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Sample records for 5-phosphate reductoisomerase mep

  1. Inhibition of green tea and the catechins against 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, the key enzyme of the MEP terpenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Hui, Xian; Liu, Hui; Tian, Fang-Lin; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Heng; Gao, Wen-Yun

    2016-09-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) is the first committed enzyme in the MEP terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and also a validated antimicrobial target. Green tea which is rich in polyphenolic components such as the catechins, possesses a plenty of pharmacological activities, in particular an antibacterial effect. To uncover the antibacterial mechanism of green tea and to seek new DXR inhibitors from natural sources, the DXR inhibitory activity of green tea and its main antimicrobial catechins were investigated in this study. The results show that the raw extract of green tea and its ethyl acetate fraction are able to suppress DXR activity explicitly. Further determination of the DXR inhibitory capacity of eight catechin compounds demonstrates that the most active compound is gallocatechin gallate that is able to inhibit around 50% activity of DXR at 25μM. Based on these data, the primary structure-activity relationship of the catechins against DXR is discussed. This study would be very helpful to elucidate the antimicrobial mechanism of green tea and the catechins and also would be very useful to direct the rational utilization of them as food additives. PMID:27439219

  2. 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerases and method of use

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to isolated DNA sequences which code for the expression of plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein, such as the sequence presented in SEQ ID NO:1 which encodes a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). Additionally, the present invention relates to isolated plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein. In other aspects, the present invention is directed to replicable recombinant cloning vehicles comprising a nucleic acid sequence which codes for a plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, to modified host cells transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence of the invention.

  3. 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerases, and methods of use

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)

    2002-07-16

    The present invention relates to isolated DNA sequences which code for the expression of plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein, such as the sequence presented in SEQ ID NO:1 which encodes a 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). Additionally, the present invention relates to isolated plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase protein. In other aspects, the present invention is directed to replicable recombinant cloning vehicles comprising a nucleic acid sequence which codes for a plant 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, to modified host cells transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence of the invention.

  4. Mechanism and inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    Murkin, Andrew S; Manning, Kathryn A; Kholodar, Svetlana A

    2014-12-01

    The non-mevalonate or 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is responsible for generating isoprenoid precursors in plants, protozoa, and bacteria. Because this pathway is absent in humans, its enzymes represent potential targets for the development of herbicides and antibiotics. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR) is a particularly attractive target that catalyzes the pathway's first committed step: the sequential isomerization and NADPH-dependent reduction of DXP to MEP. This article provides a comprehensive review of the mechanistic and structural investigations on DXR, including its discovery and validation as a drug target, elucidation of its chemical and kinetic mechanisms, characterization of inhibition by the natural antibiotic fosmidomycin, and identification of structural features that provide the molecular basis for inhibition of and catalysis. PMID:24998420

  5. 1-Deoxy-d-Xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase (IspC) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: towards Understanding Mycobacterial Resistance to Fosmidomycin

    Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Schaeffer, Merrill L.; Bailey, Ann Marie; Testa, Charles A.; Scherman, Hataichanok; Crick, Dean C.

    2005-01-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (IspC) catalyzes the first committed step in the mevalonate-independent isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthetic pathway and is a potential drug target in some pathogenic bacteria. The antibiotic fosmidomycin has been shown to inhibit IspC in a number of organisms and is active against most gram-negative bacteria but not gram positives, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, even though the mevalonate-independent pathway is the sole isopentenyl dipho...

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the gene encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg

    Juan Liu; Yanhong Xu; Liang Liang; Jianhe Wei

    2015-06-01

    The major constituents of agarwood oils are sesquiterpenes that are obtained from isoprenoid precursors through the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the cytosolic mevalonate pathway. In this study, a novel full-length cDNA of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), which was the second key enzyme in the plastid MEP pathway of sesquiterpenes biosynthesis was isolated from the stem of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg by the methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique for the first time, and named as AsDXR. The full-length cDNA of AsDXR was 1768 bp, containing a 1437 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51.859 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.29. Comparative and bioinformatic analysis of the deduced AsDXR protein showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species, especially Theobroma cacao and Gossypium barbadense, and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, and extended pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif owned by all plant DXRs. Southern blot analysis indicated that AsDXR belonged to a small gene family. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that AsDXR expressed strongly in root and stem, but weakly in leaf. Additionally, AsDXR expression was found to be activated by exogenous elicitor of MeJA (methyl jasmonate). The contents of three sesquiterpenes ($\\alpha$-guaiene, $\\alpha$-humulene and $\\delta$-guaiene) were significantly induced by MeJA. This study enables us to further elucidate the role of AsDXR in the biosynthesis of agarwood sesquiterpenes in A. sinensis at the molecular level.

  7. Design of Potential Bisubstrate Inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase (Dxr)—Evidence of a Novel Binding Mode

    San Jose, Géraldine; Jackson, Emily R.; Uh, Eugene; Johny, Chinchu; Haymond, Amanda; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Boshoff, Helena I.; Couch, Robin D.; Dowd, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    In most bacteria, the nonmevalonate pathway is used to synthesize isoprene units. Dxr, the second step in the pathway, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reductive isomerization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP). Dxr is inhibited by natural products fosmidomycin and FR900098, which bind in the DXP binding site. These compounds, while potent inhibitors of Dxr, lack whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) due to their polarity. ...

  8. Design of Potential Bisubstrate Inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase (Dxr)-Evidence of a Novel Binding Mode.

    San Jose, Géraldine; Jackson, Emily R; Uh, Eugene; Johny, Chinchu; Haymond, Amanda; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Boshoff, Helena I; Couch, Robin D; Dowd, Cynthia S

    2013-07-01

    In most bacteria, the nonmevalonate pathway is used to synthesize isoprene units. Dxr, the second step in the pathway, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reductive isomerization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP). Dxr is inhibited by natural products fosmidomycin and FR900098, which bind in the DXP binding site. These compounds, while potent inhibitors of Dxr, lack whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) due to their polarity. Our goal was to use the Mtb Dxr-fosmidomycin co-crystal structure to design bisubstrate ligands to bind to both the DXP and NADPH sites. Such compounds would be expected to demonstrate improved whole cell activity due to increased lipophilicity. Two series of compounds were designed and synthesized. Compounds from both series inhibited Mtb Dxr. The most potent compound (8) has an IC50 of 17.8 µM. Analysis shows 8 binds to Mtb Dxr via a novel, non-bisubstrate mechanism. Further, the diethyl ester of 8 inhibits Mtb growth making this class of compounds interesting lead molecules in the search for new antitubercular agents. PMID:23914289

  9. 烟草5-磷酸脱氧木酮糖还原异构酶基因(dxr)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerases Gene (dxr) in Nicotina tabacum

    朱晓宇; 王景; 赵二卫; 姚姗姗; 崔红

    2011-01-01

    以烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)栽培品种K326为材料,采用RT-PCR技术,克隆了萜类代谢关键酶烟草5-磷酸脱氧木酮糖还原异构酶(dxr)的cDNA片段.该基因编码区长1422 bp,编码473个氨基酸残基.利用Clustal W(1.82)和Bioedit软件,对烟草与番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)、长春花(Catharanthus roseus)、金鱼草(A ntirrhinum majus)、薄荷(Mentha piperita)、玉米(Zea mays)、拟南芥(A rabidopsis thaliana)、念珠藻(Nostoc sp.)等物种dar基因的同源性进行分析,其氨基酸同源性分别达到93.6%、87.9%、86.3%、84.6%、84.2%、82.9%和53.5%.原核表达结果证明,该基因编码蛋白的分子量约为50 kD,与氨基酸序列估算相符合.组织表达特异性分析表明,dxr基因在烟草组织中的表达强弱为花>叶>茎>腺毛>种子>根,在花和叶片中的表达量占优势.该结果对烟草萜类代谢的分子调控和品质改良具有重要的参考价值.%Isoprenoid biosynthesis via mvalonate-independent pathway is very important to tobacco resistance and leaf quality. 1-deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerases (dxr) is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, which is the precusor for monoterpenoid, diterpenoid and tetratepenoid compounds. To regulate the terpenoid metabolism pathway for tobacco improvement, some important genes such as dxr should be studied firstly. In this paper, dxr gene was cloned successfully from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar K326 leaf by RT-PCR. The cDNA code region was 1 422 bp long and encoding 437 amino acids. Sequence analysis by Clustal W declared that this fragment was highly homologous to dxr gene of other species. It shared 93.6% amino acid homologous to Lycopersicon esculentum, 87.9% to Catharanthus roseus, 86.3% to Antirrhinum majus,84.6% to Mentha piperita, 84.2% to Zea mays, 82.9% to Arabidopsis thaliana, and 53.5% to Nostoc sp.PCC7120. The expression vector pET21b-dxr was constructed and expressed in

  10. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Mei Han

    Full Text Available In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, a new (type I DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms, DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  11. Enzyme Inhibitor Studies Reveal Complex Control of Methyl-D-Erythritol 4-Phosphate (MEP) Pathway Enzyme Expression in Catharanthus roseus

    Han, Mei; Heppel, Simon C.; Su, Tao; Bogs, Jochen; Zu, Yuangang; An, Zhigang; Rausch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), a new (type I) DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS) and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR)), respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms), DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation. PMID:23650515

  12. Metabolic engineering of essential oil yield and composition in mint by altering expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase and menthofuran synthase

    Mahmoud, Soheil S.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was independently transformed with a homologous sense version of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase cDNA and with a homologous antisense version of the menthofuran synthase cDNA, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Two groups of transgenic plants were regenerated in the reductoisomerase experiments, one of which remained normal in appearance and development; another was deficient in chlorophyll production and grew slowly. Transgenic plants ...

  13. Liberia MEP WMS

    US Agency for International Development — L-MEP WMS provides USAID, Implementing Partners, and L-MEP Staff the ability to view M view sector specific trend or base information; and answer questions about...

  14. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes and methods of use

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Li, Yougen; Liao, Der-Ing; O' Keefe, Daniel P.; Minshull, Jeremy Stephen; Rothman, Steven Cary; Tobias, Alexander Vincent

    2016-07-12

    Provided herein are polypeptides having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity as well as microbial host cells comprising such polypeptides. Polypeptides provided herein may be used in biosynthetic pathways, including, but not limited to, isobutanol biosynthetic pathways.

  15. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes and methods of use

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Li, Yougen; Liao, Der-Ing; O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Minshull, Jeremy Stephen; Rothman, Steven Cary; Tobias, Alexander Vincent

    2015-10-27

    Provided herein are polypeptides having ketol-aid reductoisomerase activity as well as microbial host cells comprising such polypeptides. Polypeptides provided herein may be used in biosynthetic pathways, including, but not limited to, isobutanol biosynthetic pathways.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  17. Setting MEPS for electronic products

    When analysing price, performance and efficiency data for 15 consumer electronic and information and communication technology products, we found that in general price did not relate to the efficiency of the product. Prices of electronic products with comparable performance decreased over time. For products where the data allowed fitting the relationship, we found an exponential decrease in price with an average time constant of −0.30 [1/year], meaning that every year the product became 26% cheaper on average. The results imply that the classical approach of setting minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) by means of life cycle cost calculations cannot be applied to electronic products. Therefore, an alternative approach based on the improvement of efficiency over time and the variation in efficiency of products on the market, is presented. The concept of a policy action window can provide guidance for the decision on whether setting MEPS for a certain product is appropriate. If the (formal) procedure for setting MEPS takes longer than the policy action window, this means that the efficiency improvement will also be achieved without setting MEPS. We found short, i.e. less than three years, policy action windows for graphic cards, network attached storage products, network switches and televisions. - Highlights: • For electronic consumer products price does not relate to efficiency. • Average price decrease of selected electronic products is 26 % per year. • We give an alternative approach to life cycle cost calculations for setting MEPS. • The policy action window indicates whether setting MEPS is appropriate

  18. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. Purification and characterization of ribitol-5-phosphate and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenases from strains of Lactobacillus casei.

    Hausman, S Z; London, J

    1987-01-01

    A simple three-step procedure is described which yields electrophoretically homogeneous preparations of ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase. The former enzyme is a 115,000-molecular-weight protein composed of two subunits of identical size and is specific for its substrate, ribitol. The xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase exists as a tetrameric protein with a molecular weight of 180,000; this enzyme oxidizes the phosphate esters of both xylitol and D-arabitol...

  20. Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS and NHEA, 2007, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review, provides a...

  1. SDE Plus, SDE and MEP. Annual review 2012; SDE+, SDE en MEP. Jaarbericht 2012

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This annual report describes the applications for SDE subsidy (renewable energy support scheme) in the period 2008-2012, the new SDE Plus which starts in 2013, and the MEP transition scheme (MEP stands for 'Environmental quality of electricity production', predecessor of SDE for the period 2003-2006) and applications from the MEP scheme [Dutch] Het jaarbericht 2012 voor de SDE+, SDE en MEP presenteert de resultaten van de regeling Stimulering Duurzame Energieproductie (SDE+ vanaf 2013 en SDE, 2008-2012) en de voorganger van de SDE, de subsidieregeling Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie.

  2. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  3. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase B Knockdown Compromises Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Form Infectivity

    Inês Loureiro; Joana Faria; Christine Clayton; Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro; Nuno Santarém; Nilanjan Roy; Anabela Cordeiro-da-Siva; Joana Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme involved in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, and catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-ribulose 5-phosphate. Trypanosomatids, including the agent of African sleeping sickness namely Trypanosoma brucei, have a type B ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. This enzyme is absent from humans, which have a structurally unrelated ribose 5-phosphate isomerase type A, and therefore has been proposed as an attractive dru...

  4. Four Thruster Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Cubesat Board Demonstration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cubesat Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) system module prototype will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate that a four MEP thruster system can...

  5. AutoCAD MEP 2009 Anpassad verktygspalett

    Johansson, Magnus; Klasa, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Rapporten handlar om examensprojektet som utförts av Magnus Johansson och Thomas Klasa under våren 2009. Man har under åtta veckors tid arbetat med att hjälpa företaget LBElkonsult AB i Mölndal med att ta fram en specialanpassad verktygspalett i datorprogrammet AutoCAD MEP 2009. I rapporten finns de olika steg som genomförts för att nå det önskade slutresultatet. Allt från förstudier och själva arbetet i AutoCAD MEP 2009 till finjusteringarna som avslutningsvis gjordes på den blivande slutpro...

  6. Morton's foot and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency: genetically linked traits.

    Nichols, Trent W; Gaiteri, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin B6 is an essential vitamin needed for many chemical reactions in the human body. It exists as several vitamins forms but pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the phosphorylated form needed for transamination, deamination, and decarboxylation. PLP is important in the production of neurotransmitters, acts as a Schiff base and is essential in the metabolism of homocysteine, a toxic amino acid involved in cardiovascular disease, stroke, thrombotic and Alzheimer's disease. This report announces the connection between a deficit of PLP with a genetically linked physical foot form known as the Morton's foot. Morton's foot has been associated with fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome. Another gene mutation methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFr) is now being recognized much commonly than previous with chronic fatigue, chronic Lyme diseases and as "the missing link" in other chronic diseases. PLP deficiency also plays a role in impaired glucose tolerance and may play a much bigger role in the obesity, diabetes, fatty liver and metabolic syndrome. Without the Schiff-base of PLP acting as an electron sink, storing electrons and dispensing them in the mitochondria, free radical damage occurs! The recognition that a phenotypical expression (Morton's foot) of a gene resulting in deficiency of an important cofactor enzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate will hopefully alert physicians and nutritionist to these phenomena. Supplementation with PLP, L5-MTHF, B12 and trimethylglycine should be used in those patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and/or MTHFR gene mutation. PMID:25441836

  7. Inactive mutants of human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase: a possible role for a noncatalytic pyridoxal 5'-phosphate tight binding site.

    Ghatge, Mohini S; Karve, Sayali S; David, Tanya M S; Ahmed, Mostafa H; Musayev, Faik N; Cunningham, Kendra; Schirch, Verne; Safo, Martin K

    2016-05-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a cofactor for many vitamin B6-requiring enzymes that are important for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) is one of two enzymes that produce PLP. Some 16 known mutations in human PNPO (hPNPO), including R95C and R229W, lead to deficiency of PLP in the cell and have been shown to cause neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (NEE). This disorder has no effective treatment, and is often fatal unless treated with PLP. In this study, we show that R95C hPNPO exhibits a 15-fold reduction in affinity for the FMN cofactor, a 71-fold decrease in affinity for the substrate PNP, a 4.9-fold decrease in specific activity, and a 343-fold reduction in catalytic activity, compared to the wild-type enzyme. We have reported similar findings for R229W hPNPO. This report also shows that wild-type, R95C and R229W hPNPO bind PLP tightly at a noncatalytic site and transfer it to activate an apo-B6 enzyme into the catalytically active holo-form. We also show for the first time that hPNPO forms specific interactions with several B6 enzymes with dissociation constants ranging from 0.3 to 12.3 μm. Our results suggest a possible in vivo role for the tight binding of PLP in hPNPO, whether wild-type or variant, by protecting the very reactive PLP, and transferring this PLP directly to activate apo-B6 enzymes. PMID:27419045

  8. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  9. Molecular design, synthesis and biological activities of amidines as new ketol-acid reductoisomerase inhibitors

    Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Jian Guo Wang; Yi Ma; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Diamidine (A) was identified in our in vitro bio-assay as a possible inhibitor of ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) from the ACD database search based on the known three-dimensional crystal structure of KARI. An investigation on interaction of A on KARI active sites, led to the design and synthesis of 15 novel monoamidines. Some of those showed better biological activity than A on rice KARI (in vitro) and in greenhouse herbicidal tests (in vivo). The structure-biological activity relationship was investigated, which provides valuable information to further study of potential KARI inhibitors.

  10. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Summary Data Tables

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Summary Data Tables Data collected through MEPS are used to generate tables with frequently used summary statistics. These tables are available here for both the...

  11. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118

    The crystal structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase has been determined to 1.72 Å resolution and is presented with a brief comparison to other known ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A structures. The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β d-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography

  12. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation. PMID:27088325

  13. Biosynthesis of riboflavin. Enzymatic formation of the xylene moiety from [14C]ribulose 5-phosphate.

    Nielsen, P; Neuberger, G; Floss, H G; Bacher, A

    1984-02-14

    We have studied the enzymatic formation of the xylene ring of riboflavin using cell extracts from the flavinogenic yeast Candida guilliermondii. 5-Amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione or its 5'-phosphate could serve as substrates. In addition, a pentose phosphate or pentulose phosphate was required. Experiments with [14C]ribulose 5-phosphate gave evidence for the incorporation of the ribulose carbon atoms except C-4 into the xylene ring of the vitamin. PMID:6546684

  14. Preparation and Purification of Xylitol-5-Phosphate from a Cell Extract of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16

    Trahan, L.; Néron, S.; Bareil, M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple procedure which yields pure xylitol-5-phosphate is described. A cell extract of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 from a 6-liter culture was used to synthesize up to 70 mg of xylitol-5-phosphate overnight from xylitol and phosphoenolpyruvate via a xylitol phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase system with a 53% yield. Centrifugation, filtration, precipitation as a barium salt, and ion-exchange batch chromatography permitted recovery of nearly 90% of the phosphorylated product synthesized. Th...

  15. Host cells and methods for producing 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) and/or a DXP derived compound

    Kirby, James; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Nishimoto, Minobu; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides for a genetically modified host cell capable of producing 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate or 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) (12), and optionally one or more DXP derived compounds, comprising: (a) a mutant RibB, or functional variant thereof, capable of catalyzing xylulose 5-phosphate and/or ribulose 5-phosphate to DXP, or (b) a YajO, or functional variant thereof, and a XylB, or functional variant thereof.

  16. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk)

  17. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable reso...

  18. Structural mechanism of transcription regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux operon mepRA by the MarR family repressor MepR.

    Birukou, Ivan; Seo, Susan M; Schindler, Bryan D; Kaatz, Glenn W; Brennan, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The multidrug efflux pump MepA is a major contributor to multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. MepR, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family, represses mepA and its own gene. Here, we report the structure of a MepR-mepR operator complex. Structural comparison of DNA-bound MepR with 'induced' apoMepR reveals the large conformational changes needed to allow the DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix motifs to interact with the consecutive major and minor grooves of the GTTAG signature sequence. Intriguingly, MepR makes no hydrogen bonds to major groove nucleobases. Rather, recognition-helix residues Thr60, Gly61, Pro62 and Thr63 make sequence-specifying van der Waals contacts with the TTAG bases. Removing these contacts dramatically affects MepR-DNA binding activity. The wings insert into the flanking minor grooves, whereby residue Arg87, buttressed by Asp85, interacts with the O2 of T4 and O4' ribosyl oxygens of A23 and T4. Mutating Asp85 and Arg87, both conserved throughout the MarR family, markedly affects MepR repressor activity. The His14':Arg59 and Arg10':His35:Phe108 interaction networks stabilize the DNA-binding conformation of MepR thereby contributing significantly to its high affinity binding. A structure-guided model of the MepR-mepA operator complex suggests that MepR dimers do not interact directly and cooperative binding is likely achieved by DNA-mediated allosteric effects. PMID:24293644

  19. Mutations in Escherichia coli aceE and ribB Genes Allow Survival of Strains Defective in the First Step of the Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathway

    Jordi Perez-Gil; Eva Maria Uros; Susanna Sauret-Güeto; Maria Lois, L.; James Kirby; Minobu Nishimoto; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Jay D Keasling; Albert Boronat; Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion

    2012-01-01

    A functional 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is required for isoprenoid biosynthesis and hence survival in Escherichia coli and most other bacteria. In the first two steps of the pathway, MEP is produced from the central metabolic intermediates pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) by the activity of the enzymes DXP synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR). Because the MEP pathway is absent from humans, it was proposed as a pro...

  20. Expression of mep50 in adult and embryos of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Cheng, Nana; Guo, Maomao; Chang, Pei; Zhang, Xueyan; Zhang, Runshuai; Qi, Chao; Zhong, Xueping; Zhou, Qingchun; Zhao, Haobin

    2016-06-01

    Protein arginine methylation is important for gene regulation and biological processes. Methylosome protein 50 (Mep50) is identified as a partner of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (Prmt5), a major enzyme capable of symmetric dimethylation, in mammals and Xenopus. The isolation and characterization of medaka mep50 were reported in this paper. Medaka Mep50 is a homolog of human MEP50 with six WD40 domains. Medaka mep50 was ubiquitously expressed in the adult tissues and had maternal origin with continuous and dynamical expression during embryonic development detected by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. A strong interaction of medaka Mep50 and Prmt5 was shown by yeast two hybridization. The expression pattern of mep50 is similar to that of prmt5 in medaka. The results suggested that medaka Mep50 could be a partner of Prmt5 and might play major roles in a variety of tissues in medaka. PMID:26749004

  1. Direct and indirect effects of RNA interference against pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase genes in Bombyx mori.

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds (vitamers), among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme involved in a high diversity of biochemical reactions. Humans and animals obtain B6 vitamers from diet, and synthesize pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. Currently, little is known on how pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is supplied to meet their requirement in terms of cofactor. Bombyx mori is a large silk-secreting insect, in which protein metabolism is most active, and the vitamin B6 demand is high. In this study, we successfully down-regulated the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase by body cavity injection of synthesized double-stranded small interfering RNA to 5th instar larvae of Bombyx mori, and analyzed the gene transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, phosphoserine aminotransferase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Results show that the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase has a greater impact on the gene transcription of enzymes using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor in Bombyx mori. Our study suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis and dynamic balance may be regulated by genetic networks. PMID:27106120

  2. LuxS-independent formation of AI-2 from ribulose-5-phosphate

    Hardie Kim R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many bacteria, the signal molecule AI-2 is generated from its precursor S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme LuxS. However, generation of AI-2-like activity has also been reported for organisms lacking the luxS gene and the existence of alternative pathways for AI-2 formation in Escherichia coli has recently been predicted by stochastic modelling. Here, we investigate the possibility that spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate could be responsible for AI-2 generation in the absence of luxS. Results Buffered solutions of ribulose-5-phosphate, but not ribose-5-phosphate, were found to contain high levels of AI-2 activity following incubation at concentrations similar to those reported in vivo. To test whether this process contributes to AI-2 formation by bacterial cells in vivo, an improved Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used. In agreement with previous studies, culture supernatants of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus luxS mutants were found not to contain detectable levels of AI-2 activity. However, low activities were detected in an E. coli pgi-eda-edd-luxS mutant, a strain which degrades glucose entirely via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with ribulose-5-phosphate as an obligatory intermediate. Conclusion Our results suggest that LuxS-independent formation of AI-2, via spontaneous conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate, may indeed occur in vivo. It does not contribute to AI-2 formation in wildtype E. coli and S. aureus under the conditions tested, but may be responsible for the AI-2-like activities reported for other organisms lacking the luxS gene.

  3. Effect of exogenous hormones on transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic enzymes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yang, HuanHuan; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B6 includes 6 pyridine derivatives, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. Animals acquire their vitamin B6 from food. Through a salvage pathway, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is synthesized from pyridoxal, pyridoxine or pyridoxamine, in a series of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. The regulation of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte biosynthesis and pyridoxal 5'-phospahte homeostasis are at the center of study for vitamin B6 nutrition. How pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones has not been reported so far. Our previous studies have shown that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate level in silkworm larva displays cyclic developmental changes. In the current study, effects of exogenous juvenile hormone and molting hormone on the transcription level of genes coding for the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte were examined. Results show that pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase are regulated at the transcription level by development and are responsive to hormones. Molting hormone stimulates the expression of genes coding for pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, and juvenile hormone appears to work against molting hormone. Whether pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones in general is an important issue for further studies. PMID:26780217

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ), a lipid signalling enigma.

    Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Clarke, Jonathan H; Irvine, Robin F

    2016-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are an important family of enzymes, whose physiological roles are being teased out by a variety of means. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) is especially intriguing as its in vitro activity is very low. Here we review what is known about this enzyme and discuss some recent advances towards an understanding of its physiology. Additionally, the effects of the ATP-competitive inhibitor I-OMe Tyrphostin AG-538 on all three mammalian PI5P4Ks was explored, including two PI5P4Kγ mutants with altered ATP- or PI5P-binding sites. The results suggest a strategy for targeting non-ATP binding sites on inositol lipid kinases. PMID:26710750

  5. Positive outcome following early diagnosis and treatment of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency: a case report.

    Porri, Stephanie; Fluss, Joel; Plecko, Barbara; Paschke, Eduard; Korff, Christian M; Kern, Ilse

    2014-02-01

    Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive, vitamin-responsive metabolic disorder causing refractory neonatal seizures that respond to the administration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). There are currently few case studies that have documented the functional outcome in PNPO deficiency, which remains poor in the majority of cases. We present the case of a male infant born at 35 weeks gestation who promptly responded to oral administration of PLP, following resistance to common anticonvulsive therapy and to a pyridoxine trial. Neurological outcome at 21 months is favorable and illustrates the importance of standardized vitamin trials in the acute setting of "therapy-resistant" neonatal seizures. Early recognition of PNPO deficiency and appropriate intervention might be associated with a more favorable outcome than initially considered. PMID:24297574

  6. Structural characterization of a ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis

    Leibly David J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate. This family of enzymes naturally occurs in two distinct classes, RpiA and RpiB, which play an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway and nucleotide and co-factor biogenesis. Results Although RpiB occurs predominantly in bacteria, here we report crystal structures of a putative RpiB from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. A 1.9 Å resolution apo structure was solved by combined molecular replacement and single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD phasing using a crystal soaked briefly in a solution containing a high concentration of iodide ions. RpiB from C. immitis contains modest sequence and high structural homology to other known RpiB structures. A 1.8 Å resolution phosphate-bound structure demonstrates phosphate recognition and charge stabilization by a single positively charged residue whereas other members of this family use up to five positively charged residues to contact the phosphate of ribose-5-phosphate. A 1.7 Å resolution structure was obtained in which the catalytic base of C. immitis RpiB, Cys76, appears to form a weakly covalent bond with the central carbon of malonic acid with a bond distance of 2.2 Å. This interaction may mimic that formed by the suicide inhibitor iodoacetic acid with RpiB. Conclusion The C. immitis RpiB contains the same fold and similar features as other members of this class of enzymes such as a highly reactive active site cysteine residue, but utilizes a divergent phosphate recognition strategy and may recognize a different substrate altogether.

  7. It takes two to tango: defining an essential second active site in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase.

    Cyril Moccand

    Full Text Available The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2 that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reaction, a complicated mechanism is anticipated. Recently, the individual steps along the reaction co-ordinate are beginning to be unraveled. In particular, the binding of the pentose substrate and the first steps of the reaction have been elucidated but it is not known if the latter part of the chemistry, involving the triose sugar, takes place in the same or a disparate site. Here, we demonstrate through the use of enzyme assays, enzyme kinetics, and mutagenesis studies that indeed a second site is involved in binding the triose sugar and moreover, is the location of the final vitamin product, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, we show that product release is triggered by the presence of a PLP-dependent enzyme. Finally, we provide evidence that a single arginine residue of the C terminus of Pdx1 is responsible for coordinating co-operativity in this elaborate protein machinery.

  8. Da antiga à nova Filologia: o Projecto MEP-BPEDig.

    Gonçalves, Maria Filomena; Banza, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Neste artigo faz-se a descrição do projecto "Memória (Meta)linguística na Biblioteca Pública de Évora: Para uma Biblioteca Digital (MEP-BPEDig)", projecto que se centra em fontes existentes na bicentenária Biblioteca Pública de Évora. O projecto desenvolve-se no âmbito do CIDEHUS-UÉ e visa disponibilizar fontes relevantes para a História e Historiografia do Português.

  9. Did the Economic Impact of CCCTB affect the Voting Behaviour of MEPs?

    ANNELIES ROGGEMAN; ISABELLE VERLEYEN; PHILIPPE VAN CAUWENBERGE; CARINE COPPENS

    2014-01-01

    On 19 April 2012, the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) voted on the European Commission’s proposal for a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). We exploit a unique research setting which was created by an economic impact assessment of CCCTB that was made available to the MEPs. Using regression analysis, we investigate if the voting behaviour of MEPs was influenced by the predicted economic impact of CCCTB on their country. Our results show that, even after controlling for pa...

  10. Acetate selective fluorescent turn-on sensors derived using vitamin B6 cofactor pyridoxal-5-phosphate

    Sharma, Darshna; Kuba, Aman; Thomas, Rini; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Kuwar, Anil; Choi, Heung-Jin; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2016-03-01

    Two new Schiff base receptors have been synthesized by condensation of pyridoxal-5-phosphate with 2-aminophenol (L1) or aniline (L2). In DMSO, the receptors showed both chromogenic and 'turn-on' fluorescence responses selectively in the presence of AcO- and F-. However, in mixed DMSO-H2O medium, the receptors showed AcO- selective 'turn-on' fluorescence without any interference from other tested anions including F-. The detection limit for AcO- was found to be 7.37 μM and 22.9 μM using the receptors L1 and L2, respectively.

  11. Long-term effect of magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate in rabbits developing hypercholesterolemia.

    Panagiotopoulos, T; Ketelsen, U P; Schmidt, A; Heuck, C C

    1986-08-01

    36 male rabbits were fed with a diet enriched with 20 g cholesterol/kg for a period of 8 weeks under a strict daily dietary control. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate (MPPG, Sedalipid) was supplemented to the diet at different quantities. Hypercholesterolemia developed later and less pronounced in animals receiving a medium or high dose of MPPG. Microscopical analysis indicated a protective effect of MPPG on calcium deposition in the aorta. The fatty acid pattern in serum showed only minor differences and was unchanged in liver extracts in animals supplemented with MPPG. This observation suggest that MPPG may act on the mechanism of cholesterol absorption in the intestine. PMID:3778558

  12. The MEPS server for identifying protein conformational epitopes

    Castrignanò Tiziana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most interesting problems in molecular immunology is epitope mapping, i.e. the identification of the regions of interaction between an antigen and an antibody. The solution to this problem, even if approximate, would help in designing experiments to precisely map the residues involved in the interaction and could be instrumental both in designing peptides able to mimic the interacting surface of the antigen and in understanding where immunologically important regions are located in its three-dimensional structure. From an experimental point of view, both genetically encoded and chemically synthesised peptide libraries can be used to identify sequences recognized by a given antibody. The problem then arises of which region of a folded protein the selected peptides correspond to. Results We have developed a method able to find the surface region of a protein that can be effectively mimicked by a peptide, given the structure of the protein and the maximum number of side chains deemed to be required for recognition. The method is implemented as a publicly available server. It can also find and report all peptide sequences of a specified length that can mimic the surface of a given protein and store them in a database. The immediate application of the server is the mapping of antibody epitopes, however the system is sufficiently flexible for allowing other questions to be asked, for example one can compare the peptides representing the surface of two proteins known to interact with the same macromolecule to find which is the most likely interacting region. Conclusion We believe that the MEPS server, available at http://www.caspur.it/meps, will be a useful tool for immunologists and structural and computational biologists. We plan to use it ourselves to implement a database of "surface mimicking peptides" for all proteins of known structure and proteins that can be reliably modelled by comparative modelling.

  13. 75 FR 33766 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Availability of Funds for Projects To Develop Client...

    2010-06-15

    ... or business model, the benefit of this integration and how the approach can expand service capability... this integration and how the approach can expand service capability and capacity of the MEP system. The....S. based manufacturing firms. NIST MEP invites proposals from eligible organizations for projects...

  14. Evidence for a reactive cysteine at the nucleotide binding site of spinach ribulose-5-phosphate kinase

    Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from spinach was rapidly inactivated by N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate in a bimolecular fashion with a k2 of 2.0 m-1 s-1 at 20C and pH 8.0. Ribulose 5-phosphate had little effect on the rate of inactivation, whereas complete protection was afforded by ADP or ATP. The extent of incorporation as determined with 14C-labeled reagent was about 1 molar equivalent per subunit in the presence of ATP with full retention of enzymatic activity, and about 2 molar equivalents per subunit in the completely inactivated enzyme. Amino acid analyses of enzyme derivatized with 14C-labeled reagent reveal that all of the covalently incorporated reagent was associated with cysteinyl residues. Hence, two sulfhydryls are reactive, but the inactivation correlates with alkylation of one cysteinyl residue at or near the enzyme's nucleotide binding site. The kinase was also extremely sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagents 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and N-ethylmaleimide. The reactive sulfhydryl groups are likely to be those generated by reduction of a disulfide during activation. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  15. Isotope effect studies of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii

    The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent histidine decarboxylase from Morganella morganii shows a nitrogen isotope effect k14/k15 = 0.9770 +/- 0.0021, a carbon isotope effect k12/k13 = 1.0308 +/- 0.0006, and a carbon isotope effect for L-[α-2H]histidine of 1.0333 +/- 0.0001 at pH 6.3, 370C. These results indicate that the overall decarboxylation rate is limited jointly by the rate of Schiff base interchange and by the rate of decarboxylation. Although the observed isotope effects are quite different from those for the analogous glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli, the intrinsic isotope effects for the two enzymes are essentially the same. The difference in observed isotope effects occurs because of a roughly twofold difference in the partitioning of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-substrate Schiff base between decarboxylation and Schiff base interchange. The observed nitrogen isotope effect requires that the imine nitrogen in this Schiff base is protonated. Comparison of carbon isotope effects for deuteriated and undeuteriated substrates reveals that the deuterium isotope effect on the decarboxylation step is about 1.20; thus, in the transition state for the decarboxylation step, the carbon-carbon bond is about two-thirds broken

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Streptococcus mutans

    Two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from S. mutans have been produced in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to high resolutions suitable for crystallographic analyses. Study of the enzymes from sugar metabolic pathways may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the human oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Bioinformatics, biochemical and crystallization methods were used to characterize and understand the function of two putative ribose-5-phosphate isomerases: SMU1234 and SMU2142. The proteins were cloned and constructed with N-terminal His tags. Protein purification was performed by Ni2+-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. The crystals of SUM1234 diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.97, b = 98.27, c = 101.09 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The optimized SMU2142 crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7, b = 54.1, c = 86.5 Å, α = 74.2, β = 73.5, γ = 83.7°. Initial phasing of both proteins was attempted by molecular replacement; the structure of SMU1234 could easily be solved, but no useful results were obtained for SMU2142. Therefore, SeMet-labelled SMU2142 will be prepared for phasing

  17. Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase inhibits LC3 processing and basal autophagy.

    Heintze, Jacob; Costa, Joana R; Weber, Melanie; Ketteler, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy and cellular metabolism are tightly linked processes, but how individual metabolic enzymes regulate the process of autophagy is not well understood. This study implicates ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPIA), a key regulator of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the control of autophagy. We used a dual gene deletion strategy, combining shRNA-mediated knockdown studies with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Knockdown of RPIA by shRNA or genomic deletion by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, results in an increase of ATG4B-mediated LC3 processing and in the appearance of LC3-positive autophagosomes in cells. Increased LC3 processing upon knockdown of RPIA can be reversed by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. The results are consistent with a model in which RPIA suppresses autophagy and LC3 processing by modulation of redox signaling. PMID:27328773

  18. Binding and uptake of 125iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of α-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of 125iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants α-tocopherol (α-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called 'scavenger receptor' is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>α-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  19. Binding and uptake of 125iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: comparison of the effects of alpha-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate.

    Selmer, D; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of 125iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called "scavenger receptor" is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG > PP > alpha-Toc > Prob. PMID:9090072

  20. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  1. 78 FR 21109 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Center for Nebraska; Availability of Funds

    2013-04-09

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Center for... applicants for funding projects that provide manufacturing extension services to primarily small- and medium... obtained by contacting Diane Henderson, National Institute of Standards and Technology,...

  2. 77 FR 12563 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South Dakota and Kentucky; Availability of...

    2012-03-01

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South... eligible proposers for funding projects to provide manufacturing extension services to primarily small- and... Diane Henderson, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Manufacturing Extension...

  3. 77 FR 23462 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP...

    2012-04-19

    ...; Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Management Information Reporting AGENCY: National Institute of... McMahon, National Institute of Standards and Technology--Manufacturing Extension Partnership, 100... Deirdre.mcmahon@nist.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Sponsored by NIST, the...

  4. APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY: MEPS AND LC-MS/MS FOR DETERMINATION OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS

    Said, Rana

    2010-01-01

    Bioanalysis most often requires an extraction procedure to isolate the target compounds from a complex matrix. The aim of this work was to evaluate microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) performance as a sample preparation technique by developing new analytical methods for different categories of compounds utilizing MEPS in combination with LC-MS/MS. The overall goal was to provide high throughput methods that can offer automation, on-line coupling to mass spectrometry and...

  5. Hamsters vaccinated with Ace-mep-7 DNA vaccine produced protective immunity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection.

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Jaros, Sławomir; Bąska, Piotr; Cappello, Michael; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Hookworms are intestinal nematodes that infect up to 740 million people, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. Adult worms suck blood from damaged vessels in the gut mucosa, digesting hemoglobin using aspartic-, cysteine- and metalloproteases. Targeting aspartic hemoglobinases using drugs or vaccines is therefore a promising approach to ancylostomiasis control. Based on homology to metalloproteases from other hookworm species, we cloned the Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 7 cDNA (Ace-mep-7). The corresponding Ace-MEP-7 protein has a predicted molecular mass of 98.8 kDa. The homology to metallopeptidases from other hookworm species and its predicted transmembrane region support the hypothesis that Ace-MEP-7 may be involved in hemoglobin digestion in the hookworm gastrointestinal tract, especially that our analyses show expression of Ace-mep-7 in the adult stage of the parasite. Immunization of Syrian golden hamsters with Ace-mep-7 cDNA resulted in 50% (p < 0.01) intestinal worm burden reduction. Additionally 78% (p < 0.05) egg count reduction in both sexes was observed. These results suggest that immunization with Ace-mep-7 may contribute to reduction in egg count released into the environment during the A. ceylanicum infection. PMID:26795262

  6. Radiometric measurement of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ribose 5-phosphate by enzymatic procedures

    Methods for the measurement of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) and ribose 5-phosphate (R-5-P) in tissues have been developed. The lability of these compounds during tissue extraction and the recovery of standards from tissue preparations have been examined. Enzymatic conversion of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate to [14C]AMP in the presence of labeled adenine or formation of [14C]GMP ([14C]IMP) in the presence of labeled guanine or hypoxanthine was accomplished in the first step. In the second step, the labeled product was separated from the substrate. For the measurement of R-5-P, the first step included phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, as well as the appropriate substrate and effector (ATP and Pi), in combination with adenine phosphoribosyl transferase. The product [14C]AMP was measured in three ways: (1) HPLC separation with an on-line radioisotope detector; (2) butanol extraction of the labeled base, and measurement of an aliquot of the aqueous phase in a scintillation counter; (3) filtration of the incubation mixture with chromatographic filter paper disks, which were then counted in a scintillation counter. When [14C]guanine was the substrate, HPLC separation was used because the butanol or paper separation was not adequate. Measurement of 5-125 pmol of PRPP or R-5-P gave a linear response

  7. Inhibitor design for ribonuclease A: the binding of two 5'-phosphate uridine analogues.

    Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Drakou, Christina; Zographos, Spyros E; Kontou, Maria; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2009-07-01

    In the quest for the rational design of selective and potent inhibitors for members of the pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) family of biomedical interest, the binding of uridine 5'-phosphate (U5P) and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) to RNase A have been investigated using kinetic studies and X-ray crystallography. Both nucleotides are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, with K(i) values of 4.0 and 0.65 mM, respectively. They bind to the active site of the enzyme by anchoring two molecules connected to each other by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. While the first of the inhibitor molecules binds with its nucleobase in the pyrimidinyl-binding subsite, the second is bound at the purine-preferring subsite. The unexpected binding of a pyrimidine at the purine-binding subsite has added new important elements to the rational design approach for the discovery of new potent inhibitors of the RNase A superfamily. PMID:19574636

  8. Structural insight for substrate tolerance to 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase from the pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Cao, Thinh-Phat; Kim, Joong-Su; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jin Myung; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Kun Ho; Lee, Sung Haeng

    2016-04-01

    2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) is a class I aldolase that catalyzes aldol condensation of two aldehydes in the active site, which is particularly germane in drug manufacture. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that the active site of DERA is typically loosely packed and displays broader substrate specificity despite sharing conserved folding architecture with other aldolases. The most distinctive structural feature of DERA compared to other aldolases is short and flexible C-terminal region. This region is also responsible for substrate recognition. Therefore, substrate tolerance may be related to the C-terminal structural features of DERA. Here, we determined the crystal structures of full length and C-terminal truncated DERA from Streptococcus suis (SsDERA). In common, both contained the typical (α/β)8 TIM-barrel fold of class I aldolases. Surprisingly, C-terminal truncation resulting in missing the last α9 and β8 secondary elements, allowed DERA to maintain activity comparable to the fulllength enzyme. Specifically, Arg186 and Ser205 residues at the C-terminus appeared mutually supplemental or less indispensible for substrate phosphate moiety recognition. Our results suggest that DERA might adopt a shorter C-terminal region than conventional aldolases during evolution pathway, resulting in a broader range of substrate tolerance through active site flexibility. PMID:27033207

  9. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate reduces hyperlipidaemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Kirsten, R; Heintz, B; Nelson, K; Sieberth, H G; Oremek, G; Hasford, J; Speck, U

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency is often accompanied by hyperlipidaemia and subsequent coronary heart disease. Two groups of 15 patients with serum creatinine greater than 2 mg/100 ml and serum cholesterol less than 250 mg/100 ml were given 3 x 50 mg magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate (MPPG) or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind, randomised study. Total cholesterol in the MPPG group (282.4 mg.100 ml-1) was lower than in the placebo group (354.3 mg.100 ml-1) after 12 weeks of treatment. Triglycerides in the MPPG group were 265.1 mg.100 ml-1 compared to 361.9 mg.100 ml-1. After 12 weeks on MPPG the LDL/HDL ratio of 3.56 was lower than in the placebo group-6.83. Side effects in the MPPG group were similar to those in the placebo group. Thus, MPPG was an effective antihyperlipidaemic agent in patients with renal insufficiency. PMID:3383985

  10. Initiation sites for human DNA replication at a putative ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase gene

    Replication of the human genome requires the activation of thousands of replicons distributed along each one of the chromosomes. Each replicon contains an initiation, or origin, site, at which DNA synthesis begins. However, very little information is known about the nature and positioning of these initiation sites along human chromosomes. We have recently focused our attention to a 1.1 kb region of human chromosome 2 which functioned as an episomal origin in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This region corresponded to the largest exon of a putative ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase gene (RPE). In the present study we have used a real-time PCR-based nascent strand DNA abundance assay to map initiation sites for DNA replication in in vivo human chromosomes around a 13.4 kb region encompassing the putative RPE gene. By applying this analysis to a 1-1.4 kb nascent strand DNA fraction isolated from both normal skin fibroblasts, and the breast cell line MCF10; we have identified five initiation sites within the 13.4 kb region of chromosome 2. The initiation sites appear to map to similar positions in both cell lines and occur outside the coding regions of the putative RPE gene

  11. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a slow tight binding inhibitor of E. coli pyridoxal kinase.

    Mohini S Ghatge

    Full Text Available Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP is a cofactor for dozens of B(6 requiring enzymes. PLP reacts with apo-B(6 enzymes by forming an aldimine linkage with the ε-amino group of an active site lysine residue, thus yielding the catalytically active holo-B(6 enzyme. During protein turnover, the PLP is salvaged by first converting it to pyridoxal by a phosphatase and then back to PLP by pyridoxal kinase. Nonetheless, PLP poses a potential toxicity problem for the cell since its reactive 4'-aldehyde moiety forms covalent adducts with other compounds and non-B(6 proteins containing thiol or amino groups. The regulation of PLP homeostasis in the cell is thus an important, yet unresolved issue. In this report, using site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic, spectroscopic and chromatographic studies we show that pyridoxal kinase from E. coli forms a complex with the product PLP to form an inactive enzyme complex. Evidence is presented that, in the inhibited complex, PLP has formed an aldimine bond with an active site lysine residue during catalytic turnover. The rate of dissociation of PLP from the complex is very slow, being only partially released after a 2-hour incubation with PLP phosphatase. Interestingly, the inactive pyridoxal kinase•PLP complex can be partially reactivated by transferring the tightly bound PLP to an apo-B(6 enzyme. These results open new perspectives on the mechanism of regulation and role of pyridoxal kinase in the Escherichia coli cell.

  12. On the mechanism of Escherichia coli pyridoxal kinase inhibition by pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

    di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Nogués, Isabel; Parroni, Alessia; Tramonti, Angela; Milano, Teresa; Pascarella, Stefano; Contestabile, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the catalytically active form of vitamin B6, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes. In most organisms, PLP is recycled from nutrients and degraded B6-enzymes in a salvage pathway that involves pyridoxal kinase (PLK), pyridoxine phosphate oxidase and phosphatase activities. Regulation of the salvage pathway is poorly understood. Escherichia coli possesses two distinct pyridoxal kinases, PLK1, which is the focus of the present work, and PLK2. From previous studies dating back to thirty years ago, pyridoxal (PL) was shown to inhibit E. coli PLK1 forming a covalent link with the enzyme. This inhibition was proposed to play a regulative role in vitamin B6 metabolism, although its details had never been clarified. Recently, we have shown that also PLP produced during PLK1 catalytic cycle acts as an inhibitor, forming a Schiff base with Lys229, without being released in the solvent. The question arises as to which is the actual inhibition mechanism by PL and PLP. In the present work, we demonstrated that also PL binds to Lys229 as a Schiff base. However, the isolated covalent PLK1-PL complex is not inactive but, in the presence of ATP, is able to catalyse the single turnover production of PLP, which binds tightly to the enzyme and is ultimately responsible for its inactivation. The inactivation mechanism mediated by Lys229 may play a physiological role in controlling cellular levels of PLP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25655354

  13. Effect of magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate on vascular reactivity in experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    Khayyal, M T; Khayyal, M A; Sharaf, H M; el-Sherbeeny, M; Okpanyi, S N; Schneider, W

    1998-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is known to affect the responsiveness of various blood vessels to endogenous and to exogenous vasoactive agents. Of particular interest is the increased responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, e.g., 5-hydroxy tryptamine and noradrenaline, and the decreased reactivity towards vasodilators, e.g., acetylcholine. This, together with the development of arteriosclerosis, could play an important role in the progression of many vascular complications, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate (MPPG) has been shown to effectively reduce serum lipids in animals and in man, and to retard the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in experimental animals. It was therefore considered of interest to investigate the reactivity of both the aorta and the renal artery to different vasoactive substances in hypercholesterolemic rabbits under the influence of MPPG as well as the effect of such substances on the blood pressure of the anesthetized animals. The rabbits were fed a high cholesterol diet for 2 months, followed by MPPG for 1 month, while keeping the rabbits on the same diet. One batch of animals was used for blood pressure recording and testing drug effects, and another was used for testing the responsiveness of their aortae and renal arteries to the different mediators. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, treatment with MPPG tended to normalize the increased responsiveness of the blood pressure to the vasoconstrictors: noradrenaline and angiotensin and the diminished sensitivity to histamine and acetylcholine. For the isolated arteries, however, MPPG did not significantly affect the responses to noradrenaline nor potassium chloride, but tended to normalize responses to clonidine and acetylcholine. It could be concluded from the present findings that the high cholesterol diet induces changes in vascular reactivity which are possibly related to endothelial and/or receptor sensitivity changes. Treatment with MPPG

  14. Why Do MEPs Defect? An Analysis of Party Group Cohesion in the 5 th European Parliament

    Thorsten Faas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses party group cohesion and patterns of defections of national party delegations from party group lines in the present European Parliament, using a total of 1,370 roll call votes. The study confirms previous findings according to which party groups in the EP show (surprisingly high levels of cohesion. In addition and notwithstanding that, it reveals the circumstances under which MEPs and their national delegations are more likely to defect. Among other factors, it was analysed how the nature of the candidate selection process, the electoral system, and the relationships between MEPs and their home parties influence these defections. Assuming that MEPs have three different goals (re-election, office, and policy and want to first of all secure re-election, one can theoretically expect that those MEPs whose chances of re-election are more dependent on national parties than others’ (due to their specific candidate selection process or their relationship to their home party are more willing to vote against the party group line, if a conflict between party group and national party emerges. Empirically, this is confirmed. In other words, MEPs in general are very well aware of their specific situation. They know who deserves their primary attention and they act accordingly.

  15. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase from Bifidobacterium breve

    Xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase from B. breve was overexpressed and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422 and diffracted to beyond 1.7 Å resolution. The xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase gene from Bifidobacterium breve was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals were obtained at 293 K using 0.05 mM thiamine diphosphate, 0.25 mM MgCl2, 24%(w/v) PEG 6000 and 0.1 M Bicine pH 9.0. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 174.8, c = 163.8 Å, and diffracted to beyond 1.7 Å resolution

  16. Ribose-5-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency: New Inborn Error in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Associated with a Slowly Progressive Leukoencephalopathy

    Huck, Jojanneke H. J.; Verhoeven, Nanda M; Struys, Eduard A.; Salomons, Gajja S; Jakobs, Cornelis; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2004-01-01

    The present article describes the first patient with a deficiency of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) (Enzyme Commission number 5.3.1.6) who presented with leukoencephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain revealed highly elevated levels of the polyols ribitol and D-arabitol, which were subsequently also found in high concentrations in body fluids. Deficient activity of RPI, one of the pentose-phosphate-pathway (PPP) enzymes, was demonstrated...

  17. Review of the report 'MEP-compensation for onshore wind energy'

    The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) studied the so-called MEP-compensation (MEP is the abbreviation for Environmental Quality of Electricity Production) for wind energy, and in particular the possible undesired side-effects of the applied full-load hours system. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) to assess the results of the ECN-report. The assessment was carried out in cooperation with Ecofys, which concentrated on the technical aspects and practical experiences

  18. 34 CFR 200.89 - MEP allocations; Re-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control.

    2010-07-01

    ... determining eligibility and in conducting quality control procedures know the requirements for accurately... documentation; and Quality control. 200.89 Section 200.89 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control. (a) Allocation of funds under the MEP for...

  19. Markedly increased circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate levels in hypophosphatasia. Alkaline phosphatase acts in vitamin B6 metabolism.

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Vrabel, L A; Coburn, S P

    1985-01-01

    Markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) were found in each of 14 patients representing all clinical forms of hypophosphatasia, an inborn error characterized by deficient activity of the tissue nonspecific (bone/liver/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (AP). The mean PLP concentration in plasma was 1174 nM (range, 214-3839 nM) in the patients and 57 +/- 26 nM (mean +/- SD) in 38 control subjects. In four affected children, urinary excretion of the P...

  20. Formation of xylitol and xylitol-5-phosphate and its impact on growth of d-xylose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Radek, Andreas; Müller, Moritz-Fabian; Gätgens, Jochem; Eggeling, Lothar; Krumbach, Karin; Marienhagen, Jan; Noack, Stephan

    2016-08-10

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum has no endogenous metabolic activity for utilizing the lignocellulosic pentose d-xylose for cell growth. Therefore, two different engineering approaches have been pursued resulting in platform strains harbouring a functional version of either the Isomerase (ISO) or the Weimberg (WMB) pathway for d-xylose assimilation. In a previous study we found for C. glutamicum WMB by-product formation of xylitol during growth on d-xylose and speculated that the observed lower growth rates are due to the growth inhibiting effect of this compound. Based on a detailed phenotyping of the ISO, WMB and the wild-type strain of C. glutamicum, we here show that this organism has a natural capability to synthesize xylitol from d-xylose under aerobic cultivation conditions. We furthermore observed the intracellular accumulation of xylitol-5-phosphate as a result of the intracellular phosphorylation of xylitol, which was particularly pronounced in the C. glutamicum ISO strain. Interestingly, low amounts of supplemented xylitol strongly inhibit growth of this strain on d-xylose, d-glucose and d-arabitol. These findings demonstrate that xylitol is a suitable substrate of the endogenous xylulokinase (XK, encoded by xylB) and its overexpression in the ISO strain leads to a significant phosphorylation of xylitol in C. glutamicum. Therefore, in order to circumvent cytotoxicity by xylitol-5-phosphate, the WMB pathway represents an interesting alternative route for engineering C. glutamicum towards efficient d-xylose utilization. PMID:27297548

  1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the d-xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase from Lactococcus lactis

    The expression, purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic analysis of phosphoketolase from L. lactis ssp. lactis (strain IL 1403) are reported. Phosphoketolases are thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes which play a central role in the pentose-phosphate pathway of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. They belong to the family of aldehyde-lyases and in the presence of phosphate ion cleave the carbon–carbon bond of the specific substrate d-xylulose 5-phosphate (or d-fructose 6-phosphate) to give acetyl phosphate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (or d-erythrose 4-phosphate). Structural information about phosphoketolases is particularly important in order to fully understand their mechanism as well as the steric course of phosphoketolase-catalyzed reactions. Here, the purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of d-xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase from Lactococcus lactis are reported. The presence of thiamine diphosphate during purification was essential for the enzymatic activity of the purified protein. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 2.2 Å

  2. Evaluating the Long-term Effect of NIST MEP Services on Establishment Performance

    Clifford A Lipscomb, Jan Youtie, Sanjay Arora, Andy Krause and Philip Shapira

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the effects of receipt of business assistance services from the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) on manufacturing establishment performance. Several measures of performance are considered: (1) change in value-added per employee (a measure of productivity); (2) change in sales per worker; (3) change in employment; and (4) establishment survival. To analyze these relationships, we merged program records from the MEP’s client and project information files with adminis...

  3. Online political communication strategies: MEPs e-representation and self-representation

    Lilleker, Darren; Koc-Michalska, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Research into the communication strategies of legislators has a long history. The European Parliament offers an opportunity to add to understanding of how legislators prioritise styles of communication, with a comparative perspective across twenty-seven nations. Through content analysis of online communication we investigate how the Internet is used by MEPs. Our analysis assesses three communication strategies: homestyle, impression management and participatory. We find that a homestyle strat...

  4. Why Do MEPs Defect? An Analysis of Party Group Cohesion in the 5 th European Parliament

    Thorsten Faas

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses party group cohesion and patterns of defections of national party delegations from party group lines in the present European Parliament, using a total of 1,370 roll call votes. The study confirms previous findings according to which party groups in the EP show (surprisingly) high levels of cohesion. In addition and notwithstanding that, it reveals the circumstances under which MEPs and their national delegations are more likely to defect. Among other factors, it was analys...

  5. Reconstruction and evaluation of the synthetic bacterial MEP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Partow, Siavash; Siewers, Verena; Daviet, Laurent; Schalk, Michel; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids, which are a large group of natural and chemical compounds with a variety of applications as e.g. fragrances, pharmaceuticals and potential biofuels, are produced via two different metabolic pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we attempted to replace the endogenous MVA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a synthetic bacterial MEP pathway integrated into the genome to benefit from its superior properties in terms of energy consumption and productivity at defined growth conditions. It was shown that the growth of a MVA pathway deficient S. cerevisiae strain could not be restored by the heterologous MEP pathway even when accompanied by the co-expression of genes erpA, hISCA1 and CpIscA involved in the Fe-S trafficking routes leading to maturation of IspG and IspH and E. coli genes fldA and fpr encoding flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase believed to be responsible for electron transfer to IspG and IspH. PMID:23285068

  6. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  7. Crosstalk between MAV and MEP pathways in vitro grape plants exposed to UV-B radiation

    The synthesis of terpenoids from IPP (isopentenyl diphosphate) proceeds in plants throughout two pathways, the MVA (mevalonic acid) in cytosol and the MEP (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate) in plastids. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation induced the synthesis of terpenes in in vitro grape plants according to the fluence rate. Low intensity UV-B promoted the MVA pathway while high intensity UV-B stimulated the MEP pathway. Mevastatin is known to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase blocking terpene synthesis in cytosol. In vitro plants growing 45 days under 16 h-photoperiod (100 μmol m-2 s-1) were fed at the apex with mevastatin and then exposed to an UV-B dose administrated at two intensities: low UV-B (8.25 μW cm-2,16 h) or high UV-B (33 μW cm-2,4 h). Methanol: chloroform extracts were analyzed by GC-EIMS and compared with controls without mevastatin. Levels of γ-Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were significantly increased under low intensity UV-B in the controls. The plants treated with the inhibitor showed a significant decrease of both sterols and a decrease in the plastidial terpenes but sterols were higher under UV-B. These results suggest an IPP crosstalk between the MAV and MEP pathways under restrictive conditions. (authors)

  8. Ribose-5-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency: New Inborn Error in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Associated with a Slowly Progressive Leukoencephalopathy

    Huck, Jojanneke H. J.; Verhoeven, Nanda M.; Struys, Eduard A.; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2004-01-01

    The present article describes the first patient with a deficiency of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) (Enzyme Commission number 5.3.1.6) who presented with leukoencephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain revealed highly elevated levels of the polyols ribitol and D-arabitol, which were subsequently also found in high concentrations in body fluids. Deficient activity of RPI, one of the pentose-phosphate-pathway (PPP) enzymes, was demonstrated in fibroblasts. RPI gene–sequence analysis revealed a frameshift and a missense mutation. Recently, we described a patient with liver cirrhosis and abnormal polyol levels in body fluids, related to a deficiency of transaldolase, another enzyme in the PPP. RPI is the second known inborn error in the reversible phase of the PPP, confirming that defects in pentose and polyol metabolism constitute a new area of inborn metabolic disorders. PMID:14988808

  9. Mechanism of the inhibition of mutagenicity of a benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide by riboflavin 5'-phosphate.

    Wood, A.W.; Sayer, J M; Newmark, H L; Yagi, H.; Michaud, D P; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1982-01-01

    Riboflavin 5'-phosphate (flavin mononucleotide; FMN) inhibits the mutagenicity of (+/-)-7 beta, 8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P diol epoxide), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. Coincubation of 10, 25, and 50 nmol of FMN with strain TA100 of histidine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium inhibits the mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of the diol epoxide by 50, 70, and 90%, respectively. Ribose 5-phosphate and riboflavin sh...

  10. MEP Latencies Predict the Neuromodulatory Effect of cTBS Delivered to the Ipsilateral and Contralateral Sensorimotor Cortex.

    Gan Huang

    Full Text Available Recently, it was shown that the highly variable after-effect of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS of the primary motor cortex (M1 can be predicted by the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded before cTBS. This suggests that at least part of this inter-individual variability is driven by differences in the neuronal populations preferentially activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.Here, we recorded MEPs, TMS-evoked brain potentials (TEPs and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs to investigate the effects of cTBS delivered over the primary sensorimotor cortex on both the ipsilateral and contralateral M1, and the ipsilateral and contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1.We confirm that the after-effects of cTBS can be predicted by the latency of MEPs recorded before cTBS. Over the hemisphere onto which cTBS was delivered, short-latency MEPs at baseline were associated with an increase of MEP magnitude (i.e. an excitatory effect of cTBS whereas late-latency MEPs were associated with reduced MEPs (i.e. an inhibitory effect of cTBS. This relationship was reversed over the contralateral hemisphere, indicating opposite effects of cTBS on the responsiveness of the ipsilateral and contralateral M1. Baseline MEP latencies also predicted changes in the magnitude of the N100 wave of TEPs elicited by stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere, indicating that this TEP component is specifically dependent on the state of M1. Finally, there was a reverse relationship between MEP latency and the effects of cTBS on the SEP waveforms (50-130 ms, indicating that after-effects of cTBS on S1 are opposite to those on M1.Taken together, our results confirm that the variable after-effects of cTBS can be explained by differences in the neuronal populations activated by TMS. Furthermore, our results show that this variability also determines remote effects of cTBS in S1 and the contralateral hemisphere, compatible with

  11. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase MoPyr5 is involved in uridine 5'-phosphate synthesis and pathogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Liu, Muxing; Dong, Yanhan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-04-01

    Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRTase) plays an important role in de novo and salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and is widely used as a screening marker in genetic transformation. However, the function of OPRTase in plant pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we characterized an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ura5, the OPRTase MoPyr5, from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted gene disruption revealed that MoPyr5 is required for mycelial growth, appressorial turgor pressure and penetration into plant tissues, invasive hyphal growth, and pathogenicity. Interestingly, the ∆Mopyr5 mutant is also involved in mycelial surface hydrophobicity. Exogenous uridine 5'-phosphate (UMP) restored vegetative growth and rescued the defect in pathogenicity on detached barley and rice leaf sheath. Collectively, our results show that MoPyr5 is an OPRTase for UMP biosynthesis in M. oryzae and indicate that UTP biosynthesis is closely linked with vegetative growth, cell wall integrity, and pathogenicity of fungus. Our results also suggest that UMP biosynthesis would be a good target for the development of novel fungicides against M. oryzae. PMID:26810198

  12. Studies on the increase of capillary permeability in rat skin under the action of pyridoxal 5' phosphate

    The activity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is described on the vascular permeability response, measured in the abdominal wall of rats from the amount of extravased Evans blue labelled with radioactive iodine 125 or 131. The PLP effect is related to histamine release as it has been showed by tha use of antihistaminics. An attempt has been made in order to correlate structure and biological activity by using PLP analogs. The intact molecule of PLP seems to be the proper active substance. The critical role of calcium in histamine release is discussed in relation to our observations. In the presence of high concentrations of calcium and lantanium, PLP fails to increase the vascular permeability; magnesium does not show any influence. The calcium mobilization produced by theophylline results in inhibition of the response. The course of the reaction between PLP and histamine in vitro was followed; the synthetic cyclic product is deprived of activity and does not interfere with the intrinsic effects of PLP and histamine. (Author)

  13. Crystal Structure of 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-Phosphate Synthase, A Crucial Enzyme for Isoprenoids Biosynthesis

    Xiang,S.; Usunow, G.; Busch, G.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) is a common precursor for the synthesis of all isoprenoids, which have important functions in living organisms. IPP is produced by the mevalonate pathway in archaea, fungi, and animals. In contrast, IPP is synthesized by a mevalonate-independent pathway in most bacteria, algae, and plant plastids. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzes the first and the rate-limiting step of the mevalonate-independent pathway and is an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics, antimalarials, and herbicides. We report here the first structural information on DXS, from Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans, in complex with the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The structure contains three domains (I, II, and III), each of which bears homology to the equivalent domains in transketolase and the E1 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. However, DXS has a novel arrangement of these domains as compared with the other enzymes, such that the active site of DXS is located at the interface of domains I and II in the same monomer, whereas that of transketolase is located at the interface of the dimer. The coenzyme TPP is mostly buried in the complex, but the C-2 atom of its thiazolium ring is exposed to a pocket that is the substrate-binding site. The structures identify residues that may have important roles in catalysis, which have been confirmed by our mutagenesis studies.

  14. Combinatorial engineering of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway using cross-lapping in vitro assembly (CLIVA method.

    Ruiyang Zou

    Full Text Available The ability to assemble multiple fragments of DNA into a plasmid in a single step is invaluable to studies in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Using phosphorothioate chemistry for high efficiency and site specific cleavage of sequences, a novel ligase independent cloning method (cross-lapping in vitro assembly, CLIVA was systematically and rationally optimized in E. coli. A series of 16 constructs combinatorially expressing genes encoding enzymes in the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP pathway were assembled using multiple DNA modules. A plasmid (21.6 kb containing 16 pathway genes, was successfully assembled from 7 modules with high efficiency (2.0 x 10(3 cfu/ µg input DNA within 2 days. Overexpressions of these constructs revealed the unanticipated inhibitory effects of certain combinations of genes on the production of amorphadiene. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects were correlated to the increase in the accumulation of intracellular methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEC, an intermediate metabolite in the DXP pathway. The overexpression of the iron sulfur cluster operon was found to modestly increase the production of amorphadiene. This study demonstrated the utility of CLIVA in the assembly of multiple fragments of DNA into a plasmid which enabled the rapid exploration of biological pathways.

  15. Biosynthesis of ribose-5-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate in archaea: a phylogenetic analysis of archaeal genomes

    Tim Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP pathway, and the chorismate pathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, employing data from 13 complete archaeal genomes, provides a potential explanation for the enigmatic phylogenetic patterns of the PPP genes in archaea. Genomic and biochemical evidence suggests that three archaeal species (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermoplasma volcanium produce ribose-5-phosphate via the nonoxidative PPP (NOPPP, whereas nine species apparently lack an NOPPP but may employ a reverse RuMP pathway for pentose synthesis. One species (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 lacks both the NOPPP and the RuMP pathway but may possess a modified oxidative PPP (OPPP, the details of which are not yet known. The presence of transketolase in several archaeal species that are missing the other two NOPPP genes can be explained by the existence of differing requirements for erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P among archaea: six species use transketolase to make E4P as a precursor to aromatic amino acids, six species apparently have an alternate biosynthetic pathway and may not require the ability to make E4P, and one species (Pyrococcus horikoshii probably does not synthesize aromatic amino acids at all.

  16. Thermophilic Thermotoga maritima ribose-5-phosphate isomerase RpiB: optimized heat treatment purification and basic characterization.

    Sun, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Myung, Suwan; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-04-01

    The open reading frame TM1080 from Thermotoga maritima encoding ribose-5-phosphate isomerase type B (RpiB) was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). After optimization of cell culture conditions, more than 30% of intracellular proteins were soluble recombinant RpiB. High-purity RpiB was obtained by heat pretreatment through its optimization in buffer choice, buffer pH, as well as temperature and duration of pretreatment. This enzyme had the maximum activity at 70°C and pH 6.5-8.0. Under its suboptimal conditions (60°C and pH 7.0), k(cat) and K(m) values were 540s(-1) and 7.6mM, respectively; it had a half lifetime of 71h, resulting in its turn-over number of more than 2×10(8)mol of product per mol of enzyme. This study suggests that it is highly feasible to discover thermostable enzymes from exploding genomic DNA database of extremophiles with the desired stability suitable for in vitro synthetic biology projects and produce high-purity thermoenzymes at very low costs. PMID:22333529

  17. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    Bechard Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase. Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H4MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  18. Molecular cloning and enzymological characterization of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate independent aspartate racemase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473.

    Washio, Tsubasa; Kato, Shiro; Oikawa, Tadao

    2016-09-01

    We succeeded in expressing the aspartate racemase homolog gene from Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) and found that the gene encodes aspartate racemase. The aspartate racemase gene consisted of 687 bp and encoded 228 amino acid residues. The purified enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity with a specific activity of 1590 U/mg. The enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and did not require pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. The enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity even at 95 °C, and the activation energy of the enzyme was calculated to be 51.8 kJ/mol. The enzyme was highly thermostable, and approximately 50 % of its initial activity remained even after incubation at 90 °C for 11 h. The enzyme showed a maximum activity at a pH of 7.5 and was stable between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The enzyme acted on L-cysteic acid and L-cysteine sulfinic acid in addition to D- and L-aspartic acids, and was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid. The site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme showed that the essential cysteine residues were conserved as Cys83 and Cys194. D-Forms of aspartic acid, serine, alanine, and valine were contained in T. litoralis DSM 5473 cells. PMID:27438592

  19. Radiation damage to nucleosides and nucleotides. I. An ESR study of uridine-5'-phosphate.2Na+ single crystals

    Single crystals of the disodium salt of uridine-5'-phosphate were irradiated by 4.0-MeV electrons and studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in the temperature range 77 to 310 K. At 77 K two resonances were observed. The dominating resonance (I) is ascribed to the electron adduct (anion) radical of the uracil base. The main hyperfine interaction observed is a coupling between the unpaired electron and the proton bonded to C6. The other resonance (II) exhibits a large g-value anisotropy and two almost isotropic doublet couplings. This resonance is probably due to a secondary alkoxy-type radical formed by a net loss of hydrogen from O3' in the sugar moiety. At 270 K three resonances were observed. One (III) is due to a radical formed by hydrogen abstraction from C/sub 5'/ in the sugar moiety, whereas the other two (IV,V) are probably hydrogen addition radicals at the uracil base. Radical IV is the dihydrouracil-5-yl radical formed by a net hydrogen addition to the C6 position, whereas radical V tentatively is ascribed to the 6-yl radical. The light-induced conversion V → IV took place at 270 K, whereas the reverse heat-induced process was not observed in the temperature range studied. Preliminary annealing studies of crystals irradiated at 77 K suggest that the radical reaction I → IV takes place at approximately 130 K and the reaction II → III at 150 K

  20. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  1. Method of preparing highly active and thermostable preparations of liver uridin-kinase usable for enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5'-phosphates

    A method is described of preparing a high-activity uridine kinase for the enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5m-phosphates of the pyrimidine series. The preparation is separated from male rat liver after intraperitoneal application of 5'-azacytidine. Examples are given showing detailed procedures for the conversion of uridine and 6-azauridine to the corresponding 5'-phosphates. (L.K.)

  2. The Effect of Transient HMG-CoA Reductase and 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression on Terpene Production in Transgenic Tomato Fruits

    Gentry, Scott A; Gutensohn, Michael; Henry, Laura; Dudareva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids are secondary metabolites that control numerous plant functions including signaling, growth, photosynthesis, and membrane structure. The bioengineering of isoprenoid synthesis could produce plants with a variety of beneficial traits. Plants form isoprenoids using two different pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the methylerithritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, which cooperate via metabolic cross-talk. Transgenic tomato lines expressing both the plastidic and cytosolic forms of...

  3. TNF-α-induced down-regulation of CDX2 suppresses MEP1A expression in colitis

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Anders Krüger; Holm, Thomas Lindebo;

    2012-01-01

    High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The transcription factor Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) plays a crucial role in differentiation of intestinal epithelium and regulates IBD-susceptibility genes, including meprin 1A (MEP1...

  4. Reduced neuronal expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase enhances tolerance to oxidative stress, extends lifespan, and attenuates polyglutamine toxicity in Drosophila

    Wang, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Yi-Yun; Huang, Ming-Hao; Yen, Tzu-Li; Li, Hsun; Liang, Cyong-Jhih; Sang, Tzu-Kang; Cho, Si-Chih; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Wang, Chao-Yung; Brummel, Theodore J.; Wang, Horng-Dar

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related diseases can be viewed as the result of the lifelong accumulation of stress insults. The identification of mutant strains and genes which are responsive to stress and can alter longevity profiles provides new therapeutic targets for age-related diseases. Here we reported that a Drosophila strain with reduced expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (rpi), EP2456, exhibits increased resistance to oxidative stress and enhanced lifespan. In addition, the strain also displ...

  5. Expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44/Mep50/WDR77 in ovarian cancer.

    Martin Ligr

    Full Text Available Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR and estrogen receptor (ER in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.

  6. [Properties of 2,5-diamino-4-oxy-6-ribosylaminopyrimidine-5'- phosphate reductase, a enzyme of the second stage of flavinogenesis in Pichia guilliermondii yeasts].

    Logvinenko, E M; Shavlovskiĭ, G M; Zakal'skiĭ, A E; Kontorovskaia, N Iu

    1989-01-01

    2,5-Diamino-4-oxy-6-ribosylaminopyrimidine-5'-phosphate reductase has been isolated from cells of Pichia guilliermondii and subjected to 20-fold purification by treating extracts with streptomycin sulphate, frationating proteins (NH4)2SO4 at 45-75% of saturation and chromatography on blue sepharose CL-6B. The use of gel filtration through Sephadex G-150 and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose proved to be less effective for the enzyme purification. It has been established that it is 2,5-diamino-4-oxy-6-ribosylaminopyrimidine-5-phosphate but not its dephosphorylated form that is the substrate of the given reductase; Km is equal to 7.10(-5) M. The reaction proceeds in the presence of NADPH or NADH. The enzyme affinity to NADPH (Km = 4.7.10(-5) M) is approximately one order higher than that to NADPH (Km = 5.5.10(-4) M). The enzyme manifests the optimum of action at pH 7.2 and the temperature of 37 degrees C; the molecular weight is 140 kD. EDTA as well as flavins in the concentration of 1.10(-3) M exert no effect on the reductase activity. The enzyme is labile at 4 degrees C and is inactivated in the frozen state at -15 degrees C. The 2.5-diamino-4-oxy-6-ribosylaminopyrimidine-5'-phosphate reductase has been also revealed in Torulopsis candida, Debaryomyces klöckeri, Schwanniomyces occidentalis, Eremothecium ashbyii (flavinogenic species) and Candida utilis. Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa (nonflavinogenic species). The synthesis of this enzyme contrary to other enzymes of the riboflavin biosynthesis is not regulated in flavinogenic yeast by iron ions. PMID:2511652

  7. Investigating the cortical regions involved in MEP modulation in tDCS

    Ricardo eSalvador

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is used in several studies to evaluate cortical excitability changes induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the primary motor cortex. Interpretation of these results, however, is hindered by the very different spatial distribution of the electric field (E-field induced by the two techniques and by the different target neurons that they might act upon. In this study we used the finite element method to calculate the E-field distribution induced by TMS and tDCS in a realistically shaped model of a human head. A model of a commercially available figure-8 coil was placed over a position above the identified hand knob (HK region. We also modelled two configurations of bipolar tDCS montages with one of the electrodes placed over the HK and a return electrode over the contralateral orbital region. The electrodes over the HK were either rectangular in shape, with an area of 35cm2 or cylindrical with an area of π cm2 (1 cm radius. To compare the E-field distribution in TMS and the two tDCS models, average values of the E-field’s magnitude as well as the polar and azimuthal angle were investigated in the HK region and premotor areas. The results show that both techniques induce fields with different magnitudes and directions in the HK: the field in tDCS is predominantly perpendicular to the cortical surface, contrary to what happens in TMS where the field is mostly parallel to it. In the premotor areas, the magnitude of the E-field induced in TMS was well below the accepted threshold for MEP generation, 100 V/m. In tDCS, the magnitude of the field in these areas was comparable to that induced at the HK with a significant component perpendicular to the cortical surface. These results indicate that tDCS and TMS target preferentially different neuronal structures at the HK. Besides, they show that premotor areas may play a role in the tDCS-induced after effects on motor cortex excitability.

  8. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common (β/α)8-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn2+ which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn2+ and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn2+ is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn2+ ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn2+. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn2+ that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn2+ and participate as acid/base catalysts are not conserved. We conclude that only the phosphate binding motif

  9. Uneconomical tops of renewable electricity options. Advice with regard to the determination of the MEP subsidies for 2004 and 2005

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs ECN and KEMA have researched the financial gaps of renewable electricity production technologies. These form the basis for determining the level of the MEP-subsidies for different renewable electricity sources and technologies by the Ministry. This report contains an advice on the financial gaps that are to be used for determining the subsidy levels. The calculation of the financial gaps is based on an earlier report on the inputs for the calculations and on the subsequent stakeholder consultation with respect to these inputs

  10. Preparation of riboflavin 5' - phosphate sodium from crude riboflavin%利用核黄素粗品制备核黄素5'-磷酸钠

    魏转; 周强; 孙文敬; 崔凤杰; 张铎; 余泗莲

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of preparing riboflavin 5' - phosphate sodium from crude riboflavin. Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium was obtained with the yield of 68. 5% by reacting one mole of crude riboflavin with four moles of POC13 for 2 h at 35℃ , hydrolyzing the resulting mixture, and neutralizing with NaOH solution. The quality of obtained product met the requirements of US FCC (7 ). The phosphorylation reaction conditions of riboflavin was further optimized by one-factor-at-a-time experiment design, and results were: n ( POC13 ) / n ( VB2 ) 4. 6, n (POC13) /n (H20) 1.65, reaction time 2h, and reaction temperature 35 ± 1℃. Under the above condition, the yield of riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium increased to above 73. 5%. This method significantly decreases production cost. In conclusion, preparation of riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium from crude riboflavin was determined to be feasible e-conomically and technically.%探索利用核黄素粗品制备核黄素5'-磷酸钠的可行性.在吡啶和乙腈的混合溶剂中,使核黄素粗品与其4倍摩尔量的三氯氧磷35℃左右下反应2h,然后水解反应混合物,再用NaOH溶液中和,能够以68.5%以上的收率得到核黄素磷酸钠,产品质量符合美国FCC (7)要求.通过单因素试验,初步优化了核黄素5'-磷酸钠粗品磷酸化反应的条件,即:n (POCl3)/n(VB2)=4.6,n(POCl3)/n(H2O)=1.65,反应时间2h,反应温度35±1℃.在优化的磷酸化反应条件下,利用核黄素粗品制备核黄素5'-磷酸钠的收率平均可达73.5%以上,能够有效降低核黄素5'-磷酸钠的生产成本.研究结果表明,利用核黄素粗品制备核黄素5'-磷酸钠无论在经济上还是在技术上均是可行的.

  11. Stability of pyridoxal-5-phosphate semicarbazone: applications in plasma vitamin B6 analysis and population surveys of vitamin B6 nutritional status.

    Ubbink, J B; Serfontein, W J; de Villiers, L S

    1985-08-01

    The determination of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL) in plasma requires the availability of dark room facilities, due to the photosensitivity of these vitamin B6 vitamers. The fact that the semicarbazone forms of PL and PLP are more strongly fluorescent than the underivatized B6 vitamers has been exploited in plasma analyses, but it was not previously realised that these semicarbazone forms are also very stable even under conditions that lead to rapid decomposition of free PL and PLP. The stabilisation of PLP and PL obtained in this manner is sufficient and fully adequate to meet the practical requirements of clinical field studies. We report a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for plasma PLP and PL determinations based on precolumn semicarbazone formation and fluorescence detection. The method is sensitive enough for quantitative plasma PLP determinations even in B6-deficient patients. PMID:4055950

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    Highlights: → We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase IIβ (PIPKIIβ) function in cancer. → PIPKIIβ is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. → PIPKIIβ suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. → Nuclear PIP2 but not plasma membrane-localized PIP2 mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1α,25(OH)2D3 induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however, its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKIIβ) but not PIPKIIα is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLCδ1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLCδ1 PHD inhibited 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P2 production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKIIβ in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKIIβ is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. These results indicate that PIPKIIβ-mediated PI(4,5)P2 signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.

  13. A split-ubiquitin two-hybrid screen for proteins physically interacting with the yeast amino acid transceptor Gap1 and ammonium transceptor Mep2.

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Kimpe, Marlies; Vandormael, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M

    2011-01-01

    Several nutrient permeases have been identified in yeast, which combine a transport and receptor function, and are called transceptors. The Gap1 general amino acid permease and the Mep2 ammonium permease mediate rapid activation by amino acids and by ammonium, respectively, of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in nitrogen-starved cells. Their mode of action is not well understood. Both proteins are subject to complex controls governing their intracellular trafficking. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen with Gap1 or Mep2 as bait, we identified proteins putatively interacting with Gap1 and/or Mep2. They are involved in glycosylation, the secretory pathway, sphingolipid biosynthesis, cell wall biosynthesis and other processes. For several candidate interactors, determination of transport and signaling capacity, as well as localization of Gap1 or Mep2 in the corresponding deletion strains, confirmed a functional interaction with Gap1 and/or Mep2. Also common interacting proteins were identified. Transport and signaling were differentially affected in specific deletion strains, clearly separating the two functions of the transceptors and confirming that signaling does not require transport. We identified two new proteins, Bsc6 and Yir014w, that affect trafficking or downregulation of Gap1. Deletion of EGD2, YNL024c or SPC2 inactivates Gap1 transport and signaling, while its plasma membrane level appears normal.. Vma4 is required for Mep2 expression, while Gup1 appears to be required for proper distribution of Mep2 over the plasma membrane. Some of the interactions were confirmed by GST pull-down assay, using the C-terminal tail of Gap1 or Mep2 expressed in E.coli. Our results reveal the effectiveness of split-ubiquitin two-hybrid screening for identification of proteins functionally interacting with membrane proteins. They provide several candidate proteins involved in the transport and signaling function or in the complex trafficking control of the Gap1

  14. Mutations in Escherichia coli aceE and ribB genes allow survival of strains defective in the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Jordi Perez-Gil

    Full Text Available A functional 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway is required for isoprenoid biosynthesis and hence survival in Escherichia coli and most other bacteria. In the first two steps of the pathway, MEP is produced from the central metabolic intermediates pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP by the activity of the enzymes DXP synthase (DXS and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR. Because the MEP pathway is absent from humans, it was proposed as a promising new target to develop new antibiotics. However, the lethal phenotype caused by the deletion of DXS or DXR was found to be suppressed with a relatively high efficiency by unidentified mutations. Here we report that several mutations in the unrelated genes aceE and ribB rescue growth of DXS-defective mutants because the encoded enzymes allowed the production of sufficient DXP in vivo. Together, this work unveils the diversity of mechanisms that can evolve in bacteria to circumvent a blockage of the first step of the MEP pathway.

  15. Study of the factors affecting the performance of microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) using liquid scintillation counter and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Altun, Zeki [Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed [Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Clinical Pharmacology and DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D Soedertaelje, SE-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: Mohamed.Abdel-Rehim@Astrazeneca.com

    2008-12-23

    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line with LC or GC. In MEPS, approximately 1-2 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 {mu}L) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The bed can be packed or coated to provide selective and suitable sampling conditions. The new method is very promising for extraction of drugs and metabolites from biological samples. In this paper, some factors affecting the performance of MEPS such as recovery, carry-over, leakage, washing volume and elution volume were studied using C18 and hydroxylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (ENV+) as sorbents. Radioactively labelled bupivacaine in plasma samples was used as test analyte. For the extraction of this drug, using methanol/water 95:5 (v/v) (0.25% ammonium hydroxide) was used as elution solvent. The analyte response increased with increasing the elution volume and it was linear upp up to 100 {mu}L utilizing liquid scintillation counter. Further, for concentrating the sample, we found that MEPS may be used such that the sample can be drawn through the needle, up and down, several times. The analyte leakage increases as the volume washing increases, though higher washing volumes may also result in cleaner extracts. To eliminate analyte carry-over, the sorbents were washed first with 3 x 250 {mu}L elution solution and then with 3 x 250 {mu}L washing solution. In addition, the reproducibility measurements show relatively good relative standard deviation (RSD) % values concerning analyte recovery and analyte leakage. The present study provides an understanding of basic aspects when optimizing methods for MEPS. In this study, MEPS was used off-line with liquid scintillation counter and on-line with LC-MS/MS.

  16. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    Akana,J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8}-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn{sup 2+} which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn{sup 2+} and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn{sup 2+} is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn{sup 2+} ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn{sup 2+} that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn{sup 2+} and participate as acid/base catalysts

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    Kouchi, Zen, E-mail: zkouchi@toyaku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Fujiwara, Yuki [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hideki [Division of Metastasis and Invasion Signaling, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-city, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however, its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.

  18. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP. PMID:20689184

  19. Novel bioassay for the discovery of inhibitors of the 2-C-Methyl-D-Erythritol 4-Phosphate (MEP) and terpenoid pathways leading to carotenoid biosynthesis

    The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway leads to the synthesis of isopentenyl-phosphate (IPP) in plastids. It is a major branch point providing precursors for the synthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinone and the phytyl chain of chlorophylls, as well as the hormones abscisi...

  20. Quantifying the Metabolites of the Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate (MEP) Pathway in Plants and Bacteria by Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    González-Cabanelas, D; Hammerbacher, A; Raguschke, B; Gershenzon, J; Wright, L P

    2016-01-01

    The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway occurs in the plastids of higher plants and in most economically important prokaryotes where it is responsible for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid building blocks, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. These five-carbon compounds are the substrates for the enormous variety of terpenoid products, including many essential metabolites and substances of commercial value. Increased knowledge of the regulation of the MEP pathway is critical to understanding many aspects of plant and microbial metabolism as well as in developing biotechnological platforms for producing these commercially valuable isoprenoids. To achieve this goal, researchers must have the ability to investigate the in vivo kinetics of the pathway by accurately measuring the concentrations of MEP pathway metabolites. However, the low levels of these metabolites complicate their accurate determination without suitable internal standards. This chapter describes a sensitive method to accurately determine the concentrations of MEP pathway metabolites occurring at trace amounts in biological samples using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. In addition, simple protocols are given for producing stable isotope-labeled internal standards for these analyses. PMID:27480689

  1. Novel bioassay for the discovery of inhibitors of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and terpenoid pathways leading to carotenoid biosynthesis.

    Natália Corniani

    Full Text Available The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway leads to the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate in plastids. It is a major branch point providing precursors for the synthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinone and the phytyl chain of chlorophylls, as well as the hormones abscisic acid and gibberellins. Consequently, disruption of this pathway is harmful to plants. We developed an in vivo bioassay that can measure the carbon flow through the carotenoid pathway. Leaf cuttings are incubated in the presence of a phytoene desaturase inhibitor to induce phytoene accumulation. Any compound reducing the level of phytoene accumulation is likely to interfere with either one of the steps in the MEP pathway or the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. This concept was tested with known inhibitors of steps of the MEP pathway. The specificity of this in vivo bioassay was also verified by testing representative herbicides known to target processes outside of the MEP and carotenoid pathways. This assay enables the rapid screen of new inhibitors of enzymes preceding the synthesis of phytoene, though there are some limitations related to the non-specific effect of some inhibitors on this assay.

  2. Function of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in glycogen phosphorylase: a model study using 6-fluoro-5'-deoxypyridoxal- and 5'-deoxypyridoxal-reconstituted enzymes

    A new vitamin B6 analogue, 6-fluoro-5'-deoxypyridoxal (6-FDPL), was synthesized and characterized. This analogue, as well as 6-fluoropyridoxal (6-FPAL), 6-fluoropyridoxal phosphate (6-FPLP), and 6-fluoropyridoxine, showed positive heteronuclear 1H-18F nuclear Overhauser effects between the 5'-protons and the 6-fluorine. Apophosphorylase reconstituted with 6-FDLP showed 1% of the activity of the native enzyme in the presence of phosphite. The kinetic pattern, apparent pH optimum of activity, and the activity-temperature dependency of the 6-FDPL-enzyme were virtually identical with those of phosphorylase reconstituted with the parent compound, 6-FPAL except the K/sub m/ of phosphite toward the 6-FDPL-enzyme was 9 times higher than that with the 6-FPAL-enzyme and the 6-FDPL-enzyme showed a lower V/sub max/ value. Phosphorylase reconstituted with 5'-deoxypyridoxal (DPL) also showed activity in the presence of phosphite. The kinetics and the temperature-activity dependency of this reconstituted enzyme were investigated. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the binding of glucose 1-phosphate to a 6-FDPL-enzyme-adenosine 5'-phosphate (AMP) complex shifted the 19F signal 0.6 ppm upfield, whereas a 2.1 ppm change was observed when the 6-FPAL-enzyme-AMP formed a complex with glucose 1-phosphate. Analysis of the activation parameters, activation enthalpy and activation entropy, of the reaction of glycogen degradation catalyzed by phosphorylase containing pyridoxal phosphate, 6-FDPL, pyridoxal, or DPL showed that modifications of the coenzyme molecule affected only the activation entropy, not the activation enthalpy. Results of this study indicate that the protein structure surrounding the coenzyme molecule, as well as the coenzyme configuration, is altered upon the binding of ligands

  3. Systems-Wide Prediction of Enzyme Promiscuity Reveals a New Underground Alternative Route for Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Production in E. coli.

    Matthew A Oberhardt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights suggest that non-specific and/or promiscuous enzymes are common and active across life. Understanding the role of such enzymes is an important open question in biology. Here we develop a genome-wide method, PROPER, that uses a permissive PSI-BLAST approach to predict promiscuous activities of metabolic genes. Enzyme promiscuity is typically studied experimentally using multicopy suppression, in which over-expression of a promiscuous 'replacer' gene rescues lethality caused by inactivation of a 'target' gene. We use PROPER to predict multicopy suppression in Escherichia coli, achieving highly significant overlap with published cases (hypergeometric p = 4.4e-13. We then validate three novel predicted target-replacer gene pairs in new multicopy suppression experiments. We next go beyond PROPER and develop a network-based approach, GEM-PROPER, that integrates PROPER with genome-scale metabolic modeling to predict promiscuous replacements via alternative metabolic pathways. GEM-PROPER predicts a new indirect replacer (thiG for an essential enzyme (pdxB in production of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (the active form of Vitamin B6, which we validate experimentally via multicopy suppression. We perform a structural analysis of thiG to determine its potential promiscuous active site, which we validate experimentally by inactivating the pertaining residues and showing a loss of replacer activity. Thus, this study is a successful example where a computational investigation leads to a network-based identification of an indirect promiscuous replacement of a key metabolic enzyme, which would have been extremely difficult to identify directly.

  4. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme

    Marra Ersilia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on the evolutionary scene before the emergence of the respective apoenzymes and having played a dominant role in the molecular evolution of the B6 enzyme families. Here we report on an attempt to re-enact the emergence of a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. The starting protein was pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase, in which active-site Lys41 or Lys7 readily form a covalent adduct with PLP. Results We screened the PLP adduct of wild-type RNase and two variant RNases (K7R and K41R for catalytic effects toward L- and D-amino acids. RNase(K41R-PLP, in which the cofactor is bound through an imine linkage to Lys7, qualifies for a model proto-B6 enzyme by the following criteria: (1 covalent linkage of PLP (internal aldimine; (2 catalytic activity toward amino acids that depends on formation of an imine linkage with the substrate (external aldimine; (3 adjoining binding sites for the cofactor and amino acid moiety that facilitate the transimination reaction of the internal to the external aldimine and stabilize the resulting noncovalent complex of the coenzyme-substrate adduct with the protein; (4 reaction specificity, the only detectable reactions being racemization of diverse amino acids and β-decarboxylation of L-aspartate; (5 acceleration factors for racemization and β-decarboxylation of >103 over and above that of PLP alone; (6 ribonuclease activity that is 103-fold lower than that of wild-type RNase, attenuation of a pre-existing biological activity being indispensable for the further evolution as a PLP-dependent protoenzyme. Conclusion A single amino acid substitution (Lys41Arg and covalent

  5. Map-Based Cloning of zb7 Encoding an IPP and DMAPP Synthase in the MEP Pathway of Maize

    Xiao-Min Lu; Jin-Sheng Lai; Xiao-Jiao Hu; Yuan-Zeng Zhao; Wei-Bin Song; Mei Zhang; Zong-Liang Chen; Wei Chen; Yong-Bin Dong; Zhen-Hua Wang

    2012-01-01

    IspH is a key enzyme in the last step of the methyI-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway.Loss of function of IspH can often result in complete yellow or albino phenotype in many plants.Here,we report the characterization of a recessive mutant of maize,zebra7 (zb7),showing transverse green/yellow striped leaves in young plants.The yellow bands of the mutant have decreased levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids with delayed chloroplast development.Low temperature suppressed mutant phenotype,while alternate light/dark cycle or high temperature enlarged the yellow section.Map-based cloning demonstrated that zb7 encodes the IspH protein with a mis-sense mutation in a conserved region.Transgenic silencing of Zb7 in maize resulted in complete albino plantlets that are aborted in a few weeks,confirming that Zb7 is important in the early stages of maize chloroplast development.Zb7 is constitutively expressed and its expression subject to a 16-h light/8-h dark cycle regulation.Our results suggest that the less effective or unstable IspH in zb7 mutant,together with its diurnal expression,are mechanistically accounted for the zebra phenotype.The increased IspH mRNA in the leaves of zb7 at the late development stage may explain the restoration of mutant phenotype in mature stages.

  6. The influence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate in comparison with probucol, alpha-tocopherol and trolox on copper-induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    Kögl, C; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1994-06-15

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the presence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate (MPPG), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP), alpha-tocopherol, probucol or trolox is more resistant against copper-induced oxidation as control-LDL in vitro. The efficiency of the drugs is: probucol > MPPG > trolox > alpha-tocopherol > PP. LDL oxidation is determined by its increasing negative surface charge, fragmentation of apolipoprotein B-100 and changes of the fatty acid content of LDL. The protection of the drugs depends on their concentration and incubation time. Different experiments point to the fact that copper-induced oxidation of LDL in vitro starts with the binding of copper at the apolipoprotein B-100, resulting in an increasing negative surface charge and fragmentation of the apolipoprotein B-100. Afterwards a decrease of LDL-bound linoleic acid (18:2) is measurable. PMID:8031313

  7. Perinatal hypophosphatasia: tissue levels of vitamin B6 are unremarkable despite markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Evidence for an ectoenzyme role for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Fedde, K. N.; Cole, F. S.; McCabe, E. R.; Coburn, S P

    1988-01-01

    "Perinatal" hypophosphatasia is the most severe form of this inborn error of metabolism, which is characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (TNSALP). We report that autopsy tissue from three affected subjects, which was profoundly low in ALP activity, had essentially unremarkable levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal, and total vitamin B6 content despite markedly elevated plasma PLP levels (5,800, 14,5...

  8. Merging Q-theory and MEP theory to explain some geographical variations seen in Russian soil C inventory data

    Yurova, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Soils are as critical for understanding the ecosystem carbon cycle as plants are and here I critically evaluate some of the commonly used assumptions embedded into the soil organic matter dynamics process-based models. According to the biochemical concept (e.g. Mindermann, 1968) plant residues can be divided into liable and more recalcitrant fractions, each decomposing with a specific rate (increasing with temperature) and it is remains of recalcitrant compounds that accumulate to form soil organic matter. The application of this theory in regional to global biogeochemical models leads to conclusion that the high latitude soils stores the highest amount of carbon per square meter due to high percentage of recalcitrant compounds and low temperature. This contradicts with the Russian soil inventory data, demonstrating that within the large span of biomes present in Russia that is steepe that has the highest soil C storage. Here I take an alternative, most theoretical, viewpoint, called Q-theory (from q-quality) (Ågren and Bosatta, 1996) considering the changes in the continuous variable-the quality of the organic matter in the soil as a starting point. I then derive the novel equation for the entropy production of humification process and demonstrate how MEP theory works to explain geographical differences in soil C accumulation seen in Russian soil inventory data. Conceptually close to the work presented is a general theory of humification (Orlov, 1995) based on thermodynamic view on decomposition postulating that independently on acting factors and the soil type it is only the most thermodynamically stable components, such as humic substances, that will be produced and stored in the process of organic matter transformation This work was supported by RFBR grants 15-05-01368 A

  9. Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-04-15

    The transcript expression of a gene SrUGT85C2 has been documented for direct relation with steviol glycoside content in Stevia plant. Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are divergent branches of methyl erythritol-4 phosphate (MEP) pathway. So, SrUGT85C2 might be an influencing gibberellin content. Hence in the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT85C2 cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana was developed to check its effect on gibberellin accumulation and related plant growth parameters. The developed transgenics showed a noteworthy decrease of 78-83% in GA3 content. Moreover, the transgenics showed a gibberellin deficient phenotype comprising stunted hypocotyl length, reduced shoot growth and a significant fall in relative water content. Transgenics also showed 17-37 and 64-76% reduction in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, respectively. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments could be responsible for the noticed significant decrease in plant biomass. Like steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis also occurs from the precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of MEP pathway in the plastids. The observed downregulated expression of genes encoding MEP pathway enzymes geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CDPS), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), chlorophyll synthetase and chlorophyll a oxygenase in transgenics overexpressing SrUGT85C2 might be responsible for the reduction in gibberellins as well as chlorophyll. This study has documented for the first time the regulatory role of SrUGT85C2 in the biosynthesis of steviol glycoside, gibberellins and chlorophyll. PMID:24518812

  10. Dft Study on 4(5-Imidazole-Carbaldehyde-N(5-Phenylthiosemicarbazone (Imtph: Nmr Shielding Tensors, Thermodynamic Parameters, Nbo Analysis, Molecular Electrostatic Potential (Mep, Homo and Lumo Studies

    Masoome Sheikhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The density functional theory (DFT calculations at the level of B3LYP/6-31G was carried out on the structure 4(5-Imidazole-carbaldehyde-N(5-phenylthiosemicarbazone (ImTPh in gas phase using Gaussian 03. Dipole moment (Debye, energy of structure formation (HF; kcal/mol and point group, NMR parameters such as isotropic shielding (σiso and anisotropic shielding (σaniso, σ11, σ22 and σ33 obtained. Also thermodynamic properties and natural bond orbitals (NBO were calculated. Besides, the frontier molecular orbital (FMO analysis and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP of the compound were investigated by theoretical calculations.

  11. Lipophilic prodrugs of FR900098 are antimicrobial against Francisella novicida in vivo and in vitro and show GlpT independent efficacy.

    Elizabeth S McKenney

    Full Text Available Bacteria, plants, and algae produce isoprenoids through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway, an attractive pathway for antimicrobial drug development as it is present in prokaryotes and some lower eukaryotes but absent from human cells. The first committed step of the MEP pathway is catalyzed by 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR/MEP synthase. MEP pathway genes have been identified in many biothreat agents, including Francisella, Brucella, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Yersinia. The importance of the MEP pathway to Francisella is demonstrated by the fact that MEP pathway mutations are lethal. We have previously established that fosmidomycin inhibits purified MEP synthase (DXR from F. tularensis LVS. FR900098, the acetyl derivative of fosmidomycin, was found to inhibit the activity of purified DXR from F. tularensis LVS (IC(50=230 nM. Fosmidomycin and FR900098 are effective against purified DXR from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well, but have no effect on whole cells because the compounds are too polar to penetrate the thick cell wall. Fosmidomycin requires the GlpT transporter to enter cells, and this is absent in some pathogens, including M. tuberculosis. In this study, we have identified the GlpT homologs in F. novicida and tested transposon insertion mutants of glpT. We showed that FR900098 also requires GlpT for full activity against F. novicida. Thus, we synthesized several FR900098 prodrugs that have lipophilic groups to facilitate their passage through the bacterial cell wall and bypass the requirement for the GlpT transporter. One compound, that we termed "compound 1," was found to have GlpT-independent antimicrobial activity. We tested the ability of this best performing prodrug to inhibit F. novicida intracellular infection of eukaryotic cell lines and the caterpillar Galleria mellonella as an in vivo infection model. As a lipophilic GlpT-independent DXR inhibitor, compound 1 has the potential to be a broad

  12. High yield synthesis of 14C labelled intermediates of the L-type pentose pathway: octulose mono- and biphosphates, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate and D-arabinose 5-phosphate

    Methods for the enzymic synthesis, isolation, purification and analysis of the 14C labelled intermediates that are characteristic of the L-type pentose phosphate pathway are described. These are D-glycero D-ido octulose 1,8-bisphosphate and 8-monophosphate; D-glycero D-altro octulose mono- and bisphosphates; sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate and D-arabinose 5-phosphate. The authenticity of each of the 14C-labelled sugar phosphates was confirmed using a variety of chromatographic methods, enzymatic analytic methods and NMR spectroscopy. The 14C labelled compounds are used in investigations involving the search for the identity of the pentose pathway in tissues in vitro, for the measurement of L-type pathway enzyme reactions and for testing the mechanistic predictions of the L-type pathway in vitro. (author)

  13. MEP incentive for onshore wind energy. Study on the robustness of the full load methodology and options for alternative differentiation of the incentive for onshore wind energy

    The proposed amendment to the Dutch Electricity Law of 1998, called 'environmental quality of electricity production' (MEP), provides operating support through a combination of feed-in tariffs and a reduced ecotax exemption. In order to prevent a free ride of windy locations, the feed-in tariff for onshore wind turbines is limited to a maximum of 18,000 full load hours. Several parties have expressed their concern that this system may possibly provide an incentive to increase the rated power in order to lengthen the period that the feed-in tariff is being received. This report reviews the risks of unintentional side effects of the proposed limitation of 18,000 full load hours. In addition, this report examines the possibilities for further differentiation of the feed-in tariff for onshore wind energy by reviewing methods of differentiation in a number of EU member states

  14. Do Organometallic CH4-Me(+p) Adducts and X4H(+) (X = P, As) Clusters Undergo Two-Electron Three-Center Interactions? Some Aspects of Discussion.

    Lobayan, Rosana M; Bochicchio, Roberto C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the systems possessing true two-electron three-center interactions are electron deficient compounds like boron hydrids, closo-boranes, and some organic ions such as butonium cations. In this work, we perform a detailed study of the electron distribution for two different types of systems to which likewise interactions has been adjudicated: organometallic CH4-Me(+p) (p = 1, 2) adducts with Me, alkaline and earth alkaline metallic ions of Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca in their stable gaseous phase and X4H(+) (X = P, As) simple clusters. For this purpose, topological analysis of the electron density decomposed into its effectively paired and unpaired contributions has been carried out looking for complex interactions. PMID:26061421

  15. Slow-binding and competitive inhibition of 8-amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase, a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in biotin biosynthesis, by substrate and intermediate analogs. Kinetic and binding studies.

    Ploux, O; Breyne, O; Carillon, S; Marquet, A

    1999-01-01

    8-Amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase catalyzes the first committed step of biotin biosynthesis in micro-organisms and plants. Because inhibitors of this pathway might lead to antibacterials or herbicides, we have undertaken an inhibition study on 8-amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase using six different compounds. d-Alanine, the enantiomer of the substrate of this pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme was found to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to l-alanine with a Ki of 0.59 mm. The fact that this inhibition constant was four times lower than the Km for l-alanine was interpreted as the consequence of the inversion-retention stereochemistry of the catalyzed reaction. Schiff base formation between l or d-alanine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, in the active site of the enzyme, was studied using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. It was found that l and d-alanine form an external aldimine with equilibrium constants K = 4.1 mm and K = 37.8 mm, respectively. However, the equilibrium constant for d-alanine aldimine formation dramatically decreased to 1.3 mm in the presence of saturating concentration of pimeloyl-CoA, the second substrate. This result strongly suggests that the binding of pimeloyl-CoA induces a conformational change in the active site, and we propose that this new topology is complementary to d-alanine and to the putative reaction intermediate since they both have the same configuration. (+/-)-8-Amino-7-oxo-8-phosphonononaoic acid (1), the phosphonate derivative of the intermediate formed during the reaction, was our most potent inhibitor with a Ki of 7 microm. This compound behaved as a reversible slow-binding inhibitor, competitive with respect to l-alanine. Kinetic investigation showed that this slow process was best described by a one-step mechanism (mechanism A) with the following rate constants: k1 = 0.27 x 103 m-1.s-1, k2 = 1.8 s-1 and half-life for dissociation t1/2 = 6.3 min. The binding of compound 1 to the enzyme was also studied using

  16. Expression of the xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase gene, xpkA, from Lactobacillus pentosus MD363 is induced by sugars that are fermented via the phosphoketolase pathway and is repressed by glucose mediated by CcpA and the mannose phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system

    Posthuma, C.C.; Bader, R.; Engelmann, R.; Postma, P.W.; Hengstenberg, W.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Purification of xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase (XpkA), the central enzyme of the phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) in lactic acid bacteria, and cloning and sequence analysis of the encoding gene, xpkA, from Lactobacillus pentosus MD363 are described, xpkA encodes a 788-amino-acid protein with a ca

  17. Bisphosphonate inhibitors reveal a large elasticity of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen.

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Talts, Eero; Kännaste, Astrid; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a feedback inhibition of the chloroplastic 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis by end products dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) was postulated, but the extent to which DMADP and IDP can build up is not known. We used bisphosphonate inhibitors, alendronate and zoledronate, that inhibit the consumption of DMADP and IDP by prenyltransferases to gain insight into the extent of end product accumulation and possible feedback inhibition in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). A kinetic method based on dark release of isoprene emission at the expense of substrate pools accumulated in light was used to estimate the in vivo pool sizes of DMADP and upstream metabolites. Feeding with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase, alone or in combination with bisphosphonates was used to inhibit carbon input into DXP/MEP pathway or both input and output. We observed a major increase in pathway intermediates, 3- to 4-fold, upstream of DMADP in bisphosphonate-inhibited leaves, but the DMADP pool was enhanced much less, 1.3- to 1.5-fold. In combined fosmidomycin/bisphosphonate treatment, pathway intermediates accumulated, reflecting cytosolic flux of intermediates that can be important under strong metabolic pull in physiological conditions. The data suggested that metabolites accumulated upstream of DMADP consist of phosphorylated intermediates and IDP. Slow conversion of the huge pools of intermediates to DMADP was limited by reductive energy supply. These data indicate that the DXP/MEP pathway is extremely elastic, and the presence of a significant pool of phosphorylated intermediates provides an important valve for fine tuning the pathway flux. PMID:25926480

  18. Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NLO, NBO analysis of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Sangeetha, M.; Mekala, R.; Gadheeja, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid. The properties of title compound have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31 + G (d, p) as basis set. IR Spectra has been recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the region 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignment of the calculated normal modes has been made on the basis set. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretical UV-Vis spectrum of the compound are used to study the visible absorption maxima (λ max). The structure activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug receptor interactions. The Mullikan charges, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) - LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy are analyzed. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to investigate the various intra and inter molecular interactions of molecular system. The Non-linear optical properties such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (αtot) and molecular first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the title compound are computed with B3LYP/6-31 + G (d,p) level of theory.

  19. BAEP、BR及MEP联合检测在脑死亡诊断中的应用%Application of BAEP, BR and MEP combined detection for the diagnosis of brain death

    朴虎男; 朴莲荀; 杜婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨神经电生理在脑死亡判定中的应用价值.方法 通过瞬间反射(BR)、脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)、运动诱发电位(MEP)三项联合检查对22例脑死亡患者进行评定,并与GCS评分结果进行比较.结果 BAEP、BR和MEP三项联合检查对脑死亡判断准确率为100%,与GCS评分比较差异显著(P<0.05).结论 BAEP、BR和MEP三项联合检测对评价脑死亡患者的脑功能状态、预测预后提供了客观可靠的依据.%Objective To investigate the diagnosis value of neuro-electrophysiology detection for brain death. Methods Combined detection of brainstem auditory evoked potentials ( BAEP) , blink reflex (BR) united motor evoked potentials ( MEP) were used to access 22 brain death patients, and then compared with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. Results The accuracy of BAEP, BR and MEP combined detection was 100% , and which showed significant difference compared with GCS scores. Conclusion BAEP, BR united MEP testing can provide an objective indicator not only for e-valuating brain function of brain death, but also for estimating prognosis.

  20. Clinical analysis of vitamin B(6): determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human serum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chlorite postcolumn derivatization.

    Rybak, Michael E; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2004-10-15

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorometric detection was developed for the routine determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in serum. Chlorite postcolumn derivatization was used to oxidize PLP to a more fluorescent carboxylic acid form. Sensitivity improved fourfold for PLP using chlorite postcolumn derivatization over traditional bisulfite postcolumn derivatization. The HPLC injection cycle was 15 min, facilitating a throughput of 60 patient samples (72 injections that included standards and quality control (QC) samples) in 18.5h. Method precision was evaluated using three serum QC pools with PLP and 4-PA concentrations of 11.5-34.8 nmol/L and 10.4-21.0 nmol/L, respectively. Within-run (n=7) repeatabilities were 0.6-1.2% for PLP and 0.9-1.8% for 4-PA. Run-to-run (n=23) reproducibilities were 3.6-6.7% for PLP and 3.7-5.6% for 4-PA. Relative detection (3sigma(0)) and quantitation (10sigma(0)) limits were 0.3 and 0.9 nmol/L, respectively, for both PLP and 4-PA using a 10-microl sample injection volume. Analytical recoveries ranged from 97 to 102%. Patient-matched serum and plasma specimens (n=25) were analyzed to evaluate specimen-type bias. Of the plasma types evaluated, heparinized plasma introduced the lowest relative bias for PLP (-5.3%) and minimal bias for 4-PA (-2.3%) compared with serum. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma showed the lowest bias for 4-PA (0.7%) but a relatively high bias for PLP (13.0%) due to a chromatographic interference. Human serum samples from a non-representative population subset (n=303) were commensurate with values published for other vitamin B(6) HPLC methods. These values gave geometric means of 42.4 nmol/L for PLP and 27.3 nmol/L for 4-PA. Medians for PLP and 4-PA were 40.1 and 21.8 nmol/L, respectively. The high sensitivity, precision, and throughput of this method, combined with its minimal serum specimen (150 microl) and sample injection

  1. Nuclear Polluters' Charter. Council directive 96/29/EURATOM (OJ L159 29th June 1996), the 'Basic Standards Directive'; briefing for MPs and MEPs

    The nuclear industry has huge 'back end' problems: acres of radioactive waste stacked up with no final disposal route; hundreds of thousands of tonnes of metals, glass, plastic, and concrete too 'hot' to re-use or dump. Sea dumping has been ruled out, Nirex's deep repository is back to square one, the waste mountain is growing, and hundreds of nuclear factories and power stations await decommissioning. But by May 2000 the UK and all member states are required to conform with a dangerously vague and permissive Directive, and deregulate much of this expensive, embarrassing, and harmful waste. Below certain very lax limits it will become a financial asset to be sold on the open market. What cannot be sold will be landfilled and incinerated without restriction. Ostensibly, the Directive is a 'harmonisation' of radiation exposure standards. It was promulgated by the European Commission under the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The European Parliament has no power over Euratom, and (with one exception) amendments advised by MEPs were ignored. The Directive effectively deregulates reuse, recycling, disposal, and incineration of radioactive materials below certain threshold levels. It specifically allows recycling of contaminated materials and drops a precautionary proviso used in earlier European legislation. Spokesmen from the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the Commission openly admit that there is nothing to stop hundreds of thousands of tonnes of radioactive materials from nuclear licensed sites - potentially, their entire inventory - being diluted into industrial feedstocks of recyclable materials and ending up in consumer goods, fertilisers or any product. The Commission's view is let the buyers beware if they don't want contaminated goods or raw materials. National radiation protection agencies which advise the Commission and national governments claim that there is no threat to health, according to internationally accepted radiation risk factors. But those same

  2. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  3. Spectroscopic (FT-IR and FT-Raman) investigation, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and MEP analysis of 6-nitrochromone by ab initio and density functional theory calculations

    Senthil kumar, J.; Jeyavijayan, S.; Arivazhagan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational spectral analysis is carried out using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 3500-50 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively, for 6-nitrochromone (6NC). The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimization and normal coordinates force field calculation based on ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity, zero-point energy and Mulliken's charge analysis have been calculated for the 6NC. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The MEP map shows the negative potential sites are on oxygen atoms as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR and FT-Raman), vibrational assignments, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, MEP analysis and molecular docking study of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole 3-oxide

    Benzon, K. B.; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Pradhan, Kiran; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Alsenoy, C. Van

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole 3-oxide. The computations were performed at DFT levels of theory to get the optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies of the normal modes of the title compound using Gaussian09 software. The complete vibrational assignments of frequencies were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show the chemical activity of the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarizability values are reported and the first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 19.61 times that of standard NLO material urea. From the MEP plot, the negative charge covers the nitro group and the positive region is over the hydroxyl group and N-H part of the imidazole ring. The calculated 1H NMR results are in good agreement with experimental data. Molecular docking study is also reported.

  5. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  6. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Query Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MEPSnet HC Query Tool MEPSnet/Household Component provides easy access to nationally representative statistics of health care use, expenditures, sources of payment,...

  7. MEPs : ban hammer, sickle and swastika

    2005-01-01

    Europarlamendi liikmete Vytautas Landsbergise ja Jozsef Szajeri avalduse kohaselt tuleks Euroopa Liidus ettevalmistatava seaduse raames, mis keelustaks natsisümboli - haakristi - kasutamise, keelata ka kommunismi sümboolika kasutamine

  8. Results of the market consultation on technical-economical parameters of sustainable electricity options. Overview of the results of the consultation in response to the concept advice with regard to the assumptions for the ineffective top calculations to determine the MEP-subsidies for 2004 and 2005

    A study has been carried out on the financial gaps of renewable electricity production technologies. These form the basis for determining the level of the MEP-subsidies for different renewable electricity sources and technologies by the Ministry. This report provides an overview of the stakeholder reactions in several consultation meetings regarding the preliminary advice from ECN and KEMA on the techno-economic and financial assumptions for the calculation of the financial gaps. In this report it is motivated which reactions will be taken into account in the final advice on the financial gaps to the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

  9. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2af

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  10. Intracellular adenosine 3',5'-phosphate formation is essential for down-regulation of surface adenosine 3',5'-phosphate receptors in Dictyostelium

    Van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain cell surface cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptors that bind cAMP as a first messenger and intracellular cAMP receptors that bind cAMP as a second messenger. Prolonged incubation of Dictyostelium cells with cAMP induces a sequential process of phosphorylation, sequestration and down-regulation of the surface receptors. The role of intracellular cAMP in down-regulation of surface receptors was investigated. Down-regulation of receptors does not occur under conditio...

  11. Lithuanian MEP loses his immunity / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    7. septembril otsustas Euroopa Parlament parlamendisaadiku Viktor Uspaskihhi puutumatuse ära võtta, kuna teda kahtlustatakse Tööerakonna raamatupidamise võltsimises. Viktor Uspaskihhi poliitilisest tegevusest

  12. MEP parabolic hydrodynamical model for holes in silicon semiconductors

    Consistent hydrodynamical models for electron transport in semi-conductors, free of any fitting parameter, have been formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 11 (1999) 307, 12 (2000) 31 for silicon and in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 14 (2002) 405 for GaAs. In this paper we use the same approach for studying the hole transport in Si, by considering a parabolic approximation for the valence energy band. Scattering of holes with non-polar optical phonons, acoustic phonons and impurities have been taken into account. On the basis of these results, a limiting energy-transport model and an explicit expression for the low field hole mobility have been obtained. The high field mobility is also analyzed by taking into account the influence of impurities

  13. Inhibitor design for ribonuclease A: the binding of two 5 '-phosphate uridine analogues

    Tsirkone, Vicky G.; Dossi, Kyriaki; Drakou, Christina; Zographos, Spyros E.; Kontou, Maria; Leonidas, Demetres D.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of ribonuclease A in complex with uridine 5′-phosphate and uridine 5′-diphosphate has been determined at 1.4 Å resolution in order to facilitate the rational design of selective and potent inhibitors.

  14. Chemical modification of human muscle aldose reductase by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a monomeric oxidoreductase (Mr, 37,000). This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. The ability to reduce D-glucose and utilize NADH distinguishes ALR2 from aldehyde reductase (ALR1) which is exclusively NADPH-dependent. As part of a study to determine active site residues critical for binding and catalysis they have investigated the behavior of ALR2 with pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). In contrast to ALR1, which is inactivated by PLP, the reaction of ALR2 with PLP results in a 2-3 fold activation with the incorporation of 1 mol of PLP/mol enzyme. However, despite a 3-fold increase in k/sub cat/, there is also a 13-14 fold increase in the Km for both coenzyme and substrate and catalytic efficiency (k/sub cat//Km) is actually decreased. Reaction of ALR2 with 3[H] PLP followed by digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C enabled the separation and purification by HPLC of a peptide containing a single pyridoxyllysine residue. The sequence of this 32 residue peptide is highly homologous with a peptide similarly obtained from pig and human ALR1 and is identical with one from pig ALR2. In all four enzymes, pig ALR1, ALR2; human ALR1, ALR2, a tetrapeptide containing the pyridoxylated lysine (I-P-K-S) shows absolute identity. Thus, despite differences in substrate and coenzyme specificity, the active site in both ALR1 and ALR2 is relatively conserved

  15. Hydrolysis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in plasma in conditions with raised alkaline phosphate.

    Anderson, B B; O'Brien, H.; Griffin, G E; Mollin, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma was demonstrated in patients with liver disease and other conditions with raised alkaline phosphatase, and this usually closely paralleled the alkaline phosphatase level, whether of liver or bone origin. The endogenous plasma pyridoxal phosphate was inversely related to the alkaline phosphatase, and plasma hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate may at least in part be responsible. Very large doses of vitamin B6 may be necessary to compensate for this hyd...

  16. Study on combined monitoring in cervical cord operation by median nerve brainstem somatosensory evoked potential (MN-BSEP) and short train transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potential (STTES-MEP)%正中神经脑干躯体感觉诱发电位和经颅短串电刺激运动诱发电位联合术中监护在颈髓手术中的应用

    顾士欣; 徐启武; 陈炜; 车晓明

    2004-01-01

    目的研究在异丙酚全静脉麻醉方案下,联合应用正中神经脑干躯体感觉诱发电位(MN-BSEP)和经颅短串电刺激运动诱发电位(STTES-MEP)对颈髓手术实施术中监护的可行性.方法通过变换不同的刺激条件、记录条件、技术参数,分别摸索MN-BSEP和STTES-MEP的可靠检测方法,并按照总结得到的技术规范,选择我科15例接受颈髓手术的病人,进行术中联合监护,对照分析术前和术后脊髓功能的改变和诱发电位变化之间的关系.结果 MN-BSEP基本不受麻醉影响,术后的改变与术后病人感觉功能的转归情况相吻合;STTES-MEP与麻醉方案有关,在异丙酚麻醉下,可记录到清晰、稳定的运动诱发电位,其术后的变化与术后病人肌力的转归情况相吻合.结论选用异丙酚全静脉麻醉,联合应用MN-BSEP和STTES-MEP实现对颈髓功能的术中监护是可行的,其效果优于单纯应用体感诱发电位或运动诱发电位进行监护.

  17. Ribose-5-Phosphate Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Occurs in the Absence of a Pentose-Phosphate Pathway

    Grochowski, Laura L.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns ...

  18. A homogeneous, high-throughput assay for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase with a novel, rapid substrate preparation.

    Mindy I Davis

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide kinases regulate diverse cellular functions and are important targets for therapeutic development for diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. Preparation of the lipid substrate is crucial for the development of a robust and miniaturizable lipid kinase assay. Enzymatic assays for phosphoinositide kinases often use lipid substrates prepared from lyophilized lipid preparations by sonication, which result in variability in the liposome size from preparation to preparation. Herein, we report a homogeneous 1536-well luciferase-coupled bioluminescence assay for PI5P4Kα. The substrate preparation is novel and allows the rapid production of a DMSO-containing substrate solution without the need for lengthy liposome preparation protocols, thus enabling the scale-up of this traditionally difficult type of assay. The Z'-factor value was greater than 0.7 for the PI5P4Kα assay, indicating its suitability for high-throughput screening applications. Tyrphostin AG-82 had been identified as an inhibitor of PI5P4Kα by assessing the degree of phospho transfer of γ-(32P-ATP to PI5P; its inhibitory activity against PI5P4Kα was confirmed in the present miniaturized assay. From a pilot screen of a library of bioactive compounds, another tyrphostin, I-OMe tyrphostin AG-538 (I-OMe-AG-538, was identified as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI5P4Kα with an IC(50 of 1 µM, affirming the suitability of the assay for inhibitor discovery campaigns. This homogeneous assay may apply to other lipid kinases and should help in the identification of leads for this class of enzymes by enabling high-throughput screening efforts.

  19. Accessibility of different histone H3-binding domains of UHRF1 is allosterically regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate.

    Gelato, K.; Tauber, M; Ong, M; Winter, S.; Hamada, K; Sindlinger, J.; Lemak, A.; Bultsma, Y.; Houliston, S.; Schwarzer, D; Divecha, N.; C. Arrowsmith; Fischle, W

    2014-01-01

    UHRF1 is a multidomain protein crucially linking histone H3 modification states and DNA methylation. While the interaction properties of its specific domains are well characterized, little is known about the regulation of these functionalities. We show that UHRF1 exists in distinct active states, binding either unmodified H3 or the H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) modification. A polybasic region (PBR) in the C terminus blocks interaction of a tandem tudor domain (TTD) with H3K9me3 by occ...

  20. Accessibility of different histone H3-binding domains of UHRF1 is allosterically regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate.

    Gelato, Kathy A; Tauber, Maria; Ong, Michelle S; Winter, Stefan; Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Sindlinger, Julia; Lemak, Alexander; Bultsma, Yvette; Houliston, Scott; Schwarzer, Dirk; Divecha, Nullin; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2014-06-19

    UHRF1 is a multidomain protein crucially linking histone H3 modification states and DNA methylation. While the interaction properties of its specific domains are well characterized, little is known about the regulation of these functionalities. We show that UHRF1 exists in distinct active states, binding either unmodified H3 or the H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) modification. A polybasic region (PBR) in the C terminus blocks interaction of a tandem tudor domain (TTD) with H3K9me3 by occupying an essential peptide-binding groove. In this state the plant homeodomain (PHD) mediates interaction with the extreme N terminus of the unmodified H3 tail. Binding of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate PI5P to the PBR of UHRF1 results in a conformational rearrangement of the domains, allowing the TTD to bind H3K9me3. Our results define an allosteric mechanism controlling heterochromatin association of an essential regulatory protein of epigenetic states and identify a functional role for enigmatic nuclear phosphatidylinositol phosphates. PMID:24813945

  1. Targeting DXP synthase in human pathogens: enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial activity of butylacetylphosphonate

    Smith, Jessica M.; Warrington, Nicole V.; Vierling, Ryan J.; Kuhn, Misty L.; Anderson, Wayne F; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2013-01-01

    The unique methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential in most bacterial pathogens. The first enzyme in this pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase, catalyzes a distinct thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent reaction to form DXP from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (D-GAP) and pyruvate and represents a potential anti-infective drug target. We have previously demonstrated that the unnatural bisubstrate analog, butylacetylphosphonate (BAP), exhi...

  2. Crystal Structure Analyses of the Fosmidomycin-Target Enzyme from Plasmodium Falciparum

    Umeda, Tomonobu; Kusakabe, Yoshio; Tanaka, Nobutada

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the death of more than a million people each year. Fosmidomycin has proved to be efficient in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria through the inhibition of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), an enzyme of the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, which is absent in humans. Crystal structure analyses of P. falciparum DXR (PfDXR) revealed that (i) an intrinsic flexibility of the PfDXR molecule accounts for the induced-fit movement to accommodate the bound inhibitor in the active site, and (ii) a cis arrangement of the oxygen atoms of the hydroxamate group of the bound inhibitor is essential for tight binding of the inhibitor to the active site metal. We believe that our study will serve as a useful guide to develop more potent PfDXR inhibitors.

  3. OPEC – What Difference has it Made?: OIES paper: MEP 3

    Fattouh, Bassam; Mahadeva, Lavan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the evolution of OPEC models and to link this evolution to some key events in the oil market. Our main conclusion is that OPEC’s pricing power varies over time. There are many instances in which OPEC can lose the power to limit oil price movements – either up or down. Such changes in pricing power are brought about by market conditions and can occur both in weak and tight market conditions. Because of OPEC’s varying conduct, there is no single model...

  4. The Implications of the Arab Uprisings for Oil and Gas Markets: OIES paper: MEP 2

    Fattouh, Bassam; Darbouche, Hakim

    2011-01-01

    The events that took place in the Arab world in the opening months of 2011 mark a watershed in the history of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Given the importance of MENA energy supplies in global economic terms, the political unrest witnessed by the region has caused widespread fears about the prospect of energy supply disruptions. With international oil and gas prices beginning to rise from 2010, there was serious concern among market and political actors that any further in...

  5. Energy Poverty in the Arab World: The Case of Yemen: OIES paper: MEP 1

    Fattouh, Bassam; El-Katiri, Laura

    2011-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the literature on energy poverty is on the prevalence of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, little has been written about energy poverty in the Arab world. Traditionally having being seen as one of the world’s most energy rich regions, the Arab world has in recent years often been overlooked as a region which suffers severely from energy poverty itself. In 2002, about 65 million people in the Arab world had no access to electricity, and an addi...

  6. MEPS 2.0? EUROPARLIAMENTARIANS TALKING TO VOTERS IN THE INTERNET ERA

    Stefano Braghiroli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically looks at the nature of MEPs’ internet-based “web tools” in the past EP legislature and at the extent to which their features reflect the complex nature of the EP environment (“Europeanization of communication”. To conduct this operation, a variety of structural and graphic features of MEPs’ websites have been identified, which have been made statistically analyzable, following a process of standardization and categorization, and were finally collected into a unique dataset. The preliminary figures obtained have been then controlled for a wide array of pluri-dimensional factors, operating both at micro-/individual-level and at macro-/country-level. Conceived as an explorative study towards clearer and more accurate understanding of MEPs’ internet-based communication styles and political strategies, our analysis aims at providing a stepping stone for further investigation in this direction.

  7. Development of MEPS-UHPLC-MS/MS multistatin methods for clinical analysis

    Vlčková, H.; Svoboda, P.; Novák, Ondřej; Solich, P.; Nováková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2016), s. 333-349. ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bioanalysis * dwell time * interconversion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.003, year: 2014

  8. Airborne Survey Capacity Building of National Nuclear Safety Administration (MEP) in China

    Airborne survey is being paid more and attention in the nuclear radiation environment monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially after the nuclear accident of Fukushima Japan. Thus, National Nuclear Safety Administration is strengthening to build airborne survey capacity. The administration has set up an advanced airborne survey system and established expert team. This airborne survey system here is fixed under a capable helicopter, which has a monitoring volume of 75.6 liters, independent advanced digital spectrometer and intelligent data processing functions. In this paper, a way that is applied for wireless data real-time transmission is presented, and our research works on calibration and the survey methods are also included. The airborne survey system can be widely used in the nuclear and radiation accidents monitoring and relative radiation monitoring in NORM. (author)

  9. A STUDY OF FVC, PEFR AND MEP IN DIFFERENT TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY

    2012-01-01

    Objective : Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the function of virtually every regulatory system in the human body. The events in pregnancy elicit one of the best examples of selective anatomical, physiological & biochemical adaptation that occur during pregnancy & profound changes in respiratory physiology is a part of the same process. Thus this study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary function tests in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy & compare them w...

  10. 77 FR 12041 - Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program

    2012-02-28

    ... notice of final requirements for this program, published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2004 (69 FR... FR 13217). Absolute Priorities: For FY 2012, these priorities are absolute priorities. Under 34 CFR... notice of final requirements published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2004 (69 FR 10110); and...

  11. 78 FR 34346 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and...

    2013-06-07

    ... Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC) Client Impact Survey AGENCY... information collection. The purpose of the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge... to support job creation, encourage economic development, and enhance the competitiveness of...

  12. Identification of novel HBV core-interacting partners PRMT5 and MEP50

    Lubyová, Barbora; Hodek, Jan; Prouzová, Hana; Hubálek, Martin; Weber, Jan

    Ontario: American Society for Virology, 2015. P29-03. [ASV 2015. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Virology /34./. 11.07.2015-15.07.2015, Ontario] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11207 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HBV core protein * arginine methyltransferase * protein-protein interactions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Micro Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion technology is often critical for space missions. High-value missions could be done with very small spacecraft, even CubeSats, but these...

  14. Biosynthesis of β-carotene in engineered E. coli using the MEP and MVA pathways

    Yang, Jianming; Guo, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background β-carotene is a carotenoid compound that has been widely used not only in the industrial production of pharmaceuticals but also as nutraceuticals, animal feed additives, functional cosmetics, and food colorants. Currently, more than 90% of commercial β-carotene is produced by chemical synthesis. Due to the growing public concern over food safety, the use of chemically synthesized β-carotene as food additives or functional cosmetic agents has been severely controlled in recent years...

  15. Working at home: MEPs day-to-day practice of political representation in their constituency

    Poyet, Corentin

    2015-01-01

    International audience In early 2000s, Simon Hix and his colleagues declared EP constitutes a good laboratory to test theories and hypotheses about legislative or party behavior. However, scholars mainly focused on roll-call votes analysis allowing them to investigate voting behavior, coalitions formation as well as activities in technical committees (Hix 2001; Hix, Noury and Roland 2007; Kreppel 2007; Mammoudh and Raunio 2003; McElroy 2006). In this paper, we propose to go further to anal...

  16. Complexation of neptunium(V) by salicylate, phthalate and citrate ligands in a pH 7.5 phosphate buffered system

    Conditional stability constants, enthalpies and entropies of complexation at pH 7.5 and ionic strength 0.1 have been determined for neptunium(V) complexes of phosphate, salicylate, phthalate and citrate. Results are given and discussed. At pH 7.5 salicylate does not form a complex with neptunium(V) due to the low charge density of the NpO2+ ion and incomplete ionization of the salicylate ion. In all cases, only 1:1 complexes were identified. (U.K.)

  17. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  18. Vitamin B6 nutritional status and cellular availability of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate govern the function of the transsulfuration pathway's canonical reactions and hydrogen sulfide production via side reactions.

    Gregory, Jesse F; DeRatt, Barbara N; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Ralat, Maria; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    The transsulfuration pathway (TS) acts in sulfur amino acid metabolism by contributing to the regulation of cellular homocysteine, cysteine production, and the generation of H2S for signaling functions. Regulation of TS pathway kinetics involves stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and oxidants such as H2O2, and by Michaelis-Menten principles whereby substrate concentrations affect reaction rates. Although pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) serves as coenzyme for both CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), CSE exhibits much greater loss of activity than CBS during PLP insufficiency. Thus, cellular and plasma cystathionine concentrations increase in vitamin B6 deficiency mainly due to the bottleneck caused by reduced CSE activity. Because of the increase in cystathionine, the canonical production of cysteine (homocysteine → cystathionine → cysteine) is largely maintained even during vitamin B6 deficiency. Typical whole body transsulfuration flux in humans is 3-7 μmol/h per kg body weight. The in vivo kinetics of H2S production via side reactions of CBS and CSE in humans are unknown but they have been reported for cultured HepG2 cells. In these studies, cells exhibit a pronounced reduction in H2S production capacity and rates of lanthionine and homolanthionine synthesis in deficiency. In humans, plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine exhibit little or no mean change due to 4-wk vitamin B6 restriction, nor do they respond to pyridoxine supplementation of subjects in chronically low-vitamin B6 status. Wide individual variation in responses of the H2S biomarkers to such perturbations of human vitamin B6 status suggests that the resulting modulation of H2S production may have physiological consequences in a subset of people. Supported by NIH grant DK072398. This paper refers to data from studies registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01128244 and NCT00877812. PMID:26765812

  19. Characterization of the TDP-d-ravidosamine biosynthetic pathway: one-pot enzymatic synthesis of TDP-d-ravidosamine from thymidine-5-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate†

    Kharel, Madan K.; Lian, Hui; Rohr, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Ravidomycin V and related compounds, e.g., FE35A-B, exhibit potent anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines in the presence of visible light. The amino sugar moieties (d-ravidosamine and its analogues, respectively) in these molecules contribute to the higher potencies of ravidomycin and analogues when compared to closely related compounds with neutral or branched sugars. Within the ravidomycin V biosynthetic gene cluster, five putative genes encoding NDP-d-ravidosamine biosynt...

  20. De novo fragment-based design of inhibitors of DXS guided by spin-diffusion-based NMR spectroscopy.

    Masini, T.; Pilger, J.; Kroezen, B.; Illarionov, B.; Lottmann, P.; Fischer, M.; Griesinger, C.; Hirsch, A.

    2014-01-01

    We applied for the first time an innovative ligand-based NMR methodology (STI) to a medicinal-chemistry project aimed at the development of inhibitors for the enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). DXS is the first enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, present in most bacteria (and not in humans) and responsible for the synthesis of the essential isoprenoid precursors. We designed de novo a first generation of fragments, using Deinococcus radiodurans D...

  1. The Arab Uprisings and MENA Political Instability – Implications for Oil & Gas Markets: OIES paper: MEP 8

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam; Mallinson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The political turmoil that has swept across many parts of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) since the beginning of the Arab Spring in December 2010 and the tightening of international sanctions against Iran in 2012 have reignited the recurring debate about energy security and the reliability of MENA as an energy supplier. In this paper, we examine the impact of the past three years of political turmoil in MENA on oil and gas markets. We argue that although many disruptions did occur and...

  2. BIM-lean synergies in the management on MEP works in public facilities of intensive use – a case study

    Clemente, José, 1720-1798; Cachadinha, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    21st Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction – IGLC 21 – Fortaleza, Brazil AEC industry has been known for budget overruns and delays for a long time. One important reason for weak performances is the difficulty to visualize the production flow, and the deficient information transmission between the different stakeholders involved in a construction project. The use of 3D models plays a significant role in facilitating the implementation of Lean principles, ...

  3. Guangxi Nanguo Copper’s150,000 t/a Copper Smelting Project was Approval by the MEP

    2013-01-01

    <正>In the middle of August,the environmental impact report for 150,000 t/a copper smelting project of Guangxi Nanguo Copper Industry Co.,Ltd received formal approval from the Ministry of Environmental Protection,signaling that this project’s environmental impact

  4. Enzymes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MEP and CoA Pathways Targeted for Structure-Based Drug Design

    Björkelid, Christofer

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by the pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most widespread and deadly infectious diseases today. Treatment of tuberculosis relies on antibiotics that were developed more than 50 years ago. These are now becoming ineffective due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of the bacteria. The aim of the research in this thesis was to develop new antibiotics for tuberculosis treatment. To this end, we targeted enzymes from two essential biosyn...

  5. Estonian President and ex-MEP Toomas Ilves : new states "open to change" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; [interv. Kristiina Randmaa

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    President T.H. Ilvese intervjuu Euroopa Parlamendi internetiväljaandele. President räägib oma töökogemustest Euroopa Parlamendi saadikuna, Euroopa Liidu uute liikmesriikide erinevustest, Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest, Eesti infotehnoloogilisest arengust

  6. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Francesca Rizzello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold, Q9 (3-fold and Q10 (2.5-fold. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules.

  7. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  8. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  9. Predicted essential proteins ofPlasmodium falciparum for potential drug targets

    Qing-Feng He; Li Deng; Qin-Ying Xu; Zheng Shao

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To identify novel drug targets for treatment ofPlasmodium falciparum.Methods:LocalBLASTP were used to find the proteins non-homologous to human essential proteins as novel drug targets. Functional domains of novel drug targets were identified by InterPro and Pfam,3D structures of potential drug targets were predicated by theSWISS-MODELworkspace. Ligands and ligand-binding sites of the proteins were searched byEf-seek.Results:Three essential proteins were identified that might be considered as potential drug targets.AAN37254.1 belonged to1-deoxy-D-xylulose5-phosphate reductoisomerase,CAD50499.1 belonged to chorismate synthase,CAD51220.1 belonged toFAD binging3 family, but the function of CAD51220.1 was unknown. The3D structures, ligands and ligand-binding sites ofAAN37254.1 andCAD50499.1 were successfully predicated.Conclusions:Two of these potential drug targets are key enzymes in2-C-methyl-d-erythritol4-phosphate pathway and shikimate pathway, which are absent in humans, so these two essential proteins are good potential drug targets. The function and3D structures ofCAD50499.1 is still unknown, it still need further study.

  10. Effects of mutagenesis of aspartic acid residues in the putative phosphoribosyl diphosphate binding site of Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase on metal ion specificity and ribose-5-phosphate binding

    Willemoës, Martin; Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The three conserved aspartic acid residues of the 5-phospho-d-ribosyl a-1-diphosphate binding site (213-GRDCVLVDDMIDTGGT-228) of Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase were studied by analysis of the mutant enzymes D220E, D220F, D221A, D224A, and D224S. The mutant enzymes showed a...

  11. Inhibition of alanine racemase by alanine phosphonate: detection of an imine linkage to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solid-state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance

    Inhibition of alanine racemase from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus by (1-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid (Ala-P) proceeds via a two-step reaction pathway in which reactivation occurs very slowly. In order to determine the mechanism of inhibition, the authors have recorded low-temperature, solid-state 15N NMR spectra from microcrystals of the [15N]Ala-P-enzyme complex, together with spectra of a series of model compounds that provide the requisite database for the interpretation of the 15N chemical shifts. Proton-decoupled spectra of the microcrystals exhibit a line at ∼ 150 ppm, which conclusively demonstrates the presence of a protonated Ala-P-PLP aldimine and thus clarifies the structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. They also report the pH dependence of Ala-P binding to alanine racemase

  12. Price Reform in Kuwait’s Electricity and Water Sector – Assessing the Net Benefits in the Presence of Congestion: OIES paper: MEP 9

    Mahadeva, Lavan; Fattouh, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait’s domestic electricity and water sector has been in disarray for several years, struggling with fast-rising demand for several decades as a result of rapid industrialization, population growth, rising living standards as well as due to the artificially low utility prices set by the government. We use a model-based methodology to compare the current pricing scheme against an alternative where consumer prices are raised to market levels and consumers are on average compensated by cash tr...

  13. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, MEP, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4

    Yankova, Rumyana; Genieva, Svetlana; Halachev, Nenko; Dimitrova, Ginka

    2016-02-01

    Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4 was obtained with the hydrothermal synthesis. The geometry optimization of this molecule was done by Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set and LANL2DZ for Hf. The experimental infrared spectrum was compared with calculated and complete vibrational assignment was provided. The bond orders and the electronic properties of the molecule were calculated. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) was performed in order to study the intramolecular bonding interactions among bonds and delocalization of unpaired electrons. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap were presented. The electrostatic potential was calculated in order to investigate the reaction properties of the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  14. Análisis energético de CYPECAD-MEP y CE3x en la edificación

    Alarcón Blaya, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Con el objeto de promover la eficiencia energética de los edificios, la Directiva 2002/91/CE y posteriormente la Directiva 2010/31/UE, exigía a los Estados miembros el establecimiento de un procedimiento de certificación dirigido a los edificios, que pusiese a disposición del posible comprador o inquilino, una información objetiva sobre el consumo energético de la vivienda. El requisito de la eficiencia energética es alcanzar unos niveles óptimos de rentabilidad en la viv...

  15. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  16. Detection of biogenic amines in urine and plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection HPLC-ED using microextraction in packed syringe MEPS

    Oppolzer, David Jerónimo

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are neurotransmitters involved in several physiological processes. Changes and disturbs in their function are associated to several neurological disorders or diseases, as well as consumption of psychotherapeutic or psychotropic drugs. The detection of these compounds in biological fluids is therefore of clinical and neurochemical interest. The goal of this work was to develop and validate and analytical method for the detection and quantification of the biogenic...

  17. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C.; Lerner, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has <100% counting efficiency owing to two factors: (1) ''end effect,'' due to decreased and distorted fields at the ends where wire-insulator joints are placed, and (2) ''wall effect,'' due to non-ionization by beta particles emitted near to and heading into the wall. The end effect was evaluated by making one end of the counter movable and measuring counting rates at a number of endplate positions. Much of the wall effect was calculated theoretically, based on known data for primary ionization of electrons as a function of energy and gas composition. Corrections were then made for the ''shakeoff'' effect in beta decay and for backscattering of electrons from the counter wall. Measurements and calculations were made for a sample of /sup 85/Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies.

  18. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has 85Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies

  19. Enhanced production of steviol glycosides in mycorrhizal plants: a concerted effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on transcription of biosynthetic genes.

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Singh, Ved Pal; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-04-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) produces steviol glycosides (SGs)--stevioside (stev) and rebaudioside-A (reb-A) that are valued as low calorie sweeteners. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) augments SGs production, though the effect of this interaction on SGs biosynthesis has not been studied at molecular level. In this study transcription profiles of eleven key genes grouped under three stages of the SGs biosynthesis pathway were compared. The transcript analysis showed upregulation of genes encoding 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes viz.,1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 2-C-methyl-D-erytrithol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) in mycorrhizal (M) plants. Zn and Mn are imperative for the expression of MDS and their enhanced uptake in M plants could be responsible for the increased transcription of MDS. Furthermore, in the second stage of SGs biosynthesis pathway, mycorrhization enhanced the transcription of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH). Their expression is decisive for SGs biosynthesis as CPPS regulates flow of metabolites towards synthesis of kaurenoid precursors and KAH directs these towards steviol synthesis instead of gibberellins. In the third stage glucosylation of steviol to reb-A by four specific uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) occurs. While higher transcription of all the three characterized UGTs in M plants explains augmented production of SGs; higher transcript levels of UGT76G1, specifically improved reb-A to stev ratio implying increased sweetness. The work signifies that AM symbiosis upregulates the transcription of all eleven SGs biosynthesis genes as a result of improved nutrition and enhanced sugar concentration due to increased photosynthesis in M plants. PMID:25734328

  20. Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Primary Terpenoids and △9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at Flowering Stage

    Hakimeh Mansouri; Zahra Asrar; Mitra Mehrabani

    2009-01-01

    Plants synthesize an astonishing diversity of isoprenoids, some of which play essential roles in photosynthesis, respiration,and the regulation of growth and development. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP)pathway. However, little is known about the effects of plant hormones on the regulation of these pathways. In the present study we investigated the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on changes in the amounts of many produced terpenoids and the activity of the key enzymes, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), in these pathways. Our results showed GA3 caused a decrease in DXS activity in both sexes that it wasaccompanied by a decrease in chlorophylls, carotenoids and △9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents and an increase in α-tocopherol content. The treated plants with GA3 showed an increase in HMGR activity. This increase in HMGR activity was followed by accumulation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in male and female plants and campestrol in male plants.The pattern of the changes in the amounts of sterols was exactly similar to the changes in the HMGR activity. These data suggest that GA3 can probably influence the MEP and MVA pathways oppositely, with stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the produced primary terpenoids in MVA and DXS pathways, respectively.

  1. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed. PMID:18211549

  2. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  3. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. PMID:23954075

  4. Synthesis, growth, structural and HOMO and LUMO, MEP analysis of a new stilbazolium derivative crystal: A enhanced third-order NLO properties with a high laser-induced damage threshold for NLO applications

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Hamada, F.; Yamada, M.; Aravindan, P. G.

    2015-08-01

    A new organic third-order nonlinear optical crystal from stilbazolium family 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl) vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MSTB) has been synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method for the first time. The grown crystal structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and it is revealed that the grown crystal crystallized in a triclinic crystal system with centrosymmetric space group P 1 bar . The HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated for the grown crystal explains charge transfer takes place within the molecule and confirms the suitability of the title crystal for NLO applications. The presence of various vibration modes of expected functional groups was identified by FT-IR analysis. The transmittance ability of the grown crystal was also analyzed by using UV-Vis-NIR spectral studies and shows that the crystal has no absorption of light in the entire Vis-NIR region. The thermal stability of the title crystal has been investigated by TGA/DTA studies and revealed that the material was thermally stable up to the melting point, 193 °C. The hardness number, Meyer index, yield strength, and elastic stiffness constant has been estimated for the grown 4MSTB crystal using Vickers microhardness tester. Photoluminescence excitation studies showed green emission radiation occurred at 517 nm. The dielectric properties of the grown crystal have been analyzed as a function of temperature over a wide range of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) by using LCR meter. The result of ac electrical conductivity of 4MSTB was found to be 5.25 × 10-5 (Ω m)-1. The laser damage threshold (LDT) energy for the grown crystal has been measured by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as a source in single-shot mode (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 420 mJ). The result of LDT indicates that grown title crystal has excellent resistance to laser radiation than those of known some inorganic NLO materials. The chemical etching studies were carried out to assess the perfection of the grown crystals. Its third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated by Z-scan technique and proved that the 4MSTB crystal possesses two-photon absorptions (TPA) and the self-defocusing effect. The second-order molecular hyperpolarizability (γ) value at 632.8 nm is calculated to be 3.555 × 10-34 esu. The photoconductivity study of 4MSTB reveals that the negative photoconducting nature. The obtained all the results in the present work are making a 4MSTB promising candidate for the possible applications in optical switches, optical power limiter, and non-linear optical applications.

  5. Los textos literarios que asigna el MEP para el tercer ciclo de la educación general básica en Costa Rica: algunas reflexiones al respecto

    Arias Orozco, Grettel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se detallan y analizan las principales modificaciones que presenta la lista de lecturas obligatorias propuesta en el año 2010 e implementada por el Ministerio de Educación Pública a partir del año 2011, en el Tercer Ciclo de la Educación General Básica costarricense. El estudio fue realizado a partir de la búsqueda bibliográfica de revistas especializadas, tesis de grado, libros, los Planes de Estudios de Español del 2005 y del año 2009, la lista de lecturas obligatorias implementada en el 2011, así como también gracias a entrevistas a especialistas en el área de la educación costarricense. Se concluye que las principales modificaciones responden a la dosificación, la categorización y la flexibilidad del listado de lecturas, pues la cantidad de textos y los géneros literarios que se estudian por nivel se modifican, así como también ahora se le brinda una gama de opciones al docente para que elija qué leer con su grupo estudiantil; no obstante, también se evidencia que ninguno de estos cambios ha sido debidamente fundamentado en la nueva propuesta. Finalmente, se destaca la incorporación de un corpus significativo de textos literarios que hacen referencia al personaje del presidente Juan Mora Porras, cuyo fin se vislumbra de carácter identitario e ideológico, pues su propósito es contrarrestar el desencanto político que ha aumentado en los últimos años e instaurarse como el nuevo referente del héroe nacional.

  6. A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAGNETIC STIMULATION MEP AND THE NEUROPATHOLOGY OF THE CHRONIC COMPRESSED LESION OF CAT’S CERVICAL NERVE ROOTS AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ITS QUANTITATIVE DIAGNOSIS

    杨大志; 郭玉霞; 陈君长; 赵龙柱; 王坤正; 杨哲; 李旭东; 袁国莲

    1999-01-01

    ThetechniqueofmagneticstimulationMEPhasprogressedrapidlysinceitcameintobeingin1985.Nowitisconsideredtobeabletoconfirmthelesio...

  7. FT-IR, NBO, HOMO-LUMO, MEP analysis and molecular docking study of Methyl N-({[2-(2-methoxyacetamido)-4-(phenylsulfanyl)phenyl]amino}[(methoxycarbonyl) imino]methyl)carbamate

    Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Narayana, B.; Divya, K.; Sarojini, B. K.; War, Javeed Ahmad; Van Alsenoy, C.; Fun, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of Methyl N-({[2-(2-methoxyacetamido)-4-(phenylsulfanyl) phenyl]amino} [(methoxycarbonyl)imino]methyl)carbamate have been investigated using HF and DFT levels of calculations. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with XRD data. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential study was also performed. The first and second hyperpolarizability was calculated in order to find its role in nonlinear optics. Molecular docking studies are also reported. Prediction of Activity Spectra analysis of the title compound predicts anthelmintic and antiparasitic activity as the most probable activity with Pa (probability to be active) value of 0.808 and 0.797, respectively. Molecular docking studies show that both the phenyl groups and the carbonyl oxygens of the molecule are crucial for bonding and these results draw us to the conclusion that the compound might exhibit pteridine reductase inhibitory activity.

  8. Vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, NLO and MEP analysis of Benzyl (imino (1H-pyrazol-1-yl) methyl) carbamate using DFT calculaions

    Shankar Rao, Y. B.; Prasad, M. V. S.; Udaya Sri, N.; Veeraiah, V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper contains a combined experimental and theoretical study of vibrational and electronic properties of Benzyl(imino(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl)carbamate (BPMC) molecule. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule in solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. The UV absorption spectrum of the studied compound dissolved in ethanol was recorded in the range of 180-400 nm. The molecular geometries calculated using density functional theory (DFT) was compared with available experimental data. The vibrational spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level were compared with the experimental spectra and assignment to each vibrational frequency was assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The calculated electronic and nonlinear optical properties of the title molecule were reported. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of the molecule were discussed.

  9. Intraoperative monitoring study of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials in scoliosis surgery

    Lo, Y. L.; Dan, Y. F.; Tan, Y. E.; Fook-Chong, S; Tan, S. B.; Tan, C T; Raman, S.

    2006-01-01

    Ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in spinal cord surgery intraoperative monitoring is not well studied. We show that ipsilateral MEPs have significantly larger amplitudes and were elicited with lower stimulation intensities than contralateral MEPs. The possible underlying mechanisms are discussed based on current knowledge of corticospinal pathways. Ipsilateral MEPs may provide additional information on the integrity of descending motor tracts during spinal surgery monitoring.

  10. Enhanced Diterpene Tanshinone Accumulation and Bioactivity of Transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots by Pathway Engineering.

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Li, Leilei; Huang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-03-30

    Tanshinones are health-promoting diterpenoids found in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have wide applications. Here, SmGGPPS (geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase) and SmDXSII (1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase) were introduced into hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of SmGGPPS and SmDXSII in hairy roots produces higher levels of tanshinone than control and single-gene transformed lines; tanshinone production in the double-gene transformed line GDII10 reached 12.93 mg/g dry weight, which is the highest tanshinone content that has been achieved through genetic engineering. Furthermore, transgenic hairy root lines showed higher antioxidant and antitumor activities than control lines. In addition, contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellins were significantly elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results demonstrate a promising method to improve the production of diterpenoids including tanshinone as well as other natural plastid-derived isoprenoids in plants by genetic manipulation of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. PMID:26753746

  11. De Novo Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis to Reveal Genes and Pathways Potentially Involved in Cantharidin Biosynthesis in the Blister Beetle Mylabris cichorii.

    Huang, Yi; Wang, Zhongkang; Zha, Shenfang; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Wei; Liao, Yufeng; Song, Zhangyong; Qi, Zhaoran; Yin, Youping

    2016-01-01

    The dried body of Mylabris cichorii is well-known Chinese traditional medicine. The sesquiterpenoid cantharidin, which is secreted mostly by adult male beetles, has recently been used as an anti-cancer drug. However, little is known about the mechanisms of cantharidin biosynthesis. Furthermore, there is currently no genomic or transcriptomic information for M. cichorii. In this study, we performed de novo assembly transcriptome of M. cichorii using the Illumina Hiseq2000. A single run produced 9.19 Gb of clean nucleotides comprising 29,247 sequences, including 23,739 annotated sequences (about 81%). We also constructed two expression profile libraries (20-25 day-old adult males and 20-25 day-old adult females) and discovered 2,465 significantly differentially-expressed genes. Putative genes and pathways involved in the biosynthesis of cantharidin were then characterized. We also found that cantharidin biosynthesis in M. cichorii might only occur via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, not via the methylerythritol 4-phosphate/deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway or a mixture of these. Besides, we considered that cantharidin biosynthesis might be related to the juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis or degradation. The results of transcriptome and expression profiling analysis provide a comprehensive sequence resource for M. cichorii that could facilitate the in-depth study of candidate genes and pathways involved in cantharidin biosynthesis, and may thus help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of cantharidin biosynthesis in blister beetles. PMID:26752526

  12. Mars Technology Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP) calls for a series of highly ambitious missions over the next decade and beyond. The overall goals of the MEP must be...

  13. The European Parliament's Rejection of the Take-over Directive Proposal

    Steen Knudsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    national characteristics: labour marketlegislation (national schemes to protect employees against dismissals) and corporategovernance issues. Labour market legislation can explain the UK and German MEP votesbut not the Swedish and French MEPs votes. These votes can be explained byemphasising measures...

  14. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  15. The Carotenogenesis Pathway via the Isoprenoid-β-carotene Interference Approach in a New Strain of Dunaliella salina Isolated from Baja California Mexico

    Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available D. salina is one of the recognized natural sources to produce β-carotene, and an useful model for studying the role of inhibitors and enhancers of carotenogenesis. However there is little information in D. salina regarding whether the isoprenoid substrate can be influenced by stress factors (carotenogenic or selective inhibitors which in turn may further contribute to elucidate the early steps of carotenogenesis and biosynthesis of β-carotene. In this study,Dunaliella salina (BC02 isolated from La Salina BC Mexico, was subjected to the method of isoprenoids-β-carotene interference in order to promote the interruption or accumulation of the programmed biosynthesis of carotenoids. When Carotenogenic and non-carotenogenic cells of D. salina BC02 were grown under photoautotrophicgrowth conditions in the presence of 200 µM fosmidomycin, carotenogenesis and the synthesis of β-carotene were interrupted after two days in cultured D. salina cells. This result is an indirect consequence of the inhibition of the synthesis of isoprenoids and activity of the recombinant DXR enzyme thereby preventing the conversionof 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (MEP and consequently interrupts the early steps of carotenogenesis in D. salina. The effect at the level of proteins and RNA was not evident. Mevinolin treated D. salina cells exhibited carotenogenesis and β-carotene levels very similar to those of control cell cultures indicating that mevinolin not pursued any indirect action in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and had no effect at the level of the HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of the Ac/MVA pathway.

  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 410899 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Full Text Available LFAIPIASFWGRYSQIWAISHYPYLNKEGSSKFLHKKNWRGFLIESIPSYAFLSFLIFILINIDISIISTPNLIIGIIVGFLPALIIPHLLARRLGGHSGDSYGASVVLVETCMLIIFSIILPAS ... ...GVLQVSVLILLLQLQWPNESMPFIAIALGLWITGGIHVDGLMDTADGIAAGPSRCIEAMKDSRIGASGIIALTINLLLQIAALFKLRLLI...1 cobalamin-5-phosphate synthase Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 MSSPNWLKDLTGAWLFYTVFPKLTRINPRFERIARFSPLIGVLI

  17. Main: 1H1Y [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1H1Y イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase Oryza Sativa Molecule: D-Ribul ... ose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase; Chain: A, B; Engineered: Yes Isomeras ... e 5.1.3.1 (D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase) S.Jelakovic, G.E.Schulz S.Jelakovic, ...

  18. Main: 1H1Z [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1H1Z イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase Oryza Sativa Molecule: D-Ribul ... ose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase; Chain: A, B; Engineered: Yes Isomeras ... e 5.1.3.1 (D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate ... 3-Epimerase) S.Jelakovic, G.E.Schulz S.Jelakovic, ...

  19. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Gollhofer, Albert; Taube, Wolfgang

    Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time of the...... ± 9 %) in FDI (the muscle involved in the motor task) compared to MEPs at rest (p < 0.01). There was no change of the MEPs in APB. There were also no changes in either the FDI or APB MEPs for the other tested ISIs prior to movement compared to rest. The main finding of this study was that the MEP...... susceptibility of corticospinal cells to TMS, which starts approximately 100 ms prior to the onset of movement (Chen et al. 1998). Thus, it is hypothesized that the modulation of the MEP prior to movement is linked to the afferent volley arriving at the sensorimotor cortex. It might be speculated that the MEP...

  20. Bacterial population succession and adaptation affected by insecticide application and soil spraying history

    Hideomi eItoh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although microbial communities have varying degrees of exposure to environmental stresses such as chemical pollution, little is known on how these communities respond to environmental disturbances and how past disturbance history affects these community-level responses. To comprehensively understand the effect of organophosphorus insecticide application on microbiota in soils with or without insecticide-spraying history, we investigated the microbial succession in response to the addition of fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate, abbreviated as MEP by culture-dependent experiments and deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Despite similar microbial composition at the initial stage, microbial response to MEP application was remarkably different between soils with and without MEP-spraying history. MEP-degrading microbes more rapidly increased in the soils with MEP-spraying history, suggesting that MEP-degrading bacteria might already exist at a certain level and could quickly respond to MEP re-treatment in the soil. Culture-dependent and -independent evaluations revealed that MEP-degrading Burkholderia bacteria are predominant in soils after MEP application, limited members of which might play a pivotal role in MEP-degradation in soils. Notably, deep sequencing also revealed that some methylotrophs dramatically increased after MEP application, strongly suggesting that these bacteria play a role in the consumption and removal of methanol, a harmful derivative from MEP-degradation, for better growth of MEP-degrading bacteria. This comprehensive study demonstrated the succession and adaptation processes of microbial communities under MEP application, which were critically affected by past experience of insecticide-spraying.

  1. pKNOT: the protein KNOT web server

    Lai, Yan-Long; Yen, Shih-Chung; Yu, Sung-Huan; Hwang, Jenn-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Knotted proteins are more commonly observed in recent years due to the enormously growing number of structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Studies show that the knot regions contribute to both ligand binding and enzyme activity in proteins such as the chromophore-binding domain of phytochrome, ketol–acid reductoisomerase or SpoU methyltransferase. However, there are still many misidentified knots published in the literature due to the absence of a convenient web tool available to the gene...

  2. Can Motor Evoked Potentials Be an Objective Parameter to Assess Extremity Function at the Acute or Subacute Stroke Stage?

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude ratio measurements are sufficiently objective to assess functional activities of the extremities. We also delineated the distribution between the presence or absence of MEPs and the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength of the extremities. Methods We enrolled 183 patients with first-ever unilateral hemiplegia after stroke. The MEP parameters were amplitude ratio (amplitude of affected side/amplitude of ...

  3. An Investigation of Groundwater Flow on a Coastal Barrier using Multi Electrode Profiling

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Christensen, Steen; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer;

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary geophysical and hydrogeological investigations indicate that multi-electrode profiling (MEP) can be used to monitor groundwater salinity on a coastal barrier where a shallow thin aquifer discharges to the North Sea. A monitoring system including five groups of piezometers and five MEP...

  4. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  5. An orthologue of the cor gene is involved in the exclusion of temperate lambdoid phages. Evidence that Cor inactivates FhuA receptor functions

    A new set of lambdoid phages (mEp) classified into different immunity groups was previously described. Phages mEp213, mEp237, and mEp410 were unable to grow in mEp167 lysogenic cells, presumably due to an exclusion mechanism expressed constitutively by the mEp167 repressed prophage. In this work, to analyze the exclusion phenomenon, we constructed a genomic library from mEp167 phage in a pPROEX derivative plasmid. A DNA fragment containing an open reading frame for a 77 amino acid polypeptide was selected by its ability to confer resistance to heteroimmune phage infection. This ORF shows high amino acid sequence identity with putative Cor proteins of phages HK022, φ80 and N15. Cells expressing the mEp167 cor gene from a plasmid (Cor+ phenotype) excluded 13 of 20 phages from different infection immunity groups. This exclusion was observed in both tonB- and tonB+ cells. Lambdoid mEp phages that were excluded in these cells were unable to infect cells defective in the outer membrane FhuA receptor (fhuA-). Thus, Cor-mediated exclusion was only observed in fhuA+ cells. Phage production after DNA transfection or the spontaneous induction of mEp prophage in Cor+ cells was not blocked. In addition, ferrichrome uptake, which is mediated by FhuA, was inhibited in Cor+ cells. Our results show that not only phage infection via FhuA but also a FhuA transport activity (ferrichrome uptake) are inhibited by Cor, presumably by inactivation of FhuA

  6. Usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Assess Motor Function in Patients With Parkinsonism

    Park, Jaechan; Cho, Jin Whan; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun Kwan; Kim, Sun Woong; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of upper and lower extremity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients with parkinsonism. Methods Twenty patients (14 men, 6 women; mean age 70.5±9.1 years) suffering from parkinsonism were included in this study. All participants underwent single-pulse TMS session to assess the corticospinal excitability of the upper and lower extremity motor cortex. The resting motor threshold (RMT) was defined as the lowest stimulus intensity able to evoke MEPs of an at least 50 µV peak-to-peak amplitude in 5 of 10 consecutive trials. Five sweeps of MEPs at 120% of the RMT were performed, and the mean amplitude and latency of the MEPs were calculated. Patients were also assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) and the 5-meter Timed Up and Go (5m-TUG) test. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the RMTs of MEPs in the upper and lower extremities (r=0.612, p=0.004) and between the amplitude of MEPs in the upper and lower extremities (r=0.579, p=0.007). The RMT of upper extremity MEPs showed a significant negative relationship with the UPDRS-III score (r=–0.516, p=0.020). In addition, RMTs of lower extremity MEPs exhibited a negative relationship with the UPDRS-III score, but the association was not statistically significant (r=–406, p=0.075). Conclusion These results indicated that the RMT of MEPs reflect the severity of motor dysfunction in patients with parkinsonism. MEP is a potential quantitative, electrodiagnostic method to assess motor function in patients with parkinsonism. PMID:26949673

  7. Francisella tularensis 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase: kinetic characterization and phosphoregulation.

    Arthur Tsang

    Full Text Available Deliberate and natural outbreaks of infectious disease, the prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains, and the ease by which antibiotic resistant bacteria can be intentionally engineered all underscore the necessity of effective vaccines and continued development of novel antimicrobial/antiviral therapeutics. Isoprenes, a group of molecules fundamentally involved in a variety of crucial biological functions, are derived from either the mevalonic acid (MVA or methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway. While mammals utilize the MVA pathway, many bacteria utilize the MEP pathway, highlighting the latter as an attractive target for antibiotic development. In this report we describe the cloning and characterization of Francisella tularensis MEP cytidylyltransferase, a MEP pathway enzyme and potential target for antibiotic development. Size exclusion chromatography indicates the protein exists as a dimer in solution. Enzyme assays produced an apparentK(MEP(M = 178 μM, K(CTP(M = 73 μM , k(MEP(cat = 1(s-1, k(CTP(cat = 0.8( s-1, and a k(MEP(cat/ K(MEP(M = 3.4 x 10(5 M(-1 min(-1. The enzyme exhibits a strict preference for Mg(+2 as a divalent cation and CTP as the nucleotide. Titanium dioxide chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified Thr141 as a site of phosphorylation. T141D and T141E site-directed mutants are catalytically inactive, suggesting a mechanism for post-translational control of metabolic flux through the F. tularensis MEP pathway. Overall, our study suggests that MEP cytidylyltransferase is an excellent target for the development of novel antibiotics against F. tularensis.

  8. Binding of Divalent Magnesium by Escherichia coli Phosphoribosyl Diphosphate Synthetase

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of the substrates MgATP and ribose 5-phosphate as well as Mg2+ to the enzyme 5-phospho-d-ribosyl a-1-diphosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli has been analyzed. By use of the competive inhibitors of ATP and ribose 5-phosphate binding, a,ß-methylene ATP and (+)-1-a,2-a...

  9. Binding of divalent magnesium by Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of the substrates Mg x ATP and ribose 5-phosphate as well as Mg2+ to the enzyme 5-phospho-D-ribosyl (alpha-1-diphosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli has been analyzed. By use of the competive inhibitors of ATP and ribose 5-phosphate binding, alpha,beta-methylene ATP ...

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) and its application for LPS assembly.

    Wen, Liuqing; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Tiehai; Wang, Peng George

    2016-06-15

    The studies of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) have been hindered due to its limited availability. Herein, an efficient enzymatic system for the facile synthesis of KDO from easy-to-get starting materials is described. In this one-pot three-enzyme (OPME) system, d-ribulose 5-phosphate, which was prepared from d-xylose, was employed as starting materials. The reaction process involves the isomerization of d-ribulose 5-phosphate to d-arabinose 5-phosphate catalyzed by d-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase (KdsD), the aldol condensation of d-arabinose 5-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) catalyzed by KDO 8-phosphate synthetase (KdsA), and the hydrolysis of KDO-8-phosphate catalyzed by KDO 8-phosphate phosphatase (KdsC). By using this OPME system, 72% isolated yield was obtained. The obtained KDO was further transferred to lipid A by KDO transferase from Escherichia coli (WaaA). PMID:27173798

  11. Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Lange, Bernd Markus (Pullman, WA); McCaskill, David G. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7) are provided which code for the expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from plants. In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, or its derivatives such as isopentenyl diphosphate (BP), or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, or the production of its products.

  12. Basic study on the influence of inhibition induced by the magnetic stimulation on the peripheral nerve

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the inhibition mechanism of magnetic stimulation on motor function. A magnetic stimulator with a flat figure-eight coil was used to stimulate the peripheral nerve of the antebrachium. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 0.8 T, and the stimulation frequency was 1 Hz. The amplitudes of the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and first dorsal interosseous muscle were used to evaluate the effects of magnetic stimulation. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the MEP amplitude before and after magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex. The results showed that MEP amplitude after magnetic stimulation compared with before magnetic stimulation decreased. Because there were individual differences in MEP amplitude induced by magnetic stimulation, the MEP amplitude after stimulation was normalized by the amplitude of each participant before stimulation. The MEP amplitude after stimulation decreased by approximately 58% (p peripheral nerve. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude found in this study was obtained via the feedback from a peripheral nerve through an afferent nerve to the brain. This study suggests that peripheral excitement by magnetic stimulation of the peripheral nerve may control the central nervous system via afferent feedback.

  13. Characterization of dengue virus 2 growth in megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor cells.

    Clark, Kristina B; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Bassit, Leda; Crowe, James E; Schinazi, Raymond F; Perng, Guey Chuen; Villinger, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) cells are potential in vivo targets of dengue virus (DENV); the virus has been found associated with megakaryocytes ex vivo and platelets during DENV-induced thrombocytopenia. We report here that DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) propagates well in human nondifferentiated MEP cell lines (Meg01 and K562). In comparison to virus propagated in Vero cells, viruses from MEP cell lines had similar structure and buoyant density. However, differences in MEP-DENV2 stability and composition were suggested by distinct protein patterns in western blot analysis. Also, antibody neutralization of envelope domain I/II on MEP-DENV2 was reduced relative to that on Vero-DENV2. Infectious DENV2 was produced at comparable kinetics and magnitude in MEP and Vero cells. However, fewer virion structures appeared in electron micrographs of MEP cells. We propose that DENV2 infects and produces virus efficiently in megakaryocytes and that megakaryocyte impairment might contribute to dengue disease pathogenesis. PMID:27058763

  14. APPLICATION OF MAXIMUM ENTROPY PRINCIPLE METHOD TO THE STUDY OF WAVE CLIMATE STATISTICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    XU Fu-min; XUE Hong-chao

    2004-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Principle (MEP) method is elaborated, and the corresponding probability density evaluation method for the random fluctuation system is introduced, the goal of the article is to find the best fitting method for the wave climate statistical distribution. For the first time, a kind of new maximum entropy probability distribution (MEP distribution) expression is deduced in accordance with the second order moment of a random process. Different from all the fitting methods in the past, the MEP distribution can describe the probability distribution of any random fluctuation system conveniently and reasonably. If the moments of the random signal is limited to the second order, that is, the ratio of the root-mean-square value to the mean value of the random variable is obtained from the random sample, the corresponding MEP distribution can be computed according to the deduced expression in this essay. The concept of the wave climate is introduced here, and the MEP distribution is applied to fit the probability density distributions of the significant wave height and spectral peak period. Take the Mexico Gulf as an example, three stations at different locations, depths and wind wave strengths are chosen in the half-closed gulf, the significant wave height and spectral peak period distributions at each station are fitted with the MEP distribution, the Weibull distribution and the Log-normal distribution respectively, the fitted results are compared with the field observations, the results show that the MEP distribution is the best fitting method, and the Weibull distribution is the worst one when applied to the significant wave height and spectral peak period distributions at different locations, water depths and wind wave strengths in the Gulf. The conclusion shows the feasibility and reasonability of fitting wave climate statistical distributions with the deduced MEP distributions in this essay, and furthermore proves the great potential of MEP method to

  15. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    Buelter, Thomas; Meinhold, Peter; Feldman, Reid M. Renny; Hawkins, Andrew C.; Urano, Jun; Bastian, Sabine; Arnold, Frances

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  16. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Some Novel N-(4,6-Disubstituted-pyrimidin-2-yl)-N'-(trifluoromethylphenyl)-guanidine Derivatives

    HE Feng-Qi; LIU Xing-Hai; WANG Bao-Lei; LI Yong-Hong; LI Zheng-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A novel series of guanidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and confirmed by FTIR, MS, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The single crystal structure of 11b was determined by X-ray diffraction. Herbicidal activities of these guanidine derivatives were evaluated through barnyardgrass and rape cup tests, among which compounds lla, lib, and lie against Brassica campestris reached 71.2%, 86.7%, and 86.9% at 100 μg·mL-1 respectively. The preliminary ketol-acid reductoisomerase test showed that the synthesized compounds had weak activities.

  17. Success rate of motor evoked potentials for intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring: effects of age, lesion location, and preoperative neurologic deficits.

    Chen, Xi; Sterio, Djordje; Ming, Xu; Para, Devaki D; Butusova, Marri; Tong, Teresa; Beric, Aleksandar

    2007-06-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation with myogenic motor evoked potential (MEP) recording was used for intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in 341 consecutive "high-risk" neurosurgical or orthopedic procedures. Overall, the success rate for establishing reliable MEP response was 94.8% for upper extremities and 66.6% for lower extremities. The rate was only 39.1% for lower extremities in patients with preoperative motor deficit and up to 81% in neurologically intact adults. Further analysis demonstrated that extremes of age or the presence of a lesion in the spinal cord and motor deficit contributed to failure in obtaining reliable MEPs. PMID:17545833

  18. A family-oriented therapy program for youths with substance abuse: long-term outcomes related to relapse and academic or social status

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Tsai, Tung-ning; Chen, Ching; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The abuse of illegal substances by youths in Taiwan has become a major public health issue. This study explores the outcomes (relapse rate and academic or social status) of a family-oriented therapy program conducted for substance-using youths who were referred by a judge to participate in it. Methods The present study includes 121 participants categorized into three groups: 36 youths underwent a weekly ten-session outpatient motivational enhancement psychotherapy (MEP) group program; 41 youths participated in a program that combined the aforementioned MEP program with an additional weekly ten-session parenting skill training (PST) program for their guardians (MEP + PST group); and 44 adolescents who received standard supervision by the court served as the control group. All participants were followed-up for a maximum of 2 years. Results Of the 121 participants (mean age: 16.1±1.1 years), 33.1% relapsed into substance use during the follow-up period. The probability of relapse did not differ significantly between the MEP group (36.1%) and the control group (40.9%), but the youths in the MEP + PST group (22.0%) were at a lower risk of relapse than the control group participants (adjusted hazard ratio =0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.21–1.09). By the end of the study follow-up period, participants in both the MEP group and the MEP + PST group were more likely to be attending school (MEP group: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =6.61, 95% CI =1.60–27.35; MEP + PST group: aOR =8.57, 95% CI =1.94–37.82) or employed (MEP group: aOR =7.75, 95% CI =1.95–30.75; MEP + PST group: aOR =7.27, 95% CI =1.76–29.97), when compared to the control group. Conclusion This study revealed that a family-oriented treatment approach may be a more effective option for preventing youths’ relapsing into substance abuse. In comparison to individuals who received standard supervision by the court, those who received MEP experienced a better school attendance or social

  19. Toxoplasma gondii: mechanism of the parasitostatic action of 6-thioxanthine.

    Pfefferkorn, E R; Bzik, D J; Honsinger, C P

    2001-12-01

    In contrast to the cytocidal effect of 6-thiopurines on mammalian cells, the action of 6-thioxanthine on Toxoplasma gondii was only parasitostatic. 6-Thioxanthine was a substrate of the parasite's hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. That enzyme converted 6-thioxanthine to 6-thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate which accumulated to near millimolar concentrations within parasites incubated intracellularly in medium containing the drug. 6-Thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate was the only detectable metabolite of 6-thioxanthine. The absence of 6-thioguanine nucleotides explains the lack of a parasitocidal effect because the incorporation of 6-thiodeoxyguanosine triphosphate into DNA is the mechanism of the lethal effect of 6-thiopurines on mammalian cells. Extracellular parasites that had accumulated a high concentration of 6-thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate incorporated more labeled hypoxanthine or xanthine into their nucleotide pools than did control parasites. The basis for this increased nucleobase salvage remains unexplained. It was not due to up-regulation of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and could not be explained by reduced use of labeled nucleotides for nucleic acid synthesis. Extracellular parasites that had accumulated a high concentration of 6-thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate used labeled hypoxanthine almost entirely to make adenine nucleotides while control parasites made both adenine and guanine nucleotides. Both extracellular parasites that had accumulated a high concentration of 6-thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate and control parasites efficiently used labeled xanthine to make guanine nucleotides. These observations suggested that inosine 5'-phosphate-dehydrogenase was inhibited while guanosine 5'-phosphate synthase was not. Assay of inosine 5'-phosphate dehydrogenase in soluble extracts of T. gondii confirmed that 6-thioxanthosine 5'-phosphate was an inhibitor. We conclude that 6-thioxanthine blocks the growth of T. gondii by a depletion a guanine

  20. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) collects data from a sample of families and individuals in selected communities across the...

  2. 78 FR 41985 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2013-07-12

    ...). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register (73 FR 3316, January 17... field of neurology (the MEP) on May 14-15, 2007, to review 49 CFR 391.41(b)(8) and the advisory...

  3. Mudel Euroopa Parlamendist = Модель Европейского Парламента / Irena Rihkrand

    Rihkrand, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Simulatsioonimängust "Mudel Euroopa Parlamendist (MEP)", mille eesmärgiks on tutvustada noortele Euroopa Parlamenti, suurendada huvi ühiskondliku tegevuse vastu ja anda neile võimalus osaleda ühiskonna arengus

  4. Startle stimuli exert opposite effects on human cortical and spinal motor system excitability in leg muscles

    Ilic, T V; Pötter-Nerger, M; Holler, I;

    2011-01-01

    Increased excitability of the spinal motor system has been observed after loud and unexpected acoustic stimuli (AS) preceding H-reflexes. The paradigm has been proposed as an electrophysiological marker of reticulospinal tract activity in humans. The brainstem reticular formation also maintains...... (ISI) varied between 20 to 160 ms. When given alone, the test stimulus evoked a MEP amplitude of approximately 0.5 mV in theslightly preinervated soleus muscle (SOL). In the second experiment, the startling AS was used to condition the size of the H-reflex in SOL muscle. Mean MEP amplitude was...... calculated for each ISI. The conditioning AS suppressed MEP amplitude at ISIs of 30-80 ms. By contrast, H-reflex amplitude was augmented at ISIs of 100-200 ms. In conclusions, acoustic stimulation exerts opposite and ISI-specific effects on the amplitude of MEPs and H-reflex in the SOL muscle, indicating...

  5. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual...... the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (1) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (2) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (3) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (4) 3 hrs after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus......–response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. Results: The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P<0.001) but not by condition (P=0.186). However, post hoc tests showed that MEPS were statistically...

  6. Scout Missions and Future Exploration of the Martian Poles

    McBride, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Program, (MEP) complemented by missions in operation by ESA and the Japanese space agency, is revolutionizing the study of Mars as a planet and potential home for life, past, present or future. Within the MEP there are a number of significant opportunities for the study of the Mars polar regions--from the ongoing Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey missions, the upcoming Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the soon-to-be-defined Mars Science Laboratory. As an internal complement to the Mars missions being developed by JPL for the MEP, Mars Scout investigations can provide substantial future opportunities to study the polar regions of Mars. These relatively small, PI-led missions provide substantial flexibility within the overall MEP, providing the capability to respond to scientific targets of opportunity in Mars science, with special-interest small missions, or to be developed to respond to instrument opportunities for missions developed by international partners.

  7. AN INVESTIGATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL ENERGY POVERTY IN PAKISTAN: A PROVINCE LEVEL ANALYSIS

    Falak Sher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study employs Alkire and Foster’s (2007 methodology to measure Multidimensional Energy Poverty (MEP at provincial level in Pakistan. MEP Headcount has been calculated using PSLM data. Indoor pollution is found to be the largest contributor to MEP Headcount in all four provinces of Pakistan while cooking fuel is the second largest contributor. Results of MEP Headcount show that 47%, 51%, 69% and 66% of the households residing in Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtoon Khaw (KPK and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan respectively are energy poor. Households of all the four provinces are most deprived in the dimension of indoor pollution i.e. in the range of 49% to 63% followed by cooking fuel i.e. in the range of 35% to 59%. Deprivation is least in the dimension of home appliances for all provinces except Baluchistan which is least deprived in entertainment appliances dimension.

  8. Nanoindentation Studies of TNZ and Ti2448 Biomaterials After Magnetoelectropolishing

    Hryniewicz T.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the nanoindentation results of two newly developed titanium alloy biomaterials, TNZ and Ti2448, after different surface treatments. The investigations were performed on the samples, AR – as received, MP – after abrasive polishing, EP – after a standard electropolshing, and MEP – after magnetoelectropolishing. The electropolishing processes, both EP and MEP, were conducted in the same proprietary electrolyte based on concentrated sulfuric acid. The mechanical properties of the titanium alloys biomaterials demonstrated an evident dependence on the surface treatment method, with MEP samples revealing extremely different behaviour and mechanical properties. Such a different mechanical behaviour may mean completely different composition and thickness of the surface film formed on the studied samples after MEP

  9. 76 FR 22674 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    2011-04-22

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... than May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  10. 75 FR 19941 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership,...

  11. 77 FR 20790 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    2012-04-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION section below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension...

  12. 75 FR 50749 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    2010-08-17

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board AGENCY... announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards... INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Lellock, Manufacturing Extension Partnership, National Institute of Standards...

  13. Possible impact of phthalates on infant reproductive health

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H;

    2006-01-01

    discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......) levels. MMP, MEP, MBP, MEHP and MiNP were positively correlated with the LH/testosterone ratio. Another study found a reduction of the anogenital index (AGI) in infant boys with increasing levels of MBP, MEP, monobenzyl- and mono-isobutyl phthalate in maternal urine samples during late-pregnancy. Boys...... with small AGI showed a high prevalence of cryptorchidism and small genital size. Taken together these studies suggest an antivirilizing effect of phthalates in infants. Most of these findings are in line with animal observations. However, the possible effects of MEP appear to be limited to humans. This may...

  14. Present and Last Glacial Maximum climates as states of maximum entropy production

    Herbert, Corentin; Kageyama, Masa; Dubrulle, Berengere

    2011-01-01

    The Earth, like other planets with a relatively thick atmosphere, is not locally in radiative equilibrium and the transport of energy by the geophysical fluids (atmosphere and ocean) plays a fundamental role in determining its climate. Using simple energy-balance models, it was suggested a few decades ago that the meridional energy fluxes might follow a thermodynamic Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle. In the present study, we assess the MEP hypothesis in the framework of a minimal climate model based solely on a robust radiative scheme and the MEP principle, with no extra assumptions. Specifically, we show that by choosing an adequate radiative exchange formulation, the Net Exchange Formulation, a rigorous derivation of all the physical parameters can be performed. The MEP principle is also extended to surface energy fluxes, in addition to meridional energy fluxes. The climate model presented here is extremely fast, needs very little empirical data and does not rely on ad hoc parameterizations. We in...

  15. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  16. Integrated Air Pollution Management in China : Developing Particulate Matter Control

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study is a joint effort of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Chinese experts, and the World Bank to inform the policy-making process in line with the government of China s medium- and long-term objectives. Specifically the study aims to assist MEP, provincial governments, and municipalities by: (1) Proposing a national PM10 compliance plan to help non-compliant cities at...

  17. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS...

  18. Ehrlich-Schwoebel Effect for Organic Molecules: Direct Calculation of the Step Edge Barrier using Empirical Potentials

    Fendrich, Markus; Krug, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The step edge barrier of a prototypical organic semiconductor molecule, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracaboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) has been analysed by means of calculations based on emperical potentials. The minimum energy path (MEP) has been calculated for a single molecule on a substrate of three molecular layers between equivalent minimum energy positions within two neighboring unit cells. To determine the step edge barrier, we have calculated the MEP over a step to a fourth layer of molecules....

  19. The Mother Enrichment Program: A Genetic System for Facile Replicative Life Span Analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Lindstrom, Derek L.; Gottschling, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The replicative life span (RLS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been established as a model for the genetic regulation of longevity despite the inherent difficulty of the RLS assay, which requires separation of mother and daughter cells by micromanipulation after every division. Here we present the mother enrichment program (MEP), an inducible genetic system in which mother cells maintain a normal RLS—a median of 36 generations in the diploid MEP strain—while the proliferative potential of da...

  20. Increased corticospinal excitability during direct observation of self-movement and indirect observation with a mirror box

    Funase, Kozo; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio; Liang, Nan; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effect of mirror box therapy based on the mirror neuron (MN) system of the primary motor cortex (M1), we examined if direct (without a mirror) and indirect (with a mirror) observation of self-movement in healthy subjects induced changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. MEPs were elicited from the first dorsal interosseous and the flexor carpi radialis muscles. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) during self-movement observation were ...

  1. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strengt...

  2. Does Remuneration Affect the Discipline and the Selection of Politicians? Evidence from Pay Harmonization in the European Parliament

    Braendle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study the harmonization of the base remuneration for the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) who were previously paid like national parliamentarians implying large differences between the delegations from the 27 member countries. Based on detailed information on individual MEPs between 2004 and 2011, we find that the reform, which comes with an exceptional increase of, on average, 200 percent per national delegation, has a positive incentive effect on in-office effort as approximated...

  3. Preliminary study on safe thresholds for temporary internal carotid artery occlusion in aneurysm surgery based on motor-evoked potential monitoring

    Jun Tanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aims were to clarify safe duration for temporary vessel occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA during aneurysm surgery as exactly as possible. We examined safe time duration (STD, where brain tissue exposed to ischemia will never fall into even the ischemic penumbra using intraoperative motor-evoked potential (MEP. Methods: In 45 patients, temporary occlusion of the ICA was performed with MEP. We measured STD as the duration of temporary vessel occlusion during which MEP changes did not occur. To estimate average STD, we calculated the 95% confidence interval for the population mean from sample data for STD in patients with MEP changes and in patients without changes. Results: In the proximal-control group, 4 of 38 patients (10.5% developed intraoperative MEP changes. In 4 patients, the time to MEP change (i.e. STD was 6.0 ± 2.5 min. STD was 3.8 ± 1.6 min in the 34 patients without changes. The average STD was 4.0 ± 0.6 min. In the trap group (proximal and distal flow control, five of seven patients (60.0% experienced intraoperative MEP changes (STD, 2.3 ± 1.0 min. All patients in the trap group who developed MEP changes showed involvement of the anterior choroidal artery (AchA in the trapped segment. Average STD was 2.3 ± 1.1 min when trapping involving the AchA. Conclusions: Although the study is preliminary based on the limited number of the patients, the 95% upper confidence limit for average STD was 4.6 min when the ICA was occluded proximal to the aneurysm, 3.4 min when the ICA was trapped involving the AchA.

  4. Influence of electrode site and size on variability of magnetic evoked potentials.

    Dunnewold, R J; van der Kamp, W; van den Brink, A M; Stijl, M; van Dijk, J G

    1998-12-01

    Successive magnetic evoked potentials (MEPs) concern varying motor neurons. We investigated whether this MEP-specific source of variability depends on electrode site and size. Amplitude variability (standard deviation) was largest over the center of the hypothenar muscles. Latencies were longer at distal and proximal sites than at the center site. Large electrodes (10 cm2) did not decrease this source of amplitude variability compared with EEG electrodes, in contrast to other sources of variability. PMID:9843083

  5. Are somatosensory evoked potentials of the tibial nerve the most sensitive test in diagnosing multiple sclerosis?

    Djuric S; Djuric V; Zivkovic M; Milosevic V; Jolic M; Stamenovic J; Djordjevic G.; Calixto M

    2010-01-01

    Background : Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mostly diagnosed clinically, but the diagnosis has significantly improved through the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), testing of cerebrospinal fluid, and multimodal evoked potentials (MEPs). Even though MRI is the superior method in diagnosing this illness, MEPs remain important because they can detect clinically silent lesions in the sensory and motor pathways of the central nervous system (CNS). Aim : The aim of the study is to test the...

  6. Abnormal Corticospinal Excitability in Traumatic Diffuse Axonal Brain Injury

    Bernabeu, Montse; Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Opisso, Eloy; Lopez, Raquel; Tormos, Jose Mª; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cortical motor excitability characteristics in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) due to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A variety of excitatory and inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms were applied to primary motor cortices of 17 patients and 11 healthy controls. The parameters of testing included resting motor threshold (MT), motor evoked potential (MEP) area under the curve, input-output curves, MEP variability, and silent period (S...

  7. The value of bilateral ipsilateral and contralateral motor evoked potential monitoring in scoliosis surgery

    Lo, Y. L.; Dan, Y. F.; Teo, A; Tan, Y. E.; Yue, W. M.; Raman, S.; Tan, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) of the motor pathways is a routine procedure for ensuring integrity of corticospinal tracts during scoliosis surgery. We have previously demonstrated presence of ipsilateral motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during IOM for scoliosis surgery, but its significance was uncertain. In this case series, we show concurrent ipsilateral and contralateral MEP amplitude changes obtained with cortical stimulation are of value in reducing false positive observations during IOM...

  8. The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis

    Loughman, James; Thompson, Stephen; Harris, Geoff; Bilotto, Luigi; Ferrao, Jorge; Naidoo, Kovin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether...

  9. The Development of a Public Optometry System in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis

    Thompson, Stephen; Loughman, James

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether investing i...

  10. Lethal Mutations in the Isoprenoid Pathway of Salmonella enterica

    Cornish, Rita M.; Roth, John R.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2006-01-01

    Essential isoprenoid compounds are synthesized using the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway in many gram-negative bacteria, some gram-positive bacteria, some apicomplexan parasites, and plant chloroplasts. The alternative mevalonate pathway is found in archaea and eukaryotes, including cytosolic biosynthesis in plants. The existence of orthogonal essential pathways in eukaryotes and bacteria makes the MEP pathway an attractive target for the development of antimicrobial agents....

  11. Cytidine derivatives as IspF inhibitors of Burkolderia pseudomallei

    Zhang, Zheng; Jakkaraju, Sriram; Blain, Joy; Gogol, Kenneth; Zhao, Lei; Hartley, Robert C.; Karlsson, Courtney A.; Staker, Bart L.; Lance J Stewart; Myler, Peter J.; Clare, Michael; Begley, Darren W.; Horn, James R.; Hagen, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Published biological data suggest that the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, a non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, is essential for certain bacteria and other infectious disease organisms. One highly conserved enzyme in the MEP pathway is 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (IspF). Fragment-bound complexes of IspF from Burkholderia pseudomallei were used to design and synthesize a series of molecules linking the cytidine moiety to different zinc pocket fr...

  12. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  13. An online electoral connection? How electoral systems condition representatives’ social media use

    Obholzer, Lukas; Daniel, Williams T.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of electoral institutions on the re-election campaigning and outreach strategies of Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) on the Twitter social media platform. Social media offers politicians a means to contact voters remotely and at low cost. We test the effect of diverse national proportional representation electoral institutions in European elections on a possible online electoral connection. We draw upon an original dataset of MEP Twitter activity befo...

  14. Longitudinal Evaluation of Residual Cortical and Subcortical Motor Evoked Potentials in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    Redondo-Castro, Elena; Navarro, Xavier; García-Alías, Guillermo

    2016-05-15

    We have applied transcranial electrical stimulation to rats with spinal cord injury and selectively tested the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) conveyed by descending motor pathways with cortical and subcortical origin. MEPs were elicited by electrical stimulation to the brain and recorded on the tibialis anterior muscles. Stimulation parameters were characterized and changes in MEP responses tested in uninjured rats, in rats with mild or moderate contusion, and in animals with complete transection of the spinal cord. All injuries were located at the T8 vertebral level. Two peaks, termed N1 and N2, were obtained when changing from single pulse stimulation to trains of 9 pulses at 9 Hz. Selective injuries to the brain or spinal cord funiculi evidenced the subcortical origin of N1 and the cortical origin of N2. Animals with mild contusion showed small behavioral deficits and abolished N1 but maintained small amplitude N2 MEPs. Substantial motor deficits developed in rats with moderate contusion, and these rats had completely eliminated N1 and N2 MEPs. Animals with complete cord transection had abolished N1 and N2 and showed severe impairment of locomotion. The results indicate the reliability of MEP testing to longitudinally evaluate over time the degree of impairment of cortical and subcortical spinal pathways after spinal cord injuries of different severity. PMID:26560177

  15. Identification of human erythroid lineage-committed progenitors.

    Mori, Yasuo; Akashi, Koichi; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the developmental pathway leading to erythrocytes and being able to isolate their progenitors is crucial to understanding and treating disorders of red cell imbalance such as anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera. Endoglin (CD105) is a key marker for purifying mouse erythroid lineage-committed progenitors (EPs) from bone marrow. Herein, we show that human EPs can also be isolated from adult bone marrow. We identified three subfractions that possessed different expression patterns of CD105 and CD71 within the previously defined human megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (hMEP; Lineage-CD34(+)CD38(+)IL-3Rα(-)CD45RA(-)) population. Both CD71(-)CD105(-) and CD71(+)CD105(-) MEPs, at least in vitro, retained bipotency for the megakaryocyte (MegK) and erythrocyte (E) lineages, although the latter sub-population had a differentiation potential skewed toward the E-lineage. Notably, the differentiation output of the CD71(+)CD105(+) subset of cells within the MEP population was completely restricted to the E-lineage with the loss of MegK potential; thus, we termed CD71(+)CD105(-) MEPs and CD71(+)CD105(+) cells as E-biased MEPs (E-MEPs) and EPs, respectively. These previously unclassified populations may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing human erythroid development and serve as potential therapeutic targets in disorders of the erythroid lineage. PMID:27263782

  16. HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Daniel A. Hackett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  17. GABAergic mechanisms contributing to categorical amygdala responses to chemosensory signals.

    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from conspecific and heterospecific animals, elicit categorically different immediate-early gene response-patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. We previously showed that conspecific signals activate posterior (MeP) as well as anterior medial amygdala (MeA), and especially relevant heterospecific signals such as chemosensory stimuli from potential predators also activate MeP in mice. Other heterospecific chemosignals activate MeA, but not MeP. Here we show that male hamster amygdala responds significantly differentially to different conspecific signals, by activating different proportions of cells of different phenotype, possibly leading to differential activation of downstream circuits. Heterospecific signals that fail to activate MeP do activate GABA-immunoreactive cells in the adjacent caudal main intercalated nucleus (mICNc) and elicit selective suppression of MeP cells bearing GABA-Receptors, suggesting GABA inhibition in MeP by GABAergic cells in mICNc. Overall, work presented here suggests that medial amygdala may discriminate between important conspecific social signals, distinguish them from the social signals of other species and convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. PMID:27329335

  18. Synergy between methylerythritol phosphate pathway and mevalonate pathway for isoprene production in Escherichia coli.

    Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Bingbing; Gao, Fang; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Isoprene, a key building block of synthetic rubber, is currently produced entirely from petrochemical sources. In this work, we engineered both the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprene production in E. coli. The synergy between the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway was demonstrated by the production experiment, in which overexpression of both pathways improved the isoprene yield about 20-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to overexpression of the MEP pathway or the MVA pathway alone. The (13)C metabolic flux analysis revealed that simultaneous utilization of the two pathways resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in the MEP pathway flux and a 1.5-fold increase in the MVA pathway flux. The synergy of the dual pathway was further verified by quantifying intracellular flux responses of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway to fosmidomycin treatment and mevalonate supplementation. Our results strongly suggest that coupling of the complementary reducing equivalent demand and ATP requirement plays an important role in the synergy of the dual pathway. Fed-batch cultivation of the engineered strain overexpressing the dual pathway resulted in production of 24.0g/L isoprene with a yield of 0.267g/g of glucose. The synergy of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway also successfully increased the lycopene productivity in E. coli, which demonstrates that it can be used to improve the production of a broad range of terpenoids in microorganisms. PMID:27174717

  19. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    ... used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. You may remember a prescription medication called ... Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate ... Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5- ...

  20. Protein: MPA5 [TP Atlas

    Full Text Available MPA5 Pyrimidine biosynthesis Tc00.1047053507059.60 Orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase/orotate p ... phoribosyltransferase, putative 353153 Trypanosoma cruzi ... (strain CL Brener) 3542677 Q4DBC5 ...

  1. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton1944 [ClEST

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton1944 deoxyribose-phosphate ... aldolase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 535 GATATCTGAAATG ... TG mb07072 1 PREDICTED: similar to 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate ... aldolase homolog [Tribolium castaneum] XP_972358 7 ...

  2. Futile xylitol cycle in Lactobacillus casei.

    Hausman, S Z; Thompson, J; London, J

    1984-01-01

    A futile xylitol cycle appears to be responsible for xylitol-mediated inhibition of growth of Lactobacillus casei Cl-16 at the expense of ribitol. The gratuitously induced xylitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase accumulates the pentitol as xylitol-5-phosphate, a phosphatase cleaves the latter, and an export system expels the xylitol. Operation of the cycle rapidly dissipates the ribitol-5-phosphate pool (and ultimately the energy supply of the cell), thereby producin...

  3. Relation between the regulation of DNA synthesis and the production of two secreted glycoproteins by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in 3T3 cells and in phorbol ester nonresponsive 3T3 variants

    12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent tumor promoter, acts similarly to growth factors by selectively increasing the rate of production of the secreted proteins, mitogen regulated protein (MRP) and major excreted protein (MEP) by murine 3T3 cells. MRP, a 34 kilodalton (kDa) glycoprotein, is a member of the prolactin-growth hormone family of proteins. MEP, a 39 kDa glycoprotein, is a lysosomal thiol protease that is also secreted. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relation between increases in MRP and MEP production and the initiation of DNA synthesis in response to mitogens. The TNR-9 cell line is a variant of 3T3 cells in which growth factors, but not TPA and teleocidin, stimulate DNA synthesis and cell division. Using [35S]methionine to metabolically label proteins and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to resolve the proteins, they found that growing cultures of 3T3 and TNR-9 cells responded equally well to TPA and teleocidin with increased rates of production of MRP and MEP. By contrast, the responses of quiescent TNR-9 cells to these tumor promoters in the increased production of MRP and MEP was greatly diminished compared with quiescent 3T3 cells. In summary, the ability to TPA and teleocidin to increase the rate of production of MRP and MEP correlated with the ability of these tumor promoters to stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent 3T3 and TNR-9 cells. Evidently the biochemical condition that distinguishes TNR-9 from 3T3 cells and that limits the ability of tumor promoters to stimulate the production of MEP and MRP, and perhaps also DNA synthesis in TNR-9 cells occurs only when cells are quiescent

  4. Comparison of Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Motor Evoked Potentials for the Estimation of Clinical Status in Subacute Stroke

    Chun, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Yong-Taek; Park, Jong-Wan; Lee, Joon-Youn; Park, Chul-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for estimation of clinical status in patients in the subacute stage of stroke. Methods Patients with hemiplegia due to stroke who were evaluated using both DTT and MEPs between May 2012 and April 2015 were recruited. Clinical assessments investigated upper extremity motor and functional status. Motor status was evaluated using Medical Research Council grading and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of upper limb and hand (FMA-U and FMA-H). Functional status was measured using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Patients were classified into subgroups according to DTT findings, MEP presence, fractional anisotropy (FA) value, FA ratio (rFA), and central motor conduction time (CMCT). Correlations of clinical assessments with DTT parameters and MEPs were estimated. Results Fifty-five patients with hemiplegia were recruited. In motor assessments (FMA-U), MEPs had the highest sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) as well as the second highest specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). CMCT showed the highest specificity and PPV. Regarding functional status (MBI), FA showed the highest sensitivity and NPV, whereas CMCT had the highest specificity and PPV. Correlation analysis showed that the resting motor threshold (RMT) ratio was strongly associated with motor status of the upper limb, and MEP parameters were not associated with MBI. Conclusion DTT and MEPs could be suitable complementary modalities for analyzing the motor and functional status of patients in the subacute stage of stroke. The RMT ratio was strongly correlated with motor status. PMID:26949679

  5. Beyond Gaia. Thermodynamics of Life and Earth System Functioning

    Kleidon, A. [Department of Geography and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, 1159 Lefrak Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Are there any general principles that govern the way in which life affects Earth system functioning? Most prominently, the Gaia hypothesis addresses this question by proposing that near-homeostatic conditions on Earth have been maintained by and for the biosphere. Here the role of the biota in the Earth system is described from a viewpoint of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly with respect to the hypothesis of maximum entropy production (MEP). It is argued that the biota introduce additional degrees of freedom to Earth system processes. Therefore, we should expect biotic activity, and Earth system processes affected by the biota, to evolve to states of MEP. The consistent effects of the biota on entropy production are demonstrated with a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycling, by using extreme climate model simulations of a Desert World and a Green Planet, and by a simple coupled climate-carbon cycle model. It is shown that homeostatic behavior can emerge from a state of MEP associated with the planetary albedo. This thermodynamic perspective is then discussed in the context of the original Gaia hypothesis and in light of a recent discussion in Climatic Change. Potential implications of the MEP hypothesis for global change research are also discussed. It is concluded that the resulting behavior of a biotic Earth at a state of MEP may well lead to near-homeostatic behavior of the Earth system on long time scales, as stated by the Gaia hypothesis. However, here homeostasis is a result of the application of the MEP hypothesis to biotically influenced processes rather than a postulate. Besides providing a fundamental perspective on homeostasis, the MEP hypothesis also provides a framework to understand why photosynthetic life would be a highly probable emergent characteristic of the Earth system and why the diversity of life is an important characteristic of Earth system functioning.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Underivatized Vitamin B1 and B6 in Whole Blood by Reversed Phase Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Johan Puts

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1 (thiamine-diphosphate and B6 (pyridoxal-5'phosphate are micronutrients. Analysis of these micronutrients is important to diagnose potential deficiency which often occurs in elderly people due to malnutrition, in severe alcoholism and in gastrointestinal compromise due to bypass surgery or disease. Existing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC based methods include the need for derivatization and long analysis time. We developed an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS assay with internal standards for simultaneous measurement of underivatized thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate without use of ion pairing reagent.Whole blood, deproteinized with perchloric acid, containing deuterium labelled internal standards thiamine-diphosphate(thiazole-methyl-D3 and pyridoxal-5'phosphate(methyl-D3, was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated for imprecision, linearity, recovery and limit of quantification. Alternate (quantitative method comparisons of the new versus currently used routine HPLC methods were established with Deming regression.Thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate were measured within 2.5 minutes instrumental run time. Limits of detection were 2.8 nmol/L and 7.8 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and pyridoxal-5'phosphate respectively. Limit of quantification was 9.4 nmol/L for thiamine-diphosphate and 25.9 nmol/L for pyridoxal-5'phosphate. The total imprecision ranged from 3.5-7.7% for thiamine-diphosphate (44-157 nmol/L and 6.0-10.4% for pyridoxal-5'phosphate (30-130 nmol/L. Extraction recoveries were 101-102% ± 2.5% (thiamine-diphosphate and 98-100% ± 5% (pyridoxal-5'phosphate. Deming regression yielded slopes of 0.926 and 0.990 in patient samples (n = 282 and national proficiency testing samples (n = 12 respectively, intercepts of +3.5 and +3 for thiamine-diphosphate (n = 282 and n = 12 and slopes of 1.04 and 0.84, intercepts of -2.9 and +20 for

  7. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer

    Shyam Pokharel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigated the dosimetric impact of mixing low and high energy treatment plans for prostate cancer treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique in the form of RapidArc.Methods: A cohort of 12 prostate cases involving proximal seminal vesicles and lymph nodes was selected for this retrospective study. For each prostate case, the single-energy plans (SEPs and mixed-energy plans (MEPs were generated.  First, the SEPs were created using 6 mega-voltage (MV energy for both the primary and boost plans. Second, the MEPs were created using 16 MV energy for the primary plan and 6 MV energy for the boost plan. The primary and boost MEPs used identical beam parameters and same dose optimization values as in the primary and boost SEPs for the corresponding case. The dosimetric parameters from the composite plans (SEPs and MEPs were evaluated. Results: The dose to the target volume was slightly higher (on average <1% in the SEPs than in the MEPs. The conformity index (CI and homogeneity index (HI values between the SEPs and MEPs were comparable. The dose to rectum and bladder was always higher in the SEPs (average difference up to 3.7% for the rectum and up to 8.4% for the bladder than in the MEPs. The mean dose to femoral heads was higher by about 0.8% (on average in the MEPs than in the SEPs. The number of monitor units and integral dose were higher in the SEPs compared to the MEPs by average differences of 9.1% and 5.5%, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary results from this study suggest that use of mixed-energy VMAT plan for high-risk prostate cancer could potentially reduce the integral dose and minimize the dose to rectum and bladder, but for the higher femoral head dose.-----------------------------------------------Cite this article as:Pokharel S. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:01011.DOI: http

  8. Development of a brief multidisciplinary education programme for patients with osteoarthritis

    Moe Rikke H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a prevalent progressive musculoskeletal disorder, leading to pain and disability. Patient information and education are considered core elements in treatment guidelines for OA; however, there is to our knowledge no evidence-based recommendation on the best approach, content or length on educational programmes in OA. Objective: to develop a brief, patient oriented disease specific multidisciplinary education programme (MEP to enhance self-management in patients with OA. Method Twelve persons (80% female mean age 59 years diagnosed with hand, hip or knee OA participated in focus group interviews. In the first focus group, six participants were interviewed about their educational needs, attitudes and expectations for the MEP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thereafter condensed. Based on results from focus group interviews, current research evidence, clinical knowledge and patients' experience, a multidisciplinary OA team (dietist, nurse, occupational therapist, pharmacist, physical therapist and rheumatologist and a patient representative developed a pilot-MEP after having attended a work-shop in health pedagogics. Finally, the pilot-MEP was evaluated by a second focus group consisting of four members from the first focus group and six other experienced patients, before final adjustments were made. Results The focus group interviews revealed four important themes: what is OA, treatment options, barriers and coping strategies in performing daily activities, and how to live with osteoarthritis. Identified gaps between patient expectations and experience with the pilot-programme were discussed and adapted into a final MEP. The final MEP was developed as a 3.5 hour educational programme provided in groups of 6-9 patients. All members from the multidisciplinary team are involved in the education programme, including a facilitator who during the provision of the programme ensures that the individual

  9. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff.

    Moore, M T; Bennett, E R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Farris, J L; Drouillard, K G; Schulz, R

    2006-07-01

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. PMID:16314013

  10. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  11. Abnormal surround inhibition does not affect asymptomatic limbs in people with cervical dystonia.

    McDougall, Laura; Kiernan, Dovin; Kiss, Zelma H T; Suchowersky, Oksana; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-14

    Surround inhibition is a neural mechanism hypothesized to facilitate goal-directed action by disinhibiting agonist muscle activity while simultaneously inhibiting antagonist and other uninvolved muscle activity. The present study was designed to investigate if abnormalities in surround inhibition are found in asymptomatic body parts (the hand) of people with focal cervical dystonia (neck). Participants with (n=7) and without (n=17) cervical dystonia completed a protocol in which they abducted their index finger while EMG was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (agonist) and abductor digiti minimi (uninvolved) muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the primary motor cortex at intervals ranging from 0 to 950+ms after the onset of agonist muscle activity. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes from both muscles were compared. In control participants, MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs at intervals from 0 to 480ms. Similarly, in the hands of participants with cervical dystonia - the asymptomatic body part - MEPs from the uninvolved muscle were significantly lower than agonist MEPs from 0 to 175ms. These findings suggest that surround inhibition in people with focal dystonia may be intact in asymptomatic hands. In other words, abnormalities in surround inhibition may be restricted to the dystonic limb. PMID:26219986

  12. Highlights of Magnetoelectropolishing

    Hryniewicz, Tadeusz; Rokosz, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    The research work has been concerned on the studies and development of electrochemical polishing in the magnetic field (MEP) in comparison with the standard electropolishing methods performed without stirring (EP) and the process with the forced electrolyte mixing (MIX). Advanced techniques were used in the studies, to measure the effects of the surface treatment. They are as follows: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), surface roughness, and nanoindentation measurements. For the corrosion studies, the electrochemical methods were used, such as: open circuit potential OCP, potentiodynamic curves PC, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS measurements. The MEP process is advised mainly due to the opportunity to enrich the surface layer with the chromium compounds (austenitic stainless steels), or titanium compounds (CP Ti Grade 2, Nitinol). The surface layers of biomaterials after MEP process contain much lower amount of carcinogenic compounds, like chromium VI oxidation stage (Cr6+) (austenitic stainless steels) and nickel compounds (austenitic stainless steel & Nitinol) versus those ones obtained after EP & MIX treatments. It is interesting that apart from the significant modification of the surface layer obtained after MEP, also mechanical properties, such as nanohardness, modulus of elasticity, and mechanical resistance to bending and torsion, undergo considerable advantageous changes. All they make the MEP process very promising for application in many clean industries, such as medical equipment and devices, electronics, food industry, etc.

  13. HIGHLIGHTS OF MAGNETOELECTROPOLISHING

    Tadeusz eHryniewicz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work has been concerned on the studies and development of electrochemical polishing in the magnetic field (MEP in comparison with the standard electropolishing methods performed without stirring (EP and the process with the forced electrolyte mixing (MIX. Advanced techniques were used in the studies, to measure the effects of the surface treatment. They are as follows: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS, surface roughness, and nanoindentation measurements. For the corrosion studies, the electrochemical methods were used, such as: open circuit potential OCP, potentiodynamic curves PC, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS measurements. The MEP process is advised mainly due to the opportunity to enrich the surface layer with the chromium compounds (austenitic stainless steels, or titanium compounds (CP Ti Grade 2, Nitinol. The surface layers of biomaterials after MEP process contain much lower amount of carcinogenic compounds, like chromium VI oxidation stage (Cr6+ (austenitic stainless steels and nickel compounds (austenitic stainless steel & Nitinol versus those ones obtained after EP & MIX treatments. It is interesting that apart from the significant modification of the surface layer obtained after MEP, also mechanical properties, such as nanohardness, modulus of elasticity, and mechanical resistance to bending and torsion, undergo considerable advantageous changes. All they make the MEP process very promising for application in many clean industries, such as medical equipment and devices, electronics, food industry, etc.

  14. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

  15. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff

    Moore, M.T. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, P.O. Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)]. E-mail: mtmoore@ars.usda.gov; Bennett, E.R. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany)]. E-mail: ebennett70@hotmail.com; Cooper, C.M. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, P.O. Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)]. E-mail: ccooper@ars.usda.gov; Smith, S. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, P.O. Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)]. E-mail: ssmith@ars.usda.gov; Farris, J.L. [Environmental Sciences Program, Arkansas State University, P.O. Box 847, State University, AR 72467 (United States)]. E-mail: jlfarris@astate.edu; Drouillard, K.G. [Great Lakes Research Institute, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: kgd@uwindsor.ca; Schulz, R. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany)]. E-mail: r.schulz@uni-landau.de

    2006-07-15

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M[reg]). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10 d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. - Vegetated wetlands are three times more effective at mitigating methyl parathion runoff than are non-vegetated wetlands.

  16. Utility of magneto-electropolished ternary nitinol alloys for blood contacting applications.

    Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Munroe, Norman; Stewart, Danique; Haider, Waseem; Amruthaluri, Sushma; Rokicki, Ryszard; Dugrot, Manuel; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2015-10-01

    The thrombogenicity of a biomaterial is mainly dependent on its surface characteristics, which dictates its interactions with blood. Surface properties such as composition, roughness wettability, surface free energy, and morphology will affect an implant material's hemocompatibility. Additionally, in the realm of metallic biomaterials, the specific composition of the alloy and its surface treatment are important factors that will affect the surface properties. The utility of magneto-electropolished (MEP) ternary Nitinol alloys, NiTiTa, and NiTiCr as blood contacting materials was investigated. The hemcompatibility of these alloys were compared to mechanically polished (MP) metallic biomaterial counterparts. In vitro thrombogenicity tests revealed significantly less platelet adherence on ternary MEP Nitinol, especially MEP NiTi10Ta as compared to the MP metals (p alloy. Furthermore, the formation of a dense and mixed hydrophobic oxide layer during MEP is believed to have inhibited the adhesion of negatively charged platelets. In conclusion, MEP ternary Nitinol alloys can potentially be utilized for blood-contacting devices where, complications resulting from thrombogenicity can be minimized. PMID:25384352

  17. Verification and intercomparison of mesoscale ensemble prediction systems in the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project

    Kunii, Masaru; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Hara, Masahiro; Hara, Tabito; Yamaguchi, Munehiko; Gong, Jiandong; Charron, Martin; Du, Jun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Dehui

    2011-05-01

    During the period around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project (B08RDP) was conducted as part of the World Weather Research Program short-range weather forecasting research project. Mesoscale ensemble prediction (MEP) experiments were carried out by six organizations in near-real time, in order to share their experiences in the development of MEP systems. The purpose of this study is to objectively verify these experiments and to clarify the problems associated with the current MEP systems through the same experiences. Verification was performed using the MEP outputs interpolated into a common verification domain with a horizontal resolution of 15 km. For all systems, the ensemble spreads grew as the forecast time increased, and the ensemble mean improved the forecast errors compared with individual control forecasts in the verification against the analysis fields. However, each system exhibited individual characteristics according to the MEP method. Some participants used physical perturbation methods. The significance of these methods was confirmed by the verification. However, the mean error (ME) of the ensemble forecast in some systems was worse than that of the individual control forecast. This result suggests that it is necessary to pay careful attention to physical perturbations.

  18. Surface modification of Ni–Ti alloys for stent application after magnetoelectropolishing

    Gill, Puneet; Musaramthota, Vishal; Munroe, Norman [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Datye, Amit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916 (United States); Dua, Rupak [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Haider, Waseem [Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas-Pan American, TX (United States); McGoron, Anthony [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Rokicki, Ryszard [Electrobright, Macungie, PA 18062 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The constant demand for new implant materials and the multidisciplinary design approaches for stent applications have expanded vastly over the past decade. The biocompatibility of these implant materials is a function of their surface characteristics such as morphology, surface chemistry, roughness, surface charge and wettability. These surface characteristics can directly influence the material's corrosion resistance and biological processes such as endothelialization. Surface morphology affects the thermodynamic stability of passivating oxides, which renders corrosion resistance to passivating alloys. Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) is known to alter the morphology and composition of surface films, which assist in improving corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloys. This work aims at analyzing the surface characteristics of MEP Nitinol alloys by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the alloys was determined by contact angle measurements and the mechanical properties were assessed by Nanoindentation. Improved mechanical properties were observed with the addition of alloying elements. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to determine the corrosion susceptibility. Further, the alloys were tested for their cytotoxicity and cellular growth with endothelial cells. Improved corrosion resistance and cellular viability were observed with MEP surface treated alloys. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) reduces the surface asperities of Nitinol alloys and formed stable oxides on the surface. • Improved corrosion resistance and reduced Nickel ion leaching were observed for MEP surfaces. • Ni–Ti alloyed with Cr showed improved mechanical properties. • Enhanced endothelial cell proliferation on ternary Nitinol alloys.

  19. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M[reg]). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10 d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. - Vegetated wetlands are three times more effective at mitigating methyl parathion runoff than are non-vegetated wetlands

  20. Soil Moisture and Vegetation Controls on Surface Energy Balance Using the Maximum Entropy Production Model of Evapotranspiration

    Wang, J.; Parolari, A.; Huang, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate and test plant water stress parameterizations for the recently proposed maximum entropy production (MEP) model of evapotranspiration (ET) over vegetated surfaces. . The MEP model of ET is a parsimonious alternative to existing land surface parameterizations of surface energy fluxes from net radiation, temperature, humidity, and a small number of parameters. The MEP model was previously tested for vegetated surfaces under well-watered and dry, dormant conditions, when the surface energy balance is relatively insensitive to plant physiological activity. Under water stressed conditions, however, the plant water stress response strongly affects the surface energy balance. This effect occurs through plant physiological adjustments that reduce ET to maintain leaf turgor pressure as soil moisture is depleted during drought. To improve MEP model of ET predictions under water stress conditions, the model was modified to incorporate this plant-mediated feedback between soil moisture and ET. We compare MEP model predictions to observations under a range of field conditions, including bare soil, grassland, and forest. The results indicate a water stress function that combines the soil water potential in the surface soil layer with the atmospheric humidity successfully reproduces observed ET decreases during drought. In addition to its utility as a modeling tool, the calibrated water stress functions also provide a means to infer ecosystem influence on the land surface state. Challenges associated with sampling model input data (i.e., net radiation, surface temperature, and surface humidity) are also discussed.

  1. bcc-to-hcp transformation pathways for iron versus hydrostatic pressure: Coupled shuffle and shear modes

    Liu, J. B.; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    Using density-functional theory, we calculate the potential-energy surface (PES), minimum-energy pathway (MEP), and transition state (TS) versus hydrostatic pressure σhyd for the reconstructive transformation in Fe from body-centered cubic (bcc) to hexagonal closed-packed (hcp). At fixed σhyd , the PES is described by coupled shear (γ) and shuffle (η) modes and is determined from structurally minimized hcp-bcc energy differences at a set of (η,γ) . We fit the PES using symmetry-adapted polynomials, permitting the MEP to be found analytically. The MEP is continuous and fully explains the transformation and its associated magnetization and volume discontinuity at TS. We show that σhyd (while not able to induce shear) dramatically alters the MEP to drive reconstruction by a shuffle-only mode at ≤30GPa , as observed. Finally, we relate our polynomial-based results to Landau and nudge-elastic-band approaches and show they yield incorrect MEP in general.

  2. Analogous corticocortical inhibition and facilitation in ipsilateral and contralateral human motor cortex representations of the tongue.

    Muellbacher, W; Boroojerdi, B; Ziemann, U; Hallett, M

    2001-11-01

    How the human brain controls activation of the ipsilateral part of midline muscles is unknown. We studied corticospinal and corticocortical network excitability of both ipsilateral and contralateral motor representations of the tongue to determine whether they are under analogous or disparate inhibitory and facilitatory corticocortical control. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to unilateral focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the tongue primary motor cortex were recorded simultaneously from the ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. Single-pulse TMS was used to assess motor threshold (MT) and MEP recruitment. Paired-pulse TMS was used to study intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between the conditioning stimulus (CS) and the test stimulus (TS), and at different CS and TS intensities, respectively. Focal TMS invariably produced MEPs in both ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. MT was lower and MEP recruitment was steeper when recorded from the contralateral muscle group. ICI and ICF were identical in the ipsilateral and contralateral representations, with inhibition occurring at short ISIs (2 and 3 ms) and facilitation occurring at longer ISIs (10 and 15 ms). Moreover, changing one stimulus parameter regularly produced analogous changes in MEP size bilaterally, revealing strong linear correlations between ipsilateral and contralateral ICI and ICF (P < 0.0001). These findings indicate that the ipsilateral and contralateral representations of the tongue are under analogous inhibitory and facilitatory control, possibly by a common intracortical network. PMID:11779968

  3. Design,Synthesis and Biological Activity of Ethyl 2-(N-Substituted-arylsulfonamido)-2-oxoacetate

    WANG Bao-lei; WU Jing; HE Feng-qi; LI Yon-ghong; LI Zheng-ming

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen new ethyl 2-(N-substituted-arylsulfonamido)-2-oxoacetates(3a-3m),based on the structure of Ketol-acid reductoisomerase(KARI) inhibitor IpOHA,were designed and synthesized,Their structures were established on the basis of 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analyses,The bioassay result reveals that the structural changes from hydroxyl group on the N atom of IpOHA to arylsulfonyl groups does not enhance the inhibitory activity of the compounds to KARI in vitro,Compounds 3c,3h,3k,and 3m are more effective than IpOHA against the monocotyledonous barnygrass at 100 μg/mL in herbicidal tests.

  4. Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance and evoked potentials data in a case of valproic-acid-related hyperammonemic coma

    Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia increased to a toxic peak level at 411 μmol/l 24 h after symptom onset, requiring VPA therapy discontinuation. Brain MR monitoring demonstrated early cytotoxic edema evolving into delayed vasogenic edema and final brain atrophy. Concomitantly to abnormalities within the brainstem on MR images, an increase in brainstem conduction at MEPs and clinical disturbance of brainstem reflexes were observed at the initial phase of the disease course. Later, the resolution of the MR and MEPs abnormalities paralleled the clinical recovery of the reflexes. (orig.)

  5. Methanolic extract of Pterocarpus santalinus induces apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Kwon, H J; Hong, Y K; Kim, K H; Han, C H; Cho, S H; Choi, J S; Kim, Byung-Woo

    2006-04-21

    Ptercarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Korea, and it has been shown to exhibit antiinflammations, antiulcers and anticancer effects. In this study, therefore, we report the cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by the methanol extract of Ptercarpus santalinus (MEPS) against human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line, HeLa. Treatment of HeLa cells with various concentrations of MEPS resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and sub-G1 phase accumulation. In Western blot analysis, apoptosis in the HeLa cells was associated with the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspases-3, -8, -9 and proteolytic cleavage of PARP. These results suggest that MEPS exhibits antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells via apoptosis, and it may be a potential candidate in field of anticancer drug discovery. PMID:16326057

  6. Desarrollo profesional del docente de inglés en el área de evaluación de los aprendizajes

    Calderón Mora, Roxy; Mora Ordoñez, Yinnia

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre capacitación docente en evaluación de los aprendizajes que se desarrolla bajo el Convenio Marco de Cooperación MEP-CONARE-INGLÉS en el período 2010-2011. La actividad de capacitación la diseña y ejecuta una comisión integrada por profesionales de las cuatro universidades y el MEP con el fin de fortalecer prácticas de mediación pedagógica y evaluación de los aprendizajes en la enseñanza del inglés con fondos aportados por el MEP. ...

  7. A chain-of-states acceleration method for the efficient location of minimum energy paths

    Hernández, E. R.; Herrero, C. P.; Soler, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths (MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems, which we call the acceleration method. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable t ∈ [0, 1] that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the nudged elastic band or string methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to t, i.e., the state accelerations. We show this to result in a very simple and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method to a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in C60.

  8. Regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection in China: Functions and Limitations

    Qingzhi Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP, has set up six regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection (SCEPs in recent years. The creation of the SCEPs reflects the “green will” of Chinese government, to reverse the ever-worsening environmental situation throughout China by strengthening vertical supervision of the environmental laws and policies enforcement. A primary analysis focusing on the South China Supervision Centre (SCSC has clearly shown, however, that the SCEPs today can only perform well in the concrete or “small” tasks – most of them designated or handed over by the MEP – rather than in the complicated or “big” issues. To make the SCEPs do more and better, the most desirable but radical policy choice is to reshape them into fully authorised regional “sub-bureaus” of the MEP.

  9. A chain-of-states acceleration method for the efficient location of minimum energy paths

    We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths (MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems, which we call the acceleration method. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable t ∈ [0, 1] that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the nudged elastic band or string methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to t, i.e., the state accelerations. We show this to result in a very simple and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method to a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in C60

  10. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim;

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games with......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training....... The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (P<0.011) but not by TTE (P=0.167). Tongue MEP amplitudes increased after training with TDS and TPT (P<0.030) but not with TTE (P=0.302). Men had higher MEPs than women in the TDS group (P<0.045) at all time...

  11. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  12. Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance and evoked potentials data in a case of valproic-acid-related hyperammonemic coma

    Hantson, Philippe [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Intensive Care, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Neuroradiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Nassogne, Marie-Cecile [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Guerit, Jean-Michel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia increased to a toxic peak level at 411 {mu}mol/l 24 h after symptom onset, requiring VPA therapy discontinuation. Brain MR monitoring demonstrated early cytotoxic edema evolving into delayed vasogenic edema and final brain atrophy. Concomitantly to abnormalities within the brainstem on MR images, an increase in brainstem conduction at MEPs and clinical disturbance of brainstem reflexes were observed at the initial phase of the disease course. Later, the resolution of the MR and MEPs abnormalities paralleled the clinical recovery of the reflexes. (orig.)

  13. Development of a NASA 2018 Mars Landed Mission Concept

    Wilson, M. G.; Salvo, C. G.; Abilleira, F.; Sengstacken, A. J.; Allwood, A. G.; Backes, P. G.; Lindemann, R. A.; Jordan, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is an ongoing development of an integrated and coordinated set of possible future candidate missions that meet fundamental science and programmatic objectives of NASA and the Mars scientific community. In the current planning horizon of the NASA MEP, a landed mobile surface exploration mission launching in the 2018 Mars launch opportunity exists as a candidate project to meet MEP in situ science and exploration objectives. This paper describes the proposed mission science objectives and the mission implementation concept developed for the 2018 opportunity. As currently envisioned, this mission concept seeks to explore a yet-to-be-selected site with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures, evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, characterize the potential for preservation of biosignatures, and access multiple sequences of geological units in a search for evidence of past life and/or prebiotic chemistry at a site on Mars.

  14. Evaluation of N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide as bromine complexing agents in vanadium bromide redox flow batteries

    Evolution of bromine gas in the positive half cell of the Generation 2 (G2) vanadium bromide (V/Br) battery during charging is a concern which can be resolved by the use of bromine complexing agents. In this paper, for the first time, we report the effect of the addition of two quaternary ammonium bromides; N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide (MEM) and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (MEP) to the positive and negative half cell electrolytes of the V/Br. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that the addition of MEM–MEP effectively reduce Br2 vapours. Although the presence of MEM and MEP did not affect the mechanism of the electrode reactions, performance tests conducted in lab scale V/Br cells employing the VF11 cation exchange membrane resulted in lower average cell efficiencies possibly due to the increase in membrane resistance caused by membrane fouling

  15. Minimum number of trials required for within- and between-session reliability of TMS measures of corticospinal excitability.

    Goldsworthy, M R; Hordacre, B; Ridding, M C

    2016-04-21

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) exhibit considerable trial-to-trial variability, potentially reducing the sensitivity and reproducibility of this measure. While increasing the number of trials will improve accuracy, prolonged recording blocks are not always feasible. In this study, we investigated the minimum number of trials required to provide a measure of human corticospinal excitability that is stable both within and between sessions. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex, and MEPs were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Approximately 20-30 trials were required to provide a stable measure of MEP amplitude with high within- and between-session reliability. Extending the number of trials beyond 30 provided no additional benefit. Collecting 30 trials may be optimal for reliably estimating corticospinal excitability using TMS. These findings may have significant implications for using TMS to measure corticospinal excitability in both basic and clinical research settings. PMID:26872998

  16. Removing External Degrees of Freedom from Transition-State Search Methods using Quaternions

    Melander, Marko; Jonsson, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In finite systems, such as nanoparticles and gas-phase molecules, calculations of minimum energy paths (MEPs) connecting initial and final states of transitions as well as searches for saddle points are complicated by the presence of external degrees of freedom, such as overall translation and rotation. A method based on quaternion algebra for removing the external degrees of freedom is described here and applied in calculations using two commonly used methods: the nudged elastic band (NEB) method for MEPs and the DIMER method for finding the minimum mode in minimum mode following searches of first-order saddle points. With the quaternion approach, fewer images in the NEB are needed to represent MEPs accurately. In both NEB and DIMER calculations of finite systems, the number of iterations required to reach convergence is significantly reduced. The algorithms have been implemented in the Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE) open source software.

  17. Removing External Degrees of Freedom from Transition-State Search Methods using Quaternions.

    Melander, Marko; Laasonen, Kari; Jónsson, Hannes

    2015-03-10

    In finite systems, such as nanoparticles and gas-phase molecules, calculations of minimum energy paths (MEPs) connecting initial and final states of transitions as well as searches for saddle points are complicated by the presence of external degrees of freedom, such as overall translation and rotation. A method based on quaternion algebra for removing the external degrees of freedom is described here and applied in calculations using two commonly used methods: the nudged elastic band (NEB) method for MEPs and the DIMER method for finding the minimum mode in minimum mode following searches of first-order saddle points. With the quaternion approach, fewer images in the NEB are needed to represent MEPs accurately. In both NEB and DIMER calculations of finite systems, the number of iterations required to reach convergence is significantly reduced. The algorithms have been implemented in the Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE) open source software. PMID:26579757

  18. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A

    2014-01-01

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, C2-NEB finds it with higher stability and accuracy. However, C2-NEB is suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS but guarantees that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP, and it estimates accuracy from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB (SS-NEB).

  19. A simple Chain-of-States method in acceleration space for the efficient location of Minimum Energy Paths

    Hernandez, E R; Soler, J M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths~(MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable $t \\in [0,1]$ that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the Nudged Elastic Band or String methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to $t$, {\\em i.e.\\/} the state {\\em accelerations\\/}. We show this to result in a very transparent and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method in a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in $\\mbox{C}_{60}$.

  20. The Thermodynamics of Marine Biogeochemical Cycles: Lotka Revisited

    Vallino, Joseph J.; Algar, Christopher K.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, Alfred Lotka published two short but insightful papers describing how ecosystems may organize. Principally, Lotka argued that ecosystems will grow in size and that their cycles will spin faster via predation and nutrient recycling so as to capture all available energy, and that evolution and natural selection are the mechanisms by which this occurs and progresses. Lotka's ideas have often been associated with the maximum power principle, but they are more consistent with recent developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which assert that complex systems will organize toward maximum entropy production (MEP). In this review, we explore Lotka's hypothesis within the context of the MEP principle, as well as how this principle can be used to improve marine biogeochemistry models. We need to develop the equivalent of a climate model, as opposed to a weather model, to understand marine biogeochemistry on longer timescales, and adoption of the MEP principle can help create such models.

  1. Development and Characterization of Healable Carbon Fiber Composites with a Reversibly Cross Linked Polymer

    Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Smith, David R.; Starr, Tatiana N.; Perram, Timothy; Starr, Anthony F.; Darlington, Thomas K.; Baldwin, Richard K.; Oldenburg, Steven J. (Nanocomposix); (SensorMetrix); (Duke)

    2010-10-18

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with remendable cross-linked polymeric matrices were fabricated using a modified resin transfer mold (RTM) technique. The healable composite resin, bis-maleimide tetrafuran (2MEP4F), was synthesized by mixing two monomers, furan (4F) and maleimide (2MEP), at elevated temperatures. The fast kinetic rate of the reaction of polymer constituents requires a fast injection of the healable resin into the carbon fiber preform. The polymer viscosity as a function of time and temperature was experimentally quantified in order to optimize the fabrication of the composite material and to guarantee a uniform flow of the resin through the reinforcement. The method was validated by characterizing the thermo-mechanical properties of the polymerized 2MEP4F. Additionally, the thermo-mechanical properties of the remendable CFRP material were studied.

  2. Bilateral Auricular Milia en Plaque

    Savaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Milia en plaque (MEP is an extremely rare form of milia that is characterized by a number of milia-like cysts on an erythematous base and histologically exhibits features of keratin cysts. The etiology is not exactly known. MEP is generally seen among middle-aged women and especially on the head and neck region. Many of the diagnosed cases are localized in the retroauricular region, eyelids and the nose region. To date, no case of MEP in the auricula has been reported in the literature. In this article, we present the case of a 71-year-old female patient clinically and histologically diagnosed with bilateral auricular milia en plaque (in the external ear canal in the light of current literature. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 216-8

  3. Maggot excretion products from the blowfly Lucilia sericata contain contact phase/intrinsic pathway-like proteases with procoagulant functions.

    Kahl, M; Gökçen, A; Fischer, S; Bäumer, M; Wiesner, J; Lochnit, G; Wygrecka, M; Vilcinskas, A; Preissner, K T

    2015-08-01

    For centuries, maggots have been used for the treatment of wounds by a variety of ancient cultures, as part of their traditional medicine. With increasing appearance of antimicrobial resistance and in association with diabetic ulcers, maggot therapy was revisited in the 1980s. Three mechanisms by which sterile maggots of the green bottle fly Lucilia sericata may improve healing of chronic wounds have been proposed: Biosurgical debridement, disinfecting properties, and stimulation of the wound healing process. However, the influence of maggot excretion products (MEP) on blood coagulation as part of the wound healing process has not been studied in detail. Here, we demonstrate that specific MEP-derived serine proteases from Lucilia sericata induce clotting of human plasma and whole blood, particularly by activating contact phase proteins factor XII and kininogen as well as factor IX, thereby providing kallikrein-bypassing and factor XIa-like activities, both in plasma and in isolated systems. In plasma samples deficient in contact phase proteins, MEP restored full clotting activity, whereas in plasma deficient in either factor VII, IX, X or II no effect was seen. The observed procoagulant/intrinsic pathway-like activity was mediated by (chymo-) trypsin-like proteases in total MEP, which were significantly blocked by C1-esterase inhibitor or other contact phase-specific protease inhibitors. No significant influence of MEP on platelet activation or fibrinolysis was noted. Together, MEP provides contact phase bypassing procoagulant activity and thereby induces blood clotting in the context of wound healing. Further characterisation of the active serine protease(s) may offer new perspectives for biosurgical treatment of chronic wounds. PMID:25948398

  4. Brain-robot interface driven plasticity: Distributed modulation of corticospinal excitability.

    Kraus, Dominic; Naros, Georgios; Bauer, Robert; Leão, Maria Teresa; Ziemann, Ulf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-15

    Brain-robot interfaces (BRI) are studied as novel interventions to facilitate functional restoration in patients with severe and persistent motor deficits following stroke. They bridge the impaired connection in the sensorimotor loop by providing brain-state dependent proprioceptive feedback with orthotic devices attached to the hand or arm of the patients. The underlying neurophysiology of this BRI neuromodulation is still largely unknown. We investigated changes of corticospinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation in thirteen right-handed healthy subjects who performed 40min of kinesthetic motor imagery receiving proprioceptive feedback with a robotic orthosis attached to the left hand contingent to event-related desynchronization of the right sensorimotor cortex in the β-band (16-22Hz). Neural correlates of this BRI intervention were probed by acquiring the stimulus-response curve (SRC) of both motor evoked potential (MEP) peak-to-peak amplitudes and areas under the curve. In addition, a motor mapping was obtained. The specificity of the effects was studied by comparing two neighboring hand muscles, one BRI-trained and one control muscle. Robust changes of MEP amplitude but not MEP area occurred following the BRI intervention, but only in the BRI-trained muscle. The steep part of the SRC showed an MEP increase, while the plateau of the SRC showed an MEP decrease. MEP mapping revealed a distributed pattern with a decrease of excitability in the hand area of the primary motor cortex, which controlled the BRI, but an increase of excitability in the surrounding somatosensory and premotor cortex. In conclusion, the BRI intervention induced a complex pattern of modulated corticospinal excitability, which may boost subsequent motor learning during physiotherapy. PMID:26505298

  5. Baroreceptor reflex during forced expiratory maneuvers in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Legg Ditterline, Bonnie E; Aslan, Sevda C; Randall, David C; Harkema, Susan J; Ovechkin, Alexander V

    2016-07-15

    Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunctions are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Impaired respiratory motor function and decreased Baroreflex Sensitivity (BS) are predictors for the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This observational case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate if respiratory motor control deficits in individuals with SCI affect their ability to perform the Valsalva maneuver, and to determine if a sustained Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP) effort can serve as an acceptable maneuver for determination of the BS in the event that the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. The BS outcomes (ms/mmHg) were obtained using continuous beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) recordings during Valsalva or MEP maneuvers in thirty nine individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI. Twenty one participants (54%) reported signs of intolerance during the Valsalva maneuver and only 15 individuals (39%) were able to complete this task. Cervical level of injury was a significant risk factor (p=0.001) for failing to complete the Valsalva maneuver, and motor-complete injury was a significant risk factor for symptoms of intolerance (p=0.04). Twenty eight participants (72%) were able to perform the MEP maneuver; the other 11 participants failed to exceed the standard airway pressure threshold of 27cm H2O. Neither level nor completeness of injury were significant risk factors for failure of MEP maneuver. When the required airway pressure was sustained, there were no significant differences between BS outcomes obtained during Valsalva and MEP maneuvers. The results of this study indicate that individuals with high-level and motor-complete SCI are at increased risk of not completing the Valsalva maneuver and that baroreflex-mediated responses can be evaluated by using sustained MEP maneuver when the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. PMID:27137412

  6. Radiation therapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification about the elbow

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcome after prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow joint. Patients and Methods: 20 patients with symptomatic HO were treated using perioperative single-dose RT of 7.0 Gy. 15 patients had excision of preexisting functionally relevant HO, and received RT for prevention of a recurrence, and five patients were treated prophylactically because of risk factors. In 13 patients RT was applied within 5 h preoperatively, seven patients received postoperative RT. The local control was evaluated by plain radiographs and the functional outcome was assessed by use of the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Results: After a mean follow-up of 43.3 months, two patients had recurrence of the HO and were treated with further surgical resection. In the remaining 18 patients no progression of the HO was observed. At follow-up, the MEPS varied from 45 to 100 with 13 patients having no functional impairment (MEPS 100). Five patients experienced a slight limitation of the elbow with an MEPS ranging from 75 to 95, and only two had persistence of marked impairment with an MEPS of 45 and 50, respectively. Adverse effects related to use of RT were observed in none of the treated cases. Conclusion: Pre- or postoperative RT is effective for prevention of HO about the elbow joint and can be recommended as an integral component of interdisciplinary treatment in complicated elbow fractures. At this, the use of MEPS has proven to be a feasible method for evaluation of the functional outcome. (orig.)

  7. Normal Values of the Maximal Respiratory Pressures in Healthy People Older than 20 Years Old in the City of Manizales – Colombia

    Lida Maritza Gil Obando

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP are global measures of the maximal strength of the respiratory muscles. Objectives :To determine the values of MIP and MEP in healthy subjects aged 20 years old from the urban area of Maniza­les, Colombia and to correlate them with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables. Methods: This is an observational descriptive study. The population of the study was 203.965 healthy people from Ma­nizales, a Colombian city located at 2150 meters above sea level. The sample size was 308 subjects, selected using simple random sampling. The maximal respiratory pressures were determined in the sample chosen and were then considered according to the variables of age, gender, size, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI, and BMI classification. Finally a predictive model was created. Results: The average MIP value among the subjects of the study was 75±27cmH20 and the MEP value was 96.4±36cmH20. Both averages were higher in men than in women. Predictive equations were established for the normal values of MIP and MEP in healthy subjects; the best model for MIP was the resultant one among age, gender and BMI classification and for the MEP among gender, weight and height. Conclusion: Maximal respiratory pressure values were lower among the population of Manizales than those found in in­ternational studies. Gender and anthropometric characteristics (weight, height and BMI classification are the explanatory variables that better support the average values of MIP and MEP in the predictive models proposed. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex

    Jung Nikolai H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor hand area (M1-HAND, if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA or anterior-to-posterior (AP direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration. Results In 10 young participants, we applied half-sine pulses to the right M1-HAND which elicited PA or AP currents with respect to the orientation of the central sulcus. Measurements of the motor evoked potential (MEP revealed that PA half-sine stimulation resulted in lower resting motor threshold (RMT than AP stimulation. When stimulus intensity (SI was gradually increased as percentage of maximal stimulator output, the stimulus–response curve (SRC of MEP amplitude showed a leftward shift for PA as opposed to AP half-sine stimulation. Further, MEP latencies were approximately 1 ms shorter for PA relative to AP half-sine stimulation across the entire SI range tested. When adjusting SI to the respective RMT of PA and AP stimulation, the direction-specific differences in MEP latencies persisted, while the gain function of MEP amplitudes was comparable for PA and AP stimulation. Conclusions Using half-sine pulse configuration, single-pulse TMS elicits consistent direction-specific effects in M1-HAND that are similar to TMS with monophasic pulses. The longer MEP latency for AP half-sine stimulation suggests that PA and AP half-sine stimulation preferentially activates different sets of cortical neurons that are involved in the generation of different corticospinal descending volleys.

  9. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. PMID:26061279

  10. Aberrant crossed corticospinal facilitation in muscles distant from a spinal cord injury.

    Karen L Bunday

    Full Text Available Crossed facilitatory interactions in the corticospinal pathway are impaired in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. The extent to which crossed facilitation is affected in muscles above and below the injury remains unknown. To address this question we tested 51 patients with neurological injuries between C2-T12 and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation we elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the resting first dorsal interosseous, biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles when the contralateral side remained at rest or performed 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC into index finger abduction, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion, respectively. By testing MEPs in muscles with motoneurons located at different spinal cord segments we were able to relate the neurological level of injury to be above, at, or below the location of the motoneurons of the muscle tested. We demonstrate that in patients the size of MEPs was increased to a similar extent as in controls in muscles above the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. MEPs remained unchanged in muscles at and within 5 segments below the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. However, in muscles beyond 5 segments below the injury the size of MEPs increased similar to controls and was aberrantly high, 2-fold above controls, in muscles distant (>15 segments from the injury. These aberrantly large MEPs were accompanied by larger F-wave amplitudes compared to controls. Thus, our findings support the view that corticospinal degeneration does not spread rostral to the lesion, and highlights the potential of caudal regions distant from an injury to facilitate residual corticospinal output after SCI.

  11. Hemocompatibility Improvement of Chromium-Bearing Bare-Metal Stent Platform After Magnetoelectropolishing

    Rokicki, Ryszard; Haider, Waseem; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the influence of the increased content of chromium in the outermost passive layer of magneto-electrochemically refined Co-Cr alloy L-605 surface on its hemocompatibility. The chemistry, roughness, surface energy, and wettability of conventionally electropolished (EP) and magnetoelectropolished (MEP) samples were studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), open circuit potential, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle meter. In vitro hemocompatibility of tested material surfaces was assessed using two important indicators of vascular responses to biomaterial, namely endothelialization and platelets adhesion. The endothelialization was assessed by seeding and incubating samples with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) for 3 days before counting and observing them under a fluorescent microscope. The platelet (rich plasma blood) adhesion and activation test on EP and MEP L-605 alloy surfaces was assessed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The XPS analysis of MEP samples showed significant enrichment of the passive layer with Cr and O when compared with the EP one. The amount of other elements in the passive layer did not show a significant difference between EP and MEP treatments. The adhesion of HUVEC cells shows remarkable affinity to surfaces enriched in Cr (MEP) with almost 100% confluency. In addition, the number of platelets that adhered to standard EP surfaces was higher compared to the MEP surface. The present study shows that the chromium-enriched surface of cobalt-chromium alloy L-605 by the magnetoelectropolishing process tremendously improves surface hemocompatibility with regard to stent functionality by enhanced endothelialization and lower platelet adhesion and should be taken under consideration as an alternative surface of biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents, polymer-free drug-eluting stents as well as bare-metal stents.

  12. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  13. Optimization of the IPP precursor supply for the production of lycopene, decaprenoxanthin and astaxanthin by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Sabine A.E. Heider

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnologically relevant bacterium C. glutamicum, currently used for the million ton-scale production of amino acids for the food and feed industries, is pigmented due to synthesis of the rare cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. The precursors of carotenoid biosynthesis, isopenthenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and its isomer dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP, are synthesized in this organism via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP or non-mevalonate pathway. Terminal pathway engineering in recombinant C. glutamicum permitted the production of various nonnative C50 and C40 carotenoids. Here, the role of engineering isoprenoid precursor supply for lycopene production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of dxs encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the MEP-pathway by chromosomal promoter exchange in a prophage-cured, genome-reduced C. glutamicum strain improved lycopene formation. Similarly, an increased IPP supply was achieved by chromosomal integration of two artificial operons comprising MEP pathway genes under the control of a constitutive promoter. Combined overexpression of dxs and the other six MEP pathways genes in C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP was not synergistic with respect to improving lycopene accumulation. Based on C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP astaxanthin could be produced in the mg per g cell dry weight range when the endogenous genes crtE, crtB and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were coexpressed with the genes for lycopene cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase from Pantoea ananatis and carotene C(4 oxygenase from Brevundimonas aurantiaca.

  14. Surgical limitations in convexity meningiomas en-plaque: Is radical resection necessary?

    Yao, Amy; Sarkiss, Christopher A; Lee, James; Zarzour, Hekmat K; Shrivastava, Raj K

    2016-05-01

    Meningiomas-en-plaque (MEP) comprise 2.5% of all meningiomas. While they typically arise in the sphenoid wing, convexity MEP are comparatively rare and are often confused with meningeal sarcoidosis, osteoma, tuberculoma, or fibrous dysplasia, with very little information published in the literature. We conducted a literature review on PubMed of English-only articles using a keyword search. All studies that described reports of convexity MEP were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting symptoms, radiological reports, surgical management, recurrence rates, histopathological presentation, post-operative complications, and follow-up. This resulted in 12 papers comprising 22 cases of convexity MEP. Seventeen (77%) of the 22 patients were female with an average age of 53.2years. Intitial presenting symptoms included headache in 12/20 (60%), hemiparesis in 5/20 (25%), and visual symptoms in 1/20 (5%). Of the 14 patients who underwent surgical resection, only four were reported as gross total resection. Twelve reports had associated pathology reports, with all 12 tumors graded as World Health Organization Grade I. Convexity MEP, while rare, present a challenge with regard to correct diagnosis and subsequent resection. The easier accessibility of these meningiomas predicts higher surgical success rates and incidence of total resection, though care must be taken to ensure gross total removal of tumor, dural attachments, and any overlying hyperostotic bone. Though hyperostosis is frequently observed with this variant of meningioma, it is neither exclusive nor wholly indicative of MEP. Due to its rarity in both clinical practice and the literature, further studies are warranted to identify modern imaging means to correctly diagnose this condition. PMID:26778515

  15. First-principles investigation of indium diffusion in a silicon substrate

    In this paper, we report the total energy, the minimum energy path, and the migration energy of indium in a silicon substrate by using ab-initio calculations. Stable configurations during indium diffusion were obtained from the calculation of the total energy, and we estimated the minimum energy path (MEP) with the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. After finding the MEP, we found the energy barrier for the diffusion of indium to be 0.8 eV from an exact calculation of the total energies at the minimum and the transition state.

  16. Röntgenstrukturanalyse von LytB aus Aquifex aeolicus und Plasmodium falciparum

    Rekittke, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Der MEP-Weg stellt auf Grund seiner besonderen Eigenschaften ein interessantes Ziel für die de novo Entwicklung antimikrobialer und herbizider Wirkstoffe dar. Mit Ausnahme der letzten beiden Enzyme GcpE und LytB ist der MEP-Weg schon strukturell geklärt. Um diese Lücke zu schliessen, wurden in dieser Arbeit Kristallisationsexperimente mit Aquifex aeolicus und Plasmodium falciparum LytB und Thermus thermophilus GcpE durchgeführt. Durch die im Rahmen dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Experimente ...

  17. Surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors: the role of intraoperative (neurophysiological) monitoring.

    Sala, Francesco; Bricolo, Albino; Faccioli, Franco; Lanteri, Paola; Gerosa, Massimo

    2007-11-01

    In spite of advancements in neuro-imaging and microsurgical techniques, surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCT) remains a challenging task. The rationale for using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) is in keeping with the goal of maximizing tumor resection and minimizing neurological morbidity. For many years, before the advent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), only somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were monitored. However, SEPs are not aimed to reflect the functional integrity of motor pathways and, nowadays, the combined used of SEPs and MEPs in ISCT surgery is almost mandatory because of the possibility to selectively injury either the somatosensory or the motor pathways. This paper is aimed to review our perspective in the field of IOM during ISCT surgery and to discuss it in the light of other intraoperative neurophysiologic strategies that have recently appeared in the literature with regards to ISCT surgery. Besides standard cortical SEP monitoring after peripheral stimulation, both muscle (mMEPs) and epidural MEPs (D-wave) are monitored after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). Given the dorsal approach to the spinal cord, SEPs must be monitored continuously during the incision of the dorsal midline. When the surgeon starts to work on the cleavage plane between tumor and spinal cord, attention must be paid to MEPs. During tumor removal, we alternatively monitor D-wave and mMEPs, sustaining the stimulation during the most critical steps of the procedure. D-waves, obtained through a single pulse TES technique, allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the functional integrity of the cortico-spinal tracts and represent the strongest predictor of motor outcome. Whenever evoked potentials deteriorate, temporarily stop surgery, warm saline irrigation and improved blood perfusion have proved useful for promoting recovery, Most of intraoperative neurophysiological derangements are reversible and therefore IOM is able to

  18. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  19. Delayed release particles from vascular endothelial growth factor for repairing spinal cord ischemic injury of rats

    CHEN Yang; LI Feng; XIAO Jian-de; LI Zhen-yu; YANG Lei; LUO Xin-le

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of delayed release particles from vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)on the reparation of ischemic injury of spinal cord in rats. Methods:The spinal cord ischemia model of rats was established.The delayed release particles from VEGF were injected via the intubation of spinal subarachnoid space.The rehabilitation was observed by the assessment of unfold claw reflection,space between toes,spinal evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP). Results:VEGF prompted SEP and MEP appearance,improved the motor function of hind limbs. Conclusions:VEGF can promote the rehabilitation of spinal cord ischemic injury of rats.

  20. Effect of surfactants on the morphology of FeSe films fabricated from a single source precursor by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Raja Azadar Hussain; Amin Badshah; Naghma Haider; Malik Dilshad Khan; Bhajan Lal

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the fabrication of FeSe thin films from a single source precursor namely (1-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenyl-3-methylphenyl)selenourea (MeP2F)) by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). All the films were prepared via similar experimental conditions (temperature, flow rate, concentration, solvent system and reactor type) except the use of three different concentrations of two different surfactants i.e., triton and span. Seven thin films were characterized with PXRD, SEM, AFM, EDS and EDS mapping. The mechanism of the interaction of surfactant with MeP2F was determined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  1. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  2. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  3. Spinal inhibition of descending command to soleus motoneurons is removed prior to dorsiflexion

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael James;

    2011-01-01

    investigated how afferent inputs from the tibialis anterior muscle modulate the corticospinal activation of soleus spinal motoneurons at rest, during static contraction and prior to movement. MEPs activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and Hoffmann-reflexes (H-reflexes) activated by electrical...... stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) were conditioned by prior stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at a variety of conditioning-test (CT) intervals.MEPs in the precontracted soleus muscle were inhibited when the TMS pulse was preceded by CPN stimulation with a CT interval of 35 ms, and...

  4. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism. PMID:26882658

  5. Synthesis of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate and kinetic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IspF, a potential drug target

    Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Eoh, Hyungjin; Brennan, Patrick J.; Crick, Dean C.

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, two major building blocks of isoprenoid compounds. The fifth enzyme in the MEP pathway, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (ME-CPP) synthase (IspF), catalyzes the conversion of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate (CDP-ME2P) to ME-CPP with a corresponding release of cytidine 5-monophosphate (CMP). Sinc...

  6. Measurably evolving populations

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew;

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  7. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  8. Early detection of pedicle screw-related spinal cord injury by continuous intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM).

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Sheryar, Muhammad; Al Behairy, Yaser

    2014-12-01

    Pedicle screw placement has a high risk of damaging the motor and sensory pathways due to the close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Early detection and prevention of injury can be achieved by utilizing Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEP) and Transcranial electrical Motor Evoked Potentials (TCeMEP) during a scoliosis surgery. A 19-year-old female presented for correction of scoliosis. After intubation, electrodes were placed for upper and lower SSEPs, EMGs and TCeMEPs. Total intravenous anesthesia was used. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all limbs. Eight pedicle screws were placed. After placing the last screw, TCeMEP signals were lost bilaterally in lower extremities. Surgery was paused. After removing all the screws TCeMEP responses returned to baseline in left lower limb but remained absent in right lower limb. A wake-up test was performed which was positive in her right leg. Blood pressure was increased and bolus of steroids was given. There was no improvement in right lower limb TCeMEP responses. Surgeon was advised to stop the surgery and proceed for MRI and follow-up. SSEP signals remained stable in all four-extremities. The surgical correction was cancelled. MRI revealed intramedullary spinal cord ischemic changes at T11. After extubation, patient was unable to move her right lower extremity with flaccid paralysis. She also complained about severe burning in her left lower extremity. The patient was taken for rehabilitation exercises. One week post-op, she was moving hip flexors and two weeks later had afull motor function, bilaterally. Real-time IONM was useful in early identification of spinal cord injury. Significant changes were seen in TCeMEP, without any change in SSEP. We highly recommend utilizing continuous TCeMEP and SSEP monitoring during pedicle screw placement for prevention of injury to the spinal cord. In this case, the patient would have been paralyzed post-operatively without the use of IONM. PMID

  9. A family-oriented therapy program for youths with substance abuse: long-term outcomes related to relapse and academic or social status

    Wang LJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1 Shing-Fang Lu,1 Mian-Yoon Chong,2 Wen-Jiun Chou,1 Yu-Lian Hsieh,1 Tong-Ning Tsai,1 Ching Chen,2 Yi-Hsuan Lee11Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: The abuse of illegal substances by youths in Taiwan has become a major public health issue. This study explores the outcomes (relapse rate and academic or social status of a family-oriented therapy program conducted for substance-using youths who were referred by a judge to participate in it.Methods: The present study includes 121 participants categorized into three groups: 36 youths underwent a weekly ten-session outpatient motivational enhancement psychotherapy (MEP group program; 41 youths participated in a program that combined the aforementioned MEP program with an additional weekly ten-session parenting skill training (PST program for their guardians (MEP + PST group; and 44 adolescents who received standard supervision by the court served as the control group. All participants were followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.Results: Of the 121 participants (mean age: 16.1±1.1 years, 33.1% relapsed into substance use during the follow-up period. The probability of relapse did not differ significantly between the MEP group (36.1% and the control group (40.9%, but the youths in the MEP + PST group (22.0% were at a lower risk of relapse than the control group participants (adjusted hazard ratio =0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.21–1.09. By the end of the study follow-up period, participants in both the MEP group and the MEP + PST group were more likely to be attending school (MEP group: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =6.61, 95% CI =1.60–27.35; MEP + PST group: aOR =8.57, 95% CI =1.94–37.82 or employed (MEP group: aOR =7.75, 95% CI =1.95–30.75; MEP + PST group: aOR =7.27, 95% CI =1.76–29.97, when compared to the control group

  10. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie;

    2002-01-01

    vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers...... were eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile (0.5-15%) in a potassium phosphate buffer with 1-octanesulfonic acid and triethylamine, pH 2.16. The concentration of the vitamers was determined with fluorescence detector (328 nm excitation, 393 nm emission) after postcolumn derivatization with phosphate...

  11. Synthesis of mixtures of [2H6]myo-inositol monophosphates suitable as internal standards for quantitative GC/MS and a simple synthesis of DL-myo-inositol-1-phosphate

    A mixture of DL-[2H6]myo-inositol-1- and -4-phosphate and (meso) myo-inositol-2-and -5-phosphate is readily prepared on a 100 milligram scale from the mixed isomers of di-O-cyclohexylidene-[2H6]myo-inositol by phosphorylation with tetrabenzylpyrophosphate. The deblocked [2H6]myl-inositol monophosphate isomers are obtained where the relative amounts of racemic myo-inositol-1-phosphate > -4-phosphate > -2-phosphate > -5-phosphate. In addition a simple synthesis of DL-myo-inositol-1-phosphate was developed which was found to be unsatisfactory for the preparation of deuterium-labeled product. (Author)

  12. 78 FR 41979 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2013-07-12

    ...). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register (73 FR 3316, January 17... .E95 2007]. The Agency then convened a panel of medical experts in the field of neurology (MEP) on May... a comprehensive literature review and convened a panel of medical experts in epilepsy and...

  13. 78 FR 67449 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    2013-11-12

    ... Register (73 FR 3316, January ] 17, 2008). This statement is also available at http://Docketinfo.dot.gov... discussion of these comments and a decision was made on seven applicants in (78 FR 3079). FMCSA has... field of neurology (the MEP) on May 14-15, 2007, to review 49 CFR 391.41(b)(8) and the advisory...

  14. Electrostatic Potential as a Descriptor of Anti-Bacterial Activities of Some Anacardic Acid Derivatives: A Study Using Density Functional Theory

    Tiwari, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Structures and minimum molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distributions in anacardic acid and some of its derivatives have been studied by full geometry optimization at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p), WB97XD/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of density functional theory (DFT) in gas phase as well as in DMSO and aqueous solutions. Solvent effect was treated employing the integral equation formalism of the polarizable continuum model. Effects of modifications of the C1-side chain on the minimum MEP values in various regions were studied. Minimum MEP values near the oxygen atoms of the C2-OH group, oxygen or sulfur atoms of the C1-attached urea or thiourea groups and above or below the ring plane considered to be involved in interaction with the receptor were used to perform multiple linear regression. Experimentally observed anti-bacterial activities of these molecules against S. aureus are thus shown to be related to minimum MEP values in the above mentioned regions. Among the three DFT functionals used in th...

  15. Diabetes among Adults with Cognitive Limitations Compared to Individuals with No Cognitive Disabilities

    Reichard, Amanda; Stolzle, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    Using a retrospective analysis of data from the 2006 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), we assessed the health status of working-age adults with cognitive limitations in comparison to adults with no disability (unweighted N = 27,116; weighted N = 240,343,457). Adults with cognitive limitations had a significantly higher prevalence of…

  16. Expression of the cytoplasmic mevalonate pathway in chloroplasts to reduce substrate limitations for cytoplasmically-produced terpenoid secondary products

    All products of isoprenoid metabolism originate with the C5 non-allylic substrate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). IPP is produced in plants by two distinct pathways, the mevalonate pathway (MEV) in the cytosol and the 2 C methyl-D-erythritol 4 phosphate (MEP) pathway in plastids. A multi-gene a...

  17. Standards and Labeling program for refrigerators: Comparing India with others

    Energy efficiency levels for the Standards and Labeling (S and L) program in India for frost free (FF) refrigerators are compared with similar programs in China, United States of America (USA), and European Union (EU). A normalization method developed by International Energy Agency (IEA) is adopted with India as a benchmark for comparison. It is observed that the energy consumption level corresponding to minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) is very high in India. India also lags behind other countries on the consumption level corresponding to highest efficiency rating. Also, the range of consumption levels corresponding to a label is wide which dilutes the efficacy of label. India has aggressively proposed to tighten the ratings for FF refrigerators in 2014 by 36% across all the bands. This measure will make its highest efficiency rating comparable to other countries. However, due to the wide gap in the consumption levels across the ratings, the revised MEPS will still lag behind other countries. One possible outcome of high MEPS is that as the ratings are tightened, the market may move to lower star rated models significantly undermining the tightening effect. - Highlights: • India's minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for refrigerators high. • The allowable range of consumption within label large resulting in their dilution. • Highest efficiency rating for refrigerators in India lags behind other countries. • Aggressive tightening of Standards and Labeling is proposed for India

  18. 77 FR 58386 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-09-20

    ... treated with diet, oral medications or insulin. 4. Authorization forms for the MEPS-MPC Provider and...,695,868 Production of Public Use Data Files..... 21,079,118 7,026,373 Project Management 4,233,739 1... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection...

  19. Study of Back Biasing Schemes for ULV Logic from the Gate Level to the IP Level

    Guerric de Streel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimum energy per operation is typically achieved in the subthreshold region where low speed and low robustness are two challenging problems. This paper studies the impact of back biasing (BB schemes on these features for 28 nm FDSOI technology at three levels of abstraction: gate, library and IP. We show that forward BB (FBB can help cover a wider design space in terms of the optimal frequency of operation while keeping minimum energy. Asymmetric BB between NMOS and PMOS can mitigate the effect of systematic mismatch on the minimum energy point (MEP and robustness. With optimal asymmetric BB, we achieve either a MEP reduction up to 18% or a 36× speedup at the MEP. At the IP level, we confirm the MEP configurability with BB with synthesis results of microcontrollers at 0.35 V.We show that the use of a mix of overdrive FBB voltages further improves the energy efficiency. Compared to bulk 65 nm CMOS, we were able 28 nm FDSOI to reduce the energy per cycle by 64% or to increase the frequency of operation by 7×, while maintaining energy per operation below 3 µW/MHz over a wide frequency range.

  20. Application of multiple intraoperative monitoring techniques in microsurgery for anterior communicating aneurysms

    Ni, De Wei; CHEN Liang; Xu, Geng; SONG Dong-lei; LEI, YU; Gu, Yu-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of combined multiple intraoperative monitoring techniques including transcranial Doppler (TCD), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and neuroelectrophysiological monitoring consisting of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) in the surgical management of anterior communicating aneurysm. Methods Clinical data were analyzed for the 23 patients who underwent microsurgery for anterior communicating aneurysms with assistance of co...

  1. Intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation for preservation of facial nerve function in patients with large acoustic neuroma

    LIU Bai-yun; TIAN Yong-ji; LIU Wen; LIU Shu-ling; QIAO Hui; ZHANG Jun-ting; JIA Gui-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various monitoring techniques have been used routinely in the treatment of the lesions in the skull base, iatrogenic facial paresis or paralysis remains a significant clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation on preservation of facial nerve function.Method From January to November 2005, 19 patients with large acoustic neuroma were treated using intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation (TCEMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function. The relationship between the decrease of MEP amplitude after tumor removal and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed.Results MEP amplitude decreased more than 75% in 11 patients, of which 6 presented significant facial paralysis (H-B grade 3), and 5 had mild facial paralysis (H-B grade 2). In the other 8 patients, whose MEP amplitude decreased less than 75%, 1 experienced significant facial paralysis, 5 had mild facial paralysis, and 2 were normal.Conclusions Intraoperative TCEMEP can be used to predict postoperative function of the facial nerve. The decreased MEP amplitude above 75 % is an alarm point for possible severe facial paralysis.

  2. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth PMID:21793324

  3. Genome Sequence of the Red Pigment-Forming Meiothermus taiwanensis Strain RP Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, India

    Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Meiothermus taiwanensis strain RP (MCC 2966), isolated from the Paniphala hot spring of India, which contains genes encoding for enzymes of the methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis and carotenoid backbone synthesis. PMID:27365353

  4. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment. PMID:26379094

  5. 78 FR 40084 - Proposed Requirement-Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive Grant Program

    2013-07-03

    ... Register on March 3, 2004 (69 FR 10110) (2004 Notice), and we have used these final requirements for CIG... final priority for the MEP CIG program in the Federal Register on March 12, 2008 (73 FR 13217), in which... CFR Chapter II Proposed Requirement--Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive Grant...

  6. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  7. 78 FR 34347 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; the Building Construction Technology Extension...

    2013-06-07

    ... Building Construction Technology Extension Pilot Client Impact Survey AGENCY: National Institute of.../ Building Technologies Office (EERE/BTO), the Building Construction Technology Extension Pilot (BCTEP) is... the test beds. The purpose of the survey is to collect information that will provide the MEP...

  8. 77 FR 35399 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2012-06-13

    ... medications or insulin. 4. Permission forms for the MEPS-MPC Provider and Pharmacy Survey. As in previous... by hospitals (during the Hospital Event data collection) as providing care to sampled persons during... the hospital. 6. Hospital Event Questionnaire. This questionnaire is used to collect information...

  9. 77 FR 55811 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line Open Meeting

    2012-09-11

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line... Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board will hold an open, on-line meeting via webcast on... their remote location. Questions regarding the on-line meeting should be sent to the...

  10. 76 FR 55890 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    2011-09-09

    ..., Ends: flanged, Seats: PTFE or TFE; ASTM A126); (2) Low Temperature Thermostat (range of 15-55... (Standard: Mss SP-72, CWP Rating: 200 psig, Ends: flanged, Seats: PTFE or TFE; ASTM A126); (2) Low... SP-72, CWP Rating: 200 psig, Ends: Flanged, Seats: PTFE or TFE). Neither MEP nor DOE was able...

  11. Maximum Entropy Production and the Evolution of the Biotic Carbon Cycle

    Kleidon, A.

    2003-12-01

    The MEP hypothesis states that diabatic processes with sufficient degrees of freedom maintain states at which the rate of entropy production is maximized. A common example in climatology is the application of MEP to poleward heat transport, which leads to predicted equator-pole temperature gradients that are consistent with observations. Here the MEP hypothesis is applied to biotic activity as a diabatic process which affects the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and therefore the strength of the Earth's greenhouse effect. It is first shown with a conceptual climate model that there should be a minimum planetary albedo for which entropy production associated with absorption of solar radiation would be at a maximum as a consequence of the competing effects of surface temperature on the extent of snow cover and convective cloud cover. When pCO2 is simulated by a simple carbon cycle model, it is then shown that the application of MEP to biotic activity leads to an insensitivity of simulated surface temperature to long-term changes in solar luminosity. These predicted changes are consistent with the general suggested pattern of Earth system evolution (decreased greenhouse strength and roughly constant surface temperature through time) and share similarity with the Gaia hypothesis.

  12. Maximum entropy production in environmental and ecological systems.

    Kleidon, Axel; Malhi, Yadvinder; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    The coupled biosphere-atmosphere system entails a vast range of processes at different scales, from ecosystem exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon to the processes that drive global biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric composition and, ultimately, the planetary energy balance. These processes are generally complex with numerous interactions and feedbacks, and they are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), based on statistical mechanics and information theory, states that thermodynamic processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate. This issue focuses on the latest development of applications of MEP to the biosphere-atmosphere system including aspects of the atmospheric circulation, the role of clouds, hydrology, vegetation effects, ecosystem exchange of energy and mass, biogeochemical interactions and the Gaia hypothesis. The examples shown in this special issue demonstrate the potential of MEP to contribute to improved understanding and modelling of the biosphere and the wider Earth system, and also explore limitations and constraints to the application of the MEP principle. PMID:20368247

  13. Microsome biocolloids for rapid drug metabolism and inhibition assessment by LC-MS

    Bajrami, Besnik; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Rusling, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes attached to nanoparticles were used for LC-MS studies of CYP3A and 2E1 enzymes in metabolism of N-nitroso compounds. Using these biocolloids, turnover rates were measured within 2 min. Inhibitor IC50 values for ketoconazole (KET) and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MEP) were estimated.

  14. Microsome biocolloids for rapid drug metabolism and inhibition assessment by LC-MS

    Bajrami, Besnik; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes attached to nanoparticles were used for LC-MS studies of CYP3A and 2E1 enzymes in metabolism of N-nitroso compounds. Using these biocolloids, turnover rates were measured within 2 min. Inhibitor IC50 values for ketoconazole (KET) and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MEP) were estimated. PMID:19356087

  15. Committee Representation in the European Parliament

    McElroy, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The European Parliament (EP) possesses a highly specialized committee system, operating in a complex institutional and political environment, yet little empirical work has investigated how MEPs are assigned to EP committees and what consequences this process has for representation and policy-making. In this article I examine the growth of EP committees and committee membership since 1979, and addre...

  16. Co-digestion of animal manure and maize : is it sustainable, an update

    Zwart, K.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion has attracted increased attention in The Netherlands as a result of a subsidy for electricity that is produced environmentally safe (MEP and SDE subsidy). Production of bio-energy by means of co-digestion turned financially profitable due to this financial support. Co-digestion is the s

  17. Detraining outcomes with expiratory muscle strength training in Parkinson disease

    Michelle S. Troche, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST is efficacious for improving maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, cough function, and swallowing safety in Parkinson disease (PD. However, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following EMST in persons with PD. Moreover, there are no published reports describing detraining effects following any behavioral swallowing intervention. Ten participants with PD underwent 3 mo of detraining following EMST. Measures of MEP and swallowing safety were made prior to beginning EMST (baseline, posttreatment (predetraining, and 3 mo postdetraining. Participants demonstrated, on average, a 19% improvement in MEP from pre- to post-EMST. Following the 3 mo detraining period, MEP declined by 2% yet remained 17% above the baseline value. No statistically significant changes were found in swallowing safety from post-EMST to postdetraining period. Following the 3 mo detraining period, seven participants demonstrated no change in swallowing safety, one worsened, and two had improvements. This preliminary study highlights the need for the design of maintenance programs to sustain function following intensive periods of training.

  18. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  19. Intraoperative monitoring during decompression of the spinal cord and spinal nerves using transcranial motor-evoked potentials: The law of twenty percent.

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Hirao, Jun; Oka, Hidehiro; Akimoto, Jiro; Takanashi, Junko; Yamada, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    Motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring was performed during 196 consecutive spinal (79 cervical and 117 lumbar) surgeries for the decompression of compressive spinal and spinal nerve diseases. MEP monitoring in spinal surgery has been considered sensitive to predict postoperative neurological recovery. In this series, transcranial stimulation consisted of trains of five pulses at a constant voltage (200-600 V). For the normalization of MEP, we recorded compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) after peripheral nerve stimulation, usually on the median nerve at the wrist 2 seconds before or after each transcranial stimulation of the motor area, for all operations. The sensitivity and specificity of MEP monitoring was 100% and 97.4%, respectively, or 96.9% with or without CMAP compensation (if the threshold of postoperative motor palsy was defined as 20% relative amplitude rate [RAR]). The mean RAR after CMAP normalization, of the most affected muscle in the patient group with excellent postoperative results (recovery rate of a Japan Orthopedic Association score of more than 50%) was significantly higher than that in the other groups (p=0.0224). All patients with an amplitude increase rate (AIR) with CMAP normalization of more than 20% achieved neurological recovery postoperatively. Our results suggest that if the RAR is more than 20%, postoperative motor palsy can be avoided in spinal surgery. If the AIR with normalization by CMAP after peripheral nerve stimulation is more than 20%, neurological recovery can be expected in spinal surgery. PMID:26142049

  20. Probing phosphorylation by non-mammalian isoprenoid biosynthetic enzymes using 1H–31P–31P correlation NMR spectroscopy†‡

    Majumdar, Ananya; Shah, Meha H.; Bitok, J. Kipchirchir; Hassis-LeBeau, Maria E.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2009-01-01

    The biogenesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) is accomplished by the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in plants, bacteria and parasites, making it a potential target for the development of anti-infective agents and herbicides. The biosynthetic enzymes comprising this pathway catalyze intriguing chemical transformations on diphosphate scaffolds, offering an opportunity to generate novel analogs in this synthetically challenging compound class...

  1. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination an

  2. Changes of Excitability in M1 Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Differ Between Presence and Absence of Voluntary Drive

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Higashi, Toshio; Tsurumi, Takamasa; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate excitability changes in the human motor cortex induced by variable therapeutic electrical stimulations (TESs) with or without voluntary drive. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from extensor and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during FCR muscle contraction after the application of…

  3. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2015-01-01

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  4. Comparison study of selected Geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2015-01-01

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  5. 77 FR 41902 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    2012-07-17

    ... COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MEP Marine Event... FR 4501. The Coast Guard provided a 90-day period for public comment on the proposed ] regulations... waterfront in the vicinity of the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island. This rule will regulate the...

  6. Impaired Organization of Paired-Pulse TMS-Induced I-Waves After Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    Cirillo, John; Calabro, Finnegan J; Perez, Monica A

    2016-05-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human motor cortex results in consecutive facilitatory motor-evoked potential (MEP) peaks in surface electromyography in intact humans. Here, we tested the effect of an incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) on early (first) and late (second and third) MEP peaks in a resting intrinsic finger muscle. We found that all peaks had decreased amplitude in SCI subjects compared with controls. The second and third peaks were delayed with the third peak also showing an increased duration. The delay of the third peak was smaller than that seen in controls at lower stimulation intensity, suggesting lesser influence of decreased corticospinal inputs. A mathematical model showed that after SCI the third peak aberrantly contributed to spinal motoneurone recruitment, regardless on the motor unit threshold tested. Temporal and spatial aspects of the late peaks correlated with MEP size and hand motor output. Thus, early and late TMS-induced MEP peaks undergo distinct modulation after SCI, with the third peak likely reflecting a decreased ability to summate descending volleys at the spinal level. We argue that the later corticospinal inputs on the spinal cord might be crucial for recruitment of motoneurones after human SCI. PMID:25814508

  7. Comparison of TMS-induced arm activation and upper limb functional tests in hemiparetic stroke

    Tarkka Ina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke has a major impact in the total cost of healthcare in the Western world as stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability [1]. In attempts to enhance motor recovery after stroke effective treatment strategies have been developed in recent years. Appropriate evaluation of the intervention programs requires comprehensive and accurate assessment of the residual abnormal function. In the present study we compare two well-known clinical functional scoring tests developed for the assessment of hemiparetic upper limb function due to stroke and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS, which measures involuntary target muscle response to cortical stimulation. The aim is to investigate the equivalence of these methods and thus add objective evidence of the limb function to strengthen evidence-based practice. In addition to functional tests, four muscles of both arms were studied in twenty chronic stroke patients. Those patients without motor evoked potentials (MEP to nTMS in the affected upper limb had significantly lower total score in Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test and longer performance time than those patients with MEP. Patients, in whom MEP in each of the four target muscles was elicitable, had better than average scores in clinical functional tests while patients, in whom no MEP was elicitable in any target muscle, had worse than average scores. Transcranial magnetic stimulation adds crucial information when clinical assessment based on voluntary activation by command is challenging, e.g. in patients suffering from cognitive deficits.

  8. Evaluation of the motor cortical excitability changes after ischemic stroke

    D K Prashantha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated progressive changes in excitability of motor cortex following ischemic stroke using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients (24 men, 7 women; age 37.3 ± 8.2 years were recruited and TMS was performed using Magstim 200 stimulator and a figure-of-eight coil. Resting motor threshold (RMT was recorded from affected and unaffected hemispheres and motor evoked potential (MEP was recorded from contralateral FDI muscle. Central motor conduction time (CMCT was calculated using F wave method. All measurements were done at baseline (2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th week of stroke. Results: Affected hemisphere: MEP was recordable in 3 patients at baseline (all had prolonged CMCT. At 4 weeks, MEP was recordable in one additional patient and CMCT remained prolonged. At 6 weeks, CMCT normalized in one patient. RMT was recordable (increased in 3 patients at baseline, in one additional patient at 4 weeks, and reduced marginally in these patients at 6 weeks. Unaffected hemisphere: MEP was recordable in all patients at baseline, and reduced significantly over time (2 nd week 43.52 ± 9.60, 4 th week 38.84 ± 7.83, and 6 th week 36.85 ± 7.27; P < 0.001. The CMCT was normal and remained unchanged over time. Conclusion: The increase in excitability of the unaffected motor cortex suggests plasticity in the post-stroke phase.

  9. Changes of evoked potential and expression of nestin in subventricular zones in rats after focal cerebral ischemia

    GAO Jie; WANG Yong-tang; WANG Li-li; ZENG Ling; WU Ya-min; SHAO Yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of latency of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)and motor evoked potential (MEP) and the expression of nestin in subventricular zones (SVZ) after persistent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods: The model of cerebral ischemia in rats was made by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). All animals of ischemia were sacrificed after 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d,and 14 d to observe the changes of latency of SEP and MEP and to detect the expression of nestin, with an immunohistochemical approach. Results: The latencies of P1 (positive wave 1), N1 (negative wave 1) and P2 (positive wave 2) in SEP were significantly prolonged after MCAO. The latencies of N1 and N2 waves in MEP were postponed gradually and no statistical difference of latency of N1 wave was found in rats at 7d and 14 d after MCAO. The expression of nestin increased at 12 h, and showed a significant augmentation at 3 d and peaked at 7 d, then declined slightly at 14 d after MCAO. Conclusion: The cerebral ischemia prolonged the latency of EP waves and the expression of nestin was up-regulated and reached the peak at 7d, showing the ischemia induced the proliferation of nervous stem cells. The SEP and MEP may evaluate the proliferation in SVZ after brain ischemia.

  10. Labor Supply of Politicians

    Fisman, Raymond; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Kamenica, Emir; Munk, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Using data on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), we examine the impact of salaries on the composition and the behavior of legislators. Employing a differences-in-differences approach, we exploit the introduction of a law that equalized MEPs’ salaries which had previously differed by as much...

  11. Labor Supply of Politicians

    Fisman, Raymond; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Kamenica, Emir; Munk, Inger

    Using data on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), we examine the impact of salaries on the composition and the behavior of legislators. Employing a differences-in-differences approach, we exploit the introduction of a law that equalized MEPs’ salaries which had previously differed by as much...

  12. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    S.M.A. van der Salm; A.F. van Rootselaar; E.M.J. Foncke; J.H.T.M. Koelman; L.J. Bour; K.P. Bhatia; J.C. Rothwell; M.A.J. Tijssen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve, short interval intracortical inhibition (S

  13. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    van der Salm, S. M. A.; van Rootselaar, A. F.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Bour, L. J.; Bhatia, K. P.; Rothwell, J. C.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve short interval intracortical, inhibition (S

  14. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Liu, Chao; Sun, Yonghai; Mao, Qian; Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Na

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP) extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF) in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta. PMID:27338370

  15. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

    Bozzao, Alessandro; Romano, Andrea; Calabria, Luigi Fausto; Coppola, Valeria; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, Rome (Italy); Angelini, Albina; D' Andrea, Giancarlo; Mastronardi, Luciano; Ferrante, Luigi [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  16. Thermoresponsive Agarose Based Microparticles for Antibody Separation.

    Ooi, Huey Wen; Ketterer, Benedikt; Trouillet, Vanessa; Franzreb, Matthias; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-01-11

    We report the development of thermoresponsive 4-mercaptoethylpyridine (MEP)-based chromatographic microsphere based resins for antibody separation that show switchable release abilities by adsorbing immunoglobulins at 40 °C and releasing the proteins at 5 °C. The thermoswitchable release properties were introduced to the porous resins by the grafting of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, which were modified to possess MEP end functionalities. Adsorption of γ-globulins as a model antibody on the shortest PNIPAM-MEP (3 kDa) grafted microparticles display binding capacities of up to 20 g L(-1) at 40 °C and a significant decrease in binding capacity to less than 2.5 g L(-1) at 5 °C. By switching the temperature to 5 °C, the release of bound γ-globulins is shown to be as high as 90%. The effects of polymer chain length on the binding capacity are studied in detail and found to be critical as they influence the density of MEP functionalities on the particle surfaces. PMID:26626821

  17. Independent expansion of zincin metalloproteinases in Onygenales fungi may be associated with their pathogenicity.

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available To get a comprehensive view of fungal M35 family (deuterolysin and M36 family (fungalysin genes, we conducted genome-wide investigations and phylogenetic analyses of genes in these two families from 50 sequenced Ascomycota fungi with different life styles. Large variations in the number of M35 family and M36 family genes were found among different fungal genomes, indicating that these two gene families have been highly dynamic through fungal evolution. Moreover, we found obvious expansions of Meps in two families of Onygenales: Onygenaceae and Arthodermataceae, whereas species in family Ajellomycetace did not show expansion of these genes. The strikingly different gene duplication and loss patterns in Onygenales may be associated with the different pathogenicity of these species. Interestingly, likelihood ratio tests (LRT of both M35 family and M36 family genes suggested that several branches leading to the duplicated genes in dermatophytic and Coccidioides fungi had signatures of positive selection, indicating that the duplicated Mep genes have likely diverged functionally to play important roles during the evolution of pathogenicity of dermatophytic and Coccidioides fungi. The potentially positively selected residues discovered by our analysis may have contributed to the development of new physiological functions of the duplicated Mep genes in dermatophytic fungi and Coccidioides species. Our study adds to the current knowledge of the evolution of Meps in fungi and also establishes a theoretical foundation for future experimental investigations.

  18. A dynamic model to optimize municipal electric power systems by considering carbon emission trading under uncertainty

    In this study, a FFSP (full-infinite fuzzy stochastic programming) method is developed for planning MEPS (municipal electric power systems) associated with GHG (greenhouse gas) control under uncertainty. FFSP can deal with multiple uncertainties presented in terms of fuzzy sets, functional intervals, and random variables. FFSP is also applied to a case study of Beijing for managing MEPS, and reducing the GHG emission through introducing the EU ETS (European Union greenhouse gas emission trading scheme). The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated, which can be used for generating schemes of energy resources, electricity production/allocation, and capacity expansion under various economic costs and GHG reduction requirements. The case study demonstrates that FFSP can increase the abilities of reflecting complexities for dynamics of capacity expansion and interaction of multiple uncertainties in MEPS. The results allow in-depth analyses of trade-offs between GHG mitigation and economic objective as well as those between system cost and decision makers' satisfaction degree. Besides, this study can also provide an example to help China construct domestic carbon trading market at municipal scale for addressing the challenges of global climate change. - Highlights: • A dynamic optimization (FFSP) method is developed for tackling uncertainties. • FFSP is applied to planning MEPS (municipal electric power systems) of Beijing. • CET (Carbon emission trading) is introduced into MEPS for mitigating CO2 emissions. • Trade-offs occur between system cost and satisfaction degree under uncertainties. • Results can provide an example to construct domestic CET market in China

  19. Advantages and disadvantages of assist-systems in direct surgery for cerebrovascular diseases

    We evaluated the effectiveness of assist-systems such as endoscopy, navigation, and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in terms of improving the safety and accuracy of surgery for cerebrovascular diseases. Since January 2000, the following devices have been used at our institution to assist in surgical procedures: an endoscope (diameter, 2.7 or 4.0 mm; tip angle, 30deg or 70deg) in 69 surgical procedures to treat cerebral aneurysms, a navigation system (Stealth Station) in 22 operations for cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous or cavernous malformations, and MEP monitoring (bipolar or monopolar electrical stimulation of the motor cortex and EMG recording of the face, trunk and upper extremity contralateral to the stimulated side) in 11 operations for cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Endoscopy allowed visualization of the anatomical relationship between the aneurysm neck and the parent or perforated artery before clipping, and the location of the clip tip, occlusion of the perforated artery, or stenosis of the parent artery could be evaluated after clipping. Postoperative MR and/or CT images revealed an asymptomatic infarction of perforated artery in 4 patients. Navigation allowed prediction of the sites of aneurysms, cavernous malformations, or of the feeding arteries of arteriovenous malformations. This resulted in accurate approaches to these structures, although a brain shift in some patients was recognized by ultrasound imaging linked to the navigation system. Although MEP monitoring should have predicted postoperative motor function, MEP findings after clipping the neck of aneurysms or obliterating the arteriovenous malformation of a feeding artery were normal in all of the analyzed patients. Postoperative convulsive seizures developed in patients as a result of 20 mA of bipolar electrical stimulation. Endoscopy, navigation, and MEP monitoring are considered helpful for safe and accurate surgical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases

  20. Modulation of corticospinal excitability during acquisition of action sequences by observation.

    Masanori Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Excitability of the corticospinal pathway increases during observation of an action. However, how corticospinal excitability changes during observation of sequential actions in the course of acquiring novel skills (observational learning remains unexplored. To investigate this, we used a previously unpracticed sequence of ten hand postures. Participants were asked to repeat observation and replication of the sequence. This block of observation and replication was repeated 5 times. During observation of a given hand posture (OK sign, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand muscles. In experiment 1, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position of the sequence. Almost all participants could replicate the OK sign only at the 5th block of the experiment. MEP amplitude was greater than that in the control, and decreased with the stages. This suggested that during observational learning of sequential hand postures MEP changed with the progress of the learning. To evaluate this idea, we performed two additional experiments. In experiment 2, the OK sign appeared in the 2nd position. Almost all participants replicated the OK sign even in the 1st block. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. In experiment 3, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position, but the order of other signs was randomized in every stage. Many participants were not able to replicate the OK sign even during the 5th block of the experiment. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. These results suggest that: (1 During observational learning modulation of corticospinal excitability is associated with the learning process. (2 Corticospinal excitability decreases as learning progresses.

  1. New Insight into the Time-Course of Motor and Sensory System Changes in Pain.

    Siobhan M Schabrun

    Full Text Available Pain-related interactions between primary motor (M1 and primary sensory (S1 cortex are poorly understood. In particular, the time-course over which S1 processing and corticomotor output are altered in association with muscle pain is unclear. We aimed to examine the temporal profile of altered processing in S1 and altered corticomotor output with finer temporal resolution than has been used previously.In 10 healthy individuals we recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs and motor evoked potentials (MEPs in separate sessions at multiple time-points before, during and immediately after pain induced by hypertonic saline infusion in a hand muscle, and at 15 and 25 minutes follow-up.Participants reported an average pain intensity that was less in the session where SEPs were recorded (SEPs: 4.0 ± 1.6; MEPs: 4.9 ± 2.3. In addition, the time taken for pain to return to zero once infusion of hypertonic saline ceased was less for participants in the SEP session (SEPs: 4.7 ± 3.8 mins; MEPs 9.4 ± 7.4 mins. Both SEPs and MEPs began to reduce almost immediately after pain reached 5/10 following hypertonic saline injection and were significantly reduced from baseline by the second (SEPs and third (MEPs recording blocks during pain. Both parameters remained suppressed immediately after pain had resolved and at 15 and 25 minutes after the resolution of pain.These data suggest S1 processing and corticomotor output may be co-modulated in association with muscle pain. Interestingly, this is in contrast to previous observations. This discrepancy may best be explained by an effect of the SEP test stimulus on the corticomotor pathway. This novel finding is critical to consider in experimental design and may be potentially useful to consider as an intervention for the management of pain.

  2. Are somatosensory evoked potentials of the tibial nerve the most sensitive test in diagnosing multiple sclerosis?

    Djuric S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Multiple sclerosis (MS is mostly diagnosed clinically, but the diagnosis has significantly improved through the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, testing of cerebrospinal fluid, and multimodal evoked potentials (MEPs. Even though MRI is the superior method in diagnosing this illness, MEPs remain important because they can detect clinically silent lesions in the sensory and motor pathways of the central nervous system (CNS. Aim : The aim of the study is to test the diagnostic sensitivity of MEPs and MRI and the ratio of their sensitivity in patients with MS. Materials and Methods : The study subjects included 293 patients with MS with disease duration of two to six years: 249 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS and 44 with primary-progressive (PP MS. All patients were subjected to an MRI brain scan, visual evoked potentials (VEPs, median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs, tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs, and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs. Abnormal Findings Included : changed wave morphology, interside difference in wave amplitude, absolute and interwave latency increased by 2.5 SD as compared with the control group. The control group comprised of 35 healthy subjects. Results : In this study the most abnormal findings were tibial SEPs, median SEPs, and VEPs. Our results suggest different sensitivity of MEPs in patients suffering from different forms of MS. In RR-MS the sensitivity of tibial SEPs was statically significant (Fischer′s exact probability test as compared to other evoked potential modalities. Similarly VEPs were more sensitive as compared to AEPs. In the PP-MS, median SEPs have been found to be more sensitive than VEPs, while tibial SEPs have been found to be more sensitive than AEPs. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of MRI and MEPs both the forms of MS. Conclusion : Tibial SEPs produce the most abnormal results and the highest sensitivity in the RR-MS. We

  3. Biomaterial Studies on AISI 316L Stainless Steel after Magnetoelectropolishing

    Massimiliano Filippi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The polarisation characteristics of the electropolishing process in a magnetic field (MEP – magnetoelectropolishing, in comparison with those obtained under standard/conventional process (EP conditions, have been obtained. The occurrence of an EP plateau has been observed in view of the optimization of MEP process. Up-to-date stainless steel surface studies always indicated some amount of free-metal atoms apart from the detected oxides and hydroxides. Such a morphology of the surface film usually affects the thermodynamic stability and corrosion resistance of surface oxide layer and is one of the most important features of stainless steels. With this new MEP process we can improve metal surface properties by making the stainless steel more resistant to halides encountered in a variety of environments. Furthermore, in this paper the stainless steel surface film study results have been presented. The results of the corrosion research carried out by the authors on the behaviour of the most commonly used material - medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel both in Ringer’s body fluid and in aqueous 3% NaCl solution have been investigated and presented earlier elsewhere, though some of these results, concerning the EIS Nyquist plots and polarization curves are also revealed herein. In this paper an attempt to explain this peculiar performance of 316L stainless steel has been undertaken. The SEM studies, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were performed on 316L samples after three treatments: MP – abrasive polishing (800 grit size, EP – conventional electrolytic polishing, and MEP – magnetoelectropolishing. It has been found that the proposed magnetoelectropolishing (MEP process considerably modifies the morphology and the composition of the surface film, thus leading to improved corrosion resistance of the studied 316L SS.

  4. The Effect of Velocity of Joint Mobilization on Corticospinal Excitability in Individuals With a History of Ankle Sprain.

    Fisher, Beth E; Piraino, Andrew; Lee, Ya-Yun; Smith, Jo Armour; Johnson, Sean; Davenport, Todd E; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Joint mobilization and manipulation decrease pain and improve patient function. Yet, the processes underlying these changes are not well understood. Measures of corticospinal excitability provide insight into potential mechanisms mediated by the central nervous system. Objectives To investigate the differential effects of joint mobilization and manipulation at the talocrural joint on corticospinal excitability in individuals with resolved symptoms following ankle sprain. Methods Twenty-seven participants with a history of ankle sprain were randomly assigned to the control, joint mobilization, or thrust manipulation group. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) and cortical silent period (CSP) of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were obtained with transcranial magnetic stimulation at rest and during active contraction of the tibialis anterior. The slopes of MEP/CSP input/output curves and the maximal MEP/CSP values were calculated to indicate corticospinal excitability. Behavioral measures, including ankle dorsiflexion and dynamic balance, were evaluated. Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance of the MEP slope showed a significant group-by-time interaction for the tibialis anterior at rest (P = .002) and during active contraction (P = .042). After intervention, the thrust manipulation group had an increase in corticospinal excitability, while the corticospinal excitability decreased in the mobilization group. The thrust manipulation group, but not other groups, also demonstrated a significant increase in the maximal MEP amplitude of the tibialis anterior after intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that joint manipulation and mobilization have different effects on corticospinal excitability. The increased corticospinal excitability following thrust manipulation may provide a window for physical therapists to optimize muscle recruitment and subsequently movement. The trial was registered at

  5. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  6. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author).

  7. NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE THE EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE ON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EARLY POSTPARTUM DOES

    Ondieki Gekara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to research nutritional strategies to mitigate the effects of Negative Energy Balance (NEB on reproductive performance of early postpartum does. Twenty seven does in their second week of lactation and their kids were randomly assigned to three levels of supplement diet, replicated three times. The diets were: (1 Low Energy/Protein supplement level (LEP; Control, (2 Medium Energy/Protein supplement level (MEP, or (3 High Energy/Protein supplement level (HEP. The LEP (control diet was fed at 0.95%, MEP at 1.50% and HEP at 1.90% of BW on a DM basis. The study lasted 28 days. Supplement level did not (p>0.10 reverse the expected loss in doe body condition during the early stages of lactation. The does lost on average 0.056 kg day-1 through the duration of the study. The average body condition score of the does at the start of the experiment was 1.80 (on a scale of 1-5 and 1.75 at the end. The HEP kids tended (p0.10 between HEP and MEP or MEP and LEP kids. The HEP kids gained 0.087 kg day-1; MEP kids gained 0.061 kg day-1 whereas LEP kids gained 0.022 kg day-1. In conclusion, something in addition to high energy/protein supplement level may be needed to mitigate the effects of NEB which is in part responsible for delayed return of ovulatory events in early postpartum does.

  8. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  9. Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex.

    Chen, R; Tam, A; Bütefisch, C; Corwell, B; Ziemann, U; Rothwell, J C; Cohen, L G

    1998-12-01

    Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 2870-2881, 1998. Intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) of the human motor cortex can be studied with paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Plastic changes and some neurological disorders in humans are associated with changes in ICI and ICF. Although well characterized in the hand representation, it is not known if ICI and ICF vary across different body part representations. Therefore we studied ICI and ICF in different motor representations of the human motor cortex. The target muscles were rectus abdominus (RA), biceps brachii (BB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB), quadriceps femoris (QF), and abductor hallucis (AH). For each muscle, we measured the rest and active motor thresholds (MTs), the motor-evoked potential (MEP) stimulus-response curve (MEP recruitment), ICI, and ICF. The effects of different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) were studied with a conditioning stimulus (CS) intensity of 80% active MT. The effects of different CS intensities were studied at ISI of 2 ms for ICI and ISI of 15 ms for ICF. MT was lowest for APB, followed by BB, AH, and QF, and was highest for RA. Except for BB, MEP recruitment was generally steeper for muscles with lower MT. ICI and ICF were present in all the motor representations tested. The stimulus intensity necessary to elicit ICI was consistently lower than that required to elicit ICF, suggesting that they are mediated by separate mechanisms. Despite wide differences in MT and MEP recruitment, the absolute CS intensities (expressed as percentage of the stimulator's output) required to elicit ICI and ICF appear unrelated to MT and MEP recruitment in the different muscles tested. These findings suggest that the intracortical mechanisms for inhibition and facilitation in different motor representations are not related to the strength of corticospinal projections. PMID

  10. SwissProt search result: AK106698 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK106698 002-114-D11 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 9e-20 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK061902 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK061902 001-041-H06 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-14 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK119895 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK119895 002-180-C05 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 5e-15 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK064089 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK064089 002-100-D02 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 8e-25 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107554 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK107554 002-130-B02 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 2e-18 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK103526 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK103526 J033131L11 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 4e-23 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK061521 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK061521 006-310-B05 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 6e-19 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK064221 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK064221 002-104-G01 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-16 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK067006 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK067006 J013093O09 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-17 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK105961 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK105961 001-205-E02 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-23 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK069342 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK069342 J023013K12 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 4e-14 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK103774 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK103774 J033143M23 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 1e-19 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK101194 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK101194 J033030J11 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-16 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK064342 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK064342 002-107-H07 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-18 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK109784 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK109784 002-147-C09 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 3e-17 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK106518 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK106518 002-107-C02 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 6e-20 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK109450 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK109450 001-114-F08 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 1e-24 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK108373 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK108373 002-142-D10 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 4e-20 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK059748 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK059748 006-203-A07 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 5e-19 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK102879 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK102879 J033112G11 (Q8ZCX5) Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB 1 (EC 3.6.3.27) (Phosphate...-transporting ATPase 1) (ABC phosphate transporter 1) (Phosphate-specific transport component 1) PSTB1_YERPE 1e-18 ...

  10. Consequences of a Deficit in Vitamin B-6 Biosynthesis de Novo for Hormone Homeostasis and Root Development in Arabidopsis

    Boycheva, S.; Dominguez, A.; Rolčík, Jakub; Dominguez, T.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-117. ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PYRIDOXAL 5'-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE * EARLY SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT * AUXIN RESPONSE ELEMENTS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.841, year: 2014

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106750 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK106750 002-115-C09 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104851 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK104851 001-043-A10 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100909 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK100909 J023132G24 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058950 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK058950 001-020-A07 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059821 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK059821 006-205-D11 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064944 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK064944 J013000P14 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  17. AcEST: DK948936 [AcEST

    Full Text Available GYGT+VQN L Sbjct: 582 IPIEVGRGRILLEGTEVALLGYGTMVQNCL 611 >tr|Q84ML9|Q84ML9_ANDPA 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase OS=Andrograp...his paniculata GN=DXS1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 691 Score = 38

  18. Polyol synthesis in Aspergillus niger : influence of oxygen availability, carbon and nitrogen sources on the metabolism

    Diano, Audrey; Bekker-Jensen, S; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard;

    2006-01-01

    , erythritol, xylitol, and arabitol were produced as carbon storage compounds when the flux through the PP pathway exceeded the need in ribulose-5-phosphate for the biomass synthesis. Glycerol, erythritol, and xylitol seem to be involved in osmoregulation. Mannitol was produced when the catabolic reduction of...

  19. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...

  20. Purification and characterization of a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CHCC 2115

    Thage, B.V.; Rattray, F.P.; Laustsen, M.W.;

    2004-01-01

    temperature optima of 7.3 and 43degreesC, respectively, and activity was detected at the pH and salt conditions found in cheese (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl). Hg2+ completely inhibited the enzyme, and the inhibition pattern was similar to that for pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, when studying the effect of...

  1. Structure of dimeric, recombinant Sulfolobus solfataricus phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase

    Andersen, Rune W.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne;

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl-1-α-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase (EC 2.7.6.1) catalyses the Mg2+-dependent transfer of a diphosphoryl group from ATP to the C1 hydroxyl group of ribose 5-phosphate resulting in the production of PRPP and AMP. A nucleotide sequence specifying Sulfolobus solfataricus PRPP...

  2. Probe data: 6356 [RED

    Full Text Available R01-072960-1AR RED C28243 C97586 C60441 CH0441 >(Q42942) URIDINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (UMP ... SYNTHASE) (OROTATE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE (EC ... 2.4.2.10) AND OROTIDINE 5'-PHOSPHATE DEC ARBOXYLASE ... (EC ... 4.1.1.23)) (FRAGMENT). &NTU22260_1(U22260|pid:g747 ...

  3. EST data: 1908 [RED

    Full Text Available CH0441 C28243 C97586 C60441 1 D DPlate 020 D11 5' GCG AGT AAT CCA GCC GAG AC 3' 5' CAA ACC CAA T ... (UMP SYNTHASE) (OROTATE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE (EC ... 2.4.2.10) AND OROTIDINE 5'-PHOSPHATE DEC ARBOXYLASE ... (EC ... 4.1.1.23)) (FRAGMENT). &NTU22260_1(U22260|pid:g747 ...

  4. Prediagnostic plasma vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 50-phosphate) and survival in patients with colorectal cancer

    Higher plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels are associated with a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer, but the influence of plasma PLP on survival of patients with colorectal cancer is unknown. We prospectively examined whether prediagnostic plasma PLP levels are associated with mortality...

  5. Bacillus cereus Phosphopentomutase Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Family Member That Exhibits an Altered Entry Point into the Catalytic Cycle

    Panosian, Timothy D.; Nannemann, David P.; Watkins, Guy R.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, Tina M. (Vanderbilt)

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert {alpha}-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and {alpha}-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator {alpha}-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn{sup 2+}-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[{sup 18}O{sub 3}]phosphate and [U-{sup 13}C{sub 5}]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.

  6. Nuclear PI5P, Uhrf1, and the Road Not Taken

    Reynoird, Nicolas; Gozani, Or

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gelato et al (2014) identify the signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) as an allosteric regulator that determines the mode of chromatin binding for the DNA methylation maintenance factor Uhrf1. This work links nuclear lipids to chromatin signaling in the maintenance of DNA methylation and epigenetic regulation.

  7. Nuclear PI5P, Uhrf1, and the road not taken.

    Reynoird, Nicolas; Gozani, Or

    2014-06-19

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gelato et al. (2014) identify the signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P) as an allosteric regulator that determines the mode of chromatin binding for the DNA methylation maintenance factor Uhrf1. This work links nuclear lipids to chromatin signaling in the maintenance of DNA methylation and epigenetic regulation. PMID:24950375

  8. Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity in Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrels: D-Allulose 6-Phosphate 3-Epimerase from Escherichia coli K-12

    Chan,K.; Fedorov, A.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes that share the ({beta}/{alpha})8-barrel fold catalyze a diverse range of reactions. Many utilize phosphorylated substrates and share a conserved C-terminal ({beta}/a)2-quarter barrel subdomain that provides a binding motif for the dianionic phosphate group. We recently reported functional and structural studies of d-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE) from Streptococcus pyogenes that catalyzes the equilibration of the pentulose 5-phosphates d-ribulose 5-phosphate and d-xylulose 5-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway [J. Akana, A. A. Fedorov, E. Fedorov, W. R. P. Novack, P. C. Babbitt, S. C. Almo, and J. A. Gerlt (2006) Biochemistry 45, 2493-2503]. We now report functional and structural studies of d-allulose 6-phosphate 3-epimerase (ALSE) from Escherichia coli K-12 that catalyzes the equilibration of the hexulose 6-phosphates d-allulose 6-phosphate and d-fructose 6-phosphate in a catabolic pathway for d-allose. ALSE and RPE prefer their physiological substrates but are promiscuous for each other's substrate. The active sites (RPE complexed with d-xylitol 5-phosphate and ALSE complexed with d-glucitol 6-phosphate) are superimposable (as expected from their 39% sequence identity), with the exception of the phosphate binding motif. The loop following the eighth {beta}-strand in ALSE is one residue longer than the homologous loop in RPE, so the binding site for the hexulose 6-phosphate substrate/product in ALSE is elongated relative to that for the pentulose 5-phosphate substrate/product in RPE. We constructed three single-residue deletion mutants of the loop in ALSE, ?T196, ?S197 and ?G198, to investigate the structural bases for the differing substrate specificities; for each, the promiscuity is altered so that d-ribulose 5-phosphate is the preferred substrate. The changes in kcat/Km are dominated by changes in kcat, suggesting that substrate discrimination results from differential transition state stabilization. In both ALSE and RPE, the

  9. 经颅磁刺激对夜磨牙患者咬肌运动诱发电位的研究%The masseter motor-evoked potential after transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with sleep bruxism

    宋宇涵; 黄黄; 王继军; 郭茜; 刘伟才

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较夜磨牙患者与正常对照组经颅磁刺激(TMS)下产生的咬肌运动诱发电位(MEP)的异同。方法:纳入30名夜磨牙患者及30名健康志愿者,单脉冲TMS大脑皮层面部运动区域,记录咬肌MEP,分析比较2组MEP的各项参数。试验均在白天受试者清醒的状态下进行。结果:夜磨牙组咬肌MEP的激发阈值(130%AMT)为53%,对侧MEP(c-MEP)的潜伏期为(6.7±1.3)ms、波幅为0.19(0.15,0.29)mV,三叉神经根MEP(r-MEP)的潜伏期为(2.3±0.4)ms,中枢传导时间(CCT)为4.4(3.3,5.2)ms;正常对照组AMT为52(52,55)%,c-MEP的潜伏期为(6.4±0.7)ms、波幅为0.23(0.17,0.28) mV,r-MEP的潜伏期为(2.4±0.4)ms,CCT为4.0(3.4,4.4)ms,2组咬肌运动诱发电位各项参数均无统计学差别。结论:与正常人相比较,夜磨牙患者大脑皮层运动系统兴奋性未见明显改变。%Objective:To study the masseter motor evoked potential(MEP)in patients with sleep bruxism(SB)and in healthy con-trols.Methods:30 subjects with SB and 30 healthy controls were included.MEPs were obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).Tests were done during daytime when the subjects were awake.The data were statistically analysed.Results:In the patients AMT was 55(52,55)%,latency of c-MEP (6.7 ±1.3)ms,the amplitude of c-MEP 0.19(0.15,0.29)mV,latency of r-MEP (2.3 ±0.4)ms,the central conduction time(CCT)4.4(3.3,5.2)ms.In the control subjects AMT was 52(52,55)%,latency of c-MEP (6.4 ±0.7)ms,the amplitude of c-MEP 0.23(0.17,0.28)mV,latency of r-MEP (2.4 ±0.4)ms,CCT 4.0 (3.4,4.4) ms.No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the measurements evoked by TMS.Conclusion:The MEP after TMS in patients with SB is similar to that of healthy subjects,indicating that the excitability of the cortical motor system is not changed in bruxism subjects,at least

  10. Temporal Chemical Variations during the Eruption Cycle at Crystal Geyser in Green River, Utah: Inverse Modeling of Fluid Sourcing and Implications to the Geyser Mechanism

    Watson, Z. T.; Han, W. S.; Kampman, N.; Grundl, T.; Han, K.

    2014-12-01

    The most well-known example of a CO2-driven geyser is Crystal geyser in Green River, Utah. In situ monitoring of pressure and temperature and analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of the emanating fluids has provided useful proxies for determining the geysering cycle, the source of water/CO2 and furthermore the physical constraints at depth which ultimately control the surficial expressions. Crystal geyser is the first geyser in the world which has been shown to go through repeated systematic chemical variations during its eruption cycle. The eruption cycle at Crystal geyser is comprised of 4 parts which follow the order of: minor eruption period (mEP), major eruption period (MEP), aftershock eruptions (Ae) and recharge period (R). Minor eruption periods are characterized by increasing specific conductivity (19.3 to 21.2 mS/cm), Na and Cl concentrations during the first half which plateau until the MEP. The beginning of the MEP denotes a sharp drop in temperature (17.4 to 16.8 ºC) Na, Cl, specific conductivity (21.2 to 18 mS/cm), and increasing concentrations of Fe, Sr, Ca, Mg and Mn. Downhole fluid sampling of the Entrada Sandstone and Navajo Sandstone provided 1 and 4 samples from the aquifers, respectively. The Entrada Sandstone in comparison to the deeper Navajo Sandstone has elevated concentrations of Sr and Fe and has lower concentrations of Na and Cl. Inverse modeling using the chemical characteristics of the Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and brine was executed to determine the fractional inputs which comprise Crystal geyser's fluid. Variances in the fractional contribution are dependent on the depth of the sample chosen to be representative of the Navajo Sandstone because the concentration of Na and Cl, among other elements, changes over depth. During the mEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine supply 50-55%, 44-48% and 1-3% of the total fluid, respectively. During the MEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine

  11. Urinary concentrations of parabens and their association with demographic factors: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Kyung, Min-Sik; Ko, Ahra; Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Hee-Seok; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Parabens are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used in a range of consumer products, including personal care products, cosmetics, and food. Recently, the widespread use of parabens has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with their endocrine-disrupting effect. In the present study, 2541 urine samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of the concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP) and butyl paraben (BuP). The detection rate and geometric mean concentrations of parabens in the general population followed the order MeP (97.7%; 116ng/mL)>EtP (97.2%; 24.7ng/mL)>PrP (96.7%; 11.0ng/mL)>BuP (83.5%; 1.13ng/mL). The composition profiles showed that MeP and EtP accounted for >90% of the urinary paraben concentration. We performed statistical analysis in order to evaluate differences between demographic variables and urinary concentrations. Our results showed that adjusted proportional change of MeP, PrP, and BuP in adults were 2.67-6.13 times higher in females than in males. The urinary concentrations of PrP in adults increased significantly with age. The adjusted proportional changes of MeP and PrP in adults were associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The adjusted proportional changes of BuP and PrP in children and adolescents were 1.44 and 1.69 times higher in females than in males. However, there was no clear association between paraben concentrations and demographic variables in the children and adolescents groups. The estimated daily intake (EDIurine) of MeP and EtP in adults were 301μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 10mg/kg bw/day). In summary, our results revealed that the general population in Korea was exposed to parabens during 2009-2010, and most Koreans are exposed to parabens. The urinary levels of parabens varied by age group with demographic factors in the Korean population. The results of

  12. Structure of the (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-diphosphate reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Rekittke, Ingo; Olkhova, Elena; Wiesner, Jochen; Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Jomaa, Hassan; Ermler, Ulrich

    2013-12-11

    Terpenoid precursor biosynthesis occurs in human and many pathogenic organisms via the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, respectively. We determined the X-ray structure of the Fe/S containing (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-diphosphate reductase (LytB) of the pathogenic protozoa Plasmodium falciparum which catalyzes the terminal step of the MEP pathway. The cloverleaf fold and the active site of P. falciparum LytB corresponds to those of the Aquifex aeolicus and Escherichia coli enzymes. Its distinct electron donor [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin was modeled to its binding site by docking calculations. The presented structural data provide a platform for a rational search of anti-malarian drugs. PMID:24188825

  13. AcEST: DK954114 [AcEST

    Full Text Available +P L HPH Sbjct: 510 CELQWNLDQAKRFKEMTTEIESLPSCTDTEPDNIPALHAHPH 551 >tr|Q5FIC2|Q5FIC2_LACAC Putative membrane protein OS=Lactobaci...HS2|B6MHS2_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_82540 PE=4 SV=1 Le...>tr|B6LA43|B6LA43_BRAFL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_68121 PE=4 ...>sp|Q61SK8|MEP1_CAEBR MOG interacting and ectopic P-granules protein 1 OS=Caenorhabditis briggsae GN=mep-1 P...terized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae Align length 101 Score (bit) 42.0 E-value 0.

  14. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    to control levels within 1 min and implies that a decreased number of spinal MNs were excited. Additional TST experiments after maximal and submaximal efforts showed that the decrease in size of the TST response was related to duration and strength of exercise. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after...... conventional transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and responses to peripheral nerve stimulation were recorded following the same fatigue protocol. The size of both the MEPs and the peripheral responses increased after the contraction and were in direct contrast to the decrease in size of the TST response....... This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of...

  15. Corticospinal inhibition of transmission in propriospinal-like neurones during human walking

    Iglesias, Caroline; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    quadriceps motoneurones was tested by assessing averaged and rectified EMG activity, H-reflexes [evoked by femoral nerve (FN) stimulation] and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The biphasic EMG facilitation (CPQ-reflex) produced by isolated CPN stimulation...... ankle dorsiflexor afferents to quadriceps motoneurones mediated by propriospinal-like interneurones. During walking and tonic contraction of ankle dorsiflexors and knee extensors while standing [at matched electromyography (EMG) levels], the effect of common peroneal nerve (CPN) stimulation on...... was enhanced during walking, and when CPN stimulation was combined with FN or TMS, the resulting H-reflexes and MEPs were inhibited. The CPQ-reflex was also depressed when CPN stimulation was combined with subthreshold TMS. The peripheral (in CPN and FN) and corticospinal volleys may activate...

  16. Increase in H-reflex gain following 1 week of immobilization

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Sørensen, Mie; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    any changes in the flexion torque elicited by supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve. Both at rest and during tonic contraction the H-reflex increased significantly following immobilization without significant changes in Mmax. MEP amplitudes did not change significantly following immobilization...... the effect of 1 week of immobilization on transmission in the corticospinal pathway and the central part of the monosynaptic stretch reflex. In ten healthy volunteers the nondominant forearm, hand and fingers were immobilized by a cast for one week. EMG was obtained from m. Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR......) and m. Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB). Motor evoked potentials (MEPS) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H-reflexes were obtained at rest and during tonic contraction (10% of MVC) in both muscles. Maximal voluntary flexion torque decreased significantly following immobilization without...

  17. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia;

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI) and...... intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P < 0.019) and ICF (P < 0.001) was detected before and after training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P < 0.001) and changes in success were correlated...

  18. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    estimate the proportion of motor units activated by a transcranial magnetic stimulus. Following a sustained contraction of the abductor digiti minimi muscle at 50 % maximal force maintained to exhaustion there was an immediate reduction of the TST response from > 95 % to about 60 %. This effect recovered...... to control levels within 1 min and implies that a decreased number of spinal MNs were excited. Additional TST experiments after maximal and submaximal efforts showed that the decrease in size of the TST response was related to duration and strength of exercise. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after...... conventional transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and responses to peripheral nerve stimulation were recorded following the same fatigue protocol. The size of both the MEPs and the peripheral responses increased after the contraction and were in direct contrast to the decrease in size of the TST response...

  19. A study of transcranial magnetic stimulation in older (>3 years patients of malnutrition.

    Karak B

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed in 40 subjects. Twenty patients in the age group of 3 to 8 years and having different grades of malnutrition were included in the ′study group′ whereas 20 normal children having no complaints comprised the ′control group′. The coil of the magnetic stimulator was applied tangentially over the vertex to stimulate the cortex. The motor evoked potential (MEP was obtained using root stimulation by applying the coil at the cervical and lumbosacral spines. Recordings were made from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB and extensor digitorum brevis (EDB muscles of both sides. Cortical threshold, latency and amplitude of motor evoked potential and central conduction time were recorded. Malnourished children showed significantly increased cortical threshold, prolonged cortical latency and central conduction time and reduction in amplitude of MEP. Observed delay in central motor conduction in malnourished children suggests asymptomatic involvement of corticospinal pathways.

  20. Random Transposon Mutagenesis for Cell-Envelope Resistant to Phage Infection.

    Reyes-Cortés, Ruth; Arguijo-Hernández, Emma S; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco A; Martínez-Peñafiel, Eva; Kameyama, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify host components involved in the infective process of bacteriophages, we developed a wide-range strategy to obtain cell envelope mutants, using Escherichia coli W3110 and its specific phage mEp213. The strategy consisted in four steps: (1) random mutagenesis using transposon miniTn10Km(r); (2) selection of phage-resistant mutants by replica-plating; (3) electroporation of the phage-resistant mutants with mEp213 genome, followed by selection of those allowing phage development; and (4) sequencing of the transposon-disrupted genes. This strategy allowed us to distinguish the host factors related to phage development or multiplication within the cell, from those involved in phage infection at the level of the cell envelope. PMID:27311665

  1. Vibrotactile aid and brain cortical activity.

    Suárez, H; Cibils, D; Caffa, C; Silveira, A; Basalo, S; Svirsky, M

    1997-03-01

    Six profoundly deaf patients were studied with mapping evoked potentials (MEP) using an acoustic signal passed through the vibrotactile prosthesis. This stimulus produced an activation of the central sulcus brain cortex. When the proSthesis was placed in the presenternal area it showed N1 P1 potentials with higher voltage and a more defined cortical dipole inversion than when the prosthesis was placed in the arm or abdomen: thus the presternal stimulation is considered an adequate place for the use of vibrotactile stimulation. The MEP were recorded in 2 patients after a period of audiological training and they showed new earlier potentials. These suggest plastic changes in the processing of an acoustic signal sent from the presternal skin by the somatosensory pathway after training and involving learning procedures. PMID:9105450

  2. Outcome after total elbow arthroplasty

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Thillemann, Theis M; Brorson, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Total elbow arthroplasties (TEAs) are traditionally grouped into linked and unlinked design. The aim was to analyze the difference in clinical outcomes after TEA based on implant design and indication for surgery and to evaluate primary and revision TEAs. METHODS: A total of 167 TEAs...... (126 primary and 41 revision TEAs) in 141 patients were evaluated with patient-reported outcome measure by the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and clinically assessed with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), range of motion (ROM), and standard radiographs. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 10.5 years for...... primary and 7.5 years for revision TEAs. There was no difference in OES or MEPS between linked and unlinked primary TEAs. The OES score in the social-psychological domain was significantly lower in TEAs performed due to fracture (67) compared with rheumatoid arthritis (81; P = .025). ROM in extension...

  3. Transe maquínico: quando som e movimento se encontram na música eletrônica de pista

    Pedro Peixoto Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Desde sua emergência histórica em meados da década de 1970, a música eletrônica de pista (MEP) sempre teve como principal objetivo fazer as pessoas dançarem pela escolha criteriosa de músicas dançantes e dos melhores momentos e maneiras para reproduzi-las. Apesar do crescente interesse de pesquisadores de diversas áreas pelo estudo de assuntos relacionados à MEP, nota-se uma certa tendência de reduzi-la a idéias e conceitos forjados para o estudo de estilos musicais que não se baseiam na danç...

  4. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    When we walk, our arm muscles show rhythmic activity suggesting that the central nervous system contributes to the swing of the arms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal drive plays a role in the control of arm muscle activity during human walking. Motor evoked...... potentials (MEPs) elicited in the posterior deltoid muscle (PD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated during the gait cycle in parallel with changes in the background EMG activity. There was no significant difference in the size of the MEPs at a comparable level of background EMG during...... inhibitory interneurones, the suppression is in all likelihood caused by removal of a corticospinal contribution to the ongoing EMG activity. The data thus suggest that the motor cortex makes an active contribution, through the corticospinal tract, to the ongoing EMG activity in arm muscles during walking....

  5. Characterizing the eardrum admittance: Comparisons of tympanometry and reflectance

    Robinson, Sarah; Thompson, Suzanne; Allen, Jont B.

    2015-12-01

    The residual ear canal (REC) between the probe and tympanic membrane (TM) is a significant source of non-pathological variability for acoustic measurements made in the ear canal. Tympanometry and reflectance, which seek to characterize the middle ear based on the TM admittance, must account for unknown REC dimensions. In tympanometry, the REC volume and 226 Hz TM admittance are estimated by varying the canal static pressure. Using a reflectance parametrization developed by the authors, typical assumptions for removing the REC effect are extended, and methods to estimate the REC volume and TM admittance are presented and compared to tympanometry. Results of this method are shown for reflectance measurements of human ears with varying static middle ear pressures (MEPs). The data show that the 226 Hz TM compliance is non-zero at tympanometric pressure extremes, and that acoustic parameters of the middle ear have highly variable, nonlinear dependence on the MEP level.

  6. Comparing potential copper chelation mechanisms in Parkinson's disease protein

    Rose, Frisco; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented the nudged elastic band (NEB) as a guided dynamics framework for our real-space multigrid method of DFT-based quantum simulations. This highly parallel approach resolves a minimum energy pathway (MEP) on the energy hypersurface by relaxing intermediates in a chain-of-states. As an initial application we present an investigation of chelating agents acting on copper ion bound to α -synuclein, whose misfolding is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Copper ions are known to act as highly effective misfolding agents in a-synuclein and are thus an important target in understanding PD. Furthermore, chelation therapy has shown promise in the treatment of Alzheimer's and other neuro-degenerative diseases with similar metal-correlated pathologies. At present, our candidate chelating agents include nicotine, curcumin and clioquinol. We examine their MEP activation barriers in the context of a PD onset mechanism to assess the viability of various chelators for PD remediation.

  7. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy Life, Earth, and Beyond

    Kleidon, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers form a wide range of background, the book proposed to give a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.

  8. Abnormal Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome

    Oberman, Lindsay; Eldaief, Mark; Fecteau, Shirley; Ifert-Miller, Fritz; Tormos, Jose Maria; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Most candidate genes and genetic abnormalities linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to play a role in developmental and experience-dependent plasticity. As a possible index of plasticity, we assessed the modulation of motor corticospinal excitability in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We measured the modulatory effects of Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by single-pulse TMS in indi...

  9. 7,7′-Bis[(aza-18-crown-6)carbonyl]thioindigo: Synthesis, Experimental, Theoretical Characterization and Biological Activities

    Koparır, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of 7,7'-Bis[(aza-18-crown-6)carbonyl]thioindigo (I) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The molecular geometry, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) and nonlinear optical properties of I in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6−31G(d,p) basis set. The calculated results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal struct...

  10. Hubungan Rinitis Alergi Dan Disfungsi Tuba Eustachius Dengan Menggunakan Timpanometri

    Fadhlia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem with increasing prevalence and can impact on the quality of life of sufferers. One of co-morbidity of allergic rhinitis is otitis media which closely related to Eustachian tube dysfunction associated with middle ear pressure. Objective: To determine the relationship of allergic rhinitis with Eustachian tube dysfunction using tympanometry. Methods: Case-control studies, Tubal dysfunction determined with tympanometry (MEP negative /

  11. The low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in rat brain phospholipids are maintained via multiple redundant mechanisms[S

    Chen, Chuck T; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Liu, Zhen; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Brain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels are 250- to 300-fold lower than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at least partly, because EPA is rapidly β-oxidized and lost from brain phospholipids. Therefore, we examined if β-oxidation was necessary for maintaining low EPA levels by inhibiting β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP). Furthermore, because other metabolic differences between DHA and EPA may also contribute to their vastly different levels, this study aimed to quantify the incorporation ...

  12. Facilitation of Corticospinal Excitability According to Motor Imagery and Mirror Therapy in Healthy Subjects and Stroke Patients

    Kang, Youn Joo; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Hae Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Objective To delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals are asked to exercise their hand using observation, motor imagery, voluntary exercise, and exercise with a mirror. Method The participants consisted of 30 healthy subjects and 30 stroke patients. In healthy subjects, the amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potential (MEP) were obtained using seven conditions: (A) rest; (B) imagery; (C) observation and imagery of the hand activity of other individuals; (D) o...

  13. Surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors: the role of intraoperative (neurophysiological) monitoring

    Sala, Francesco; Bricolo, Albino; Faccioli, Franco; Lanteri, Paola; Gerosa, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    In spite of advancements in neuro-imaging and microsurgical techniques, surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCT) remains a challenging task. The rationale for using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) is in keeping with the goal of maximizing tumor resection and minimizing neurological morbidity. For many years, before the advent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), only somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were monitored. However, SEPs are not aimed to reflect the ...

  14. Benefits and limitations of an intercalibration of phytoplankton assessment methods based on the Mediterranean GIG reservoir experience.

    Pahissa, José; Catalan, Jordi; Morabito, Giuseppe; Dörflinger, Gerald; Ferreira, João; Laplace-Treyture, Christophe; Gîrbea, Ruxandra; Marchetto, Aldo; Polykarpou, Polina; de Hoyos, Caridad

    2015-12-15

    The status of European legislation regarding inland water quality after the enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) originated scientific effort to develop reliable methods, primarily based on biological parameters. An important aspect of the process was to ensure that quality assessment was comparable between the different Member States. The Intercalibration process (IC), required in the WFD ensures the unbiased application of the norm. The presented results were developed in the context of the 2nd IC phase. An overview of the reservoir type definition of the Lake Mediterranean Geographical Intercalibration Group, where four types were considered divided by both alkalinity and climate, together with the results for selection of Maximum Ecological Potential sites (MEP) are presented. MEP reservoirs were selected based on pressure and biological variables. Three phytoplankton-based assessment methods were intercalibrated using data from Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean Assessment System for Reservoirs Phytoplankton (Spain), the New Mediterranean Assessment System for Reservoirs Phytoplankton (Portugal and Cyprus) and the New Italian Method (Italy) were applied. These three methods were compared through option 3 of the Intercalibration Guide. The similarity of the assessments was quantified, and the Good/Moderate (GM) boundaries assessed. All three methods stood as comparable at the GM boundary except for the MASRP in siliceous wet reservoirs, which was slightly stricter. Finally, the main taxonomic groups represented in the phytoplankton community at MEP conditions were identified, as well as their main changes with an increasing trophic status. MEP sites are dominated by chrysophytes in siliceous wet reservoirs and by the diatoms Cyclotella and Achnanthes in calcareous ones. Cyanobacteria take over the community in both calcareous and siliceous wet reservoirs as eutrophication increases. In summary, the relevance and reliability of the quality

  15. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    Gaihede, Michael; Jacobsen, Henrik; Tveterås, Kjell;

    :: In some cases, MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases...... was related to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  16. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    Gaihede, Michael; Dirckx, Joris J J; Jacobsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    :: In some cases, MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases...... was related to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  17. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    :: In some cases, MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases...... was related to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  18. Analysis of potential energy saving and CO2 emission reduction of home appliances and commercial equipments in China

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products, and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'frozen efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best-practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO2 emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower. - Highlights: → Strengthened efficiency standards decelerate electricity demand growth but total demand rises through 2030. → Continuous improvement of current standards can achieve cumulative reduction of 9503 TWh by 2030. → International best-practice efficiency for selected products reduces 5450 TWh cumulatively by 2030. → Regularly updated standards can achieve most of energy savings as best practice by 2014.

  19. Intensity Sensitive Modulation Effect of Theta Burst Form of Median Nerve Stimulation on the Monosynaptic Spinal Reflex

    Kuei-Lin Yeh; Po-Yu Fong; Ying-Zu Huang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation of median nerve with a continuous theta burst pattern (EcTBS) on the spinal H-reflex were studied. Different intensities and durations of EcTBS were given to the median nerve to 11 healthy individuals. The amplitude ratio of the H-reflex to maximum M wave (H/M ratio), corticospinal excitability and inhibition measured using motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation (SICI/ICF), spinal reciprocal inhibition (RI...

  20. Costs for renewable electricity. Learning curves

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for new renewable energy projects and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy

  1. Analysis of iridoids content and expression studies of genes encoding early enzymes in the indol terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Catharanthus roseus

    Natalia Palacios-Rojas; Mark Leech

    2007-01-01

    Terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA) are of pharmaceutical importance, however the industrial use of these compouds is very limited because its accumulation is very low in plant tissues. TIA are derived f rom the shikimate and terpenoid pathways, which supply secologanin and tryptamine, the indole and iridoid moieties, respectively. Secololganin is a terpenoid which is belived to be synthesised the MEP pathway rather than by the acetate/mevalonic acid pathway. Secologanin is thought to be a limit...

  2. Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort.

    Daniel Hahn

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10 lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave, electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP. Enhanced torque of 17 ± 8% and 9 ± 8% was found during and 2.5-3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p ≤ 0.05 and a trend to greater V-waves (p ≤ 0.1. In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature.

  3. Is it only specificity? : an investigation into the relationship between autobiographical memory and social problem-solving

    Dennis, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that deficits in retrieving specific autobiographical memories (ABMs) relate to deficits in social problem solving (SPS). Williams (1996) proposes depressed individuals have deficits in SPS because of difficulty accessing relevant information stored in specific ABMs. This thesis investigated the relationship between SPS and ABM. First, it explored a new version of the Means End Problem Solving task (MEPS; Platt, Spivack, & Bloom, 1975), which incorporates a wi...

  4. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  5. PBL Lab: AEC Global Teamwork Course, Stanford University

    Anja Jutraž

    2012-01-01

    On the AEC Global Teamwork course, students of architecture and construction work together on demanding construction projects designed in accordance with modern standards and environmental requirements. Students work in mixed international and interdisciplinary project teams consisting of architects, structural engineers, construction managers, MEP engineers, and life-cycle financial managers.Except for two short personal meetings at Stanford University in California, (at the beginning and en...

  6. Corona ignition system for highly efficient gasoline engines; Corona-Zuendsystem fuer hocheffiziente Ottomotoren

    Burrows, John [Federal-Mogul Limited, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lykowski, Jim; Mixell, Kristapher [Federal-Mogul, Plymouth, MI (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Many future gasoline engines will require higher air/fuel ratios and higher mean effective pressures to further improve fuel efficiency. Federal-Mogul has taken up this challenge and has developed the Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS) as a new solution to reliably ignite a mix with high AFR/EGR and high MEP. During engine tests ACIS enabled a direct fuel economy improvement of up to 10 %. (orig.)

  7. Providing Co-Curricular Support: A Multi-Case Study of Engineering Student Support Centers

    Lee Jr, Walter Curtis

    2015-01-01

    In response to the student retention and diversity issues that have been persistent in undergraduate engineering education, many colleges have developed Engineering Student Support Centers (ESSCs) such as Minority Engineering Programs (MEPs) and Women in Engineering Programs (WEPs). ESSCs provide underrepresented students with co-curricular support using student interventions in the form of programs, activities, and services. However, ESSCs have a relatively short history and there are gaps i...

  8. Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation According to the Stimulation Site in Stroke Patients With Dysphagia

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Lee, Sook Joung; Lee, Jae Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) according to the stimulation site in subacute stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods This study was designed as a matched comparative study. Twenty-four patients who had dysphagia after ischemic stroke were recruited, and they were divided into two groups after matching for age and stroke lesion. The patients in group A received rTMS over the brain cortex where motor evoked potential (MEP) was obtained...

  9. Affordable care act: comparison of healthcare indicators among different insurance beneficiaries with new coverage eligibility

    Hong, Young Rock; Holcomb, Derek; Bhandari, Michelyn; Larkin, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Background Health coverage in the United States will be increased to nearly universal levels under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In order to better understand the impact of the type of health insurance and health outcomes, there is a need to examine health disparities and inequalities between the insured and the uninsured based on their eligibility for coverage. Methods The current study used the data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2012 (MEPS). Selected health characteristics and ...

  10. Residence time and behaviour of sole and cod in the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)

    Winter, H. V.; Aarts, G.M.; Keeken, van, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Noordzeewind’ (a Nuon and Shell Wind Energy consortium) exploits a wind farm with 36 wind turbines off the coast of Egmond aan Zee: the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ). This project serves to evaluate the economical, technical, ecological and social effects of offshore wind farms in general. To gather knowledge which will result from this project, a Monitoring and Evaluation Program (NSW6MEP) has been developed. Knowledge on environmental impact gained by this project will be made a...

  11. Upper extremity rehabilitation of stroke: Facilitation of corticospinal excitability using virtual mirror paradigm

    Kang Youn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several experimental studies in stroke patients suggest that mirror therapy and various virtual reality programs facilitate motor rehabilitation. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects have not been previously described. Objectives We attempted to delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals were asked to exercise their upper extremity using a real mirror and virtual mirror. Moreover, we attempted to delineate the role of visual modulation within the virtual environment that affected corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects and stroke patients. Methods A total of 18 healthy subjects and 18 hemiplegic patients were enrolled into the study. Motor evoked potential (MEPs from transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the flexor carpi radialis of the non-dominant or affected upper extremity using three different conditions: (A relaxation; (B real mirror; and (C virtual mirror. Moreover, we compared the MEPs from the virtual mirror paradigm using continuous visual feedback or intermittent visual feedback. Results The rates of amplitude increment and latency decrement of MEPs in both groups were higher during the virtual mirror task than during the real mirror. In healthy subjects and stroke patients, the virtual mirror task with intermittent visual feedback significantly facilitated corticospinal excitability of MEPs compared with continuous visual feedback. Conclusion Corticospinal excitability was facilitated to a greater extent in the virtual mirror paradigm than in the real mirror and in intermittent visual feedback than in the continuous visual feedback, in both groups. This provides neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of the virtual mirror paradigm using various visual modulation technologies to upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  12. Expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, p-hydroxybenzoate-m-geranyltransferase and genes of phenylpropanoid pathway exhibits positive correlation with shikonins content in arnebia [Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnston

    Sharma Madhu; Kumar Ravi; Malik Sonia; Kaachra Anish; Bhardwaj Pardeep K; Gara Rishi K; Singh Ravi S; Ahuja Paramvir S; Kumar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) are the basic precursors involved in shikonins biosynthesis. GPP is derived from mevalonate (MVA) and/or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway(s), depending upon the metabolite and the plant system under consideration. PHB, however, is synthesized by only phenylpropanoid (PP) pathway. GPP and PHB are central moieties to yield shikonins through the synthesis of m-geranyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (GHB). Enzyme p-hy...

  13. Fast determination of voriconazole in oral fluid using microextractionby packed sorbent and HPLC with fluorescence detection

    Antunes, Marina V.; Linden, Rafael; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.; Huander F. Andreolla; Spaniol, Bárbara; Bordin, Natália A.

    2011-01-01

    A fast and reliable method for the determination of voriconazole in oral fluid using microextraction by packed sorbent and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed and validated. MEPS was performed at basic pH with only 50 μL of oral fluid and the extract was injected without an evaporation step. The overall procedure, including extraction and chromatographic analysis, took only 15 min. Voriconazole and internal standard were separated on a Lichrospher RP 8ec colum...

  14. The Natural Philosophy of Work

    Stanley N. Salthe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Work, by dissipative structures (DS, imposes delay on energy gradientdegradation. It diverts energy flow into DS maintenance while enhancing energy degradation.DS can be viewed as tradeoffs between enhancing entropy production maximization (themaximum entropy production principle, MEP by way of convective gradient degradation,and the need to maintain DS form, which is what mediates the convective dissipation. Thistradeoff frameworked the origin of living DS. In the Big Bang, the Universe departedincreasingly from an ordered state of low entropy. As a result the Second Law (locally, dS>or = 0 became an ever more powerful attractor, insuring that work could have only limitedenergy efficiency (utilization / throughput. That is, the ‘>’ in ‘dS > or = 0’ increased onaverage locally as the universe departed further from thermodynamic equilibrium. Energyefficiency becomes significant in the context of possible energy shortage, which impliesembodied agency, implying in turn the possibility of some stability into the future. Energyefficiency is needed in living DS which yet serve MEP by becoming relatively less energyefficient when striving. Biodiversity multiplies modes of energy consumption, alsofurthering MEP by compensating for the diversion of energy flow into the maintenance ofliving DS. Modular (hierarchical structure is very stable to perturbations, and also generatesthe variety requisite for adaptive flexibility, affording as well evolutionary access toincreased adjacent possibilities. Dynamical rate separation between hierarchical levelsstreamlines energy flows, enhancing orderly energy gradient degradation. I conjecture thatnew levels are interpolated when that fosters MEP overall. Of the three phases of energyflow -- low level conduction, mid level convection, and high level explosion -- orderlyconvection associates with DS form, constraining moderated energy flows, and defusingpotential

  15. Depression of corticomotor excitability after muscle fatigue induced by electrical stimulation and voluntary contraction

    Shinichi Kotan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle fatigue induced by tetanic electrical stimulation (ES) and submaximal isometric contraction on corticomotor excitability. Experiments were performed in a cross-over design. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Corticomotor excitability was recorded before and after thumb opposition muscle fatigue tasks, in which 10% of the maximal tension intensity was induced by tetanic ES or voluntary contrac...

  16. Expression of Rh Glycoproteins in the Mammalian Kidney

    Han, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Hye-Young; Weiner, I. David

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia metabolism is a fundamental process in the maintenance of life in all living organisms. Recent studies have identified ammonia transporter family proteins in yeast (Mep), plants (Amt), and mammals (Rh glycoproteins). In mammalian kidneys, where ammonia metabolism and transport are critically important for the regulation of systemic acid-base homeostasis, basolateral Rh B glycoprotein and apical/basolateral Rh C glycoprotein are expressed along the distal nephron segments. Data from ex...

  17. An ACO model for a non-stationary formulation of the single elevator problem

    Molina, Silvia; Leguizamón, Mario Guillermo; Alba Torres, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic is a bio-inspired approach for hard combinatorial optimization problems for stationary and non-stationary environments. In the ACO metaheuristic, a colony of artificial ants cooperate for finding high quality solutions in a reasonable time. An interesting example of a non-stationary combinatorial optimization problem is the Multiple Elevators Problem (MEP) which consists in finding a sequence of movements for each elevator to perform in a buildi...

  18. Political personal branding in social media under the European Parliamentary Elections 2014

    Malmi, Anni

    2014-01-01

    This thesis commissioned by MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen concerns political personal branding in social media. The focus is on adjusting personal branding efficiently in social media particularly in the political field. The thesis is a qualitative study. The study method used is benchmarking with the primary data of expert interviews. The secondary data includes other researches on the topic, books and online publications that are analyzed from the political personal branding point of view. Besides ...

  19. Costs for renewable electricity. Offshore wind energy

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for new wind energy projects and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy

  20. Characterization of passive film formed on AISI 316L stainless steel after magnetoelectropolishing in a broad range of polarization parameters

    Rokosz, Krzysztof; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz [Politechnika Koszalinska, Division of Surface Electrochemistry, Raclawicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin (Poland); Raaen, Steiner [NTNU Trondheim, Institute of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to present the changes in the surface film composition on AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) after electropolishing (EP) and magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) in a broad range of the process conditions. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analyses were performed to reveal the effect of MEP. The EP process has been performed under natural convection (in a stagnant electrolyte), much above the polarization plateau. A series of experiments were carried out on AISI 316L SS samples in accordance with the five-level composite rotary statistical plan with the variables being the magnetic field intensity B (mT), and the anodic current density i (A dm{sup -2}). XP high resolution spectra have been obtained on AISI 316L SS surface concerning Fe 2p, Cr 2p, O 1s, S 2p, P 2p, and C 1s, respectively. The Cr:Fe ratio regarding both metallic M and compound X was also studied and calculated. At the end, the summary results of Cr/Fe = f(B, i) in relation to the corrosion potential, have been compared. The conclusions, concerning the selection of MEP process conditions, regarding the optimum Cr/Fe ratio and corrosion behavior, have been formulated. It was found the Cr:Fe ratio well correlates with the pitting corrosion potential. MEP process can modify not only the rate of dissolution to a determined extent, but also control the corrosion behavior and Cr:Fe ratio results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)