enhance Language Experiences and the Development of Cooperative Play among Preschool Children.

    Muhlstein, Eleanor A.; Croft, Doreen J.

    Current interest and controversy about the use of microcomputers with young children led to a study of 13 3- to 5-year-old girls and boys enrolled at the De Anza College Child Development Center in Cupertino, California. Designed to determine the effectiveness of the computer in enhancing language experiences and development of cooperative play…

  12. Preschool Based JASPER Intervention in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism: Pilot RCT

    Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…

  13. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  14. Acquisition of /s/-Clusters in Dutch-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    Gerrits, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of word initial s clusters of 3-5 year old Dutch children with phonological disorders. Within these clusters, sl was produced correctly most often, whereas sn and sx were the more difficult clusters. In cluster reductions, s+obstruent and sl clusters reduction patterns followed the Sonority Sequencing…

  15. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  16. Dyadic Collaboration among Preschool-Age Children and the Benefits of Working with a More Socially Advanced Peer

    Park, Jeongeon; Lee, Jeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the learning effects of collaborative group work under heterogeneous group composition among 5-year-old children, especially in terms of their social skills. To this end, the study utilized an experimental research design wherein 3 groups of differently composed dyads and a group of students who worked alone…

  17. Letter Names and Alphabet Book Reading by Senior Kindergarteners: An Eye Movement Study

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…

  18. Mental Disorders in Five Year Old Children With or Without Developmental Delay: Focus on ADHD

    Baker, Bruce L.; Neece, Cameron L.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.; Blacher, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of children and adolescents with intellectual disability have found 30–50% exhibiting clinically significant behavior problems. Few studies, however, have assessed young children, included a cognitively typical comparison group, assessed for specific disorders, and/or studied family correlates of diagnosis. We assessed 236 5-year old children, 95 with developmental delay (DD) and 141 with typical development (TD), for clinical diagnoses using a structured interview. Ev...

  19. Children with Down syndrome in mainstream schools : Conditions influencing participation

    Dolva, Anne-Stine

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to identify and explore conditions influencing school participation of children with Down syndrome in mainstream elementary schools. This thesis comprises four studies, and the research was conducted in Norway. Study I aimed at describing home and community functional performance in 5-year-old children with Down syndrome, to get insight into the level of performance and variability prior to school entry. In study II the aim was to inves...

  20. Dental attendance in preschool children - a prospective study

    Leroy, Roos; Bogaerts, Kris; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Martens, Luc C.; Declerck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2013; 23: 8493 Background. At present, our understanding of the use of dental care services is incomplete, certainly where preschool children are concerned. Objectives. To investigate what proportion of 3- and 5-year-olds living in Flanders (Belgium) have already visited the dentist, to describe parents' experience about their child's dental visit, and to explore factors that may have an impact on children's early dental visit. Design. Data were c...

  1. Redefinition of Space and Equipment in the Kindergarten and Involving the Children in the Process of Designing.

    Bika, Anastasia

    This research examined the extent to which 2.5- to 5-year-old children in three Kindergarten classrooms in Thessaloniki, Greece could be taught about the use of classroom space and equipment. The study combined the theoretical perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Frangos with the views of theater director Peter Brook. Mixed-age groups of…

  2. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  3. Comparative study of behavioural problems among epileptic children treated with phenobarbital with epileptic children treated with phenytoin

    Mohsen Javadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenobarbital is recommended by WHO as the first line drug for the treatment of partial and generalized tonic clonic epilepsies in developing countries, however several clinical trials have recorded higher frequencies of behavioural problems associated with Phenobarbital than with other drugs or no treatment. We compared the frequency of behavioural problems among epileptic children treated with phenobarbital with epileptic children treated with phenytoin. Materials and Method: We conducted a case-control study to comparing of epileptic children treatment with neurological with epileptic children treated with phenytoin. Between November 2006 to March 2007, 74 children referred from child neurologic clinic who treated with phenobarbital or phenytoin for more than 2 months in Zahedan, assessed consecutively by the Rutters behaviour scale for children aged 6 years and older and by the preschool behaviour questionnaire for those 2-5 years.Results: The mean scores on the behaviour scales did not differ significantly between the phenobarbital and phenytoin groups in children aged 6 years and older. Irretability, attention deficit, disobedience and lack of energy in phenobarbital group more than phenytoin group in 2-5 years old children. Conclusion: Several clinical trials have recorded higher frequencies (20-60% of behavioural problems associated with phenobarbital than with other drugs but in our study evidence supports the acceptability of phenobarbital for epileptic children in developing countries

  4. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

    JoannaLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  5. Prevalence of finger sucking at preschool children in Bitola

    Domnika Rajchanovska; Beti Zafirova Ivanovska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of the habit,finger sucking at pre school children in Bitola. observational cross-sectional study conducted and 1607 children from 3 to 5 years old were included. The following methods were applied: psychological testing (Test of Chuturik), clinical pediatric examination, interview with the parents and survey Child Behavior Checklist-Achenbach, 1981. The results shows that the prevalence of the habit finger sucking at the examinees was 24...

  6. Children draw more affiliative pictures following priming with third-party ostracism

    Song, Ruiting; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a strong need to belong. Thus, when signs of ostracism are detected, adults often feel motivated to affiliate with others in order to re-establish their social connections. This study investigated the importance of affiliation to young children following priming with ostracism. Four- and 5-year-old children were primed with either ostracism or control videos and their understanding of, and responses to, the videos were measured. Results showed that children were able to report tha...

  7. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender an...

  8. The Impact of Frequency Modulation (FM) System Use and Caregiver Training on Young Children with Hearing Impairment in a Noisy Listening Environment

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien

    2011-01-01

    The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…

  9. Τhe contribution of music and movement activities to creative thinking in pre-school children

    Χρονοπούλου, Έλενα; Ρήγα, Βασιλική

    2012-01-01

    As interest in creativity is rising, kindergarten teachers are looking for ways to strengthen the creative po-tential of young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music and movement ac-tivities to creative thinking in preschool children. A three month educational programme was designed and implemented, using an experimental research method. The effect on fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of thought of 5-year-old children, as well as how the program...

  10. Characterization of children under five with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated in a clinic in Timor Leste

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Denis Monzón Vega; Mabel Vega Galindo

    2010-01-01

    Background: protein-energy malnutrition is a very common condition in third world countries. In children morbidity and mortality associated with it have increased. Objective: to characterize children with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated at a clinic in Timor Leste in the period from january to june 2009. Methods: an observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in all children under 5 years old who attended consultation during that period. Inclusion and ex...

  11. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou; Fariba Babaei; Parvin Ayremlou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902...

  12. Enteropatógenos associados com diarréia infantil (< 5 anos de idade em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Felice Jaqueline Schnack

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de enteropatógenos em 94 casos de diarréia e 45 casos-controle em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, atendidas no Centro de Saúde Municipal de Criciúma, Santa Catarina. Entre os parasitos isolados, o Cryptosporidium (85,1% foi o mais freqüente, seguido pela Entamoeba histolytica (56,4% e a Giardia lamblia (4,3%. Quatro amostras apresentaram Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (4,3%. A Samonella e a Shiguella não foram detectadas em nenhuma amostra. Somente um caso foi positivo para o rotavírus (1,1%.Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1% topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4% and Giardia lamblia (4.3%. Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%. Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%.

  13. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    Fielden, Amy L.; Elizabeth Sillence; Linda Little

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old) and Year 6 (10–11 years old), and attended a school in an area of Sunderl...

  14. Somatotype is more interactive with strength than fat mass and physical activity in peripubertal children

    Marta, Carlos; Marinho, D. A.; Costa, A. M.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Marques, M C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the interaction between somatotype, body fat and physical activity in prepubescent children. This was a cross!sectional study design involving 312 children (160 girls, 152 boys) aged between 10 and 11.5 years old (10.8 ± 0.4 years old). Evaluation of body composition was done determining body mass index and body fat by means of skin!fold measurements, using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was comput...

  15. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.; van Son, Maarten J M; Van De Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents’ level of acute subjective distress was assess...

  16. The circle of life: A cross-cultural comparison of children's attribution of life-cycle traits.

    Burdett, Emily R R; Barrett, Justin L

    2016-06-01

    Do children attribute mortality and other life-cycle traits to all minded beings? The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings (such as God) in terms of life-cycle traits. Three-to-5-year-old Israeli and British children were questioned whether their mother, a friend, and God would be subject to various life-cycle processes: Birth, death, ageing, existence/longevity, and parentage. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life-cycle traits to humans, but not to God. Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life-cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross-cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed. PMID:26718951

  17. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

    Sivridis Efthimios; Tripsianis Gregorios; Kambouri Katerina; Giatromanolaki Alexandra; Gardikis Stefanos; Vaos George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children) and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided...

  18. Electrophysiological measures of attention during speech perception predict metalinguistic skills in children

    Lori Astheimer; Monika Janus; Sylvain Moreno; Ellen Bialystok

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that preschool-aged children selectively attend to informative moments such as word onsets during speech perception. Although this observation indicates a role for attention in language processing, it is unclear whether this type of attention is part of basic speech perception mechanisms, higher-level language skills, or general cognitive abilities. The current study examined these possibilities by measuring ERPs from 5-year-old children lis...

  19. Rotavirus genotypes in children in the community with diarrhea in Madagascar.

    Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rabemanantsoa, Sendraharimanana; Randremanana, Rindra; Andriamamonjy, Nelson Seta; Richard, Vincent; Reynes, Jean Marc

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the possible introduction of a preventive vaccine against rotaviruses in Madagascar, the G and P genotypes distribution of the rotaviruses circulating in the children in Madagascar was studied, and the presence of emerging genotypes and unusual strains were assessed. From February 2008 to May 2009, 1,679 stools specimens were collected from children5 years old with diarrhea. ELISA was used for antigen detection, and molecular amplification of VP7 and VP4 gene fragments was...

  20. Pneumococci in nasopharyngeal samples from Filipino children with acute respiratory infections.

    Lankinen, K. S.; Leinonen, M; Tupasi, T E; Haikala, R; Ruutu, P.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract was studied in 318 Filipino children less than 5 years old with an acute lower respiratory tract infection. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 292 children. With both quantitative bacterial culture and detection of capsular polysaccharide antigens by coagglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and latex agglutination, pneumococci were found in 160 (70%) of the 227 samples eligible for analysis. Culture was posit...

  1. Oral health status of rural-urban migrant children in South China

    Gao, XL; McGrath, C; Lin, HC

    2010-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011; 21: 58-67 Background. In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population').Aim. This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants.Design. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant childre...

  2. URINARY FLUORIDE OUTPUT IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING THE USE OF A DUAL-FLUORIDE VARNISH FORMULATION

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio; Vanessa Eid da Silva Cardoso; Maria Fernanda Borro Bijella; Juliano Pelim Pessan; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I), children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, s...

  3. What happens to cavitated primary teeth over time? A 3.5-year prospective cohort study in China

    Hu, X.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Data showed that among 5-year-old Chinese, 96.7% of cavitated primary teeth were left untreated. The study aimed to report on the course of cavitated primary teeth within the Chinese health-care system over a period of 3.5 years. METHODS: Selection of high caries risk children for inclus

  4. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  5. Behavioral risk factors for overweight in early childhood; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Veldhuis Lydian; Vogel Ineke; Renders Carry M; van Rossem Lenie; Oenema Anke; HiraSing Remy A; Raat Hein

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6 years old) is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n = 7505) collected for the s...

  6. Young Children's Recognition of Commonalities between Animals and Plants.

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1996-01-01

    Results from several experiments indicated that by age 5, children distinguished animals and plants from nonliving things in terms of growth; many 5-year olds attributed growth, intake of food and water, and illness to both animals and plants; and 5-year olds responded affirmatively when asked whether plants would manifest phenomena similar to…

  7. Young children do not succeed in choice tasks that imply evaluating chances.

    Girotto, Vittorio; Fontanari, Laura; Gonzalez, Michel; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Blaye, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    Preverbal infants manifest probabilistic intuitions in their reactions to the outcomes of simple physical processes and in their choices. Their ability conflicts with the evidence that, before the age of about 5years, children's verbal judgments do not reveal probability understanding. To assess these conflicting results, three studies tested 3-5-year-olds on choice tasks on which infants perform successfully. The results showed that children of all age groups made optimal choices in tasks that did not require forming probabilistic expectations. In probabilistic tasks, however, only 5-year-olds made optimal choices. Younger children performed at random and/or were guided by superficial heuristics. These results suggest caution in interpreting infants' ability to evaluate chance, and indicate that the development of this ability may not follow a linear trajectory. PMID:27015350

  8. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years

    Khor Chee-Sieng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. Results A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%, parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%, influenza viruses (297, 11.0%, and adenovirus (141, 5.2%. Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Conclusion Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur

  9. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Eanes DB Pereira; Luiza Torres; João Macêdo; Marta MC Medeiros

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 5...

  10. A Child Development Centre (C.D.C.) Based on the World of Work and Everyday Life: A Case of Quality Education Provision for 2.5-5 Year Old Children.

    Frangos, Christos

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the organization and activities of the Child Development Centre (CDC) of Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, which operates as a model preschool and kindergarten for over 300 similar institutions throughout Greece. The CDC utilizes art, music, visits to workplaces, movement activities, foreign languages and customs, computers,and free…

  11. The Influence of Mini-basketball to 4~5 Years Old Children's Coordinate Ability%小篮球运动对4~5岁儿童协调能力的影响

    谭蕾; 冯振杰

    2013-01-01

    小篮球对于学前儿童来说既是一种运动器材,又是一种玩具,学前儿童可以用不同的力量来滚球、抛接球,球的空间就会产生各种变化,有利于幼儿根据运动的需求控制肌肉力量,发展空间方位知觉和身体协调能力.本研究通过实验证实了小篮球运动不仅可以提高幼儿的运动兴趣,而且可以提高幼儿的协调能力、丰富幼儿的体育锻炼内容.

  12. Do pre-natal and post-natal economic shocks have a long-lasting effect on the height of 5-year-old children? Evidence from 20 sentinel sites of rural and urban Ethiopia

    Woldehanna, Tassew

    2010-01-01

    While the Ethiopian national emergency and food security programmes support farmers hit by area-wide shocks such as crop failure brought about by drought, insects and pests, idiosyncratic shocks such as illness and death of household member, loss of assets and separation of family or divorce are not covered by any of the current programmes. In the absence of social assistance programmes to support vulnerable households, these idiosyncratic shocks may lead to serious malnutrition among poor ch...

  13. Mothers Reading Children's Books to Preschoolers. A Greek study

    Natsiopoulou T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a Greek study on the extratextual interactions between mothersand their preschoolers during repeated readings of the same storybook. Eleven (11 mothers with tertiary andeleven mothers (11 with secondary education read out loud the book “The three little wolves and the big bad pig”three times, once every three days and the fourth time they narrated it to their 4–5 year olds. All four times, whichwere recorded by the parents, were done in one-to-one settings, in their homes. Mothers with a tertiary educationduring the first reading made more extratextual interactions overall, as well as more verbal exchanges in thelow-level abstraction categories: organizing the reading, names, clarifying, and in high-level abstraction categoryrelating the story to real life. Mothers with secondary education during the second reading made more extratextualinteractions overall, as well as more verbal exchanges in the low-level abstraction categories: clarifying and attention.Both categories of mothers progressively decreased their insertions with subsequent readings. During the firsttwo readings mothers with tertiary education made more extratextual interactions overall, as well as more low- andhigh-level abstraction insertions, than mothers with secondary education. Children whose mothers had a tertiaryeducation made more insertions overall, including more low- and high-level abstraction extratextual interactions,than the other preschoolers. It was found that all mothers and children had a high percentage of low-level abstractionextratextual interactions. More specifically, this was noted in the following categories for mothers: clarifying,feedback and names; for children: clarifying and asking for clarification. Nevertheless, mothers with a tertiary educationand their children made more high-level abstract extratextual interactions in the category relating the storyto real life than the others.

  14. Children's Norm Enforcement in Their Interactions With Peers

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Denis A Engemann; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how children negotiate social norms with peers. In Study 1, 48 pairs of 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) and in Study 2, 48 pairs of 5- and 7-year-olds (N = 96) were presented with sorting tasks with conflicting instructions (one child by color, the other by shape) or identical instructions. Three-year-olds differed from older children: They were less selective for the contexts in which they enforced norms, and they (as well as the older children to a lesser extent) used gr...

  15. Household poisoning exposure among children of Mexican-born mothers: an ethnographic study.

    Mull, D S; Agran, P. F.; Winn, D. G.; Anderson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore reasons for high rates of unintentional poisoning among Latino children under 5 years old. DESIGN: Ethnographic interviews were carried out using a sample of mothers identified via door-to-door canvassing in an area with documented high injury rates among Latino children. Interviews included many open-ended and follow-up questions to elicit a detailed family history and emphasized observation of conditions and behaviors in the homes. SETTING: Low-income neighborhoods of ...

  16. A Cross-sectional Study for Determinations of Prevention Behaviors of Domestic Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- year

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5- year, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of prevention behavior of domestic accidents in mothers of children fewer than 5 years old based on protection motivation theory PMT(. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 190 mothers were randomly selected. The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire about prevention behaviors of home accidents in children less than five years based on the structures of protection motivation theory.then collected data entered in the software SPSS-22 and were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Mean of perceived response efficacy was in good level and mean of other structures of PMT were in moderate level. There was a significant correlations between the scores of perceived vulnerability (r=.39, P

  17. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through Decembe...

  18. Astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital

    刘春艳; 申昆玲; 王树欣; 刘亚谊; 照日格图

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to assess certain epidemiological and clinical characteristics of astrovirus infection in children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Methods From September 1999 to August 2001, a total of 288 children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital were studied. Fecal specimens collected from each patient were tested for astrovirus by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and further serotyped by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serotype-specific primers. Results Astrovirus antigen was positive in 9.0% of the patients, and the rate of coinfection with rotavirus was 19.2% among the astrovirus positive patients. The patients with astrovirus infection were at the age of 7 days to 17 months, most (92.3%) of them were less than 12 months. Astrovirus infection occurred mainly between October and March of the following year. Main symptoms included watery stool, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Increased activity of myocardial enzyme was seen in 4 patients. Of the 22 astrovirus positive specimens, 14 were successfully serotyped by RT-PCR and they were all serotype 1. Conclusions The overall incidence of astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital was 9.0%. The predominant serotype was type 1. Astrovirus may play an important role in viral diarrhea in young children in Beijing, China.

  19. Experiencia de caries en dentición primaria en niños de 5 años, Medellín, Colombia/ Caries experience in primary dentition among 5-year-olds in Medellin, Colombia

    Blanca S. Ramírez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: estimar la experiencia de caries dental en niños de 5 años de edad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: los datos se obtuvieron en una muestra probabilística de 486 niños, examinados para el diagnóstico de experiencia de caries en dentina y de lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Se calcularon los índices de experiencia de caries ceo-d clásico y ceo-d modificado (ceod-m. Se realizaron pruebas Chi-Cuadrado y t student. Resultados: el 54,7% de los niños de estratos bajos y el 26 % de los estratos medio y altos tenían experiencia de caries en dentina; los porcentajes aumentan a 88,6% y 50,7% respectivamente, cuando se incluyen lesiones limitadas al esmalte dental. Los promedios de los índices ceod clásico (ceod-c y ceod modificado (ceod-m fueron fue 1,9±2,9, 4,9±4,6 respectivamente. En los niños de estratos bajos el ceod clásico fue 2,2±3,1 y en los de estratos altos fue 0,6±1,2; mientras que los valores del ceod-m fueron 5,4±4,7 y 1,9±2,8 respectivamente. Conclusión: los niños de estrato socioeconómico bajo de Medellín, a la edad de cinco años tienen altos niveles de caries dental, resultado que indica la necesidad de implementar programas preventivos y de atención en salud bucal desde edades tempranas./ Abstract Objective: To estimate the experience of dental caries among five-year-olds from Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: data were obtained from a random probabilistic sample of 486 children who were examined for caries experience in dentin and caries limited to tooth enamel. The classic dmft and modified dmft caries experience indexes were calculated. Similarly, Chi-square and student t tests were conducted. Results: the percentage of children with caries experience was 54.7% for children of lower classes, and 26% for children of middle and upper classes. These percentages increased to 88.6% and 50.7% respectively after including lesions limited to dental enamel. The averages of the classic and

  20. Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

    Manios Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) attempts to evaluate the food and nutrient intakes, as well as growth and development of a representative sample of Greek toddlers and preschool children. In the current work the study design, data collection procedures and some preliminary data of the GENESIS study are presented. Methods From April 2003 to July 2004, 1218 males and 1156 females 1 to 5 years old, stratified by parental educa...

  1. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  2. "Bacterial Meningitis in children and adolescents: an observational study based on the national surveillance system"

    Dickinson Félix O

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis is a group of life threatening infections that mostly affect children and adolescents, and may be the cause of severe neurological sequelae. Cuba has implemented massive vaccination programmes against both Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in 1979 and B in 1987, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (1999, two of the main causal pathogens. We described and discussed some epidemiological aspects of the current status of bacterial meningitis to learn from the Cuban experience. Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from 1998 to 2003, estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. The association between disease and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools was estimated by using relative risk (Chi-squared test and Fisher Exact Test. Results The overall number of cases was 1023; the incidence ranged from 3.4 to 8.5 per 100 000 population, with the higher figures in children 1–5 years old (16.8 per 100 000 population. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B were the main identified agents. The average case-fatality rate was 10.5% and the most lethal agents were Streptococcus pneumoniae (27% and Haemophilus influenzae type b (10.7%. Overall percentage of cases who slept in overcrowded dormitories was 15%, reaching 30.6% in adolescents. Seasonality was only evident among meningococcal meningitis cases between September–October. The attendance to boarding high school showed an association with disease only in 1998 and 1999 (RR = 2.1; p > 0.05. Conclusion The highest incidence of bacterial meningitis was observed among children from 1–5 years old. Pneumococcus was both the leading causal and the most lethal agent. Sleeping in overcrowded dormitories was more frequent among

  3. Decrease in Hospitalizations for Pneumonia in Children under Five Years of Age in an Indian Reservation in Panama after the Introduction of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    Javier Nieto Guevara; Carlos Daza; Rebecca Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of Heptavalent-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) in Panama on indigenous children younger than 5 years old, based on clinical pneumonia cases. This study demonstrates a significant 41.2% reduction in hospitalizations and 38.6% reduction in referrals for pneumonia following the introduction of PCV7. Burden of disease from pneumonia appears reduced in the ≤12-month- and 13-to-24-month-old groups.

  4. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  5. Impact of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions on quality of life of young children

    Bönecker Marcelo; Wanderley Marcia T; Mendes Fausto M; Carvalho Thiago S; Abanto Jenny; Aldrigui Janaina M; Raggio Daniela P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The presence of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions can have a negative impact on quality of life of young children and their parents, affecting their oral health and well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries and anterior malocclusion traits on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children between 2 and 5 years-old. Methods Parents of 260 children answered the six domains of the Early Childhood Oral Healt...

  6. Screening of thyroid status in children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and at the first year of life as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    The aim of this study to investigate peculiarities of thyroid pathology development of children exposed to radiation in utero and within the first year of life. In 1998, the 12 years after the Chernobyl accident, two cohorts of children aged 11-14 in Khoiniki region and Braslav region were screened. Minimum average dose to the thyroid was in children exposed in utero - 36 cGy. Maximum average thyroid dose was registered in children exposed at 0-1.5 years old on mixed nutrition - 110 cGy

  7. Characteristics of occlusion in primary dentition of preschool children of Udaipur, India

    Hegde, Sapna; Panwar, Sunil; Bolar, Dinesh Rao; Sanghavi, Mitesh Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to study the occlusion characteristics of the primary dentition in a group of 3–5 year-old Indian children and the differences with age in the same group. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey based on examination of the primary dentition of 200 preschool children aged 3–5 years who were selected from nursery schools in Udaipur, India, using a stratified random sampling technique. The study group was assessed for the several occlusal parameters, wh...

  8. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    A. P. Toptygina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  9. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    ... importance of using car seats , supervising kids around swimming pools, using bicycle helmets and other protective gear, ... serious infection or a chronic condition, such as asthma . Significant symptoms include: changes in weight or eating ...

  10. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    ... throughout their lives. And staying fit can improve self-esteem , prevent obesity, and decrease the risk of serious illnesses such as high blood ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Kids ...

  11. Cerebellar Neuroblastoma in 2.5 Years Old Child

    Pedram, Mohammad; Vafaie, Majid; Fekri, Kiavash; Haghi, Sabahat; Rashidi, Iran; Pirooti, Chia

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most common malignancy of childhood, after leukemia and brain tumors. Only 2% of all neuroblastoma occur in the brain. Primary cerebellar neuroblastoma is an specific subset of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET). Meduloblastoma is a relatively common and well-established entity, consisting of primitive and multipotential cells that may exhibit some evidence of neuroblastic or gliad differentiation. But cerebellar neuroblastoma with ultrastractural evidence of s...

  12. Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context.

    Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2016-04-01

    Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors. PMID:26687441

  13. Joint storybook reading measured with children's book title checklist and the children's language development in early childhood

    Katja Bajc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the relationship between parental educational level, joint storybook reading and children's language competence. Our sample included 123 5-year-old children attending one of the Slovenian preschools. Frequency of parent-child joint storybook reading was measured indirectly with the children's book title checklist, which was used in the Slovenian language environment for the first time, and which, in comparison with the parents' report about how often they read to their children, represents a more objective measure of storybook exposure. By using checklist we avoid socially desirable responses, which parents give because they think that reading is important for children's language development. We found out that parental education is positively related to the parental familiarity with the titles of books for children. Furthermore, the results show that storybook exposure is, regardless of parental educational level, a factor of home environment which makes an important contribution to the development of children's language competence.

  14. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb < 10 g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb < 8 g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb > 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels < 100 {mu}g/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had > 10 {mu}g/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 {mu}g/L, whereas 47% had > 200 {mu}g/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  15. Motor Skills of Children with Unilateral Visual Impairment in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E. Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess motor functioning in 4.5 year olds enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. Method Children with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens (CL) treatment were evaluated at 4.5 years for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement ABC-2. Visual acuity was operationalized as logMAR value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Results T-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the IOL and CL groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th percentile) compared to the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Interpretation Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4.5 years, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. PMID:26084944

  16. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  17. Lead levels and cognitive abilities in Peruvian children Níveis de chumbo e funções cognitivas em crianças peruanas

    Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M.; Joel E Salinas-Piélago; María del Rosario Gutiérrez-Campos; Ricardo D Mandamiento-Ayquipa; María del Carmen Yara-Hokama; Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán; Jorge Castro-Morales

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To study the relationship between blood lead levels and cognitive abilities of children exposed to this metal. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study that included 134 children aged 6 to 8.5 years old from 3 schools with different risks of lead exposure located in El Callao (Peru). Cognitive assessments were made by means of the Graphic Test of Reasoning (GTR) and the Kohs Block Design Test (KBDT). Blood lead levels and other laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Children with ...

  18. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas ...

  19. The role of extrinsic rewards and cue-intention association in prospective memory in young children

    Daniel Patrick Sheppard; Anett Kretschmer; Elisa Knispel; Bianka Vollert; Mareike Altgassen

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two c...

  20. Studies in children.

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878

  1. Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements.

    Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A; Carrick, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth-telling and lying, and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (104 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements, and that older children's ability to label true and false statements as "truth" and "lie" emerged in tandem with their positive evaluation of true statements and "truth" and their negative evaluation of false statements and "lie." The findings suggest that children's early preference for factuality develops into a conception of "truth" and "lie" that is linked both to factuality and moral evaluation. Study 2 (128 3- to 5-year-olds) found that, whereas young children exhibited good understanding of the association of true and false statements with "truth," "lie," "mistake," "right," and "wrong," they showed little awareness of assumptions about speaker knowledge underlying "lie" and "mistake." The results further support the primacy of factuality in children's early understanding and evaluation of truth and lies. PMID:24436637

  2. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels 10 μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 μg/L, whereas 47% had > 200 μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  3. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study

    Meenu Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean′s index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.

  4. Stress Management Techniques for Young Children.

    Piper, Francesca M.

    The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…

  5. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to ...

  6. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  7. Malnutrition, Overweight, and Obesity among Urban and Rural Children in North of West Azerbijan, Iran

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malnutrition is one of the most important causes for improper physical and mental development of children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health problem. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a growing matter of public health concern worldwide. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and obesity in children under 5 years old in Salmas district. Methods. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 902 of children under 5 years old to assess the nutritional status in Salmas district and performed from 16 until 30 October, 2011, with the cooperation of the Office of Community Nutrition Improvement and the United Nations Children’s Fund. ENA (Emergency Nutrition Assessment and Spss software were used for data analysis. Results. 49.6% of children were boys and 50.4% were girls. The prevalence of malnutrition based on underweight, stunting, and wasting was estimated to be 2.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4% among children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and this difference was significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this area stunting, overweight and obesity were the most important priorities that health officials must pay more attention to. ENA software has a special ability to determine the samples and clusters and is a simple, rapid, and accurate method, especially in epidemiological studies in the country, and can be a convenient tool and its use is suggested for the same studies.

  8. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  9. PSYCHO-MOTRIC REHABILITATION IN CHILDREN WITH AGENESIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM (Case study

    Zărnica I. Manuela Mirela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of corpus callosum is a new challenge for the puluridisciplinary team, in their efforts for the rehabilitation of childrens with this diagnose, because is a rare congenital desease with an unknown frequence of emergence. Scope. This paperwork aims to present the approach modalities of the child with agenesis of corpus callousum and the means of physical therapy that may help. Methods. This is a case study of a 5 years old girl with asenesis of corpus callosum. For assessment we used motor assessment, range of motion, reflexes. Exercises from different positions were done as games and motric songs. Sensory stimulation was also done. Rezults. By direct observation of the patient we observed significant improvement in motor function. We also foud unexpected improvement of quiet stance and dynamic balance, sensory-motor coordination. Conclusions. Game, tha main therapeutic method through its form, diversity and characteristics - atractivity, directness, creativity, movement freedom – is the main supplement of child psicho-motric development. A balanced distribution of influences upon motricity, psychic, thinking and action, nonverbal and expression language, represent the qualitative peculiarity of specialist’s and parents efforts.

  10. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  11. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Wyse Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables

  12. Case-Control Study of acute diarrhea in Children

    A Vafaee

    2011-06-01

    ’s employment with (95%

    CI 1.2-5.06 OR= 2.48 were factors affecting acute diarrhea which remained in the multiple logistic model and had significant relationship with the disease.

    Conclusion: During this study, important environmental risk factors were recognized. Endangered groups and mothers with children under 5 years old should be aware of these risk factors in order to prevent their children's diseases. Prevention of acute diarrhea in children can reduce massive detriments to health system.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. A descriptive study in Tehran, Iran

    To determine the frequency, etiology (viral infection or vaccination), presenting signs and symptoms, response to therapy, complication and course of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in our hospitals. A 2-year retrospective, descriptive, chart review of children with final diagnosis of ADEM in 2 hospitals (Hazrat Rasool and Mofid in Tehran, Iran during 2000-2002) was carried out. The diagnosis is based upon clinical presentation, physical examination and ruling out of other disease (imaging, laboratories and so forth) of expert pediatric neurologists. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was documented in all cases by characteristics MRI changes included inflammation and demyelination in subcortical or periventricular regions. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were diagnosed in 15 patients. More than half of patients were between 9-14 years old. It was rare in 1-5 years old children. It had an abrupt onset, preceding infection/vaccination with no gender differences. Approximately 46.4% of cases had a recent upper respiratory tract illness. Varicella zoster virus infection, urinary tract infection, and mycoplasma pneumoniae were observed. Presentation signs included ataxia, decreased consciousness, fever plus nausea/vomiting, cranial nerve involvement, dysarthric speech, convulsion, hemiparesis, paresthesia, meningismus, and headache. We identified inflammation and demyelination in subcortical than periventricular lesions by magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis was excellent with low mortality rate (6.6%). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is common in our children, possibly because of the high prevalence of causative infections. Due to advances in control of traditional exanthematous diseases such as measle, rubella and so forth, most cases of ADEM in this study followed non-specific upper respiratory infections. Differentiation of ADEM from a single episode of multiple sclerosis is difficult. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis should be carried out

  14. The Impact of the Multi-sensory Program Alfabeto on the Development of Literacy Skills of Third Stage Pre-school Children

    von Staa, Betina; Reis, Loureni; Scandola, Matilde Conceição Lescano

    Here we present the results of the pilot-project undertaken in ten Pre-Schools with third stage (5 year-old) children who used ALFABETO Multi-sensory Program. The study shows that the project rendered meaningful results as to the development of writing hypotheses among the children who had access to the program. We also observed the opinions of the teachers involved in the project, who mentioned that ALFABETO motivated students to develop their reading, writing and oral skills, and promoted socialization and interaction among students.

  15. Young children's behavioral and emotional responses to different social norm violations.

    Hardecker, Susanne; Schmidt, Marco F H; Roden, Meike; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-10-01

    From an early age, children can talk meaningfully about differences between moral and conventional norms. But does their understanding of these differences manifest itself in their actual behavioral and emotional reactions to norm violations? And do children discriminate between norm violations that affect either themselves or a third party? Two studies (N=224) were conducted in which children observed conventional game rule violations and moral transgressions that either disadvantaged themselves directly or disadvantaged an absent third party. Results revealed that 3- and 5-year-olds evaluated both conventional and moral transgressions as normative breaches and protested against them. However, 5-year-olds also clearly discriminated these types of transgressions along further dimensions in that (a) they tattled largely on the moral violation and less on the conventional violation and (b) they showed stronger emotional reactions to moral violations compared to conventional violations. The 3-year-olds' responses to moral and conventional transgressions, however, were less discriminatory, and these younger children responded rather similarly to both kinds of violations. Importantly, most children intervened both as victims of the transgression and as unaffected third parties alike, providing strong evidence for their agent-neutral understanding of social norms. PMID:27429365

  16. Characterization of children under five with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated in a clinic in Timor Leste

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: protein-energy malnutrition is a very common condition in third world countries. In children morbidity and mortality associated with it have increased. Objective: to characterize children with severe protein-energy malnutrition treated at a clinic in Timor Leste in the period from january to june 2009. Methods: an observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in all children under 5 years old who attended consultation during that period. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. To obtain the data an examination, a clinical and nutritional assessment and a review of the medical records was performed for each patient. Results: the most affected age group was from 0 to 2 years old (61, 3 % with a predominance of females (57 %. The predominant type of malnutrition was marasmus (66,7 %, which predominated in children from 0 to 2 years old (68,6 %, whereas in children suffering from kwashiorkor the predominant age group was from 3 to 5 years old (53,4 %. The non-measurement at birth was more frequent (50, 6 %, as well as the improper weaning (in 91, 6 % of the cases and the sustained breastfeeding beyond six months of age observed in 96, 4 % of children. Conclusion: the age group from 0 to 2 years old, female sex, improper weaning and breastfeeding maintained after six months of age were predominant. A relationship between age, weaning and breastfeeding for the type of malnutrition with a reliability of 99 % was found.

  17. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING CHILDREN EXPLOITATION

    Raluca-Ioana Rosu

    2010-01-01

    900 thousand children are working in their own households and 70 thousand were victims of worst forms of child labor, including sexual exploitation, forced work, trafficking in children, involvement in criminal activities and risk exposure. Also, approximately 3 thousand street children were involved in: products selling in the street, beggary or windshields washing. In Roma communities, the work of young children (even of 5 years old) is still a frequent practice. Isolated cases of girls inv...

  18. Under-5 Year Mortality: Result of In-Hospital Study, Tehran, Iran

    Nojomi Marzieh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In July 2003, the Bellagio Study Group on Child Survival estimated that the lives of 6 million children could be saved each year if 23 proven interventions were universally available in the 42 countries re-sponsible for 90% of child deaths in 2000. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of important causes of mortality among under-5 year old children in hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Information about Mortality data of under-5 year old children from 16 hospitals in the West of Tehran was collected. The study period was conducted from 1 October 2005 to 30 March 2006. Educated health personnel in each hospital interviewed parents of children who died in hospital and filled out a checklist. 142 under-5 year old children died over the course of study, of whom, 118 (83% were neonates (under 28 days-old, 53.5% had low birth weights (< 2500 Kg, 62 (43% were girls and 80 (57% boys. The most common cause of under-5 year death was due to certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (ICD-10: P00-P96 (68%. Congenital abnormalities (12% and pneumonia (5% were the second and third most common causes respectively. Among 28-day to one-year old children, the leading cause of death was pneumonia (27.3%, while for children being 1 to 5 years of age, this included pneumonia and chronic hepatitis (about 30%. Overall, the most common causes of death were disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight. Therefore, achievement of the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds from 1990 rate will depend on renewed efforts to prevent and control low birth weight, preterm delivery, pneumonia, and infectious diseases in our setting.

  19. [Lichen striatus. Epidemiologic study].

    Sittart, J A; Pegas, J R; Sant'Ana, L A; Pires, M C

    1989-01-01

    The authors are showing a retrospective study of 53 cases of lichen striatus concerning sex, colour, age, place of lesions, associated diseases and period of the year of occurrence of the dermatosis. There was a larger number of cases in females of white race and age-between 2 and 5 years old. A greater occurrence was observed in the months of September and March which correspond to spring and summer. Adding the fact that there have been more cases in children, at times in brothers and the trend to spontaneous involution, the authors suggest the possibility of a virus as etiology to this entity. PMID:2666785

  20. Young Children's Knowledge of the Symbolic Nature of Writing

    Treiman, Rebecca; Hompluem, Lana; Gordon, Jessica; Decker, Kristina; Markson, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments with one hundred and fourteen 3- to 5-year-old children examined whether children understand that a printed word represents a specific spoken word and that it differs in this way from a drawing. When an experimenter read a word to children and then a puppet used a different but related label for it, such as "dog" for the…

  1. Five Years Old Preschool Children's Motor-Verbal Skills:A Follow-up into the First-grade

    Azade Mirzaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective : "n "nThe major objective of this study was to determine the means and 95% confidence interval of normal 6 years old children's motor-verbal skills. Based on the results of this study we could develop a measure to diagnose abnormal motor skills. In addition, in this follow-up study, we compared the first-graders' motor-verbal skills to their own skills one year earlier. "nMethod: In this follow-up study, the development of motor-verbal skills was studied in 220 normal readers in the first-grade after 1 year. We administered naming speed test and word and phrase repetition to assess motor-verbal skills. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and paired t-test. "nResults: The mean of the 6 years old first-graders' speed naming was 87 words per 100 second. In addition, means and standard deviations of word and phrase repetition were 8.41(2.92 and 6.51(1.73 respectively. In addition,, paired t-test showed a significant difference between naming speed, word and phrase repetition first-grade and 5 years old children score(naming speed: t=10.95, p<0.001, word repetition: t= 14.23, p<0.001, phrase repetition: t=12.11, p<0.001 . Conclusion:In general, 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills significantly improved after one year. Furthermore, the results of this study provide the norm for speech and language pathologists and other professionals. It is important to note that if 5 years old children's motor-verbal skills are under this norm, it will be anticipated that they are at the risk of literacy problem and dyslexia.

  2. Young children understand the normative force of standards of equal resource distribution.

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Kaufmann, Marlen; Lohse, Karoline

    2016-10-01

    Much recent research has shown that children are sensitive to basic principles of fair distribution of resources much earlier than previously assumed. Under appropriate circumstances, toddlers and sometimes even infants both expect that others will follow principles of equal distribution of resources and do so themselves. But from these findings it remains unclear whether young children understand and follow such principles of fairness as normative rules. The current study tested for such an understanding of the normative force of principles of resource distribution with a novel method. In the study, 3- and 5-year-olds witnessed how a (puppet) agent distributed resources jointly earned by herself and a fellow agent in equal or unequal ways. In one condition, the child herself or himself was this fellow agent, and in another condition it was an unrelated third party. Children spontaneously protested frequently against unfair distributions both when they themselves were affected and when another third party was affected (and never did so after fair distributions), with 5-year-olds doing so in more explicitly normative terms than 3-year-olds. These findings suggest that young children indeed understand principles of fair distribution as normatively binding regardless of whether they are personally affected or not. PMID:27329180

  3. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and ...

  4. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music. PMID:21668112

  5. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  6. Neural mechanisms of the observation of human and non-human object touch in children: An event-related potential study.

    Galilee, Alena; McCleery, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Previous behavioural research on the development of self-other tactile processing and perception suggests that this system may develop in a somewhat protracted manner relative to other aspects of social development. Neuroimaging research has shown that somatosensory mechanisms are activated when adults observe another person or object being touched. In this study, we measured event-related potentials from 4- to 5-year-old children to investigate the development of the neural correlates of the observation of human and object touch. Participants were presented with video clips of an arm or a cylindrical object being touched. Touch versus non-touch effects were observed in the amplitudes of the LSW component (600-700 ms) measured from electrodes over somatosensory region. Additionally, human versus non-human stimulus effects were reflected in the amplitudes of the parietal-central N100 component, as well as in the latencies of the N170 component recorded from parietal-occipital electrodes in children, as in adults in a previous study using this same paradigm. These findings provide evidence that relatively mature tactile mirroring mechanisms are activated during the observation of touch in children, and further suggest the possibility that these mechanisms are not particularly slow in their development relative to other aspects of social cognition. PMID:26659431

  7. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    El-kholy Amany A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one- year period. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from the patients, kept on ice and processed within 2 hours of collection. Immunoflourescent assay (IFA for RSV was performed. Results 91 cases (21.3% had viral etiology with RSV antigens detected in 70 cases (16.4%. The RSV positive cases were significantly younger than other non-RSV cases (mean age 8.2 months versus 14.2 months, p Conclusion RSV is the most common viral etiology of ALRTI in children below 5 years of age, especially in young infants below 6 months of age. It is more prevalent in winter and tends to cause severe infection.

  8. Selectivity in social and asocial learning: investigating the prevalence, effect and development of young children's learning preferences.

    Flynn, Emma; Turner, Cameron; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2016-03-19

    Culture evolution requires both modification and faithful replication of behaviour, thus it is essential to understand how individuals choose between social and asocial learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 3- and 5-year-olds (176), and adults (52) were presented individually with two novel artificial fruits, and told of the apparatus' relative difficulty (easy versus hard). Participants were asked if they wanted to attempt the task themselves or watch an experimenter attempt it first; and then had their preference either met or violated. A significant proportion of children and adults (74%) chose to learn socially. For children, this request was efficient, as observing a demonstration made them significantly quicker at the task than learning asocially. However, for 5-year-olds, children who selected asocial learning were also found to be highly efficient at the task, showing that by 5 years children are selective in choosing a learning strategy that is effective for them. Adults further evidenced this trend, and also showed selectivity based on task difficulty. This is the first study to examine the rates, performance outcomes and developmental trajectory of preferences in asocial and social learning, ultimately informing our understanding of innovation. PMID:26926279

  9. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  10. Children's Pragmatic Inferences as a Route for Learning About the World.

    Horowitz, Alexandra C; Frank, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether children can infer category properties based on how a speaker describes an individual (e.g., saying something is a "small zib" implies that zibs are generally bigger than this one). Three- to 5-year-olds (N = 264) from a university preschool and a children's museum were tested on their ability to make this sort of contrast inference. Children made some inferences from adjective choice alone (Experiment 1); performance increased as more cues to contrast were added (Experiments 2 and 3). Control studies show that these findings are not due to the particular properties used or the structure of these tasks (Experiments 4 and 5). These findings suggest that sensitivity to speakers' production choices may help children learn about the world. PMID:27189407

  11. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  12. Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Abstract, Purely Geometric Maps

    Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Carey, Susan C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, 2.5-year-old children spontaneously used geometric information from 2D maps to locate objects in a 3D surface layout, without instruction or feedback. Children related maps to their corresponding layouts even though the maps differed from the layouts in size, mobility, orientation, dimensionality, and perspective, and even when…

  13. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  14. Beyond hearing : social-emotional outcomes following cochlear implantation in young children

    Ketelaar, Lizet

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to hearing children, children with hearing loss more often experience social-emotional problems. This thesis aimed to assess whether this was also true for 1-to-5-year-old children who had received a cochlear implant (CI) to remediate their hearing loss. In comparison to hearing peers,

  15. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  16. Instant Video Revisiting for Reflection: Extending the Learning of Children and Teachers.

    Hong, Seong B.; Broderick, Jane T.

    This article discusses how instant video revisiting (IVR) promotes reflective thinking for both teachers and children. IVR was used as a daily classroom experience with both the children and the teachers throughout one semester in two preschool classrooms with children 2.5 to 5 years old. The teachers used a digital video camera to generate data…

  17. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  18. Young Maltese Children's Ideas about Plants

    Gatt, Suzanne; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Borg, Kurtsten; Lautier, Katya

    2007-01-01

    Fifty Maltese children, 25 in the second year of pre-school (4 years olds) and 25 in the first year of compulsory education (5 years old), were interviewed about their knowledge of plants. Analysis showed that they had a restricted understanding of the term, meaning something small, with a thin stalk, leaves and a flower. Trees, cacti and nettles…

  19. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  20. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory ... Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often ...

  1. The Study of Risk Factors of Malnutrition in Children under 5 Years Attending to Health Centers in Zahedan City

    F. Montazerifar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is one of the most important factors of prevalence of diseases and mortality in children. On the other hand , identification of causative agents of malnutrition and prevention and control of disease is very crucial . This study was done for evaluation of risk factors in malnourished children under 5 years old in Zahedan. For this purpose , 1050 children attending to health centers of Zahedan who had malnutrition selected randomly in a descriptive cross sectional study and a questionnaire with demographic characteristics of mothers and children completed by interviewing. Then , collected data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics. Results of the study showed that malnutrition in girls was more prevalent than boys (60.1% and 39.9% respectively. Also it was cleared that malnutrition in 6–24 months children was more prevalent than other age groups. In majority of cases interval of consecutive pregnancies was less than 24 month(35.2% and number of family members was more than 5 persons (47%. In 54.3% of children the age of beginning food supplement was after 6 month. Most of the parents were uneducated (38.5% fathers and 52.0% mothers. Although 97.1% of mothers were house-wives but 51.9% of them were house-wives and uneducated . In 69% , weight gain of mothers during pregnancy was less than 7 Kg total studied cases 58.4% of mothers had attended to health centers during pregnancy but in 65.9% , the number of attending during this period was less than 4 times. From above results it was concluded that malnutrition in children is more due to defect in preparation procedure and using food supplement and the time of beginning food supplement , illiteracy and low education of mother and lack of family planning. So, training mothers for increasing their knowledge making more efforts for changing culture view point of people for family planning , keeping enough proper interval in pregnancies , equal oportunity for boys and

  2. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    A R Senthil Eagappan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO, a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC. The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4–5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs score; forty caries-free children (control group, forty children with dmfs 1–5 (ECC group, and forty with dmfs ≥6 (severe ECC group. Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658 was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children.

  3. Identification of children who may benefit from self-hypnosis at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Geisler Susan C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional difficulties can trigger respiratory symptoms. Thus, children presenting with respiratory complaints may benefit from a psychological intervention. The purpose of this study was to define the proportion of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center who may benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, as a psychological intervention. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all newly referred patients to the SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center during an 18 month period beginning January 1, 2000. Patients were offered hypnosis if they presented with symptoms or signs suggestive of psychological difficulties. Hypnosis was taught in one or two 15–45 minute sessions by a pediatric pulmonologist. Results Of 725 new referrals, 424 were 0–5 years old, 193 were 6–11 years old, and 108 were 12–18 years old. Diagnoses of anxiety, habit cough, or vocal cord dysfunction accounted for 1% of the 0–5 year olds, 20% of the 6–11 year olds, and 31% of the 12–18 year olds. Hypnotherapy was offered to 1% of 0–5 year olds, 36% of 6–11 year olds, and 55% of 12–18 year olds. Of 81 patients who received instruction in self-hypnosis for anxiety, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, or inspiratory difficulties, 75% returned for follow-up, and among the returning patients 95% reported improvement or resolution of their symptoms. Conclusion A large number of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center appeared to benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, which can be taught easily as a psychological intervention.

  4. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and treatments based on what is known to ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a ...

  5. La importancia de los cuentos conocidos en el aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera: una propuesta metodológica para el aula de 5 años1 / The importance of well-known stories to English language learning: a methodological proposal for 5 years old students

    Mª del Mar González-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las narraciones de cuentos son un recurso ampliamente utilizado en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera en el aula de educación infantil, pudiéndose introducir de diferentes modos. En el trabajo presentamos el diseño de una propuesta para fomentar la participación de los niños en la narración de cuentos en inglés que son ya conocidos en su lengua madre. Este enfoque, basado en dos métodos, el TPR-Storytelling y el método Artigal, se pone a prueba en una clase con niños de 5 años, en una intervención educativa de 3 sesiones. Los resultados de este estudio piloto muestran la eficacia de la propuesta en relación al grado de participación en la actividad, comprensión general y adquisición de vocabulario. Por otra parte, esta experiencia visibiliza las fortalezas y aspectos a mejorar de la propuesta, permitiendo el rediseño de la misma en este sentido. Abstract Storytelling is a common resource to teach English as a foreign language to very young children, this can be done in different ways. In this paper, we present the design of an approach to foster children’s participation in English storytelling of well-known stories in their mother tongue. This approach, based on two methods, TPR-Storytelling and Artigal’s, is tested in a class of five-year old children, in a 3-session educational intervention. The results of this pilot study show the effectiveness of the proposal in terms of degree of participation in the activity, general understanding and vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the experience brings to the fore the strengths and weaknesses of the method and allows its redesign on these grounds.

  6. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

    Sivridis Efthimios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided according to their religion into Muslims and Christian Orthodox: 43 of the children aged ≤ 5 years were Muslims and 39 were Christian Orthodox. A household questionnaire was designed to collect data concerning age, gender, type of residence area, living conditions, vegetable consumption, and family history of surgery for acute appendicitis as preschool children. The removed appendices were also assessed histologically for the amount of lymphoid tissue. Results Acute appendicitis of preschoolers developed more frequently in Muslims (39.4% than in Christians (17.7%; p p p > 0.05. Conclusions In our region, the percentage of preschool-aged Muslim children with acute appendicitis was remarkably high. One possible explanation for this finding could be the higher amount of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the appendix in Muslim preschool children together with their low standard of hygiene.

  7. Custo-efetividade da escovação dental supervisionada convencional e modificada na prevenção da cárie em molares permanentes de crianças de 5 anos de idade Cost-effectiveness of conventional and modified supervised toothbrushing in preventing caries in permanent molars among 5-year-old children

    Paulo Frazão

    2012-01-01

    O custo-efetividade de um programa modificado de escovação dental supervisionada foi comparado ao programa convencional. Participaram 284 crianças de 5 anos com, pelo menos, um molar permanente com a superfície oclusal irrompida/hígida. Nas unidades de controle, o programa convencional composto de atividade educativa com distribuição de escova e creme dental fluorado foi desenvolvido quatro vezes por ano. Nas unidades de teste, as crianças receberam também escovação profissional nas superfíci...

  8. Amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e oclusopatias em crianças de cinco anos de idade em São Pedro, SP Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil

    Isaura Maria Ferraz Rochelle; Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro; Antonio Carlos Pereira; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Krunislave Antonio Nóbilo; Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: estimar a frequência de oclusopatias e suas associações com o tipo e o período de amamentação, hábitos bucais deletérios e informações recebidas pelas mães no pré-natal, em crianças com cinco anos de idade que frequentavam creches municipais. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 162 crianças residentes no município de São Pedro, SP. Em entrevista com cada mãe, informações sobre o tempo e a forma de aleitamento, a presença de hábitos deletérios, e orientações recebidas pela mãe durante o ...

  9. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    Myklebust Anne G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten.

  10. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. PMID:21356047

  11. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  12. What Would Batman Do? Self-Distancing Improves Executive Function in Young Children

    White, Rachel E.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    This experimental research assessed the influence of graded levels of self-distancing--psychological distancing from one's egocentric perspective--on executive function (EF) in young children. Three- (n = 48) and 5-year-old (n = 48) children were randomly assigned to one of four manipulations of distance from the self (from proximal to distal:…

  13. Differences in Cognitive Processes Underlying the Collaborative Activities of Children and Chimpanzees

    Fletcher, Grace E.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of 3- and 5-year-old children with that of chimpanzees in two tasks requiring collaboration via complementary roles. In both tasks, children and chimpanzees were able to coordinate two complementary roles with peers and solve the problem cooperatively. This is the first experimental demonstration of the coordination of…

  14. 学龄前听障儿童与健听儿童不同语句的语调声学特点比较%The Comparative Study of Intonation Pronunciation in Preschool Children with Hearing Impairments and Normal Children

    易玲; 张磊; 周静

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to study the characteristics of intonation pronunciation in preschool children with hearing impairments .Methods A total of 30 of 4~5 years old children with hearing impairment and 30 of 4~5 years old children with normal hearing were enrolled in this study .With statement intonation and ques-tion intonation as test material ,the compartment between the children in two groups were obtained .Results Pre-school children were generally increased the ending point and slope to distinguish statement intonation .There were still differences between hearing -impaired children and normal children .Under statement intonation condition :the children with hearing impairments showed a significantly lower level of the slope of the high and level boundary tone than the normal children ,the starting point and the ending point of the falling boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower than those of in normal children ;Meanwhile ,under question intonation condition :com-pared with normal children ,the slope of the high and level boundary tone ,the rising boundary tone and the falling -rising boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower .The starting point ,the ending point ,the high and level boundary tone ,and the falling boundary tone in hearing -impaired children were significantly lower .Conclusion To implement targeted therapy during question intonation training for hearing -impaired children ,the acoustics characteristics of boundary tone are required to assess and monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation .%目的:探讨学龄前听障儿童不同语句语调的声学特点,为其语调训练提供参考。方法选取4~5岁听障儿童和健听儿童各20例,以自编陈述和疑问语句为测试材料,获得两组儿童边界调的起点值、终点值和频率值,分析不同语调类型和儿童类型之间的差异及相互影响。结果两类学龄前儿童疑问句边界调的

  15. When the body reveals the mind: Children's use of others' body orientation to understand their focus of attention.

    Paulus, Markus; Murillo, Esther; Sodian, Beate

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount of research has examined children's ability to rely on explicit social cues such as pointing to understand others' referential intentions. Yet, skillful social interaction also requires reliance on and learning from implicit cues (i.e., cues that are not displayed with the explicit intention to teach or inform someone). From an embodied point of view, orienting movements and body orientation are salient cues that reveal something about a person's intentional relations without being explicit communicative cues. In three experiments, the current study investigated the development of the ability to use body information in a word learning situation. To this end, we presented 2-year-old children, 3.5-year-old children, and adults with movies on an eye-tracking screen in which an actor oriented her upper body to one of two objects while uttering a novel word. The results show that the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 2-year-old children, related the novel word to the referred object (Experiments 1 and 2). Yet, when the actor oriented her body to one object while pointing to the other object, children of both age groups relied on the pointing cue (Experiment 3). This suggests that by 3.5 years children use another's body orientation as an indicator of her intentional relations but that they prioritize explicit social cues over the implicit body posture cues. Overall, the study supports theoretical views that an appreciation of others' intentional relations does not emerge as an all-or-nothing ability but rather emerges gradually during the course of early development. PMID:27152841

  16. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  17. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2015-01-01

    exposure and allergic sensitization in a large group of 3-5 year old children: 300 random controls and 200 cases with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis as reported in questionnaires. The children were clinically examined to confirm their health status. Blood samples were analyzed for Ig...

  18. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  19. Children's reasoning about distributive and retributive justice across development.

    Smith, Craig E; Warneken, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4- to 10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgments about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4- to 5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4- to 5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared with reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality versus equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and the literature on moral development and fairness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845506

  20. Burden of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy in School ged children

    Artan Shkoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is the most common neurological complication in cancer treatment and probably the most common toxic neuropathy in our environment. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence and discomfort caused by neuropathic symptoms in children treated for hematologic cancers. The study included all children admitted to the pediatric oncology service at the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa”, Tirana, by the year 2011 – 2013 divided in three diagnosis groups: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or other solid tumors. In a prospective cohort setting, data were collected by standard questionnaire for symptoms and signs of neurological damage, according to The Pediatric - Modified Total Neuropathy Scale (Ped - mTNS, as well as clinical evaluation of pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, muscle strength and deep tendon reflexes (DTR. The results obtained from Ped-mTNS, showed the high incidence of sensory and motor symptoms as well as functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity in children treated with anticancer drugs. Ped-mTNS scores, as the first measure designed to assess CIPN in school-aged children, are significantly higher for children undergoing neurotoxic chemotherapy. Even though the neuropathy in these children was relatively mild, it was associated with functional deficits in balance and manual dexterity, suggesting clinical importance. An important limiting factor of this study is the exclusion of children younger than 5 years old, whom discomfort is evident but not properly evaluated.

  1. Renal scars in children with acute pyelonephritis: Correlation with demographic and clinical data

    The purpose of this study was to define the correlation of renal scarring in patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN) with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), age, gander, episode of UTI and delay on start antibiotic therapy. We prospective evaluate 96 children with APN and without urinary tract anomalies, 65 girls, with a mean age of 2.65 y.o. Forty seven out of 96 children were studied during the first proven urinary tract infection (UTI). Regarding the age, we classified the children in younger than 1 year old: 38 children, 1-5 years old: 42 children and older than 5 years old 16 children. VUR was confirmed in 39 children (40.6%). All children had an acute abnormal renal scan. Follow up scan was performed after six month of the acute episode, with an average of 9.02 months. We considered the scan evolution as normal (disappearance of abnormalities), improvement (focal defect uptake of less size, better relative renal function) or unchanged (without significant modifications). We correlated the scintigraphic evolution with age, gender, episode of UTI, presence and grade of VUR and delay in treatment. There was a complete normalization in the renal scan in 47 (48.9%) out of the 96 children, an improvement in 26 (27.1%) and no changes in 23 (23.9%). There were not significant differences regarding age. 43% of the girls and 61.3% of the boys showed normalization during the follow-up. Regarding the episode of UTI, 57.4% of the group studied after the first proven UTI showed normalization and 40.8% of the children with recurrent UTI. Normalization of acute renal abnormalities was found in 51.7 % of children without VUR and 43.5% of those with VUR. The delay between symptoms and treatment in the group of children that showed normalization of acute renal abnormalities was 5.75 days, 4.52 days in children that showed improvement and 2.9 days in those with no changes. In our group we did not find any significant risk factor for developing renal scar after acute pyelonephritis

  2. [Acute drug poisonings in children in a general pediatric service (epidemiologic profile)].

    Aïlal, F; Dehbi, F; Slaoui, B

    1998-06-01

    Acute drug poisonings of the child is a major problem for health authorities all over the world, and are responsible for serious morbidity with mortality risks. The present retrospective study has involved 150 cases of drug poisoning observed in the Casablanca children's hospital over a period of 7 years. Most intoxication cases are accidental (84%), (mostly in children of 1 to 5 years old 74.6%), willful (11.3%), or iatrogenic (4.7%). Happening most often at home (95%) with a high frequency between 5 and 6 p.m. (24%) and 11 a 12 p.m. (13.3%), time of strong hunger. The large majority of drugs wer psychotropic agents (56%), principally diazepins (39%). Followed by oral contraceptive (8%), antihistaminics (8%), analgesics (7%), antibiotics (4%) and others (11%). Prevention is of high importance, and must be made effective on the wildest scale. PMID:9689865

  3. Children : Their Place in Organization Studies

    Kavanagh, Donncha

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that children and childhood constitute a ¿white space¿ in organization studies, which should now be explored, mapped and analysed.Rather than being separate, children and organization are deeply implicated in one another, which provides a rich basis for theoretical inquiry. The paper draws on Spivak's concept of the subaltern and on actor-network theory to articulate how and where organization studies might critically engage with, and find a place for, children and childhood...

  4. A STUDY ON LICHEN PLANUS IN CHILDREN

    Neerja Puri; Asha Puri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lichen planus is considered to be rare in children. However, it does not appear to be uncommon in Indian subcontinent. Aims: The study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of childhood lichen planus. Material and Methods: We selected 30 children with LP for the study. The children selected were below the age of 14 years of age. Results and Discussion: In our study, it was seen that that the maximum onset of disease was between 5-9 years of age and mean age of children ...

  5. Parental Website-Descriptions of Children's Imaginary Companions

    Francine C Jellesma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.

  6. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  7. Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) was designed to study the adaptation process of the immigrant second generation which is defined broadly as United States-born children with at least one foreign-born parent or children born abroad but brought at an early age to the United States. The original survey was conducted with large samples of second-generation immigrant children attending the 8th and 9th grades in public and private schools in the metropolitan areas of Miami/Ft. Laude...

  8. Adults' representations of the Earth: implications for children's acquisition of scientific concepts.

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2007-11-01

    When children are asked to draw the Earth they often produce intriguing pictures in which, for example, people seem to be standing on a flat disc or inside a hollow sphere. These drawings, and children's answers to questions, have been interpreted as indicating that children construct naïve, theory-like mental models of the Earth (e.g. Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992). However, recent studies using different methods have found little or no evidence of these mental models, and report that many young children have some scientific knowledge of the Earth. To examine the reasons for these contrasting findings, adults (N=350) were given the drawing task previously given to 5-year-old children. Fewer than half of the adults' pictures were scientific, and 15% were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings. Up to half of the answers to questions (e.g. 'Where do people live?') were non-scientific. Open-ended questions and follow-up interviews revealed that non-scientific responses were given because adults found the apparently simple task confusing and challenging. Since children very probably find it even more difficult, these findings indicate that children's non-scientific responses, like adults', often result from methodological problems with the task. These results therefore explain the discrepant findings of previous research, and support the studies which indicate that children do not have naïve mental models of the Earth. PMID:17535475

  9. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    C, Donati F. Febrile Seizures and Parental Anxiety: Does Information Help? Swiss Med Wkly 2001;131:556–60.4. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia (PA: WB Saunders Company; 2011. p.2017.5. Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D’Apuzzo A, et al. Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsions: Case-control Study in Children under 2 Years. BMJ 1996;313 (7053:343.6. Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, Barbara F, Georgieff M, Schallert T, et al. Long-lasting Neural and Behavioral Effects of Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Nutr Rev 2006;64(5 Pt 2:34–43.7. Parks YA, Wharton BA. Iron Deficiency and the Brain. Acta Paediatr Scand 1989;361:(Suppl 1:71–7.8. Ur-Rehman N, Billoo AG. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005;15(6:338-40.9. Daoud AS, Batieha A, Abu-Ekteish F, Gharaibeh N, Ajlouni S, Hijazi S. Iron Status: A Possible Risk Factor for the First Febrile Seizure. Epilepsia 2002;43(7:740-3.10. Hartfield DS, Tan J, Yager JY, Rosychuk RJ, Spady D, Haines C, et al. The Association between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Seizures in Childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila 2009;48(4:420-6.11. Momen A, Nikfar R, Karimi B. Evaluation of Iron Status in 9-month to 5-year-old Children with Febrile Seizures: A Case-control Study in the South West of Iran. Iran JChild Neurol 2010;4(2:45-50.12. Talebian A, Momtazmanesh N. Febrile Seizures and Anemia. Iran J Child Neurol 2007;31-3.13. Kobrinsky NL, Yager JY, Cheang MS, Yatscoff RW, Tenenbein M. Does Iron Deficiency Raise the Seizure Threshold? J Child Neurol 1995;10(2:105–9.14. Salehi Omran MR, Tamaddoni A, Nasehi MM, Babazadeh H, Alizadeh Navaei R. Iron Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-control Study. Iran J Child Neurol 2009:3(3:40-3.15. Amirsalari S, Keihanidost Z, Ahmadi M, Sabouri A, Kavemanesh Z, Afshar P, et al. Relationship between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Seizures. Iran J Child

  10. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    Jianghong Liu; Linda Li; Yingjie Wang; Chonghuai Yan; Xianchen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assesse...

  11. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  12. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  13. Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of Prehension Movements in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: New Insights on Motor Impairment.

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical development. Statistical analysis showed that the kinematics of the grasp component was spared in autism, whereas early kinematics of the reach component was atypical. We discussed this evidence as suggesting impairment in the feedforward processes involved in action execution, whereas impairment in feedback-based control processes remained unclear. We proposed that certain motor abilities are available in autism, and children may use them differently as a function of motor context complexity. PMID:26861718

  14. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  15. Whom to ask for help? Children's developing understanding of other people's action capabilities

    Paulus, M.A.; Moore, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    We often rely on other people's help to accomplish tasks and to attain goals. People, however, differ in their physical action capabilities. Some persons are therefore better able to provide help than others. We investigated 2.5-, 3.5-, and 5-year-old children's ability to take other person's action

  16. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  17. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  18. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  19. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  20. Developing a Tool for Assessing Social-Emotional Functioning of Preschool Children.

    Reinherz, Helen; And Others

    Described are the development and field testing of the Revised 1977 Behavior Checklist, one component of a multidisciplinary batter to assess social and emotional dysfunction in populations of 4- and 5-year-old children entering kindergarten. The total screening battery is outlined and development of the 1976 Pilot Version of the Behavior…

  1. Young Children's Inductive Generalizations about Social Categories: When Is Gender Essential?

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.; Allen, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 3- to 5-year-olds' inductive generalizations about social categories. In Experiment 1, participants were shown pictures of children contrasting in appearance and either gender or classmate status, and were asked to generalize either biological properties or behaviors. Contrary to expectations, performance did not…

  2. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  3. The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts

    Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

  4. Children's derivation of scalar implicatures: Alternatives and relevance.

    Skordos, Dimitrios; Papafragou, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Utterances such as "Megan ate some of the cupcakes" are often interpreted as "Megan ate some but not all of the cupcakes". Such an interpretation is thought to arise from a pragmatic inference called scalar implicature (SI). Preschoolers typically fail to spontaneously generate SIs without the assistance of training or context that make the stronger alternative salient. However, the exact role of alternatives in generating SIs remains contested. Specifically, it is not clear whether children have difficulty with spontaneously generating possible informationally stronger scalemates, or with considering how alternatives might be relevant. We present three studies with English-speaking 5-year-olds and adults designed to address these questions. We show that (a) the accessibility of the stronger alternative is important for children's SI generation (Experiment 1); (b) the explicit presence of the stronger alternative leads children to generate SIs only when the stronger scalar term can easily be seen as relevant (Experiment 2); and (c) in contexts that establish relevant alternatives, the explicit presence of the stronger alternative is not necessary (Experiment 3). We conclude that children's considerations of lexical alternatives during SI-computation include an important role for conversational relevance. We also show that this more nuanced approach to the role of lexical alternatives in pragmatic inference unifies previously unconnected findings about children's early pragmatic development and bears on major accounts proposed to date for children's problems with SIs. PMID:27107741

  5. Children's Expectations and Understanding of Kinship as a Social Category.

    Spokes, Annie C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    In order to navigate the social world, children need to understand and make predictions about how people will interact with one another. Throughout most of human history, social groups have been prominently marked by kinship relations, but few experiments have examined children's knowledge of and reasoning about kinship relations. In the current studies, we investigated how 3- to 5-year-old children understand kinship relations, compared to non-kin relations between friends, with questions such as, "Who has the same grandmother?" We also tested how children expect people to interact based on their relations to one another, with questions such as "Who do you think Cara would like to share her treat with?" Both in a storybook context and in a richer context presenting more compelling cues to kinship using face morphology, 3- and 4-year-old children failed to show either robust explicit conceptual distinctions between kin and friends, or expectations of behavior favoring kin over friends, even when asked about their own social partners. By 5 years, children's understanding of these relations improved, and they showed some expectation that others will preferentially aid siblings over friends. Together, these findings suggest that explicit understanding of kinship develops slowly over the preschool years. PMID:27065213

  6. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  7. Developmental changes in children's normative reasoning across learning contexts and collaborative roles.

    Riggs, Anne E; Young, Andrew G

    2016-08-01

    What influences children's normative judgments of conventional rules at different points in development? The current study explored the effects of two contextual factors on children's normative reasoning: the way in which the rules were learned and whether the rules apply to the self or others. Peer dyads practiced a novel collaborative board game comprising two complementary roles. Dyads were either taught both the prescriptive (i.e., what to do) and proscriptive (i.e., what not to do) forms of the rules, taught only the prescriptive form of the rules, or created the rules themselves. Children then judged whether third parties were violating or conforming to the rules governing their own roles and their partner's roles. Early school-aged children's (6- to 7-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments were strongest when they had been taught the rules (with or without the proscriptive form), but were more flexible for rules they created themselves. Preschool-aged children's (4- to 5-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments, however, were strongest when they were taught both the prescriptive and proscriptive forms of the rules. Additionally, preschoolers exhibited stronger normative judgments when the rules governed their own roles rather than their partner's roles, whereas school-aged children treated all rules as equally normative. These results demonstrate that children's normative reasoning is contingent on contextual factors of the learning environment and, moreover, highlight 2 specific areas in which children's inferences about the normativity of conventions strengthen over development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359156

  8. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Full Text Available ... Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites ...

  9. Intermittent Preventive Treatment to Reduce the Burden of Malaria in Children: New Evidence on Integration and Delivery

    Konaté, AT; Yaro, JB; Ouédraogo, AZ; Diarra, A.; Gansané, A; Soulama, I.; Kangoyé, DT; Kaboré, Y; Ouédraogo, E.; Ouédraogo, A.; Tiono, AB; Ouédraogo, IN; Chandramohan, D; Cousens, S; Milligan, PJ

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Malaria accounts for one in five of all childhood deaths in Africa and of the one million annual malarial deaths world-wide, over 75% occur in African children under 5 years old. Malaria also causes severe morbidity in children, such as anemia, low birth weight, and neurological problems, which compromise the health and development of millions of children living in malaria endemic areas. As much of the impact of malaria on African children can be effectively preven...

  10. Executive Function Effects and Numerical Development in Children: Behavioural and ERP Evidence from a Numerical Stroop Paradigm

    Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha; White, Sonia; Szucs, Denes

    2011-01-01

    Most research on numerical development in children is behavioural, focusing on accuracy and response time in different problem formats. However, Temple and Posner (1998) used ERPs and the numerical distance task with 5-year-olds to show that the development of numerical representations is difficult to disentangle from the development of the…

  11. Sleep and Adjustment in Preschool Children: Sleep Diary Reports by Mothers Relate to Behavior Reports by Teachers.

    Bates, John E.; Viken, Richard J.; Alexander, Douglas B.; Beyers, Jennifer; Stockton, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral adjustment with 4- to 5-year-old children from low-income families. Found that disrupted child sleep patterns, including variability in parentally reported amount of sleep, variability in bedtime, and lateness of bedtime, predicted less optimal adjustment in preschool, even after…

  12. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  13. Further Evidence of the Reliability and Validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in Preschool Children

    Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Humphries, Marisha; Duax, Jeanne; Donald, Radiah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the reliability and validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) and symptoms using the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule and generate data on the manifestation of symptoms of ODD and CD in 3- to 5-year-old children. Method: One hundred twenty-three consecutive referrals to a child and…

  14. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  15. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  16. Intervertebral disc calcification in children: Case description and review of relevant literature

    Intervertebral disc calcification is a rare condition in children; in most cases, it is asymptomatic and therefore not diagnosed. In our study, we present a case of idiopathic intervertebral disc calcification within the cervical segment, at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae in a 5-year-old girl with torticollis. Basic neurological examination supplemented by X-ray examination was performed, showing calcification within the cervical segment at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae. In order to complement the diagnostics, a CT scan of the cervical spine was performed; the scan confirmed the diagnosis and revealed additional calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament at the level of C4/C5 vertebrae

  17. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.

  18. Children's Schooling and Parents' Investment in Children: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study

    Alexander M. Gelber; Adam Isen

    2011-01-01

    Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly-chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children--such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days ...

  19. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  20. Sign Language Studies with Chimpanzees and Children.

    Van Cantfort, Thomas E.; Rimpau, James B.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews methodologies of sign language studies with chimpanzees and compares major findings of those studies with studies of human children. Considers relevance of input conditions for language acquisition, evidence used to demonstrate linguistic achievements, and application of rigorous testing procedures in developmental psycholinguistics.…

  1. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons

    Bay, B; Mortensen, E L; Kesmodel, U S

    2014-01-01

    for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for...

  2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  3. Limited Effects of Agreement Errors on Word Monitoring in 5-year-olds

    Smolík, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2011), s. 17-28. ISSN 1804-3240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : language acquisition * morphosyntactic error * word monitoring Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. Congenital Rubella Syndrome: dental manifestations and management in a 5 year old child.

    Bhatia, Sarabjot K; Goyal, Ashima; Dubey, Mohit; Kapur, Aditi; Ritwik, Priyanshi

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Rubella Syndrome is a rare disorder comprised of a constellation of physical abnormalities that develop in infants as a result of maternal infection and subsequent fetal infection with rubella virus. The congenital lesions involve vital organs such as heart, eye, ear, brain and endocrine system and less frequently, teeth. The severity of systemic involvement depends on the stage of gestation at which maternal rubella infection occurs. With the implementation of immunization programs worldwide, its incidence has been dramatically reduced during the past half century. This article provides an insight into the prolonged effect of the virus on ameloblasts by highlighting the presence of hypoplastic enamel in primary teeth and erupting permanent teeth in a female child diagnosed with congenital rubella syndrome. PMID:23342570

  5. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society. PMID:25077890

  6. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  7. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  8. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia. PMID:25935569

  9. Association between parental guilt and oral health problems in preschool children

    Thiago Saads Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parents may feel guilty about their children's oral problems, which can affect their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of parental guilt and its association with early childhood caries (ECC, traumatic dental injuries (TDI and malocclusion (AMT in preschool children. All 2 to 5 year-old children (N = 305, and their parents, seeking dental care at the University of São Paulo Dental School one-week Screening Programme, were asked to participate in the study, and 260 agreed. Children were examined by two calibrated dentists, and their parents answered a socioeconomic and ECOHIS questionnaire; the question on guilt was used as the dependent variable. Regression analyses examined the association between parental guilt and ECC, TDI, AMT and socioeconomic factors. A total of 35.8% of parents felt guilty. This was only associated with caries severity. No association was found between guilt and TDI, AMT or socioeconomic factors. ECC was present in 63.8% of the children; the mean (± sd dmf-t score was 7.29 (± 2.78. Thus, the number of parents feeling guilty increases with the increase of their children's dental caries severity. Parental guilt is related to caries but is not associated with TDI or AMT.

  10. Clinical Survey of Cerebrovascular Disease in Children

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke is defined as the sudden occlusion or rupture of cerebral arteries or veins resulting in focal cerebral damage and clinical neurologic deficits. The risk factors for stroke in children are numerous and differ from those in adults. Identification of these factors can prevent subsequent strokes. The aim of this study is to determine the etiology of stroke in children.Methods: In this descriptive prospective study, children who were referred to pediatric neurology clinic in Mofid Children's Hospital due to acute hemiparesis during 2 years period (Sep 2003-Sep 2005 were evaluated and their diagnosis was cerebrovascular disorders, in the view of physical examination and brain imaging.Findings: The study group consisted of 40 children in age groups between 3 months to 14 years old. The most common age group at presentation was 2 to 5 years old. Occurrence was predominant during autumn and winter (70%. The most common clinical presentations were acute hemiparesis (85% and seizures (40%. The other symptoms were as follow: 15% decreased level of consciousness, 12.5% fever, 7.5% VI nerve palsy, and 2.5% cerebellar signs. 20% of patients suffered from hemorrhagic and 80% had ischemic stroke. In 60% of the patients specific etiologic factors were identified and in the rest of the group, risk factors could be delineated. The most common etiologies were: 17.5% cardiac diseases or procedures and 10% hematologic disorders. Other etiologies included: 7.5% prothrombotic states, 7.5% CNS infection, 5% mitochondriopathy, 2.5% for each of the head trauma, migraine, serum lipid abnormality, hypertension and arteriovenus malformation. The most common risk factors consisted of 40% anemia and 20% infections.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that stroke in children is a multifactorial process. Identification of the underlying risk factors for cerebrovascular disorders is highly desirable because many of the risk factors can be prevented, resulting in

  11. Processing of Perceptual Information Is More Robust than Processing of Conceptual Information in Preschool-Age Children: Evidence from Costs of Switching

    Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Is processing of conceptual information as robust as processing of perceptual information early in development? Existing empirical evidence is insufficient to answer this question. To examine this issue, 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with a flexible categorization task, in which target items (e.g., an open red umbrella) shared category…

  12. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  13. Determining Who to Question, What to Ask, and How Much Information to Ask for: The Development of Inquiry in Young Children

    Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Christine H.; Grant, Meridith G.; Landrum, Asheley R.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain reliable information, it is important to identify and effectively question knowledgeable informants. Two experiments examined how age and the ease of distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources influence children's ability to effectively question those sources to solve problems. A sample of 3- to 5-year-olds was introduced to…

  14. IMPACT OF CANINE ASSISTED THERAPY ON EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH REDUCED MOBILITY IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CLASSES

    Niewiadomska Monika

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine assisted therapy is increasingly used in the treatment of children with various diseases. The participation of a dog in classes evokes positive emotions in children, which are often an important factor in the success of a therapy. Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the influence of emotions on the level of motivation toward physical activity in children with reduced mobility. Material: The study involved six 5-year-old children, i.e. 5 boys and one girl, who had refused to participate in physical activity classes. They reacted with anxiety, anger and did not want to exercise. Assessment of feelings and emotions of the children was based on observations and interviews with parents. Results: After introducing a dog to the physical activity classes, the children changed their attitude not only to training, but also to themselves and their classmates. There was an observed increase in their motivation for the exercises. Such a significant impact of a dog on child’s emotions can be very important in the therapeutic process and is reported and recognized by many specialists. Conclusions: Canine assisted therapy sessions could be promoted in the treatment of children with locomotor impairment, as well as with other disabilities such as autism, obesity, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and depression.

  15. Pathways to Language: A Naturalistic Study of Children with Williams Syndrome and Children with Down Syndrome

    Levy, Yonata; Eilam, Ariela

    2013-01-01

    This is a naturalistic study of the development of language in Hebrew-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with Down syndrome (DS), whose MLU extended from 1[multiplied by]0 to 4[multiplied by]4. Developmental curves over the entire span of data collection revealed minor differences between children with WS, children with DS,…

  16. Erythema infectiosumin children: A clinical study

    Prćić Šonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema infectiositm is a childhood illness characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and a blotchy or maculo-papular lacy rash on the cheeks (slapped - cheek spreading primarily to the extremities and trunk. The disease- is-caused by human parvovirus B19. Erythema infectiosum epidemics occur in a cyclic fashion, mostly during winter and spring months. The diagnosis of erythema infectiosum is usually based on the appearance and pattern of the rash. The aim of our study was to establish the frequency and clinical characteristics of erythema infectiosum in children, in the period between 2000 and 2004 at the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Novi Sad. There were 0.23% of children with a clinical picture of infectious erythema. There was an outbreak of erythema infectiosum from December 2001 to September 2002. The highest number of cases was detected in April and May of 2002. from 2003 to 2004, no cases with infekctious erythema were diagnosed. The average age of infected children was 7.38. Female children were affected slightly more often than male (56.41%:43.58%. Pruritus was detected in 10.26% of children. The most constant clinical sign was reticular exanthema on the limbs, present in 100% of cases, followed by 89.74% of cheek exanthema, while limb and trunk exanthema was present in 7.68% of children. Adenopathies and mild constitutional symptoms were present in 5.12% of children. No complications were recorded in any of the cases. .

  17. Young children's understanding of pretend crying: the effect of context.

    Mizokawa, Ai

    2011-09-01

    Reasoning about another's pretend and real crying is related to ma'ny important social cognitive abilities (e.g., emotional understanding, appearance-reality, and theory of mind). This study investigated whether children aged 6 years and younger could distinguish between instances of pretend crying and real crying as presented in stories. Sixty-five Japanese children aged 4-6 years were given stories within two contexts (Play and Non-play). In the Play context, the protagonist of the story was pretending to cry or really crying during a pretend play activity. In the Non-play context, the protagonist was also pretending to cry or really crying after his/her toy had been hidden by another child. The children answered questions about these crying events. The results showed that the 4- and 5-year-olds showed significantly better understanding of pretend crying in the Play context compared to the Non-play context. In the Non-play context, they were significantly less likely to understand the cause of pretend crying compared to the 6-year-olds. The results suggest that the context of pretend play facilitates the children's understanding of pretend crying. PMID:21848743

  18. Children draw more affiliative pictures following priming with third-party ostracism.

    Song, Ruiting; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2015-06-01

    Humans have a strong need to belong. Thus, when signs of ostracism are detected, adults often feel motivated to affiliate with others in order to reestablish their social connections. This study investigated the importance of affiliation to young children following priming with ostracism. Four- and 5-year-old children were primed with either ostracism or control videos and their understanding of, and responses to, the videos were measured. Results showed that children were able to report that there was exclusion in the ostracism videos, and that they recognized that the ostracized individual felt sad. Most interestingly, when subsequently asked to draw a picture of themselves and their friend, children primed with ostracism depicted relationships that were significantly more affiliative. Children drew themselves and their friend standing significantly closer together and adults rated their drawings as more affiliative overall. These findings introduce drawing as a useful new method for measuring social motivations and processes following an experimental manipulation, and demonstrate that affiliation is particularly important to children following even a vicarious experience of social exclusion. PMID:25915591

  19. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  20. Updated results of a pilot study of low dose craniospinal irradiation plus chemotherapy for children under five with cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastoma)

    Purpose: Children under 5 years old with medulloblastoma (MB) have a poor prognosis. They are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSART) and have a higher relapse rate when treated with low-dose CSART alone. We, thus, embarked on a prospective trial testing the usefulness of very low dose CSART and adjuvant chemotherapy. This is an update of a previous report on these patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 1988 and March 1990, 10 patients with medulloblastoma were treated using 18 Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the craniospinal axis, a posterior fossa (PF) boost to 50.4-55.8 Gy and chemotherapy consisting of vincristine (VCR) weekly during RT. This was followed by VCR, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), and lomustine (CCNU) for eight, 6-week cycles. Patients between 18 and 60 months of age without evidence of tumor dissemination were eligible for study. Follow-up was available until September 1994 with a median follow-up for living patients of 6.3 years from diagnosis. Results: Actuarial survival at over 6 years is 70 ± 20%. Three of the 10 patients relapsed and died. In one patient, the relapse developed in the spine and brain outside the posterior fossa, in the second, concurrently in the posterior fossa, brain and spine, and the third, only in the spine. One surviving child developed a brain stem infarct 4.8 years after diagnosis and has since almost fully recovered. A mean intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 103 in six patients surviving at least 1 year is unchanged from the baseline group score of 107. Five children tested at baseline and 2 years following treatment had IQ scores of 101 and 102, respectively. Six children tested at baseline and at 3 years had IQ scores of 106 and 96, respectively. Excluding the child tested shortly after his brain stem infarct, baseline and 3 year IQ scores were 103 and 97, respectively. Five of the seven long-term survivors grew at rates significantly below their expected

  1. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli are not a significant cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised children in Kuwait

    Pacsa Alexander S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC infections in the Arabian Gulf including Kuwait is not known. The prevalence of DEC (enterotoxigenic [ETEC], enteropathogenic [EPEC], enteroinvasive [EIEC], enterohemorrhagic [EHEC] and enteroaggregative [EAEC] was studied in 537 children5 years old hospitalised with acute diarrhoea and 113 matched controls from two hospitals during 2005–07 by PCR assays using E. coli colony pools. Results The prevalence of DEC varied from 0.75% for EHEC to 8.4% for EPEC (mostly atypical variety in diarrhoeal children with no significant differences compared to that in control children (P values 0.15 to 1.00. Twenty-seven EPEC isolates studied mostly belonged to non-traditional serotypes and possessed β and θ intimin subtypes. A total of 54 DEC isolates from diarrhoeal children and 4 from controls studied for antimicrobial susceptibility showed resistance for older antimicrobials, ampicillin (0 to 100%, tetracycline (33 to 100% and trimethoprim (22.2 to 100%; 43.1% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (resistant to 3 or more agents. Six (10.4% DEC isolates produced extended spectrum β-lactamases and possessed genetic elements (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and ISEcp1 associated with them. Conclusion We speculate that the lack of significant association of DEC with diarrhoea in children in Kuwait compared to countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf Region may be attributable to high environmental and food hygiene due to high disposable income in Kuwait.

  2. Coping styles of mothers with disabled children at rural community rehabilitation centres in Muar, Malaysia.

    Nor Zaidah, A H; Khairani, O; Normah, C D

    2004-08-01

    Chronic disability in children imposes great strains on a family. The responsibility of mothering disabled children may be detrimental to the well-being of mothers. This study aims to assess the different types of coping styles of mothers with disabled children and its influencing factors. It is a cross-sectional study using Coping Inventory Stressful Situation (CISS) scale to determine the mothers' coping styles. A sample of 81 mothers with disabled children attending two rural Community Rehabilitation Centres, were included in the study. Overall, the mothers were using a mixture of coping strategies. However, they scored more in the task-oriented (mean T score = 52.88) and emotion-oriented (mean T score = 50.52) coping styles, while the other subscales of coping styles, namely avoidance, distraction and social diversion were below average (mean T score < 50). Divorced mothers (p=0.04) and those with low educational level (p=0.00) were more inclined to use emotion-oriented coping strategies while mothers with younger children (< 5 years old) used more avoidance coping strategies (p=0.01). There were no significant difference of coping styles in association with the mothers' age, ethnicity, duration of marriage, number of siblings, child's birth order or gender. By understanding the mothers' coping styles, health care workers would be able to educate the mothers with effective coping strategies and consequently reduce their psychological distress. PMID:15727385

  3. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  4. Children and their parents : A comparative study of the legal position of children

    Vonk, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a book about children and their parents. There are many different kinds of children and at least about as many different kinds of parents. In addition to the many different disciplines that study children and their parents, such as sociology, psychology, child studies and gender studies, to name but a few, this study concerns a legal question with regard to the parent-child relationship, namely how the law assigns parents to children. This subject is approached in a comparative legal ...

  5. Usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting death of malnourished children

    Briend, A; Dykewicz, C.; Graven, K; Mazumder, R. N.; Wojtyniak, B; Bennish, M.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting the death of children under 5 years old was evaluated by comparing measurements of 34 children with diarrhoea who died in a Dhaka hospital with those of 318 patients who were discharged in a satisfactory condition. In a logistic regression analysis mid-upper arm circumference was found to be as effective as other nutritional indices in predicting death. Combinations of different indices did not improve the prediction. Arm...

  6. Family Adversity, Positive Peer Relationships, and Children's Externalizing Behavior: A Longitudinal Perspective on Risk and Resilience

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lapp, Amie L.

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kinder...

  7. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  8. El desarrollo de la inferencia analógica en niños que viven en sectores urbanos pobres The development of analogical inference in children living in slums

    Mariela Orozco-Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo de la inferencia analógica en 405 niños de 3, 4 y 5 años, que viven en sectores urbanos pobres de las ciudades Colombianas de Cali y Santa Marta. Con este fin, se les propuso individualmente un problema de inferencia analógica. Los resultados muestran que niños de todas las edades son capaces de solucionar el problema utilizando la estrategia que requiere establecer inferencia y relaciones de analogía, aunque el porcentaje de niños de 5 años que la usa es significativamente mayor que el de los otros dos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos permiten discutir dos tendencias en el desarrollo cognitivo: una centrada en la edad y la otra en el variabilidad intra e inter-individual.The development of analogical inference is described through the study of 405 children aged 3, 4 and 5 years old, living in poor urban neighborhoods in two Colombian cities - Cali (204 and Santa Marta (201. In order to accomplish the objective, children were asked to individually solve an inference problem based on analogical relations. Independently of their age, children were able to solve the problem using a strategy that requires establishing inference and analogical relations. Nevertheless, a higher percentage of the 5-year-old children tend to use that strategy more often. The results obtained allow the discussion of two conceptions of development: one focused on the age and the other on intra- and inter-individual variability.

  9. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    Amy L. Fielden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

  10. Children and media: a cultural studies approach

    D av i d B u c k i n g h a m

    2012-01-01

    Defying the traditional psychology understanding on what are the effects of the media and also the researches made on the subject, the present article offers an approach to the study of the relationship between children and the media, focusing mainly on television. We retrace the Cultural Studies perspective, although the researches from the Birmingham Centre have not worked over such age group.The work includes the model of the cultural circuit, it refuses to understand meaning as something ...

  11. Can bilingual children turn one language off? Evidence from perceptual switching.

    Singh, Leher; Quam, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Bilinguals have the sole option of conversing in one language in spite of knowing two languages. The question of how bilinguals alternate between their two languages, activating and deactivating one language, is not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the development of this process by researching bilingual children's abilities to selectively integrate lexical tone based on its relevance in the language being used. In particular, the current study sought to determine the effects of global conversation-level cues versus local (within-word phonotactic) cues on children's tone integration in newly learned words. Words were taught to children via a conversational narrative, and word recognition was investigated using the intermodal preferential-looking paradigm. Children were tested on recognition of words with stimuli that were either matched or mismatched in tone in both English and Mandarin conversations. Results demonstrated that 3- to 4-year-olds did not adapt their interpretation of lexical tone changes to the language being spoken. In contrast, 4- to 5-year-olds were able to do so when supported by informative within-word cues. Results suggest that preschool children are capable of selectively activating a single language given word-internal cues to language. PMID:27077335

  12. Cytogenetic Studies in Children with Developmental Delay

    Hassan S.A. El-Dawi, *El-Sayed G. Khedr, *Tarek A. Atia, **Hassan Ali

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Developmental delay (DD could be syndromic or non-syndromic, and collectively it affects 10% of all children. There are numerous causes of DD that could be genetical, hormonal and/or neurological. The frequency of defected chromosomal anomalies in patients with DD is variable and estimates between 9% and 36%. However, the accurate diagnosis needs further tests based on the information gather from parents and the findings on physical examination. Objective: We aim to evaluate the pattern of chromosomal abnormalities in children with non-syndromic DD, in order to detect the treatable cases, and offering an appropriate genetic counseling. Methodology: 50 children suffering from DD with or without mental retardation(MR and/or congenital anomalies were subjected to the present study. Additionally, another 50 normally developed children were considered as control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected, cultured, harvested, metaphase spread and then chromosomes were stained for G-banding using Trypsin-Giemsa technique. Chromosomes were analyzed, metaphase spreads were captured, and karyotyping has been done. Result: Seven cases (14% out of the 50 affected children carried structural chromosomal rearrangements. Six (85.7% out of the seven structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in autosomal chromosomes and one (14.3% in sex chromosome. Surprisingly, we have found a case (2% carrying pericentric inversion of chromosome 3 within the normal control group. Conclusions: Chromosomal studies are valuable in detecting such cases with DD. Prenatal genetic diagnosis is of clinical importance to prevent and offer genetic counseling. Additionally, small proportion of apparently normal population could carry some types of structural chromosomal anomalies

  13. Observational study of children with aerophagia.

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Aerophagia is a rare disorder in children. The diagnosis is often delayed, especially when it occurs concomitantly with constipation. The aim of this report is to increase awareness about aerophagia. This study describes 2 girls and 7 boys, 2 to 10.4 years of age, with functional constipation and gaseous abdominal distention. The abdomen was visibly distended, nontender, and tympanitic in all. Documenting less distention on awakening helped to make the diagnosis. Air swallowing, belching, and flatulence were infrequently reported. The rectal examination often revealed a dilated rectal ampulla filled with gas or stool and gas. The abdominal X-ray showed gaseous distention of the colon in all and of the stomach and small bowel in 8 children. Treatment consisted of educating parents and children about air sucking and swallowing, encouraging the children to stop the excessive air swallowing, and suggesting to them not to use drinking straws and not to drink carbonated beverages. The aerophagia resolved in all in 2 to 20 months (mean=8 months). PMID:18445758

  14. In the long run...longitudinal studies of psychopathology in children. Committee on Child Psychology. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. Report no.143.

    1999-01-01

    in infancy correlate poorly with temperamental characteristics measured at age 4 or 5 years, they appear to be much more stable and correlate well with temperament at ages 8 and 12 years. Some of these temperamental characteristics, particularly aggressivity and negativity at age 5 years, are serious risk factors for behavioral psychopathology at age 8 or 12 years and, possibly, at later ages as well. Aggressive, negative 5-year-olds do not necessarily grow out of their problems. Their problems are important and should be dealt with when children are age 5 years. What does appear important is early language development. Delays in language development or developmental language disorders are risk factors for later psychopathology. Fifty percent of school-age children with language problems requiring speech and language therapy also have diagnosable psychopathology. Hyperactivity and short attention span are characteristics that tend to persist in later childhood--even adulthood. Alone, each of these characteristics may not be a risk factor for later psychopathology, but, when accompanied by oppositional behavior and conduct disorder, the outcome is detrimental to the child. Many studies have shown that children with these comorbid problems are at risk later for becoming delinquent and antisocial. Conduct disorder in childhood, which is much more common in males, is a risk factor for later delinquency, even if it is not associated with hyperactivity. Again, early intervention is important. The effects of comorbidity in this instance can be serious. Comorbidity in general, especially as children grow older, leads to adverse social, academic, and psychopathological outcomes. Depression does occur in children, in all of its adult manifestations. Mania, in contrast, is rarely seen in children younger than age 12 years. Depression in school-age children can be severe or mild. In contrast to adolescents with depression, depressed children are most likely to have somatic

  15. 北京市2003-2012年5岁以下儿童意外死亡流行病学分析%Epidemiological study on the trend of accidental deaths among children under five in Beijing, during 2003-2012

    闫淑娟; 朱雪娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the trend of accidental death among children under 5 years of age in Beijing.Methods Cases of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing,during 2003-2012 were collected,to analyze the strength and trends of accidental death,main causes of accident and its epidemiological features. Results The overall accidental death was 8.47% of all death among children under 5 years old in Beijing during 2003-2012. During these 10 years,data showed a downward trend on the mortality rates on injuries(P<0.05),especially on drowning,in 1-4 year old and rural children under five years of age. In 2012,the accidental death rate of children under five was 6.37/105. The 5 main causes of accidental deaths were suffocation,traffic accident,falling,poisoning and drowning,in order of size. The main causes of death were suffocation in the 0-1 year group, suffocation and traffic accident in the 1-2 year group and traffic accident in the 3-4 year group. The proportion of deaths due to traffic accident increased gradually with age. Area distribution showed that accidental deaths mainly happened in rural area(52.19%),with two main types as traffic accident and suffocation. Conclusion The reduction of accidental death rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing mainly was caused by the decline of accident mortality in 1-4 year old and children in the rural areas. Our data suggested that the focus in reducing the accidental death rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing should target on the prevention of infant suffocation and traffic accidents among the 1-4 year old,with rural areas in particular.%目的:了解北京市<5岁儿童意外死亡的流行病学分布特点和变化趋势。方法收集2003-2012年北京市<5岁儿童死亡病例资料,分析意外死亡发生强度、变化趋势、主要意外死因及其流行病学分布。结果2003-2012年北京市<5岁儿童意外死亡占儿童总死亡的8.47%,儿童意外死亡

  16. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value. PMID:27039458

  17. Children and media: a cultural studies approach

    D av i d B u c k i n g h a m

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Defying the traditional psychology understanding on what are the effects of the media and also the researches made on the subject, the present article offers an approach to the study of the relationship between children and the media, focusing mainly on television. We retrace the Cultural Studies perspective, although the researches from the Birmingham Centre have not worked over such age group.The work includes the model of the cultural circuit, it refuses to understand meaning as something that the media distributes to a passive audience and it states that the audience has an active role but works under conditions strange to its own choice. Regarding children, their relationship with the media is structured and restrained by broader social discourses and institutions that try to define childhood in some given ways.

  18. Tell me about Pangolins! Evidence that children are motivated to learn about kinds.

    Cimpian, Andrei; Park, JoAnn J

    2014-02-01

    We propose that conceptual development is facilitated by an early emerging bias that leads children to privilege learning about kinds of things in the world (e.g., dogs, chairs). Three studies (N = 144) provided evidence consistent with this proposal. When given a choice between finding out about a kind or about a concrete individual from that kind, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to find out about the kind. This preference was broad in scope, extending to both familiar (Experiment 3) and unfamiliar (Experiments 1 and 2) kinds. Children's desire to learn about kinds was also expressed flexibly rather than being automatically cued by superficial features of the task: Children who talked to an ostensibly ignorant experimenter did not favor the facts about kinds (Experiments 1 and 3). Moreover, children's preference was specific to kinds rather than extending to plural sets more generally: Children who chose between facts about a single individual and facts about multiple individuals did not favor the latter (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that conceptual development may be driven in part by a heightened motivation to learn about kinds. PMID:23379716

  19. Procedural justice in children: Preschoolers accept unequal resource distributions if the procedure provides equal opportunities.

    Grocke, Patricia; Rossano, Federico; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    When it is not possible to distribute resources equitably to everyone, people look for an equitable or just procedure. In the current study, we investigated young children's sense of procedural justice. We tested 32 triads of 5-year-olds in a new resource allocation game. Triads were confronted with three unequal reward packages and then agreed on a procedure to allocate them among themselves. To allocate the rewards, they needed to use a "wheel of fortune." Half of the groups played with a fair wheel (where each child had an equal chance of obtaining each reward package), and the other half played with an unfair wheel. We analyzed children's interactions when using the wheel and conducted an interview with each child after the game was over. Children using the unfair wheel often decided to change the rules of the game, and they also rated it as an unfair procedure in the interview. In contrast, children who played with the fair wheel were mostly accepting of both the outcome and the procedure. Overall, we found that children as young as preschool age are already sensitive not only to distributive justice but to procedural justice as well. PMID:26255603

  20. Nail disorders in children, a clinical study

    Ayşe Akbaş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aims of the study to investigate the frequency and the nature ofnail disorders in children significant clinical data is available. Nail disorders although common in children in some parts of our country. This study was carried out to document the clinical and demographic pattern of nail disorders in a dermatology outpatient clinic of a pediatric hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Material and Methods: All consecutive patients a total of 3000 children from age 0-16 were admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic of Ankara Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Education and Research Hospital during January 2011 to December 2011 were studied and retrospectively evaluated for age, gender, drug use, diseases, systemic or genetic disorders and demographic features. Diagnostic evaluation results were noted and patients were categorized for demographic features and diagnosis. Results: These 133 patients (M: F 58:75, %44 vs 56, respectively were under 16 years of age and have 17 different dermatological disorders related with nail symptoms. Fifty three of (39,8% these patient were under 2 years of age, 31 (23.3% were between 3-5 years, 30 (22.5% were between 6-11 years old, 19 of 133 (14%, 2 were between 11-16 years of age. Through all of ages and independent of gender the most etiologies of nail disorders were, onychomadesis, paronychia, onycholysis, onychomycosis and systemic nail presentation of systemic dermatosis. Conclusion: Nail disorders are different in children than in adults. In our study, the first 5 years of age was found in 53% of nail disorders. Nail disorders are uncommon but may be seen as a part of a systemic disease and may be associated with cosmetic and psychologic problem.