WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5-day extended therapy

  1. Therapy resistant septic enteritis due to a jejunal malformation in a 5-day-old Thoroughbred colt

    Staempfli, Simon A.; Saied, Ahmad; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Serra, Verna; Eades, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    A 5-day-old Thoroughbred colt was presented with profuse watery diarrhea, hypovolemic shock, and a patent urachus. Despite intensive medical therapy, the colt was euthanized 15 d later due to poor clinical response. Necropsy revealed a small intestinal structural abnormality that formed a closed jejunal ring. Although rare, intestinal malformations should be considered in neonatal foals with clinical signs resembling enteritis.

  2. Extended-field radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    The survival of cervical carcinoma patients with paraaortic/high common iliac nodal metastases was evaluated by retrospective chart review during a 13-year interval. Thirty-three patients with cervical carcinoma and surgically documented nodal metastases received primary, extended-field radiation therapy. Overall 2-year and 5-year actuarial survival rates after diagnosis were 37% and 31%, respectively. Survival was analyzed in terms of the variables patient age, clinical stage, tumor histologic type, the presence of enlarged paraaortic/high common iliac lymph nodes, the extent of nodal involvement (microscopic versus macroscopic), the presence of intraperitoneal disease, and whether intracavitary brachytherapy was administered. The use of intracavitary radiation therapy was associated with improved local control and survival (P = 0.017). None of the other variables were statistically related to patient survival. Twenty-two of the patients died of cervical cancer and five are surviving without evidence of cancer. Four patients died of intercurrent disease. Two patients developed bowel-related radiation complications; both patients received chemotherapy concurrent with the radiation therapy. One of the two patients died of radiation enteritis. The use of extended-field radiation therapy does benefit a small group of patients and may result in extended patient survival

  3. Extended rhodamine photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer cells.

    Davies, Kellie S; Linder, Michelle K; Kryman, Mark W; Detty, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Extended thio- and selenorhodamines with a linear or angular fused benzo group were prepared. The absorption maxima for these compounds fell between 640 and 700nm. The extended rhodamines were evaluated for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy in Colo-26 cells. These compounds were examined for their photophysical properties (absorption, fluorescence, and ability to generate singlet oxygen), for their dark and phototoxicity toward Colo-26 cells, and for their co-localization with mitochondrial-specific agents in Colo-26 and HUT-78 cells. The angular extended rhodamines were effective photosensitizers toward Colo-26 cells with 1.0Jcm(-2) laser light delivered at λmax±2nm with values of EC50 of (2.8±0.4)×10(-7)M for sulfur-containing analogue 6-S and (6.4±0.4)×10(-8)M for selenium-containing analogue 6-Se. The linear extended rhodamines were effective photosensitizers toward Colo-26 cells with 5 and 10Jcm(-2) of broad-band light (EC50's⩽2.4×10(-7)M). PMID:27246858

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, ADCP

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  5. CAMERA-BASED SOFTWARE IN REHABILITATION/THERAPY INTERVENTION (extended)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    on specific hardware. Adaptable means that human tracking and created artefact interaction in the camera field of view is relatively easily changed as one desires via a user-friendly GUI. The significance of having both available for contemporary intervention is argued. Conclusions are that the mature, robust......, and accessible software EyeCon is a potent and significant user-friendly tool in the field of rehabilitation/therapy and warrants wider exploration....

  6. [Type I glycogenosis: extending therapy with uncooked cornstarch].

    Biggemann, B; Hilgarth, R; Wendel, U

    1986-03-01

    Normal or slightly elevated blood lactate levels and normal to slightly elevated lactate-/creatinine-ratios in 24-h-urine were found in 12 patients (0.9 to 16 years) with glycogenosis type I under conventional treatment with nocturnal gastric drip feeding with maltodextrine combined with frequent daytime feedings. Replacing the nocturnal gastric drip feeding by two doses of uncooked cornstarch suspended in water (single dose 1.4-2.0 g/kg body weight) 4 patients at the ages of 10 to 16 years obtained similar metabolic control. A 7-year old patient with glycogenosis type Ib showing an extremely low fasting tolerance attained stable blood glucose levels by eating two doses of uncooked cornstarch in the morning, so that she was able to attend school. A 2-year old patient received 2-3 g cornstarch/kg body weight every 6 h resulting in constant blood glucose levels, so that she was able to emigrate to Turkey. The therapy with uncooked cornstarch is suitable to augment the therapy of some patients with glycogenosis type I. PMID:3084952

  7. Supercompensated glycogen loads persist 5 days in resting trained cyclists.

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Quigley, Jack; Lex, Stephen; Dehart, Tom; Fortune, Peggy

    2007-02-01

    Research data indicates a persistence of elevated muscle glycogen concentration 3 days post-supercompensation in resting athletes. This study expands our earlier findings by determining whether muscle glycogen remains elevated 3, 5, or 7 days post-supercompensation. Seventeen trained male cyclists underwent one bout of exhaustive exercise to deplete muscle glycogen. This was followed by a 3-day consumption of a high carbohydrate/low protein/low fat diet (85:08:07%). Three post-loading phases followed with subjects randomly assigned to either a 3-day, 5-day, or 7-day post-loading maintenance diet of 60% carbohydrate and limited physical activity. Biopsies (50-150 mg) of the vastus lateralis were obtained pre-load (BASELINE), at peak-load (PEAK), and either at 3-day, 5-day, or 7-day post-load (POST). On average, PEAK to POST muscle glycogen concentrations decreased 34, 20 and 46% respectively for the 3-, 5-, and 7-day POST groups. Only the 7-day post-load group's PEAK to POST mean muscle glycogen concentration decreased significantly. In addition, multi-regression analysis indicated that the PEAK glycogen level was the main determinant of the number of days that glycogen levels remained significantly greater than BASELINE. Thus, trained athletes' supercompensated glycogen levels can remain higher than normal for up to 5 days post-loading. The amount of carbohydrate consumed, the level of physical activity, and the magnitude of the glycogen supercompensation determine the interval for which the glycogen levels are elevated. PMID:17120016

  8. Extended Malaria Parasite Clearance Time in African Children Following Artemisinincombination Therapy Enhances Transmission to Anopheles Mosquitoes

    Beshir Khalid B; Sawa Patrick; Drakeley Chris J; Baidjoe Amrish Y; Mweresa Collins K; Yussuf Rahma U; Omar Sabah A; Hermsen Cornelus C; Shekalaghe Seif A; Schallig Henk DFH; Sauerwein Robert W; Sutherland Colin J; Hallett Rachel L; Bousema Teun

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin resistance was recently shown to have spread or emerged on the Thailand/Myanmar border. Evidence is accumulating that the parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is increasing in settings in Asia and Africa. It is currently unknown if an extended parasite clearance time after ACTs has consequences for the individual patient or confers a higher malaria transmission potential. 298 children in Mbita, Western Kenya, with uncomplicated falciparum malar...

  9. Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

    Brown, A. T.; Lowery, J. D.; Arthur, M. C.; Roberson, P. K.; Skinner, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. With IACUC approval, randomized New Zealand white rabbits (3.4–4.7 kg, n=30) received angiography and 4-mm blood clot in the internal carotid artery for flow-directed middle cerebral artery occlusion. Seven failed and were discarded. Groups were IV tPA (n=11), DDFPe + tPA (n=7), and no therapy controls (n=5). DDFPe (0.3 ml/kg, 2 % emulsion) IV dosing began at 1 h and continued at 90 min intervals for 6 doses in one test group; the other received saline injections. Both got standard IV tPA (0.9 mg/kg) therapy starting 9 h post stroke. At 24 h, neurological assessment scores (NAS, 0–18) were determined. Following brain removal percent stroke volume (%SV) was measured. Outcomes were compared with Kruskal-Wallis analysis. For NAS, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0015, and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0052. For %SV, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0003 and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0018. NAS controls and tPA alone were not different but %SV was, p=0.0078. With delayed reperfusion, DDFPe + tPAwas more effective than tPA alone in preserving functioning brain after stroke. DDFPe significantly extends the time window for tPA therapy. PMID:26055229

  10. A Study on clinical Considerations caused by inevitably Extended SSD for Electron beam therapy

    We are often faced with the clinical situations that is inevitably extended SSD for electron beam therapy due to anatomical restriction or applicator structure. But there are some difficulties in accurately predicting output and properties. In electron beam treatment , unlike photon beam the decrease in output for extended SSD does not follow inverse-square law accurately because of a loss of side scatter equilibrium, which is particularly significant for small cone size and low energies. The purpose of our study is to analyze the output in changing with the energy, cone size, air gap beyond the standard SSD and to compare inverse-square law factor derived from calculated effective SSD, mominal SSD with measured output factor. In addition, we have analyzed the change of PDD for several cones with different SSDs which range from 100 cm to 120 cm with 5 cm step and with different energies(6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, 16 MeV, 20 MeV). In accordance with our study, an extended SSD produces a significant change in beam output, negligible change in depth dose which range from 100 cm to 120 cm SSDs. In order to deliver the more accurate dose to the neoplastic tissue, first of all we recommend inverse-square law using the table of effective SSDs with cone sizes and energies respectively or simply to create a table of extended SSD air gap correction factor. The second we need to have an insight into some change of dose distribution including PPD, penumbra caused by extended SSD for electron beam therapy.

  11. Extended interval between enzyme therapy infusions for adult patients with Gaucher′s disease type 1.

    Pérez-Calvo J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for Gaucher′s disease with alglucerase or imiglucerase is efficacious, well-tolerated and safe. However, cost considerations, visits to medical facilities, potentially duration of theray for life, are issues of major concern to a proportion of treated patients and has, in some cases, led to the withdrawal of therapy. AIMS: To elucidate whether an extension of the interval between enzyme infusions to once every three weeks is as effective in maintaining the clinical responses achieved with the bi-monthly regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four patients with an optimal response to ERT (at 30 units/kg every two weeks for an average of 27 months, were subjected to enzyme dose/frequency changes that essentially constituted a reduction in cumulative dose over the treatment period. Patients were assessed every 6 months for alterations in haematological parameters, plasma chitotriosidase levels, liver and spleen size, and bone symptoms. RESULTS: All patients had to resume the previous infusion schedule of once every two weeks; one because of new bone marrow infiltrates, two because of visceral enlargement, and the fourth due to progressive anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: This limited experience suggests that a reduction in enzyme dose associated with an extended interval between infusions may lead to variable disease control, and underscores the need for individualization of enzyme therapy.

  12. Extended Neuralgic Amyotrophy Syndrome: voice therapy in one case of vocal fold paralysis.

    Oliveira, Andréa Gomes de; Pinho, Márcia Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Neuralgic Amyotrophy (NA) is a rare disturb of the peripheral nervous system that can include extreme pain, multifocal paresis and atrophy of the muscles of the upper limbs. When the nerves located outside of the brachial plexus are involved, the term Neuralgic Amyotrophy Extended (ANE) is used. Diagnosis of NA is clinical and has a series of inclusion and compatibility criteria established by the European CMT Consortium. On this study the clinical history, multidimensional vocal assessment data and the vocal techniques used in five-weeks voice therapy for one patient, professional voice, with ANE are presented. In this case, sudden and recurrent paralysis of his right vocal fold was the only manifestation of the disease. At the end of the fifth week the patient's voice was normal, the spoken and sung vocal ranges were same as before the current episode of ANE and scores of his vocal self-assessment were appropriate. PMID:24918513

  13. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  14. Response of Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm to 5 days of moxifloxacin treatment.

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Dörffel, Yvonne; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Schilling, Johannes; Mendling, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Polymicrobial communities are often recalcitrant to antibiotics. We tested whether the polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm can be eradicated with moxifloxacin. Twenty women with bacterial vaginosis were treated with 400 mg moxifloxacin for 5 days. The changes in the occurrence and proportions of Gardnerella, Atopobium and Lactobacillus spp. were assessed using FISH. The bacterial biofilm was investigated using desquamated epithelial cells of spontaneously voided urine and sections of vaginal biopsies. Fifteen of 20 women showed a significant and sustained clinical response to moxifloxacin according to Amsel and Nugent criteria. The concentrations of adherent bacteria decreased significantly. The incidence and proportion of Atopobium declined sustainably. The proportions of Lactobacillus in the biofilm mass increased following therapy. Initially, Gardnerella was the main component of the polymicrobial biofilm. Following treatment, Gardnerella was not accessible to FISH in the urine and vaginal samples of 75% of all women. Ten to 12 weeks after the end of therapy, Gardnerella biofilm was cumulatively present in 40%. This was not due to newly acquired disease, but due to reactivation of the persisting, but biochemically inactive biofilm. Despite clear clinical efficacy, and initially definite suppression of the biofilm, moxifloxacin was, similar to metronidazole, not able to eradicate the Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm in all patients. PMID:20955467

  15. Paliperidone extended-release: does it have a place in antipsychotic therapy?

    Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximilian Gahr1,*, Markus A Kölle1,*, Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona1, Peter Lepping2, Roland W Freudenmann11Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry, Glyndwr University, Wales, UK *Both authors contributed equally and their order was determined by coin toss.Abstract: Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone, the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER, and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the pharmacology, kinetics, efficacy, tolerability, and fields of application of PER, and compares PER with risperidone in order to determine whether it has a place in antipsychotic therapy. An independent assessment of all relevant publications on PER published until July 2010 was undertaken. PER has a unique pharmacological profile, including single dosing, predominantly renal excretion, low drug–drug interaction risk, and differs from risperidone in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. High-level evidence suggests that PER is efficacious and safe in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and acute manic episodes. There is a striking lack of published head-to-head comparisons between PER and risperidone, irrespective of indication. Low-level evidence shows a lower risk for hyperprolactinemia and higher patient satisfaction with PER than with risperidone. PER adds to the still limited arsenal of second-generation antipsychotics. In the absence of direct comparisons with risperidone, it remains difficult to come to a final verdict on the potential additional therapeutic benefits of PER which would justify its substantially

  16. Paliperidone extended-release: does it have a place in antipsychotic therapy?

    Gahr, Maximilian; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone), the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER), and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the pharmacology, kinetics, efficacy, tolerability, and fields of application of PER, and compares PER with risperidone in order to determine whether it has a place in antipsychotic therapy. An independent assessment of all relevant publications on PER published until July 2010 was undertaken. PER has a unique pharmacological profile, including single dosing, predominantly renal excretion, low drug–drug interaction risk, and differs from risperidone in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. High-level evidence suggests that PER is efficacious and safe in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and acute manic episodes. There is a striking lack of published head-to-head comparisons between PER and risperidone, irrespective of indication. Low-level evidence shows a lower risk for hyperprolactinemia and higher patient satisfaction with PER than with risperidone. PER adds to the still limited arsenal of second-generation antipsychotics. In the absence of direct comparisons with risperidone, it remains difficult to come to a final verdict on the potential additional therapeutic benefits of PER which would justify its substantially higher costs as compared with risperidone. However, in terms of pharmacology, the available evidence cautiously suggests a place for PER in modern antipsychotic therapy. PMID:21448450

  17. Paliperidone extended-release: does it have a place in antipsychotic therapy?

    Gahr, Maximilian; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone), the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER), and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the pharmacology, kinetics, efficacy, tolerability, and fields of application of PER, and compares PER with risperidone in order to determine whether it has a place in antipsychotic therapy. An independent assessment of all relevant publications on PER published until July 2010 was undertaken. PER has a unique pharmacological profile, including single dosing, predominantly renal excretion, low drug-drug interaction risk, and differs from risperidone in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. High-level evidence suggests that PER is efficacious and safe in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and acute manic episodes. There is a striking lack of published head-to-head comparisons between PER and risperidone, irrespective of indication. Low-level evidence shows a lower risk for hyperprolactinemia and higher patient satisfaction with PER than with risperidone. PER adds to the still limited arsenal of second-generation antipsychotics. In the absence of direct comparisons with risperidone, it remains difficult to come to a final verdict on the potential additional therapeutic benefits of PER which would justify its substantially higher costs as compared with risperidone. However, in terms of pharmacology, the available evidence cautiously suggests a place for PER in modern antipsychotic therapy. PMID:21448450

  18. A framework for implementation of organ effect models in TOPAS with benchmarks extended to proton therapy

    The aim of this work was to develop a framework for modeling organ effects within TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), a wrapper of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit that facilitates particle therapy simulation. The DICOM interface for TOPAS was extended to permit contour input, used to assign voxels to organs. The following dose response models were implemented: The Lyman–Kutcher–Burman model, the critical element model, the population based critical volume model, the parallel-serial model, a sigmoid-based model of Niemierko for normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability (TCP), and a Poisson-based model for TCP. The framework allows easy manipulation of the parameters of these models and the implementation of other models.As part of the verification, results for the parallel-serial and Poisson model for x-ray irradiation of a water phantom were compared to data from the AAPM Task Group 166. When using the task group dose-volume histograms (DVHs), results were found to be sensitive to the number of points in the DVH, with differences up to 2.4%, some of which are attributable to differences between the implemented models. New results are given with the point spacing specified. When using Monte Carlo calculations with TOPAS, despite the relatively good match to the published DVH’s, differences up to 9% were found for the parallel-serial model (for a maximum DVH difference of 2%) and up to 0.5% for the Poisson model (for a maximum DVH difference of 0.5%). However, differences of 74.5% (in Rectangle1), 34.8% (in PTV) and 52.1% (in Triangle) for the critical element, critical volume and the sigmoid-based models were found respectively.We propose a new benchmark for verification of organ effect models in proton therapy. The benchmark consists of customized structures in the spread out Bragg peak plateau, normal tissue, tumor, penumbra and in the distal region. The DVH’s, DVH point spacing, and results of the organ effect models are

  19. A framework for implementation of organ effect models in TOPAS with benchmarks extended to proton therapy

    Ramos-Méndez, J.; Perl, J.; Schümann, J.; Shin, J.; Paganetti, H.; Faddegon, B.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a framework for modeling organ effects within TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), a wrapper of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit that facilitates particle therapy simulation. The DICOM interface for TOPAS was extended to permit contour input, used to assign voxels to organs. The following dose response models were implemented: The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the critical element model, the population based critical volume model, the parallel-serial model, a sigmoid-based model of Niemierko for normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability (TCP), and a Poisson-based model for TCP. The framework allows easy manipulation of the parameters of these models and the implementation of other models. As part of the verification, results for the parallel-serial and Poisson model for x-ray irradiation of a water phantom were compared to data from the AAPM Task Group 166. When using the task group dose-volume histograms (DVHs), results were found to be sensitive to the number of points in the DVH, with differences up to 2.4%, some of which are attributable to differences between the implemented models. New results are given with the point spacing specified. When using Monte Carlo calculations with TOPAS, despite the relatively good match to the published DVH’s, differences up to 9% were found for the parallel-serial model (for a maximum DVH difference of 2%) and up to 0.5% for the Poisson model (for a maximum DVH difference of 0.5%). However, differences of 74.5% (in Rectangle1), 34.8% (in PTV) and 52.1% (in Triangle) for the critical element, critical volume and the sigmoid-based models were found respectively. We propose a new benchmark for verification of organ effect models in proton therapy. The benchmark consists of customized structures in the spread out Bragg peak plateau, normal tissue, tumor, penumbra and in the distal region. The DVH’s, DVH point spacing, and results of the organ effect models are provided

  20. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    calculate the output factor of electron therapy at extended SSD. The percentage difference between the calculated and the measured output factors of irregularly shaped cutouts in a clinical useful SSD region was within 2%. Similar results were obtained for all available electron energies of both Varian 2100C and ELEKTA Synergy machines.

  1. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    electron therapy at extended SSD. The percentage difference between the calculated and the measured output factors of irregularly shaped cutouts in a clinical useful SSD region was within 2%. Similar results were obtained for all available electron energies of both Varian 2100C and ELEKTA Synergy machines

  2. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  3. Extended distance non-isocentric treatment in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for lung cancer

    Long Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To obtain the maximum differential non-coplanar beams angle for a faster dose dropping outside Plan Target Volume (PTV for lung cancer treated by Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT, an extended distance non-isocentric (EDNI treatment method was explored and developed.Methods: The EDNI requires delivering of the treatment beam at 120 cm or farther for sauce axial distance (SAD instead of standard 100 cm. This change provides a more compact dose distribution around PTV and the lower toxicity to organs at risk (OAR due to benefit of 120 cm SAD and more choice of beam and couch angle. A hand calculation formula for the translation between 100 SAD and EDNI was used to verify the treatment plan results. A phantom for end to end study based on this EDNI technique was used to compare with standard 100 SAD deliveries for SBRT. Three patients who underwent SBRT treatment were randomly chosen to demonstrate the benefits of EDNI technique. These treatment re-plans were applied to EDNI and evaluated for conformal index (CI of PTV, R50% of PTV, 2 cm distance (D2cm of PTV and Maximum dose (Dmaxof OARs to compare with original clinical plans.Results: All of the cases delivered by the EDNI technique satisfied dose requirements of RTOG 0263 and showed a faster dose dropping outside of PTV than standard SAD deliveries. The distance from PTV after 1.5 cm for the EDNI technique had a smaller maximum dose and much lower standard deviation for dose distribution. The EDNI applied plans for patients showed less R50% and D2cm of PTV (P≤ 0.05, also similar results for Dmax of esophagus, trachea and spinal cord.Conclusion: The EDNI method enhances the capabilities of linear accelerators as far as the increased gradient of dose drop-off outside of PTV is concerned. More angular separation between beams leads to more compact dose distributions, which allow decreasing volume of high dose exposure in SBRT treatments and better dose distribution on sensitive

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sensible Heat Flux

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Potential Density Anomaly

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Relative Humidity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Net Longwave Radiation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Temperature

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sigma-Theta

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Salinity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Air Temperature

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. Art Therapy with Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: Extended Research Study

    Pifalo, Terry

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the outcome of a four-year follow-up of a pilot study using a combination of art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group process to address the therapeutic issues related to childhood sexual abuse. All group participants were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1995), commonly used in…

  15. Preliminary outcome and toxicity report of extended-field, intensity-modulated radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to report a preliminary analysis of our initial clinical experience with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Between November 2002 and May 2005, 13 women with gynecologic malignancies were treated with extended-field radiation therapy. Of the women, 7 had endometrial cancer, 4 cervical cancer, 1 recurrent endometrial cancer, and 1 suspected cervical cancer. All women underwent computed tomography planning, with the upper vagina, parametria, and uterus (if present) contoured within the CTV. In addition, the clinical target volume contained the pelvic and presacral lymph nodes as well as the para-aortic lymph nodes. All acute toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v 3.0). All late toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late toxicity score. Results: The median follow-up was 11 months. Extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for gynecologic malignancies was well tolerated. Two patients experienced Grade 3 or higher toxicity. Both patients were treated with concurrent cisplatin based chemotherapy. Neither patient was planned with bone marrow sparing. Eleven patients had no evidence of late toxicity. One patient with multiple previous surgeries experienced a bowel obstruction. One patient with bilateral grossly involved and unresectable common iliac nodes experienced bilateral lymphedema. Extended-field-IMRT achieved good local control with only 1 patient, who was metastatic at presentation, and 1 patient not able to complete treatment, experiencing in-field failure. Conclusions: Extended-field IMRT is safe and effective with a low incidence of acute toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess chronic toxicity, although early results are promising

  16. An Uncontrolled Examination of a 5-Day Intensive Treatment for Pediatric OCD

    Whiteside, Stephen P.; Jacobsen, Amy Brown

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a 5-day intensive treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifteen children with OCD received a week-long treatment based on exposure and response prevention (ERP). The intervention also emphasized teaching children and parents how to conduct ERP independently at home. All families…

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Wind Stress

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  18. Paliperidone extended-release: does it have a place in antipsychotic therapy?

    Gahr, Maximilian; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W.

    2011-01-01

    Paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone), the active metabolite of risperidone, was approved for treating schizophrenia worldwide in 2006 as paliperidone extended-release (PER), and became the first second-generation antipsychotic specifically licensed for treating schizoaffective disorder in 2009. However, at the same time, its comparatively high cost gave rise to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of PER as compared with its precursor, risperidone. This paper reviews the existing knowledge o...

  19. Comparative Study of 5-Day and 10-Day Cefditoren Pivoxil Treatments for Recurrent Group A β-Hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in Children

    Hideaki Kikuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of short-course therapy with cephalosporins for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS pharyngitis is still controversial. Subjects were 226 children with a history of at least one episode of GABHS pharyngitis. Recurrence within the follow-up period (3 weeks after initiation of therapy occurred in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and in 1 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group; the incidence of recurrence being significantly higher in the 5-day treatment group. Bacteriologic treatment failure (GABHS isolation without overt pharyngitis at follow-up culture was observed in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and 17 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. A 5-day course of oral cephalosporins is not always recommended for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis in children who have repeated episodes of pharyngitis.

  20. Next-generation light delivery system for multitreatment extended-duration photodynamic therapy (MED-PDT)

    Chen, James C.

    1997-05-01

    The primary focus of laser based oncologic PDT has been on the treatment of skin and hollow organ tumors. Extending PDT to other primary internal lesions and metastasis requires a different approach. Light Sciences has developed a series of semiconductor-based devices which will be completely implanted in the patient using established, minimally invasive surgical techniques. These devices are energized noninvasively utilizing inductive coupling. The light delivery system will allow the clinician to modulate the intensity, spatial distribution, and duration of light delivery in order to maximize the benefits derived from each PDT drug dose. Light Sciences' technology minimizes patient risk and discomfort, is cost competitive, and expands the treatment options available to the clinician. Avoidance of lengthy operations, bone marrow suppression, and an emphasis on organ preservation allow this next generation of PDT light delivery devices to be effectively integrated with other forms of cancer treatment, if desired. We have termed our technique 'Multi-treatment Extended Duration PDT'. In what follows, we shall describe Light Sciences' technology and development of minimally invasive oncologic PDT.

  1. Biochemical changes in rat liver after 18.5 days of spaceflight (41566)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C.Y.; Volkmann, C. M.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on liver metabolism was investigated using tissue from rats flown in earth orbit for 18.5 days on the Soviet Cosmos 936 biosatellite and the changes in the activities of 28 carbohydrate and lipid enzymes were determined. The activities of two enzymes, palmitoyl-CoA desaturase and lactate dehydrogenase, increased, while the activities of five, glycogen phosphorylase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, both acyltransferases which act on alpha-glycerolphosphate and diglycerides, and and aconitate hydratase decreased. The other enzyme activities were found to be unchanged. In addition, increased levels of liver glycogen and palmitoleate were detected which probably resulted from the lowered glycogen phosphorylase and increased palmitoyl-CoA desaturase activities, respectively, in those animals that experienced weightlessness. All of the changes observed in the rats after 18.5 days of spaceflight disappear by 25 days after the flight.

  2. Von Willebrand factor availability in platelet concentrates stored for 5 days.

    Cesar, J M; García-Avello, A; Monteagudo, J; Espinosa, J I; Lodos, J C; Castillo, R; Navarro, J L

    1994-02-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) availability was assessed in platelet concentrates (PCs). After 5 days of storage, 82 +/- 9% of basal levels of ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo) remained in PCs. vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) increased up to 166 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) in the same period. Autoradiograph pattern of vW:Ag showed an increase in low molecular weight multimers, and fast migrating multimeric forms were visualized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis on day 5. Studies carried out in platelet free plasma stored as PCs showed similar changes in vWF:RCo but increments in vWF:Ag were not detected. These data indicate that PCs maintain vWF:RCo levels of clinical value even after 5 days of storage and suggest that vWF comes out from platelets to plasma during storage. PMID:8141116

  3. Extended interferon-alpha therapy accelerates telomere length loss in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    Joel M O'Bryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8(+CD45RA(+CD57(+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8(+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined.

  4. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: implications for the clinical laboratory and therapy.

    Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2008-12-01

    Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is one of the most important resistance mechanisms that hamper the antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. ESBLs are classified into several groups according to their amino-acid sequence homology. While TEM and SHV enzymes were the most common ESBLs in the 1990s, CTX-M enzymes have spread rapidly among Enterobacteriaceae in the past decade. In addition, some epidemiological studies showed that organisms producing CTX-M enzymes had become increasingly prevalent in the community setting in certain areas in the world. Several novel enzymes with hydrolyzing activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins, albeit with additional enzymatic characteristics different from those of original TEM and SHV ESBLs (e.g., inhibitor-resistance), have been discovered and pose a problem on the definition of ESBLs. Although several methods to detect the production of ESBL are available in clinical laboratories, existence of other factors contributing resistance against beta-lactams, e.g., inducible production of Amp-C beta-lactamase by some species of Enterobacteriaceae, or inhibitor-resistance in some ESBLs may hinder the detection of ESBLs with these methods. Carbapenems are stable against hydrolyzing activity of ESBLs and are regarded as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Although several other antimicrobial agents, such as fluoroquinolones and cephamycins, may have some role in the treatment of mild infections due to those organisms, clinical data that warrant the use of antimicrobial agents other than carbapenems in the treatment of serious infections due to those organisms are scarce for now. PMID:19127103

  5. Intraoperative radiation therapy combined with limited lymph node resection in gastric cancer: an alternative to extended dissection?

    Purpose: To describe the results of a series of 63 Western patients presenting with gastric adenocarcinoma and treated with surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) over a 8-year period and to discuss the role of IORT when combined with limited lymph node dissection. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 1993, 63 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma have been operated in the department of radiation oncology of the Hospices Civils de Lyon. The stage was: I in 17, II in 11, IIIA in 9, IIIB in 20, and IV in 6. The lymph node dissection was considered to be limited in 56 patients and extended in 7. The IORT dose ranged from 12 to 23 Gy (median: 15). Thirty patients also underwent a postoperative external beam irradiation with a standard dose of 44-46 Gy. Results: The postoperative mortality rate was 4.8%. The 5-year overall survival in the entire series was 47% and was 82, 55, 78, 20, and 0% in Stages I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV, respectively. Loco-regional relapse occurred in 15 of 63 patients and metastases in 15 of 63. Conclusion: In Western patients treated by gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the stomach, IORT combined with limited lymph node dissection may provide overall survival similar to that observed after gastrectomy with extended lymph node dissection but with less postoperative mortality

  6. Does the adolescent patellar tendon respond to 5 days of cumulative load during a volleyball tournament?

    van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L

    2016-02-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament. PMID:25694241

  7. Metabolic therapy with Deanna Protocol supplementation delays disease progression and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model.

    Ari, Csilla; Poff, Angela M; Held, Heather E; Landon, Carol S; Goldhagen, Craig R; Mavromates, Nicholas; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventual death from respiratory failure. There is currently no cure or effective treatment for ALS. Besides motor neuron degeneration, ALS is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which is pathophysiologically linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamate excitotoxicity. The Deanna Protocol (DP) is a metabolic therapy that has been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with ALS. In this study we hypothesized that alternative fuels in the form of TCA cycle intermediates, specifically arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG), the main ingredient of the DP, and the ketogenic diet (KD), would increase motor function and survival in a mouse model of ALS (SOD1-G93A). ALS mice were fed standard rodent diet (SD), KD, or either diets containing a metabolic therapy of the primary ingredients of the DP consisting of AAKG, gamma-aminobutyric acid, Coenzyme Q10, and medium chain triglyceride high in caprylic triglyceride. Assessment of ALS-like pathology was performed using a pre-defined criteria for neurological score, accelerated rotarod test, paw grip endurance test, and grip strength test. Blood glucose, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, and body weight were also monitored. SD+DP-fed mice exhibited improved neurological score from age 116 to 136 days compared to control mice. KD-fed mice exhibited better motor performance on all motor function tests at 15 and 16 weeks of age compared to controls. SD+DP and KD+DP therapies significantly extended survival time of SOD1-G93A mice by 7.5% (p = 0.001) and 4.2% (p = 0.006), respectively. Sixty-three percent of mice in the KD+DP and 72.7% of the SD+DP group lived past 125 days, while only 9% of the control animals survived past that point. Targeting energy metabolism with metabolic therapy produces a therapeutic effect in ALS mice which may prolong

  8. Metabolic therapy with Deanna Protocol supplementation delays disease progression and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS mouse model.

    Csilla Ari

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventual death from respiratory failure. There is currently no cure or effective treatment for ALS. Besides motor neuron degeneration, ALS is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which is pathophysiologically linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamate excitotoxicity. The Deanna Protocol (DP is a metabolic therapy that has been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with ALS. In this study we hypothesized that alternative fuels in the form of TCA cycle intermediates, specifically arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG, the main ingredient of the DP, and the ketogenic diet (KD, would increase motor function and survival in a mouse model of ALS (SOD1-G93A. ALS mice were fed standard rodent diet (SD, KD, or either diets containing a metabolic therapy of the primary ingredients of the DP consisting of AAKG, gamma-aminobutyric acid, Coenzyme Q10, and medium chain triglyceride high in caprylic triglyceride. Assessment of ALS-like pathology was performed using a pre-defined criteria for neurological score, accelerated rotarod test, paw grip endurance test, and grip strength test. Blood glucose, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, and body weight were also monitored. SD+DP-fed mice exhibited improved neurological score from age 116 to 136 days compared to control mice. KD-fed mice exhibited better motor performance on all motor function tests at 15 and 16 weeks of age compared to controls. SD+DP and KD+DP therapies significantly extended survival time of SOD1-G93A mice by 7.5% (p = 0.001 and 4.2% (p = 0.006, respectively. Sixty-three percent of mice in the KD+DP and 72.7% of the SD+DP group lived past 125 days, while only 9% of the control animals survived past that point. Targeting energy metabolism with metabolic therapy produces a therapeutic effect in ALS mice which

  9. Interhemispheric structure and variability of the 5-day planetary wave from meteor radar wind measurements

    Iimura, H.; Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Singer, W.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    A study of the quasi-5-day wave (5DW) was performed using meteor radars at conjugate latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These radars are located at Esrange, Sweden (68° N) and Juliusruh, Germany (55° N) in the Northern Hemisphere, and at Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (54° S) and Rothera Station, Antarctica (68° S) in the Southern Hemisphere. The analysis was performed using data collected during simultaneous measurements by the four radars from June 2010 to December 2012 at altitudes from 84 to 96 km. The 5DW was found to exhibit significant short-term, seasonal, and interannual variability at all sites. Typical events had planetary wave periods that ranged between 4 and 7 days, durations of only a few cycles, and infrequent strongly peaked variances and covariances. Winds exhibited rotary structures that varied strongly among sites and between events, and maximum amplitudes up to ~ 20 m s-1. Mean horizontal velocity covariances tended to be largely negative at all sites throughout the interval studied.

  10. Preosteoblast production 55 hours after a 12.5-day spaceflight on Cosmos 1887

    Garetto, L. P.; Gonsalves, M. R.; Morey, E. R.; Durnova, G.; Roberts, W. E.; Morey-Holton, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    The influence of 12.5 days of spaceflight and a 55 h stressful recovery period (at 1 g) on fibroblastlike osteoblast precursor cells was assessed in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of rats that were 91 days old at launch. Nuclear morphometry was used as a marker for precursor cell differentiation in 3 microns sections cut in the midsagittal plane from the maxillary first molar. According to nuclear volume, cells were classified as preosteoblasts (C + D cells, greater than or equal to 120 microns 3) and less differentiated progenitor cells (A + A' cells, 40-79 microns 3). Compared with synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), the 55 h postflight recovery period at 1 g resulted in a 40% decrease in the A + A' cell population, a 42% increase in the C + D cells, and a 39% increase in the number of PDL fibroblastlike cells near the bone surface. These results are consistent with a postflight osteogenic response in PDL. This recovery response occurred despite physiological stress in the flight animals that resulted in a highly significant (P less than or equal to 0.001) increase in adrenal weight. The data suggest that after spaceflight there is a strong and rapid recovery mechanism for osteoblast differentiation that is not suppressed by physiological stress.

  11. Pilot study: rapidly cycling hypobaric pressure improves pain after 5 days in adiposis dolorosa

    Karen L Herbst

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Herbst1, Thomas Rutledge21Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: Adiposis dolorosa (AD is a rare disorder of painful nodular subcutaneous fat ­accompanied by fatigue, difficulty with weight loss, inflammation, increased fluid in ­adipose ­tissue (lipedema and lymphedema, and hyperalgesia. Sequential compression relieves ­lymphedema pain; we therefore hypothesized that whole body cyclic pneumatic hypobaric compression may relieve pain in AD. To avoid exacerbating hyperalgesia, we utilized a touch-free method, which is delivered via a high-performance altitude simulator, the Cyclic Variations in Altitude ConditioningTM (CVACTM process. As a pilot study, 10 participants with AD completed pain and quality of life questionnaires before and after 20–40 minutes of CVAC process daily for 5 days. Participants lost weight (195.5 ± 17.6–193.8 ± 17.3 lb; P = 0.03, and bioimpedance significantly decreased (510 ± 36–490 ± 38 ohm; P = 0.01. There was a significant decrease in scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (P = 0.039, in average (P = 0.002, highest (P = 0.029, lowest (P = 0.04, and current pain severity (P = 0.02 on the Visual Analogue Scale, but there was no change in pain quality by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. There were no significant changes in total and physical SF-36 scores, but the mental score improved significantly (P = 0.049. There were no changes in the Pain Disability Index or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. These data present a potential, new, noninvasive means of treating pain in AD by whole body pneumatic compression as part of the CVAC process. Although randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm these data, the CVAC process could potentially help in treating AD pain and other chronic pain disorders.Keywords: bioimpedance, chronic pain, lipedema

  12. A Concept for Extending the Applicability of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy through Motor Cortex Activity Feedback Using a Neural Prosthesis

    Fiachra Matthews

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept for the extension of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT through the use of feedback of primary motor cortex activity. CIMT requires residual movement to act as a source of feedback to the patient, thus preventing its application to those with no perceptible movement. It is proposed in this paper that it is possible to provide feedback of the motor cortex effort to the patient by measurement with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Significant changes in such effort may be used to drive rehabilitative robotic actuators, for example. This may provide a possible avenue for extending CIMT to patients hitherto excluded as a result of severity of condition. In support of such a paradigm, this paper details the current status of CIMT and related attempts to extend rehabilitation therapy through the application of technology. An introduction to the relevant haemodynamics is given including a description of the basic technology behind a suitable NIRS system. An illustration of the proposed therapy is described using a simple NIRS system driving a robotic arm during simple upper-limb unilateral isometric contraction exercises with healthy subjects.

  13. Extended disease-free interval of 6 years in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with G207 oncolytic viral therapy

    Whisenhunt Jr TR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Whisenhunt Jr, Kiran F Rajneesh, James R Hackney, James M Markert Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a relentless primary central nervous system malignancy that remains resistant to conventional therapy despite major advances in clinical neurooncology. This report details the case of a patient who had failed conventional treatment for recurrent GBM and was ultimately treated with a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 vector, G207. Methods: Case report detailing the outcomes of one patient enrolled into the gene therapy arm of the Neurovir G207 protocol whereby stereotactic injection of 120 µL G207 viral suspension containing 1×107 plaque-forming units (or active viral particles was made into the enhancing region of the tumor. Results: In this patient, despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, tumor progression occurred. However, with G207 oncolytic therapy and brief exposures to second and third treatments, this patient had an extended survival time of 7.5 years and a 6-year apparent disease-free interval, an extraordinarily unusual finding in the pretemozolomide era. Conclusion: With minimal adjunctive chemotherapy, including one course of temozolomide, one course of procarbazine, and four cycles of irinotecan, the patient survived over 7 years before the next recurrence. Addition of G207 to this patient’s traditional therapy may have been the critical treatment producing her prolonged survival. This report demonstrates the potential for long-term response to a one-time treatment with oncolytic HSV and encourages continued research on oncolytic viral therapy for GBM. Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy, malignant glioma, tumor, herpes simplex, HSV-1, immunotherapy

  14. Comparison of the effectiveness of varenicline, extended-release bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy on the success and the maintenance of a smoking cessation program

    selma bozkurt zincir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The most effective approach for individuals who decide to stop tobacco smoking is behavioral training complemented with motivational support and pharmacological therapy. This study aims to compare the effects of varenicline, extended-release bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT on the success and the maintenance of a smoking cessation program. Methods: 300 consecutive patients from a smoking cessation clinic, whose nicotine dependence was confirmed, were evaluated in a randomized manner. 251 patients completed the study. In this study, we used the Fagerström nicotine dependence test, a semi-structured clinic interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD for clinical follow-up. Carbonmonoxide (CO levels of the patients were measured with a carboxymeter. Patients had used the determined randomised pharmacological treatment option for 12 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences between the therapy groups according to age, gender and education levels (p > 0.05. Smoking cessation rates were 57.1% in the bupropion group (n= 77, 54.8% in the NRT group (n=73 and 72.3% in the varenicline group (n=101. Fagerstöm scores and the number of cigarettes consumed per day in the NRT group were significantly lower than those of the other therapy groups (p =0.002. There was a significant decrease compared with the initial measurements in the HAD-A 12-week scores in the bupropion and NRT groups (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively. Conclusions: According to our findings, 61.8% of all patients participating in this study continued the smoking cessation behavior during the 12 week follow-up period. It seems that varenicline is better than the other pharmacological therapy modalities for smoking cessation programs. The lower anxiety scores in the bupropion and NRT groups might have increased their success rates.

  15. Confirming the 115.5-day periodicity in the X-ray light curve of ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    Xu Han; Tao An; Jun-Yi Wang; Ji-Ming Lin; Ming-Jie Xie; Hai-Guang Xu; Xiao-Yu Hong; Sandor Frey

    2012-01-01

    The Swift/XRT light curve of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 was re-analyzed with two new numerical approaches,the Weighted Wavelet Ztransform and CLEANest,and the results are different from previous studies.Both techniques detected a prominent periodicity with a time scale of 115.5 ± 1.5 days,in excellent agreement with the detection of the same periodicity first reported by Strohmayer.Monte Carlo simulations were employed to test the statisitical confidence of the 115.5-day periodicity,yielding a statistical significance of > 99.98% (or >3.8σ).The robust detection of the 115.5-day quasi-periodic oscillations,if they are due to the orbital motion of the binary,would infer a mass of a few thousand M⊙ for the central black hole,implying there is an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 5408 X-1.

  16. Extending the benefits of early mobility to critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy: the Michigan experience.

    Talley, Cheryl L; Wonnacott, Robert O; Schuette, Janice K; Jamieson, Jill; Heung, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evidence to support improved outcomes with early ambulation is strong in medical literature. Yet, critically ill continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) patients remain tethered to their beds by devices delivering supportive therapy. The University of Michigan Adult CRRT Committee identified this deficiency and sought to change it. There was no guidance in the literature to support mobilizing this population; therefore, we reviewed literature from devices with similar technological profiles. Revision of our institutional mobility protocol for the CRRT population included a simple safety acronym, ASK. The acronym addresses appropriate candidacy; secured, appropriate access; and potential device and patient complications as a memorable aid to help nursing staff determine whether their CRRT patients are candidates for early mobility. After implementing our CRRT mobility standard, a preliminary study of 109 CRRT patients and a review of incident reports related to CRRT demonstrated no significant adverse patient events or falls and no access complications related to mobility. This deliberate intervention allows CRRT patients to safely engage in mobility activities to improve this population's outcomes. A simple mobility protocol and safety acronym partnered with strong clinical leadership has permitted the University of Michigan to add CRRT patients to the body of early mobility literature. PMID:23221445

  17. Split-field vs extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for oropharyngeal cancer: Which spares the larynx? Which spares the thyroid?

    Yu, Yao; Chen, Josephine; Leary, Celeste I; Shugard, Erin; Yom, Sue S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation of the low neck can be accomplished using split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sf-IMRT) or extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ef-IMRT). We evaluated the effect of these treatment choices on target coverage and thyroid and larynx doses. Using data from 14 patients with cancers of the oropharynx, we compared the following 3 strategies for radiating the low neck: (1) extended-field IMRT, (2) traditional split-field IMRT with an initial cord-junction block to 40Gy, followed by a full-cord block to 50Gy, and (3) split-field IMRT with a full-cord block to 50Gy. Patients were planned using each of these 3 techniques. To facilitate comparison, extended-field plans were normalized to deliver 50Gy to 95% of the neck volume. Target coverage was assessed using the dose to 95% of the neck volume (D95). Mean thyroid and larynx doses were computed. Extended-field IMRT was used as the reference arm; the mean larynx dose was 25.7 ± 7.4Gy, and the mean thyroid dose was 28.6 ± 2.4Gy. Split-field IMRT with 2-step blocking reduced laryngeal dose (mean larynx dose 15.2 ± 5.1Gy) at the cost of a moderate reduction in target coverage (D95 41.4 ± 14Gy) and much higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 44.7 ± 3.7Gy). Split-field IMRT with initial full-cord block resulted in greater laryngeal sparing (mean larynx dose 14.2 ± 5.1Gy) and only a moderately higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 31 ± 8Gy) but resulted in a significant reduction in target coverage (D95 34.4 ± 15Gy). Extended-field IMRT comprehensively covers the low neck and achieves acceptable thyroid and laryngeal sparing. Split-field IMRT with a full-cord block reduces laryngeal doses to less than 20Gy and spares the thyroid, at the cost of substantially reduced coverage of the low neck. Traditional 2-step split-field IMRT similarly reduces the laryngeal dose but also reduces low-neck coverage and delivers very high doses to the thyroid. PMID:26947055

  18. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women. PMID:26512040

  19. Efficacy and safety of 3 versus 5 days of meloxicam as an analgesic for feline onychectomy and sterilization

    Ingwersen, Walt; Fox, Ronald; Cunningham, Gail; Winhall, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Three- or 5-day courses of meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) subcutaneously pre- or postoperatively on Day 1 followed by 0.05 mg/kg BW, PO per day thereafter] were assessed for analgesic efficacy and safety in 50 client-owned cats undergoing onychectomy and sterilization. Primary outcome parameters were analgesia score, gait/lameness score, and need for rescue analgesia assessed at times 0, 1, 4, 7, 24, 28, 35, 48, 52, 57 hours and on Day 5. Packed cell volume/total solids and serum bioch...

  20. Venusian middle-atmospheric dynamics in the presence of a strong planetary-scale 5.5-day wave

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2012-02-01

    The middle atmospheric dynamics on Venus are investigated using a middle atmosphere general circulation model. The magnitude of the superrotation is sensitive to the amplitude of the planetary-scale waves. In particular, the critical level absorptions of the forced planetary-scale waves might contribute to the maintenance of the superrotation near the cloud base. In the case of strong 5.5-day wave forcing, the superrotation with zonal wind speed higher than 100 m s -1 is maintained by the forced wave. Four-day and 5.5-day waves are found near the equatorial cloud top and base, respectively. The planetary-scale waves have a Y-shaped pattern maintained by the amplitude modulation in the presence of strong thermal tides. The polar hot dipole is unstable and its dynamical behavior is complex near the cloud top in this model. The dipole merges into a monopole or breaks up into a tripole when the divergent eddies with high zonal wavenumbers are predominant in the hot dipole region. A cold collar is partly enhanced by a cold phase of slowly propagating waves with zonal wavenumber 1. Although such a complex dipole behavior has not been observed yet, it is likely to occur under a dynamical condition similar to the present simulation. Thus, the dynamical approach using a general circulation model might be useful for analyzing Venus Express and ground-based observation data.

  1. Discovery of a ~5 day characteristic timescale in the Kepler power spectrum of Zw 229-15

    Edelson, Rick; Malkan, Matt; Kelly, Brandon; Smith, Krista; Boyd, Padi; Mushotzky, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229-15. This Kepler light curve --- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements --- is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al. (2014), does not need evenly-sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly both also show strong bends ({\\Delta}{\\alpha} ~ 2) at timescales of ~5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray PSDs of AGN but never before in the optical. This observed ~5 day timescale may be...

  2. Computerised therapy for depression with clinician vs. assistant and brief vs. extended phone support: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Gega Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBT’s efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the “human” support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be offered by people with different levels of training and expertise. Methods/design This is a two-by-two factorial RCT investigating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT supplemented with 12 weekly phone support sessions are either brief (5–10 min or extended (20–30 min and are offered by either an expert clinician or an assistant with no clinical training. Adults with non-suicidal depression in primary care can self-refer into the study by completing and posting to the research team a standardised questionnaire. Following an assessment interview, eligible referrals have access to an 8-session cCBT programme called Beating the Blues and are randomised to one of four types of support: brief-assistant, extended-assistant, brief-clinician or extended-clinician. A sample size of 35 per group (total 140 is sufficient to detect a moderate effect size with 90% power on our primary outcome measure (Work and Social Adjustment Scale; assuming a 30% attrition rate, 200 patients will be randomised. Secondary outcome measures include the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Data on clinical outcomes, treatment usage and patient experiences are collected in three ways: by post via self-report questionnaires at week 0 (randomisation and at weeks 12 and 24 post-randomisation; electronically by the cCBT system every time patients log-in; by phone during assessments, support sessions and exit interviews. Discussion

  3. Use of an indwelling peripheral catheter for 3-5 day chemotherapy administration in the outpatient setting.

    Shotkin, J D; Lombardo, F

    1996-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) and clinical pharmacists in the Hematology-Oncology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center conducted a descriptive study to determine the effectiveness and safety of using indwelling peripheral intravenous catheters (pics) for daily administration of various chemotherapeutic agents given intermittently over a 3-5 day period to outpatients. Eighty-nine adult outpatients requiring daily doses of chemotherapy including Fluorouracil (5-FU) (Solopak, Elk Grove Village, IL), Leucovorin (Immunex, Seattle, WA), Cisplatin (CDDP) (Bristol-Meyers, Princeton, NJ), Etoposide (VP-16), (Gensia, Irving, CA), Topotecan (SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA), or Taxol (Mead Johnson, Princeton, NJ), plus antiemetics were studied. Vialon 20-, 22-, or 24-gauge indwelling PICs (Becton Dickinson, Sandy, UT), were placed. Approximately 80% of patients successfully completed treatment with the original PIC in place. Daily flushing of the PIC with 2 ml [corrected] of Heplock U100 (Elkins-Sinn, Cherry Hill, NJ), maintained Heplock patency. PMID:9060358

  4. Efficacy and safety of 3 versus 5 days of meloxicam as an analgesic for feline onychectomy and sterilization.

    Ingwersen, Walt; Fox, Ronald; Cunningham, Gail; Winhall, Martha

    2012-03-01

    Three- or 5-day courses of meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) subcutaneously pre- or postoperatively on Day 1 followed by 0.05 mg/kg BW, PO per day thereafter] were assessed for analgesic efficacy and safety in 50 client-owned cats undergoing onychectomy and sterilization. Primary outcome parameters were analgesia score, gait/lameness score, and need for rescue analgesia assessed at times 0, 1, 4, 7, 24, 28, 35, 48, 52, 57 hours and on Day 5. Packed cell volume/total solids and serum biochemistry were assessed at time 0 and Days 3 and 5. There were no differences in efficacy and safety parameters regardless of the treatment protocol employed and no cat required rescue analgesia. The patients that received meloxicam preoperatively had statistically better gait/lameness scores than those that received meloxicam postoperatively, supporting the principle of preemptive analgesia. PMID:22942440

  5. Discovery of a ∼5 day characteristic timescale in the Kepler power spectrum of Zw 229–15

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler data set of Zw 229–15. This Kepler light curve—with a baseline greater than 3 yr, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30 minute measurements—is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al., does not need evenly sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly, both also show strong bends (Δα ∼ 2) at timescales of ∼5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray power spectral densities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) but never before in the optical. This observed ∼5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light-crossing dynamical or thermal timescales depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as α and H/R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a ∼107 M ☉ AGN such as Zw 229–15. However, there must be a second bend on long (≳ 1 yr) timescales and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.

  6. Discovery of a ∼5 day characteristic timescale in the Kepler power spectrum of Zw 229–15

    Edelson, R.; Smith, K. L.; Mushotzky, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Vaughan, S. [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Boyd, P. T., E-mail: redelson@astro.umd.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler data set of Zw 229–15. This Kepler light curve—with a baseline greater than 3 yr, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30 minute measurements—is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al., does not need evenly sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly, both also show strong bends (Δα ∼ 2) at timescales of ∼5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray power spectral densities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) but never before in the optical. This observed ∼5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light-crossing dynamical or thermal timescales depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as α and H/R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} AGN such as Zw 229–15. However, there must be a second bend on long (≳ 1 yr) timescales and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.

  7. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  8. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  9. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy

  10. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    Poorvu, Philip D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sadow, Cheryl A. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy.

  11. Comparison of fosfomycin to ertapenem for outpatient or step-down therapy of extended-spectrum β-lactamase urinary tract infections.

    Veve, Michael P; Wagner, Jamie L; Kenney, Rachel M; Grunwald, Jenny L; Davis, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes cause resistance to common β-lactam antibiotics and are associated with poor outcomes. Management of ESBL urinary tract infections (UTIs) is challenging given the limited treatment options available outside the hospital setting. In this study, the primary endpoint of UTI-related 30-day hospital re-admission or emergency department/clinic revisit rates was compared for fosfomycin and ertapenem outpatient ESBL UTI treatments. A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients with ESBL UTIs treated with outpatient fosfomycin or ertapenem from January 2010 to February 2015. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, outpatient treatment with fosfomycin or ertapenem for symptomatic ESBL UTI, and positive urine cultures with microbiologically proven ESBL-producing bacteria. A non-inferiority margin of 0.15 was selected to detect a difference in the primary endpoint. Patient and infection characteristics were compared. A sensitivity analysis with propensity score matching was performed. In total, 178 patients were included (89 fosfomycin-treated and 89 ertapenem-treated). Ertapenem-treated patients received longer outpatient antibiotic treatment (10 days vs. 6 days; P fosfomycin every 72 h (62%), oral dose of 3 g fosfomycin every 48 h (23%) and intravenous dose of 1 g ertapenem daily (76%). The thirty-day re-admission/revisit rates for fosfomycin and ertapenem were 14.6% vs. 13.5% (1.1% difference; 97.5% CI, -0.11 to 0.13). Fosfomycin was non-inferior to ertapenem for treating outpatient ESBL UTIs and should be considered as appropriate step-down therapy for these infections. PMID:27234673

  12. Treatment outcomes of extended-field radiation therapy and the effect of concurrent chemotherapy on uterine cervical cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis

    To review the clinical outcomes of extended-field radiation therapy (EFRT) and to analyze prognostic factors significant for survival in patients receiving EFRT for uterine cervical carcinoma with para-aortic node (PAN) metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer and PAN metastasis between 1987 and 2012. Median age was 50 (range, 24–77). Patients received median 70.2 Gy (range, 56–93) to point A and median 50.4 Gy (range, 45–60.4) to PAN over median 69 elapsed days (range, 43–182). Forty-six patients (51.1%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. We analyzed prognostic factors for overall actuarial survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) using a Cox regression method. The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 55 months (range, 3–252). Seventy patients (77.8%) had complete remission. Forty-six patients experienced treatment failure as follows: 11 patients (12.2%) as local recurrence, 19 (21%) as regional recurrence and 33 (36.7%) as distant metastasis. The 5-yr OS and PFS were 62.6% and 43.9%, respectively. Treatment response was the only statistically independent prognostic factors for OS (p= 0.04) and PFS (p< 0.001) on multivariate analysis. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic gastrointestinal and urogenital toxicities were observed in about 10% of patients. Our institutional experiences showed that EFRT was an effective treatment for cervical cancer patients with PAN metastasis. The addition of chemotherapy to EFRT seems to have uncertain survival benefit with higher hematologic toxicity. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-014-0320-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses to guide selection of reverse transcriptase inhibitors in second-line HIV therapy following extended virological failure in Uganda.

    Goodall, RL; Dunn, DT; T Pattery; van Cauwenberge, A.; Nkurunziza, P.; Awio, P.; Ndembi, N.; Munderi, P; Kityo, C.; Gilks, CF; Kaleebu, P.; Pillay, D.; DART Virology Group and Trial Teams, (incd. Grosskurth, H; )

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We investigated phenotypic and genotypic resistance after 2 years of first-line therapy with two HIV treatment regimens in the absence of virological monitoring. METHODS NORA [Nevirapine OR Abacavir study, a sub-study of the Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) trial] randomized 600 symptomatic HIV-infected Ugandan adults (CD4 cell count

  14. Extended thermodynamics

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  15. Evaluation of risk of nephrotoxicity with high dose, extended-interval colistin administration

    Arun Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the risk of nephrotoxicity with high-dose, extended-interval regimen of colistin administration in critical ill patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients suffering from sepsis due to Gram-negative infection susceptible only to colistin. The dosing schedule for colistin was 9 million units stat followed by 4.5 million units at 12 hourly interval (adjusted as per body weight and renal functions. The serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were estimated at the start of therapy and daily during therapy. Results: Thirty-one patients suffering ventilator associated pneumonia (61.29%, blood stream infections (29.03% and urinary tract infections (9.67% due to Gram-negative multiple drug resistance organisms were assessed. Most commonly isolated organism were Acinetobacter baumannii (54.83%, Klebsiella pneumonia (16.12% and Pseudomonas (29.03%. Five patients (16.12% developed acute kidney injury within 4-5 days of start of therapy and returned to baseline after 6 days with no patient requiring renal replacement therapy or discontinuation of colistin. Conclusion: Our study showed that high-dose, extended-interval colistin can be given to critically ill patients without any significant risk of nephrotoxicity.

  16. Computerised therapy for depression with clinician vs. assistant and brief vs. extended phone support: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Gega Lina; Swift Louise; Barton Garry; Todd Gillian; Reeve Nesta; Bird Kelly; Holland Richard; Howe Amanda; Wilson Jon; Molle Jo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBT’s efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the “human” support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be ...

  17. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder among Adolescents and Young Adults: Pilot Study, Extending the Research Findings in New Settings and Cultures

    Hjalmarsson, Erik; Kaver, Anna; Perseius, Kent-Inge; Cederberg, Kerstin; Ghaderi, Ata

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility and impact of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a clinical outpatient setting. Eighteen clinicians were trained and supervised in using DBT. Twenty-seven female patients were assessed on a number of variables before the treatment,…

  18. Extending Puppet

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  19. Extended Cosmologies

    Capozziello, S; Fatibene, L; Ferraris, M; Garruto, S

    2016-01-01

    We shall discuss cosmological models in extended theories of gravitation. We shall define a surface, called the model surface, in the space of observable parameters which characterises families of theories. We also show how this surface can be used to compare with observations. The model surface can potentially be used to falsify whole families of models instead reasoning on a single model basis as it is usually done by best fit arguments with observations.

  20. Climatology of the ∼5-day Rossby and ∼6-day Kelvin waves seen in the SABER/TIMED temperatures (2002-2007)

    Complete text of publication follows. The presentation is focused on the global spatial (altitude and latitude) structure, seasonal and interannual variability of the ∼5-day Rossby (W1) and ∼6-day Kelvin (E1) waves derived from the SABER/TIMED temperature measurements for full 6 years (January 2002-December 2007). The latitude structure of the ∼5-day W1 wave is related to the gravest symmetric wave number 1 Rossby wave, i.e. the (1,1) mode. Its seasonal behavior is dominated by equinoctial amplifications; in the NH the wave amplifies in March-April and September, while in the SH - in March and November. The vertical structure of the ∼5-day Rossby wave amplitude revealed double-peaked maxima centered at ∼80-90 km in the mesosphere and ∼105-110 km in the lower thermosphere, as the lower thermospheric maximum is at least two times stronger than the mesospheric one. This is a vertically propagating wave from the stratosphere up to 120 km altitude with a mean vertical wavelength of ∼50-60 km. The ∼5-day Rossby wave at middle latitudes (40 deg) revealed some interannual variability and at least part of it is connected with the effect of QBO. The ∼6-day E1 wave is equatorially trapped wave located between 20 deg N and 20 deg S. Its seasonal behavior indicated some equinoctial and June solstice amplifications. The altitude structure of the ∼6-day Kelvin wave phase indicated that this is a vertically propagating wave up to 110 km altitude. The mean vertical wavelength in the stratosphere and mesosphere is ∼25 km, however above 95 km altitude the vertical wavelength shortened to 15 km. The ∼6-day Kelvin wave indicated significant SAO and QBO variability.

  1. Extending Experiences

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh of...... possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life and the...

  2. Evaluation of patient preferences towards treatment during extended hours for patients receiving radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer: A time trade-off study

    Background: To reduce the waiting time between diagnosis and the start of radiation therapy, some departments have introduced appointments outside of conventional working hours, but the inconvenience this may cause to patients is unknown. We examined, from the patient's perspective, whether reduced waiting times to treatment would be sufficient to trade off against potentially inconvenient appointment times. Method: We interviewed patients receiving radiation therapy at a major teaching hospital between January and May 2005. Two patient groups were considered: those treated during conventional working hours (8.30 am to 4.30 pm), and those treated outside these hours. Patients were asked to trade a reduction in waiting time to the start of treatment against treatment outside conventional working hours. Results: Of 129 patients interviewed, 77 were treated during conventional working hours and 52 outside these hours. Fifty-seven (44%) were male and 52 (40%) were aged over 60 years. To prefer treatment out of working hours, patients being treated during conventional working hours required a larger reduction in waiting time (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 0.97-5.76). Patients with curable disease and those who had made few changes in their lifestyle throughout the treatment were more likely to accept treatment outside of conventional working hours. Conclusion: It is impractical to satisfy the treatment-time preferences of all patients. However, many patients prefer treatment outside of normal treatment times if this would reduce the time until the start of radiation therapy. Evaluating the effect of waiting times on patients' perceptions of their disease control provides important information in allocating treatment hours and appointment times

  3. Consciousness extended

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within such...... extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms of...

  4. Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Taponen, S; Jantunen, A; Pyörälä, E; Pyörälä, S

    2003-01-01

    Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters) caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to β-lactamase negative strains) or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to β-lactamase positive strains) was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the β-lactamase negative group. PMID:14650544

  5. Development and validation of a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast for patients with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis

    de Weger, Letty A.; Beerthuizen, Thijs; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sont, Jacob K.

    2014-08-01

    One-third of the Dutch population suffers from allergic rhinitis, including hay fever. In this study, a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast was developed and validated for grass pollen allergic patients in the Netherlands. Using multiple regression analysis, a two-step pollen and hay fever symptom prediction model was developed using actual and forecasted weather parameters, grass pollen data and patient symptom diaries. Therefore, 80 patients with a grass pollen allergy rated the severity of their hay fever symptoms during the grass pollen season in 2007 and 2008. First, a grass pollen forecast model was developed using the following predictors: (1) daily means of grass pollen counts of the previous 10 years; (2) grass pollen counts of the previous 2-week period of the current year; and (3) maximum, minimum and mean temperature ( R 2 = 0.76). The second modeling step concerned the forecasting of hay fever symptom severity and included the following predictors: (1) forecasted grass pollen counts; (2) day number of the year; (3) moving average of the grass pollen counts of the previous 2 week-periods; and (4) maximum and mean temperatures ( R 2 = 0.81). Since the daily hay fever forecast is reported in three categories (low-, medium- and high symptom risk), we assessed the agreement between the observed and the 1- to 5-day-ahead predicted risk categories by kappa, which ranged from 65 % to 77 %. These results indicate that a model based on forecasted temperature and grass pollen counts performs well in predicting symptoms of hay fever up to 5 days ahead.

  6. Structural and Functional Organization of the Vestibular Apparatus in Rats Subjected to Weightlessness for 19.5 Days Aboard the Kosmos-782 Satellite

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Titova, L. K.; Bronshteyn, A. A.; Govardovskiy, V. I.; Pevzner, R. A.; Gribakin, G. G.; Aronova, M. Z.; Kharkeyevich, T. A.; Tsirulis, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    The vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days. The vestibular apparatus was removed and its sections were fixed in a glutaraldehyde solution for investigation by light and electron microscopes. Structural and functional charges were noted in the otolith portions of the ear, with the otolith particles clinging to the utricular receptor surface and with the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in the destruction of some receptor cells and in changes in the form and structure of the otolith. In the horizontal crista, the capula was separated.

  7. Feasibility of 5-days-on/2-days-off UFT/leucovorin in post-operative long-term adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

    TOKUNAGA, YUKIHIKO; Sasaki, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Previous clinical studies have shown that the oral uracil/tegafur (UFT)/leucovorin (LV) regimen, in which the drugs are taken for 28 consecutive days every 35 days, is equivalent to an infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/LV regimen for the treatment of colorectal cancer. A 5-days-on/2-days-off schedule for UFT/LV has been proposed as the same schedule for UFT has been reported to be safe and have good compliance. However, few studies have been performed with regards to the feasibility of the UFT...

  8. SU-E-T-623: Delivery of 3D Conformal Proton-Therapy Fields at Extended Source- To-Axis Distances

    Kryck, E; Slopsema, R [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric properties of proton dose distributions delivered at extended source-to-skin distances (SSD). Methods: Radiation was delivered with a gantry-mounted proton double scattering system (Proteus 230, IBA). This system has a maximum field diameter of 24 cm at isocenter and a nominal source-to-axis distance of 230 cm. Dose was measured at nominal SSD as well as at -10, +10, +25, +50, +75, and +100 cm for several range and modulation width combinations. Depth dose distributions were measured with a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC), and lateral dose distributions with a 2D ionization chamber array as well as with a diode in a water phantom. Results: The maximum field diameter was found to increase from 24.0 cm at nominal SSD to 29.1 cm and 33.3 cm at +50 cm and +100 cm respectively. Field flatness remained below 3% for all SSD. Tilt in the spread-out Bragg peak depth dose distribution increased with SSD up to 0.4 %-per-g/cm2 at +100 cm. The measured range decreased with 1.1x10-3 g/cm2 per centimeter shift in SSD due to proton energy loss in air, very close to the theoretically calculated value of 1.06x10-3 g/cm3. The output and dose rate decrease with the inverse of the SSD squared as expected. Conclusion: Extending the SSD up to 100 cm increases the maximum field diameter from 24.0 cm to 33.3 cm while the dose uniformity remains acceptable.

  9. SU-E-T-623: Delivery of 3D Conformal Proton-Therapy Fields at Extended Source- To-Axis Distances

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric properties of proton dose distributions delivered at extended source-to-skin distances (SSD). Methods: Radiation was delivered with a gantry-mounted proton double scattering system (Proteus 230, IBA). This system has a maximum field diameter of 24 cm at isocenter and a nominal source-to-axis distance of 230 cm. Dose was measured at nominal SSD as well as at -10, +10, +25, +50, +75, and +100 cm for several range and modulation width combinations. Depth dose distributions were measured with a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC), and lateral dose distributions with a 2D ionization chamber array as well as with a diode in a water phantom. Results: The maximum field diameter was found to increase from 24.0 cm at nominal SSD to 29.1 cm and 33.3 cm at +50 cm and +100 cm respectively. Field flatness remained below 3% for all SSD. Tilt in the spread-out Bragg peak depth dose distribution increased with SSD up to 0.4 %-per-g/cm2 at +100 cm. The measured range decreased with 1.1x10-3 g/cm2 per centimeter shift in SSD due to proton energy loss in air, very close to the theoretically calculated value of 1.06x10-3 g/cm3. The output and dose rate decrease with the inverse of the SSD squared as expected. Conclusion: Extending the SSD up to 100 cm increases the maximum field diameter from 24.0 cm to 33.3 cm while the dose uniformity remains acceptable

  10. Extended Chameleons

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering Scalar-Fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyse models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where inter...

  11. The 27-day versus 13.5-day variations in the solar Lyman-alpha radiation and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere over Europe

    Delamorena, B. A.; Lastovicka, Jan; Rapoport, Z. TS.; Alberca, L.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the question of solar periods in absorption, the pattern was studied of the solar Lyman-alpha radiation (the principal ionizing agent of the lower ionosphere) and of the radio wave absorption at five widely spaced places in Europe. When the solar Lyman-alpha flux variability is very well developed, then it dominates in the lower ionospheric variability. The most pronounced Lyman-alpha variation on time scale day-month is the solar rotation variation (about 27 days). When the Lyman-alpha variability is developed rather poorly, as it is typical for periods dominated by the 13.5 day variability, then the lower ionospheric variability appears to be dominated by variations of meteorological origin. The conclusions hold for all five widely spaced placed in Europe.

  12. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  13. A Wireless Electroceutical Dressing Lowers Cost of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    Ghatak, Piya Das; Schlanger, Richard; Ganesh, Kasturi; Lambert, Lynn; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Martinsek, Patsy; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the use of a wireless electroceutical dressing (WED) (Procellera®) in conjunction with a 5-day negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) may reduce the number of dressing changes required per week with this therapy.

  14. Sterilization of 4-5-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth with gamma radiation and its effect on mating competitiveness

    Females of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), irradiated as 4-5-day-old pupae with an absorbed dose of 35 krad of gamma radiation and confined with unirradiated (U) males were sterile. Male moths treated similarly and confined with U females were only partially sterile. Irradiated (I) males confined with U males and females at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 18.2% of the eggs produced to be infertile; increasing the ratio to 5:1:1, 10:1:1, 15:1:1 and 25:1:1 caused 48.7, 46.6, 47.7 and 58.9%, respectively, infertile eggs. The calculated competitiveness values (CV) for the 5 ratios were 0.39, 0.70, 0.63, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively. When I females were confined with U males and females in the same 5 ratios: 1:1:1, 5:1:1, etc., 15.6, 66.2, 74.3, 100.0 and 100.0% respectively, of the eggs were infertile. The CVs calculated for these ratios were 0.73, 1.52, 1.28, 1.50 and 1.30. Thus, I females were more effective in reducing egg fertility than were I males. (author)

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 2,000/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 5 Days versus Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 875/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 7 Days in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

    Sethi, Sanjay; Breton, John; Wynne, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial was designed to show that a short, 5-day course of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg (Augmentin XR) is as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of conventional amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (both given twice daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was designed to extend the therapeutic levels of amoxicillin in serum over the 12-h do...

  16. High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.

  17. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  18. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  19. Fertility of Holstein heifers after two doses of PGF2α in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol.

    Say, Erkan; Çoban, Serdal; Nak, Yavuz; Nak, Deniz; Kara, Uğur; White, Stephanie; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different PGF2α (PGF) treatments in the 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate (PR) in Holstein heifers in Turkey and the United States. We hypothesized that two doses of PGF administered concurrently or 6 hours apart would result in greater AI pregnancy compared with a single dose of PGF on Day 5 at controlled internal drug release (CIDR) removal. In Turkey, Holstein heifers (n = 450) from one farm in the province of Adana and another farm in the province of Bursa were included. In the US, Holstein heifers (n = 483) from two locations in the state of Idaho were included. Heifers within locations were randomly allocated to one of three protocol groups: 1PGF-received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal; 2Co-PGF-received 50 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, and 2PGF-received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal and an additional 25 mg IM of dinoprost 6 hours later. All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and GnRH (10 μg IM of Buserelin [Turkey] or gonadorelin hydrochloride [US]) on Day 0. The CIDRs were removed on Day 5, and each heifer was given PGF according to the assigned treatments. On Day 7, each heifer was given another dose of GnRH and concurrently inseminated at 56 hours after CIDR removal. Heifers in both experiments were examined for pregnancy status between 35 and 45 days after AI. Overall, controlling for age, the heifers in the 2PGF group had greater AI-PR (61.7% [192/311]) than heifers in 2Co-PGF (48.2% [149/309]; P  0.1). In Turkey, the heifers in the 2PGF group had a greater AI-PR (60% [90/150]) than 2Co-PGF (45.3% (68/150); P  0.1). There was a trend for AI pregnancy between 1PGF and 2Co-PGF groups (P = 0.08). In the United States, the heifers in the 2PGF group had a greater AI-PR (63.4% [102/161]) than the heifers in 2PGF (50.9 [81/159]; P < 0.05) or 1PGF (52.1% [85/163]; P < 0

  20. Phase I trial of 5-day continuous venous infusion of oxaliplatin at circadian rhythm-modulated rate compared with constant rate.

    Caussanel, J P; Lévi, F; Brienza, S; Misset, J L; Itzhaki, M; Adam, R; Milano, G; Hecquet, B; Mathé, G

    1990-06-20

    The toxic effects and tissue uptake of both cisplatin and oxaliplatin--[(1R, 2R)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N'] [oxalato(2-)-O,O']platinum--were previously shown to vary similarly according to dosing time in mice. A 4-hour infusion of cisplatin resulted in fewer side effects and allowed administration of higher doses at 16 hours than at 4 hours in patients with cancer. We hypothesized that the continuous venous infusion of oxaliplatin for 5 days would be less toxic and would deliver a higher dose to the patient if the drug were infused at a circadian rhythm-modulated rate (peak at 16 hr; schedule B) rather than at a constant rate (schedule A). We tested this hypothesis in a randomized phase I trial. We escalated the dose of oxaliplatin to the patient by 25 mg/m2 per course. Courses were repeated every 3 weeks. An external, multichannel, programmable-in-time pump was used for the infusions. Toxicity was assessable for 94 courses in 23 patients (12 patients with breast carcinoma, nine with hepatocellular carcinoma, and two with cholangiocarcinoma). The incidence of neutropenia of World Health Organization grades II-IV and the incidence of distal paresthesias were 10 or more times higher (P less than .05) with schedule A than with schedule B. In addition, vomiting was 55% higher (P = .15) with schedule A than with schedule B. Furthermore, with schedule B, the mean dose of oxaliplatin (P less than .001) and its maximum tolerated dose (P = .06) could be increased by 15% over those doses with schedule A. An objective response was achieved in two of the 12 patients with previously treated breast cancer. We recommend that the dose of oxaliplatin for phase II trials be 175 mg/m2, delivered according to the circadian rhythm-modulated rate. PMID:2348469

  1. Extended Library Hours

    Devarai, Rajashekhar S.; Devarai, Kanyakumari S.

    1997-01-01

    Extension of library hours is useful both for public & LIS professional. Five laws, need for extended hours, problems of extended library hours, implication of extended library hours. ROCLOLIB are the related topics covered in the paper to highlight the importance of extended library hours.

  2. Silicone chain extender

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  3. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  4. Extended icosahedral structures

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  5. A new extended quintessence

    Extended quintessence is obtained by coupling a normal scalar field to the Ricci scalar defined in the metric formalism. In this paper, we propose a new extended quintessence dark energy by introducing a non-minimal coupling between the quintessence and gravity, but with the Ricci scalar given from the Palatini formalism rather than the metric one. We find that the equation of state of the new extended quintessence can cross the phantom divide line, and moreover, it oscillates around the -1 line. We also show that the universe driven by the new extended quintessence will enter a dark energy dominated de Sitter phase in the future. (orig.)

  6. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products. PMID:23767347

  7. Extende conformal field theories

    Taormina, A. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c{ge}1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification. (orig.).

  8. Extended conformal field theories

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  9. Extended Lyapunov exponents

    The definition of a Lyapunov exponent can be extended to include an imaginary part. This extension requires the definition of a coordinate frame on the tangent space of the differential equation and an extension of the concept of a limit. The definition of extended Lyapunov exponents is based on the eigenvalues of the fundamental matrix. It is shown that the extended exponent agrees completely with the constant-coefficient case. It is shown that the eigenvectors and eigenvalues obey differential equations and can be propagated numerically without constructing the fundamental matrix itself. Bifurcation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be followed numerically without recourse to the fundamental matrix. Two example applications of the method to the calculation of extended Lyapunov exponents are given. In the Lorenz problem, the real parts of the extended Lyapunov exponents agree quite well with previous results. Fourier-transform methods are used to show that the power spectrum of relative motion is discrete, with fundamental frequency quite close to the calculated imaginary part of the extended Lyapunov exponent. In the simple pendulum, the extended Lyapunov exponents are usually purely imaginary and are the relative oscillation frequencies of adjacent trajectories

  10. The Extended Enterprise concept

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  11. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  12. Rational extended thermodynamics

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  13. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang

    2003-01-01

    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  14. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L−1d−1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg−1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg−1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L−1 d−1 VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  15. An extended day program

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  16. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  17. Extended quantum color coding

    The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only ∼2√(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas ∼N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix

  18. Effect of sequential versus standard Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on the associated iron deficiency anemia in children

    Hamed Said Ali Habib; Hussam Aly Sayed Murad; Elamir Mahmoud Amir; Taher Fawzy Halawa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with low iron stores and iron deficiency anemia. Eradication of infection by the standard 10-day therapy (a proton pump inhibitor [PPI], clarithromycin and amoxicillin; each given orally, twice daily) is decreasing. The sequential 10-day therapy (a PPI and amoxicillin; each given orally twice daily for 5 days; followed by a PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole; each given orally twice daily for another 5 days) may achieve higher eradic...

  19. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  20. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  1. Transversally extended string

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  2. Extended Holographic dark energy

    Gong, Yungui

    2004-01-01

    The idea of relating the infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs is applied to Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation. We find that extended holographic dark energy from the Hubble scale or the particle horizon as the infrared cutoff will not give accelerating expansion. The dynamical cosmological constant with the event horizon as the infrared cutoff is a viable dark energy model.

  3. Extending Critical Performativity

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues of...

  4. Effects of in vitro storage time and semen-extender on membrane quality of boar sperm assessed by flow cytometry.

    Waterhouse, K E; De Angelis, P M; Haugan, T; Paulenz, H; Hofmo, P O; Farstad, W

    2004-12-01

    The Norwegian AI company Norsvin has used the short-term semen-extender BTS to extend and store boar semen since the late 1980s. Fertility results have been consistent when extended semen has been used for AI within 3 days after collection, however, from a production and economic point of view it is preferable that semen stored for up to 5 days can be used. The aim of this study was to compare membrane quality of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days with sperm stored in the long-term semen-extenders Androstar, Mulberry III and X-cell for 5 days. Using a split-sample design, plasma membrane- and acrosome-integrity were assessed flow cytometrically by use of Yo-Pro-1 and PNA-FITC, and fluidity and phospholipid asymmetry of the membrane were assessed by use of MC540 and Annexin V-FITC. Due to observed sperm fragmentation in Androstar after Day 1, the data for Androstar were excluded from the analyses. After 5 days of storage, the membrane quality of X-cell-stored sperm was not statistically different from that of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days, while membrane quality of sperm stored in Mulberry III was statistically better on Day 5 compared to BTS on Day 3. In conclusion, Mulberry III and X-cell preserve sperm quality, as well as that of BTS on Day 3, for up to 5 days after collection. PMID:15511551

  5. Extended MHD equations

    The direct use of enlarged subsets of mathematically exact equations of change in moments of the velocity distribution function, each equation corresponding to one of the macroscopic variables to be retained, produces extended MHD models. The first relevant level of closure provides 'ten moment' equations in the density ρ, velocity v, scalar pressure p, and the traceless component of the pressure tensor t. The next 'thirteen moment' level also includes the thermal flux vector q, and further extended MHD models could be developed by including even higher level basic equations of change. Explicit invariant forms for the tensor t and the heat flux vector defining q follow from their respective basic equations of change. Except in the neighbourhood of a magnetic null, in magnetised plasma these forms may be resolved into known sums of their parallel, cross (or transverse) and perpendicular components. Parallel viscosity in an electron-ion plasma is specifically discussed. (author)

  6. The dialogically extended mind

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  7. Coevolution. Extending Prigogine Theorem

    Leon, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The formal consideration of the concept of interaction in thermodynamic analysis makes it possible to deduce, in the broadest terms, new results related to the coevolution of interacting systems, irrespective of their distance from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I prove the existence of privileged coevolution trajectories characterized by the minimum joint production of internal entropy, a conclusion that extends Prigogine theorem to systems evolving far from thermodynamic equilibri...

  8. Extended Theories of Gravity

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  9. Liquid and Frozen Storage of Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) Semen Extended with UHT Milk, Unpasteurized Coconut Water, and Pasteurized Coconut Water

    Garcia, G. W.; Mollineau, W. M.; Adogwa, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of semen extension and storage on forward progressive motility % (FPM%) in agouti semen. Three extenders were used; sterilized whole cow's milk (UHT Milk), unpasteurized (CW) and pasteurized coconut water (PCW), and diluted to 50, 100, 150, and 200 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Experiment 1: 200 ejaculates were extended for liquid storage at 5 ∘ C and evaluated every day for 5 days to determine FPM% and its rate of deterioration. Experiment 2: 150 ejaculates were exte...

  10. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode. PMID:26912298

  11. Spatially Extended Modelocking

    Fork, Richard L.; Diffey, William M.; Gamble, Lisa; Keys, Andrew S.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the properties of optical fields that are extended in space over transverse dimensions of several meters or more in terms of both multiple spatial modes and also multiple temporal modes. We focus attention on the task of producing and maintaining well defined phase relationships for the set of spatial and temporal modes. In particular, we address operating regimes where the optical fields are not confined within an optical resonator, but still have well defined phase relations through the use of optical field sensing and correction techniques. Special applications of interest occur in safe beaming of optical power and in approaching optical intensities capable of producing nonlinear phenomena in the vacuum.

  12. Branes in extended spacetime

    Sakatani, Yuho

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to the brane worldvolume theory based on the geometry of extended field theories; double field theory and exceptional field theory. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that one can reproduce the conventional bosonic string/membrane actions, and the M5-brane action in the weak field approximation. At a glance, the proposed 5-brane action without approximation looks different from the known M5-brane actions, but it is consistent with the known non-linear self-duality relation, and it may provide a new formulation of a single M5-brane action. Actions for exotic branes are also discussed.

  13. Extended Diffraction Tomography

    Schlottmann, R B

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of extended diffraction tomography, a new approach to the solution of the linear seismic waveform inversion problem. This method has several appealing features, such as the use of arbitrary depth-dependent reference models and the decomposition of the full 2D or 3D inverse problem into a large number of independent 1D problems. This decomposition makes the method naturally highly parallelizable. Careful implementation yields significant robustness with respect to noise. Several synthetic examples are shown which characterize the benefits of our method and demonstrate the usefulness of choosing realistic 1D reference media.

  14. Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA= 30 weeks) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages three times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15 min before and during the first 15-min therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5-day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the modera...

  15. Anecdotal therapies.

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  16. Integrating communication skills training in the curricula of 5 healthcare professions: nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, radiography and midwifery

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Tørring, Birgitte; Hansen, Susanne Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    for professionals. In the effort of integrating communication skills training in the undergraduate curricula of nursing, radiography, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and midwifery, we established a communication skills laboratory and arranged a 5 day course for communication teachers from all 5 educational...... the students made it feasible to make communication skills training part of the curriculum in all 5 health care education programs....

  17. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy.

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne

    2015-05-01

    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy. PMID:25811325

  18. Extending the MINLO method

    Frederix, Rikkert

    2015-01-01

    We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...

  19. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  20. Reduced Extended MHD

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  1. Los cinco: ¿agentes, espías o héroes? Hacia un análisis crítico del discurso de #5DaysForTheFive

    Enrique Pérez-Fumero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquí presentamos un examen sobre al tratamiento discursivo concernien - te al caso de los cinco cubanos Gerardo Hernández, Antonio Guerrero, Ra - món Labañino, Fernando González y René González, quienes estuvieron presos en Estados Unidos, con particular interés en la exploración de las zo - nas de dominación, poder e ideología socializadas en Twitter. A partir de la relación entre lenguaje, discurso periodístico, conocimiento y las perspecti - vas del análisis crítico del discurso (ACD, como los estudios cognitivos y el análisis de discurso orientado textualmente, elaboramos un instrumento metodológico para estudiar una muestra de tuits que contienen la etique - ta #5DaysForTheFive, dentro del contexto de la Tercera Jornada 5 días por los 5, celebrada en Washington del 4 al 11 de junio de 2014. En el artículose identifican las formas en que los abusos de poder sobre el caso tienen lu-gar gracias a su legitimación desde el discurso y la respuesta ideológica que dan los usuarios y seguidores de la red de microblogging.

  2. Extended chameleon models

    Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.

  3. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  4. Fertility after two doses of PGF2α concurrently or at 6-hour interval on the day of CIDR removal in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    White, Stephanie S; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R

    2016-08-01

    Timed artificial insemination protocols in beef cattle are designed to synchronize ovulation in a greater proportion of females while simultaneously achieving acceptable pregnancy rates and a concise calving season. Protocols achieving such goals reduce time and labor associated with estrus detection and make advanced reproductive technologies implementable for beef producers. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different PGF2α (PGF) dosage schemes on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers. We hypothesized that two doses of PGF administered concurrently at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) removal would attain similar pregnancy rates compared with two doses given 6-hours apart-one at CIDR removal and the next 6 hours later in the 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol. Angus heifers (n = 875) at six locations in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon states were included in this study. Heifers within locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS). All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and 100 μg IM of GnRH on Day 0. The CIDRs were removed on Day 5, heifers were randomly allocated to one of three protocol groups: 1PGF (n = 291), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost (PGF); 2CO-PGF (n = 291), received 50 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, 2PGF (n = 293), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, and an additional 25 mg IM of dinoprost 6 hours later. Each heifer was given GnRH (100 μg, IM) and artificially inseminated at 56 hours after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy status between 50 and 70 days after AI to determine time of conception. A mixed-model procedure (PROC GLIMMIX of SAS) was used to evaluate the effect of treatments (1PGF, 2CO-PGF, and 2PGF) on AI pregnancy rates. Models included were treatments, BCS categories (≤5 and >5), and treatment by BCS category interaction. Location (state), handling facilities, handlers

  5. HIFAR 1991 - extended shutdown

    HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) is a heavy water moderated and cooled, materials testing and research reactor producing a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1014 neutrons per square centimeter per second at a heat output of 10 megawatts. It is one of six similar research reactors designed in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and known as the DIDO class. HIFAR operates on a 28-day cycle - 24 days working and four days shutdown to carry out routine maintenance, check safety mechanisms and load fresh fuel. Rigorous maintenance, upgrading and refurbishment have been the key to keeping HIFAR in top condition. Another important factor has been the regular and very carefully implemented longer shutdowns for major maintenance and upgrading work. Top priorities for the 1991 extended shutdown summarized in this issue include: upgrading the total heavy water inventory, inspecting and cleaning the reactor main tank, installing three new collimators for neutron beam experiments and improving facilities for transmutation doped silicon production. The program also included improving the reactor's capabilities in neutron beam research and neutron transmutation doped silicon production. Further tasks carried out were cleaning and repair of main heat exchanger mesh screens and cleaning and painting the reactor plant room floor. Inspections performed in the 1991 have provided a much clearer picture of the condition of the reactor which have been under routine operation for 32 years. This work was aided greatly by remote camera surveillance techniques which have been refined and upgraded in the period since the last major shutdown. Live testing of the emergency core cooling system confirmed the efficacy of new developments in the emergency cooling. ills

  6. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  7. Proton Therapy

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue ... feel during and after the procedure? What is proton therapy and how is it used? Protons are ...

  8. Trigonometry in extended hyperbolic space and extended de Sitter space

    Cho, Yunhi

    2007-01-01

    We study the hyperbolic cosine and sine laws in the extended hyperbolic space which contains hyperbolic space as a subset and is an analytic continuation of the hyperbolic space. And we also study the spherical cosine and sine laws in the extended de Sitter space which contains de Sitter Space $S^n_1$ as a subset and is also an analytic continuation of de Sitter space. In fact, the extended hyperbolic space and extended de Sitter space are the same space only differ by -1 multiple in the metric. Hence these two extended spaces clearly show and apparently explain that why many corresponding formulas in hyperbolic and spherical space are very similar each other. From these extended trigonometry laws, we can give a coherent and geometrically simple explanation for the various relations between the lengths and angles of hyperbolic polygons and relations on de Sitter polygons which lie on $S^2_1$.

  9. Treatment trial of clinically ill corroboree frogs with chytridiomycosis with two triazole antifungals and electrolyte therapy.

    Brannelly, Laura A; Skerratt, Lee F; Berger, Lee

    2015-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is an important cause of amphibian declines globally, and is the worst pathogen on record for causing biodiversity loss. The critically endangered southern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne corroboree, is functionally extinct in the wild and is surviving in captive assurance colonies. These captive colonies must remain disease free, and there is no known treatment for corroboree frogs with terminal chytridiomycosis. In this study we tested two triazole antifungals (itraconazole and voriconazole) coupled with aggressive electrolyte therapy on moribund corroboree frogs with severe chytridiomycosis. Six moribund frogs were given 20 mL baths of 0.5 μg/mL itraconazole for 5 min/day for 5 days coupled with electrolyte injections every 8 h for 3 days followed by every 12 h for 3 days. Six other moribund frogs were given 1 mL drops of 1.25 μg/mL voriconazole daily for 7 days coupled with the aggressive electrolyte therapy. While only one animal survived this treatment regime, time until death was extended for all animals by at least 3 days and infection load decreased by an average of 89.3%. Our results suggest there is potential for recovery of terminally ill P. corroboree, and we suggest further trials include antibiotics as well as exploring variations on the above treatment regime with other antifungals. PMID:26246159

  10. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  11. Extendable self-avoiding walks

    Grimmett, Geoffrey R.; Holroyd, Alexander E; Peres, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The connective constant mu of a graph is the exponential growth rate of the number of n-step self-avoiding walks starting at a given vertex. A self-avoiding walk is said to be forward (respectively, backward) extendable if it may be extended forwards (respectively, backwards) to a singly infinite self-avoiding walk. It is called doubly extendable if it may be extended in both directions simultaneously to a doubly infinite self-avoiding walk. We prove that the connective constants for forward,...

  12. Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach

    Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  13. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  14. Extend

    2009-01-01

    BBC的“广播可视化试验”进入第二阶段,继添加网络影像(webcam)、图片后,更加入演奏和艺术家信息,新闻和运动投稿到BBC的流行广播节目。这一试验将持续到7月31号.并由BBC5频道的Simon Mayo现场秀节目率先运行.然后扩展(Extend)到包括BBC1频道.

  15. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  16. Scalar potentials in extended supergravities

    The paper on scalar potentials in extended supergravities is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. It is shown that in extended supergravities the overall scalar potentials can be written as a sum of squares of boosted structure constants of the gauge group K, which is a subgroup of the isometry group G of the corresponding σ-model over G/H (H is a subgroup of G). (U.K.)

  17. Radiation Therapy

    ... therapy. At this time, you will have a physical exam , talk about your medical history , and maybe have imaging tests . Your doctor or nurse will discuss external beam radiation therapy, its benefits and side effects, and ways you can care ...

  18. Therapy Services.

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    Reviewed are the goals and activities of the therapy services in the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program. Specific sections detail activities for speech therapy (such as diagnostic assessment, habilitation, consultation, and reporting procedures), occupational therapy (including identification and assessment, and services to children,…

  19. Heightened drug-seeking motivation following extended daily access to self-administered cocaine

    Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Posthumus, Eric J.; Waldroup, Stephanie A.; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Rats allowed extended daily access (6hrs) to cocaine, consume high doses of the drug and escalate their cocaine intake over days, resembling the pattern of cocaine use seen in human addicts. The current study was designed to test whether such animals would also demonstrate the heightened motivation to seek cocaine seen in human addicts. Rats were trained to lever-press for i.v. cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) over a 5-day period of 1h sessions. Subjects were then assigned to either a brief-access ...

  20. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  1. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics.

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics is investigated by analytically continuing the wave function in polar form into the complex plane. We derive the complex-extended version of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the continuity equation in Bohmian mechanics. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics recovers the standard real-valued Bohmian mechanics on the real axis. The trajectories on the real axis are in accord with the standard real-valued Bohmian trajectories. The trajectories launched away from the real axis never intersect the real axis, and they display symmetry with respect to the real axis. Trajectories display hyperbolic deflection around nodes of the wave function in the complex plane. PMID:20387916

  2. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk......-taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from the...

  3. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  4. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions are exposed. These examples will illustrate the notions introduced in another paper but at the same time they have a significance as realizations of some Schwartz disctibutions: delta(x), H(x), P(1/xsup(n)), etc. The important thing is that the asymptotic functions of these examples (which, on their part, are realizations of the above-mentioned distributions) can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. Some properties of the set of all extended asymptotic functions are considered which are essential for the next step of this approach

  5. WFRC patrners: our extended family

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2007-01-01

    For more than five decades the Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has worked with partners to provide research findings to managers of aquatic resources. Those partners form an extended family, a network of clients, colleagues, co-investigators, and customers. Our partners include numerous clients in other Department of Interior bureaus such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the National Park Service. But there is much more--we have partners in other federal agencies, state agencies, and universities. The extended family includes tribal governments, and non-government organizations such as the Nature Conservancy and the Lower Columbia River Estuary Program.

  6. Outcomes of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylosis.

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to assess the results of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for a two surgeon, single institution series. In total, extended TLIF with bilateral decompression was performed in 57 patients. Pain, American Spinal Injury Association scores, patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), perioperative indices and radiographic measurements were recorded and analysed. The surgeries were performed between February 2011 and January 2014 on 38 women and 19 men. The mean patient age was 62.86 years, and the mean BMI was 30.31 kg/m(2). In 49 patients, spondylolisthesis was the primary indication. The mean intraoperative time was 284.65 min, and this decreased as the series progressed. The median length of stay was 5 days (range: 2-9). The surgical complication rate was 19.3%. Two patients died from cardiopulmonary complications. Single level TLIF was performed in 78.9% of the cohort, with L4/5 the most commonly fused level. Significant pain reduction was achieved from a mean (± standard deviation) preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) of 8.28 ± 1.39 to 1.50 ± 1.05 at 12 months postoperatively. No patients deteriorated neurologically. Spondylolisthesis was significantly corrected from a preoperative mean of 6.82 mm to 2.80 mm postoperatively. Although there is a learning curve associated with the procedure, extended TLIF with bilateral facet joint removal and decompression appeared to be a safe and effective alternative to other fusion techniques, and our results were comparable to other published case series. The stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. PMID:26358199

  7. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  8. Extended time-interval analysis

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Riisager, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several extensions of the halflife analysis method recently suggested by Horvat and Hardy are put forward. Goodness-of-fit testing is included, and the method is extended to cases where more information is available for each decay event which allows applications also for e.g. γ decay data. The re...

  9. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  10. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  11. Offshore Extended Drillstem Testing System

    Yao Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ Bohai Corp. of CNOOC has started to study and working out the offshore extended drillstem testing system(OEDST) since 1991. Now the OEDST is worked out successfully, and approved on Feb. 15,1995. OEDST has some advantages, such as simple overall program and technological process,multiple and simple operation, easy for transporation ,and low cost with efficient result.

  12. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs

  13. Proton therapy

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  14. Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension

    F. Toppan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work covers part of the material presented at the Advanced Summer School in Prague. It is mostly devoted to the structural properties of Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension. Several results are presented on the classification of linear, irreducible representations realized on a finite number of time-dependent fields. The connections between supersymmetry transformations, Clifford algebras and division algebras are discussed. A manifestly supersymmetric framework for constructing invariants without using the notion of superfields is presented. A few examples of one-dimensional, N-extended, off-shell invariant sigma models are computed. The relation between supersymmetry transformations and graph theory is outlined. The notion of the fusion algebra of irreps tensor products is presented. The relevance of one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as a way to extract information on higher dimensional supersymmetric field theories is discussed. 

  15. The Web-extended mind

    Smart, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and penetration of the Web raises important questions about its effects, not just on our social activities, but also on the nature of our cognitive and epistemic profiles. The extended mind hypothesis may be particularly well-suited to addressing these questions because it encourages us to think about the way in which much of our cognitive success is grounded in processing loops that factor in the contributions of our extra-neural social and technological environments. When a...

  16. Extended Measures of Capital Transactions

    Jorge Selaive; Beatriz Velásquez; José Miguel Villena

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we extend de jure measures of capital account restrictions previously assembled by Miniane (2004) to a set of 181 economies for the period 1996-2005. Additionally, we propose two new measures of capital account restrictions. The first excludes prudential regulation and the second weights the indices by a proxy for the enforcement of capital restrictions. We analyze global tendencies and the process of capital account liberalization in Chile. For the group of economies, we observ...

  17. Extending minkowski norm illuminant estimation

    Troncoso Rey, Perla

    2012-01-01

    The ability to obtain colour images invariant to changes of illumination is called colour constancy. An algorithm for colour constancy takes sensor responses - digital images - as input, estimates the ambient light and returns a corrected image in which the illuminant influence over the colours has been removed. In this thesis we investigate the step of illuminant estimation for colour constancy and aim to extend the state of the art in this field. We first revisit the Minko...

  18. Gene therapy.

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  19. Efficacy and Tolerability of 5- vs 10-Day Cefixime Therapy in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis.

    Lorenz, J; Steinfeld, P; Drath, L; Keienburg, T; Troester, K

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of oral cefixime 400mg once daily for 5 days was compared with standard 10-day therapy in a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of 222 patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy were assessed after 6, 11 and 30 days. A total of 167 patients were evaluable for efficacy on a per-protocol basis. Clinical efficacy (cure or improvement based on the quality and quantity of expectorated sputum and symptoms of dyspnoea) at day 11 was statistically equivalent (p < 0.01) between the treatment groups, with a successful clinical response achieved in 91% (5-day) and 89% (10-day) of patients. Bacteriological efficacy was also similar with 5- and 10-day treatment. During treatment, more patients reported an adverse event possibly or probably related to the study medication in the 10-day than in the 5-day treatment group (19 vs 14%). However, this difference was not statistically significant. Oral cefixime 400mg once daily is an effective and well tolerated treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Short-term (5-day) therapy offers clinical efficacy similar to that of standard (10-day) therapy. PMID:18370461

  20. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome. Keywords: coconut water; conservation; skimmed milk; semen boar.

  1. A comparative study of split versus continuous radiation therapy in patients of carcinoma cervix state IIIB

    The present study compares the continuous 5-day-a-week regime with split course regime. It was observed that introduction of a rest period of 2-3 weeks after 4000-4400 rads of external radiotherapy has no adverse effect on disease-free survival at 24 months follow-up; patients tolerate the course of radio-therapy better with split course technique. Better local control of disease at 24 months was observed in patients treated by external teletherapy followed by brachy-therapy. More patients could be treated by brachy-therapy after split period in split course regime than in continuous 5-day-a-week regime. (author). 10 refs

  2. Hamiltonian formalism of extended magnetohydrodynamics

    The extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system, including the Hall effect and the electron inertia effect, has a Hamiltonian structure embodied by a noncanonical Poisson algebra on an infinite-dimensional phase space. A nontrivial part of the formulation is the proof of Jacobi's identity for the Poisson bracket. We unearth a basic Lie algebra that generates the Poisson bracket. A class of similar Poisson algebra may be generated by the same Lie algebra, which encompasses the Hall MHD system and inertial MHD system. (paper)

  3. [Visual-manual tracking during 5-day dry immersion].

    Kornilova, L N; Naumov, I A; Glukhikh, D O

    2011-01-01

    Level dry immersion (DI), a model of the physiological effects of microgravity, support deprivation, minimization of muscle activity and proprioceptive afferentation specifically, was used to determine the effects of low proprioceptive, tactile and support afferentation on visual-manual tracking. Hand-eye motor coordination was tested in 13 subjects in 5-d DI who tracked jerky and smooth (linear and pendulum-like horizontal and vertical, circular clockwise and counterclockwise) motions of point visual stimulus. Binocular electrooculography was used to register ocular movements and a joystick with a biological visual feedback to register manual motor acts (1 of 2 stimuli on the screen showed the actual joystick inclination). Computerized stimulation was provided with the help of virtual goggles. Evaluated parameters were latent and total reaction time, amplitude and velocity of eye and hand movements, coefficients of effectiveness (amplitudes ratio) and gain (velocity ratio). Testing was performed before DI, after 3 hours in DI, on DI days 3 and 5, during the first hours and in 3 days after DI (all subjects) and on post-DI days 5-7 (4 subjects). It was demonstrated that support deprivation and minimization of proprioceptive afferentation affect ocular tracking to a larger degree than accuracy of the manual motor act of following the visual stimulus. Manual tracking by all subjects was found more accurate than visual and did not alter significantly during tests sessions; on the contrary, visual tracking accuracy altered noticeably as in the course, so after DI. PMID:22423486

  4. Successful thrombolysis of major pulmonary embolism 5 days after lobectomy

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive intravenous thrombolysis of pulmonary emboli after major thoracic surgery has rarely been reported and is controversial because of an assumed risk of fatal bleeding. We report a 62-year old female who underwent left upper lobectomy. Her postoperative course was complicated with...

  5. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  6. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  7. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  8. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  9. Oxygen Therapy

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  10. Oxygen Therapy

    ... therapy works, it helps to understand how your respiratory system works. This system is a group of organs and tissues that help you breathe. The respiratory system includes the airways and lungs. The airways carry ...

  11. XHIP: An extended hipparcos compilation

    Anderson, E.; Francis, Ch.

    2012-05-01

    We present the Extended Hipparcos Compilation (XHIP), a database of all stars in the New Reduction of the Hipparcos Catalog extensively cross-referenced with data from a broad survey of presently available sources. The resulting collection uniquely assigns 116 096 spectral classifications, 46 392 radial velocities, and 18 549 homogenized iron abundances [Fe/H] to Hipparcos stars. Stellar classifications from SIMBAD, indications of multiplicity from CCDM or WDS, stellar ages from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey III, supplemental photometry from 2MASS and SIMBAD, and identifications of exoplanet host stars are also included. Parameters for solar encounters and Galactic orbits are calculated for a kinematically complete subset. Kinetic bias is found to be minimal. Our compilation is available through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg as Catalog V/137A.

  12. Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks.

    Hill, Joshua A; Thompson, Amber L; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2016-05-11

    We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic-organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden-Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759

  13. Stellar structures in Extended Gravity

    Capozziello, S.; De Laurentis, M.

    2016-09-01

    Stellar structures are investigated by considering the modified Lané-Emden equation coming out from Extended Gravity. In particular, this equation is obtained in the Newtonian limit of f ( R) -gravity by introducing a polytropic relation between the pressure and the density into the modified Poisson equation. The result is an integro-differential equation, which, in the limit f ( R) → R , becomes the standard Lané-Emden equation usually adopted in the stellar theory. We find the radial profiles of gravitational potential by solving for some values of the polytropic index. The solutions are compatible with those coming from General Relativity and could be physically relevant in order to address peculiar and extremely massive objects.

  14. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a...... supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter...... calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course...

  15. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  16. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  17. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  18. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Capovilla, R; Rojas, E; Capovilla, Riccardo; Guven, Jemal; Rojas, Efrain

    2004-01-01

    We consider a relativistic extended object described by a reparametrization invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behavior under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  19. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Raimundo N. Costa Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  20. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Braga, João P. M.; Lira, Jorge H. S.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-04-01

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  1. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  2. Extended optical model for fission

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for U,235234(n ,f ) , while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n ,f ) reactions. The 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for U,238235(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. The extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  3. Extended Power Up-rates

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  4. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S; Hagen, C;

    2009-01-01

    (patient C), were highly invasive. The three patients suffered from extensive tumour mass effects, and all tumours were resistant to conventional treatment. METHOD: TMZ, 150-200 mg/m(2) of body surface area was administered orally for 5 days during each 28-day cycle. RESULT: During TMZ therapy, tumour...... staining for methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was negative in two patients (A and B), and in one patient (C) a few nuclei stained positive. CONCLUSION: TMZ therapy significantly decreased tumour volume, hormone hypersecretion and symptoms in all three patients, corresponding to the pathological...... findings regarding MGMT. TMZ therapy may be a new option for the treatment of resistant pituitary adenomas....

  5. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  6. Family therapy

    Shaikh Altamash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  7. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    Ying-Qun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE, or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases and group B (70 cases were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67, group B 86.8% (59/68, and group C 78.8% (52/66. The H. pylori

  8. Heavy ion beams in extended materials - Computational methods and experiment

    Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Townsend, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The transport of heavy ion beams in extended materials is a problem of interest in accelerator and space shielding, radiation therapy, and astrophysical and radiobiological studies. The beam particles change their energy and direction of motion through atomic/molecular collisions and undergo occasional radical transformation in nuclear collision. In health physics applications, a heavy ion beam of initially well defined radiation quality is transformed into a complex mixture of diverse quality components after passing through a modest amount of material. This transformation of radiation quality must be understood to adequately explain the biological response of tissue to heavy ion radiation. A theoretical/experimental program to define an ion beam and its products in extended matter is described.

  9. Art Therapy

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  10. Music therapy

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  11. Density fluctuations in extended inflation

    We estimate the density perturbation spectrum δρ/ρ in the extended inflationary model, in which the scalar curvature is coupled to a Brans-Dicke field. Through a conformal transformation and a redefinition of the Brans-Dicke field, the action of the theory is cast into a form with no coupling to the scalar curvature and a canonical kinetic term for the redefined field. Following Kolb, Salopek, and Turner, we calculate δρ/ρ using the transformed action and the standard recipe developed for conventional inflation. This recipe is expected to give a valid order-of-magnitude estimate, but a precise calculation would require a more careful treatment of several aspects of the problem. The spectrum behaves as a positive power of the wavelength, a feature that might be useful in building models to account for the observed large-scale structure of the universe. Our result for the overall amplitude of density perturbations differs slightly from that of the previous authors, and the reasons for these differences are discussed. We also point out that the conformal transformation method can be applied to a wider class of generalized gravity theories

  12. Extending the Relativity of Time

    More than 100 years ago, Einstein's special relativity demonstrated that time is a relative notion. The observed rate of a moving clock differs from the rate of a stationary clock. In fact, the observed rate depends on the clock's velocity. All admissible velocities are bounded by the speed of light. These predictions of special relativity have been verified experimentally in several different ways. It is natural to ask whether acceleration also influences the observed rate of a moving clock in addition to the influence due to its velocity. Today, there are several existing experimental techniques to test whether acceleration influences the observed rate of a clock. We introduce here an extension of special relativity, which we call extended relativity (ER), by assuming that acceleration effects the observed rate of a clock. We derive transformations between uniformly accelerated systems in ER. We show that ER predicts that there is a maximal acceleration. We obtain relativistic dynamics in ER. We show that Kundig's 1963 experiment indicates that acceleration does influence the rate of a clock, supporting the ER model and providing an estimate for the maximal acceleration. We will present an upcoming experiment which is designed to test whether acceleration influences the rate of a clock, and to determine the value of the maximal acceleration. A map for physics under ER will be presented. We will show how ER handles black-body radiation and some quantum properties of a Hydrogen-like atom.

  13. Extended attention span training system

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  14. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog

    Kim, Suk; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Sung, Eon-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong

    2014-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg^2 or 60.1 Mpc^2. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 kms^-1. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been missed in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies of which 676 galaxies are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of opti...

  15. Extending the M inlo method

    Frederix, Rikkert; Hamilton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We consider improving P owheg+M inlo simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called M inlo ' programs. Whereas the existing M inlo ' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the M inlo ' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (H jj) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the H jj-M inlo simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, H j and H jj quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the potential of these ideas.

  16. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreoever, pEC...

  17. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  18. What Is Music Therapy?

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  19. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin and Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant on the Pharmacokinetics of Simvastatin in Healthy Subjects.

    Lauring, Brett; Dishy, Victor; De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Crumley, Tami; Wenning, Larissa; Liu, Fang; Sisk, Christine; Wagner, John; Lai, Eseng

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple lipid-modifying agents with different mechanisms of action is often required to regulate lipid levels in patients with dyslipidemia. During combination therapy, alterations in the pharmacokinetics of any of the drugs used and their metabolites may occur. Three separate open-label, randomized, crossover studies evaluated the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between extended-release niacin (with and without concomitant laropiprant) and simvastatin in healthy subjects. Study 1 used single doses of extended-release niacin and simvastatin; study 2 used multiple-dose coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy subjects; and study 3 used single doses of both extended-release niacin and the coadministration of extended-release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin in healthy Chinese subjects. During each treatment period, plasma samples were collected predose and at prespecified postdose time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. The safety and tolerability of simvastatin with and without coadministered extended-release niacin (or extended-release niacin/laropiprant) were assessed by clinical evaluation of adverse experiences. In 2 studies in healthy subjects, modest increases in exposure to simvastatin acid (by ∼60%) by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. Based on the clinical experience with simvastatin, these effects are not believed to be clinically meaningful. In the third study on healthy Chinese subjects, no statistically meaningful increases in exposure to simvastatin by extended-release niacin and extended-release niacin/laropiprant were observed. In all populations examined in these studies, the coadministration of extended-release niacin and simvastatin was generally well tolerated. PMID:24832384

  20. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia

    Nicolò eCompagno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last 2 decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g. rituximab and immune suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, mycophenolate mophetil has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events.Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias.

  1. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia

    Compagno, Nicolò; Malipiero, Giacomo; Cinetto, Francesco; Agostini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last two decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g., rituximab) and immune-suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, and mycophenolate mofetil) has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events. Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias. PMID:25538710

  2. Dance Therapy.

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  3. Extended storage of spent fuel

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. PMID:20070582

  5. Timing of early chelating therapy for acute uranium intoxication

    Rats were treated with DTPA and H-73-10 intraperitoneal injections 15 minutes to 4 days after acute uranium intoxication. The mortality and changes in body weight, kidney weight, renal histology and histochemistry were investigated. The results show that the renal damage could be diminished significantly by chelating therapy started 15 minutes and 6 hours after urnium poisoning. Single large dose injection (1 g/kg weight) of H-73-10 yielded the best result, and daily 0.5 g/kg of H-73-10 injection for 5 days is the next, both are better than single injection of DTPA (1 g/kg body weight). One day after intoxication there was still some protective effect. On the contrary, if the chelating therapy started 2-4 days after urnium poisoning it would increase the renal damage and the mortality. This is of great value to the correct selection of timing of chelating therapy for uranium intoxication

  6. Hadron therapy

    Full text: Historically discoveries and technological advances in radiation and accelerator physics have been rapidly applied in the healing arts. X rays, discovered by Roentgen in 1895, and radioisotopes, discovered by Becquerel in 1896, were both applied to the treatment of cancer by the first year of the twentieth century. By the time that Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932 radiotherapy was a well-established modality for the treatment of cancer. The potential use of neutrons in radiotherapy was immediately recognized by L.H. Gray (a recent Ph.D. graduate from the Cavendish laboratories in Cambridge). He built a neutron generator for radiobiology research at Mount Vernon Hospital in London, it's design was based on a similar device built at Cambridge by Mark Oliphant. In parallel with these developments Earnest Lawrence, in collaboration with his brother John Lawrence, a physician, were also studying the radiobiology of neutrons. They obtained some funding from the US National Cancer Institute to construct a 60'' cyclotron for neutron radiation therapy. These clinical trials, started in 1938, were the first application of heavy particles for cancer therapy. Immediately after the second World War advances in accelerator technology lead to the building of the first synchrocyclotrons, which produced proton beams with ranges approaching 30 cm in water. At the Harvard synchrocyclotron Robert R. Wilson realized that proton beams might have considerable advantages over other radiation beams in the treatment of deep-seated tumors. This advantage derives from the increase in stopping power at the end of the proton range, first observed by W.H.Bragg at the University of Adelaide; a phenomenon now known as the Bragg peak. Conventional X-ray beams are exponentially attenuated by matter and, hence, delivering large radiation doses to tumors at depth while not causing excessive damage to the overlying normal tissues can be problematical. The Bragg peak and the well

  7. Particle therapy

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  8. Radioiodine therapy

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine (131I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  9. Music Therapy

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  10. Music Therapy

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  11. Particle therapy

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  12. Gene therapy

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  13. Comparative effects of immediate-release and extended-release aspirin on basal and bradykinin-stimulated excretion of thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites.

    Gamboa, Jorge L; Devin, Jessica K; Ramirez, Claudia E; Yu, Chang; Nian, Hui; Lee, Rhonda H; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-04-01

    A goal of aspirin therapy is to inhibit thromboxane production and platelet aggregation without inhibiting endothelial production of the vasodilator and anti-thrombotic prostacyclin. This study tested the hypothesis that extended-release aspirin (NHP-554C) would have increased selectivity for inhibition of basal and simulated thromboxane formation compared to immediate-release aspirin (ASA). Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomized to NHP-554C or ASA groups. Within each group, subjects were randomized to 5-day treatment with 81 mg/d, 162.5 mg/d and placebo in a crossover design in which treatment periods were separated by 2-week washout. On the fifth day of treatment, 81 mg/d and 162.5 mg/d ASA reduced basal urinary excretion of the stable thromboxane metabolite 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 62.3% and 66.2% and basal excretion of the stable prostacyclin metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α 22.8% and 26.5%, respectively, compared to placebo. NHP-554C 81 mg/d and 162.5 mg/d reduced 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 53% (P = 0.03 vs. ASA 81 mg/d) and 67.9% and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α 13.4% and 18.5%, respectively. NHP-554C 81 mg/d did not significantly reduce basal excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite. Both doses of ASA and NHP significantly reduced excretion of both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites following intravenous bradykinin. During NHP-554C 162.5 mg/d, but not during ASA, bradykinin significantly increased urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α. Nevertheless, 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α responses to bradykinin were statistically similar during ASA and NHP-554C. In conclusion, at doses of 81 and 162.5 mg/d immediate- and extended-release aspirin selectively decrease basal thromboxane production. Both forms of aspirin decrease bradykinin-stimulated thromboxane and prostacyclin production, but some stimulated prostacyclin production remains during treatment with NHP-554C. PMID:27069632

  14. Development of Clinical Resistance to Acyclovir in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Mice Receiving Oral Therapy

    Field, H J

    1982-01-01

    Mice inoculated in the ear pinna with herpes simplex virus were treated effectively by including 1 mg of acyclovir per ml in the drinking water. During a 5-day course of treatment the development of resistance was not readily apparent. However, when a suboptimal therapeutic dose was used and virus was repeatedly inoculated into further mice undergoing therapy, the infection became completely refractory to treatment by passage 4. Some of the viruses isolated exhibited reduced ability to induce...

  15. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic i...

  16. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  17. Increasing storage time of extended boar semen reduces sperm DNA integrity.

    Boe-Hansen, Gry B; Ersbøll, Annette K; Greve, Torben; Christensen, Preben

    2005-04-15

    There is an extensive use of artificial insemination (AI) in the pig industry. Extended liquid boar semen may be used for insemination for up to 5 days after collection. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in sperm quality, when boar semen was extended and stored at 18 degrees C for up to 72 h post-collection. The study included three ejaculates from five boars, for each of the four breeds: Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace and Danish Large White (n=60 ejaculates). The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) showed an increase in DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 72 h of incubation (Pboars, all ejaculates had a large increase in DFI after 24 h of incubation. The standard deviation of DFI (SD-DFI) differed between breeds, with the SD-DFI for Hampshire being significantly greater than for the other breeds. The SD-DFI did not change during the 72 h of storage. Sperm viability was determined using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide in combination with flow cytometry. The sperm viability did not differ between breeds (P=0.21), but a difference in viability during storage (Pboars and storage of extended boar semen at 18 degrees C for 72 h significantly decreased the integrity of sperm DNA. PMID:15823356

  18. Two Methods for Extending Quantum Key Warehouse

    WU Min; LIAO Chang-jun; LIU Song-hao

    2006-01-01

    Because the rates of quantum key distribution systems are too low,the interleaving technique and interpolation technique are used to extend the capacity of the quantum key warehouse to increase the quantum key rates of quantum secure communication systems. the simulation technique can extend random sequences and that their randomness are invariable. The correlative theory and technique of digital singal processing is an effective method of extending the quantum dey warehouse.

  19. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  20. Correlation functions for extended mass galaxy clusters

    Iqbal, Naseer; Hamid, Mubashir; Masood, Tabasum

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of clustering of galaxies on the basis of correlation functions in an expanding Universe is studied by using equation of state, taking gravitational interaction between galaxies of extended nature into consideration. The partial differential equation for the extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function developed earlier by Iqbal, Ahmad and Khan is studied on the basis of assigned boundary conditions. The solution for the correlation function for extended structures satisfies the basic boundary conditions, which seem to be sufficient for understanding the phenomena, and provides a new insight into the gravitational clustering problem for extended mass structures.

  1. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single BolivianLeishmania braziliensislesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for BolivianL. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days. PMID:26903605

  2. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  3. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  4. Prospective trial in Saudi Arabia comparing the 14-day standard triple therapy with the 10-day sequential therapy for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Fahad Alsohaibani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Treatment success for Helicobacter pylori infection in Saudi Arabia is relatively unexplored. This prospective study compared the efficacy of sequential versus standard triple therapy in curing H. pylori infections. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients underwent upper endoscopy at a single center in Saudi Arabia from October 2011 to February 2014. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to sequential therapy or standard triple therapy. Sequential treatment: Esomeprazole (20 mg bid for 10 days, amoxicillin (1000 mg for 5 days, then clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg; both bid for 5 days. Standard triple treatment: Esomeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1000 mg each bid for 14 days. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients were tested for cure using a validated urea breath test. Application of the E-test determined susceptibility of H. pylori to different antibiotics. Results: Of the 115 patients who received sequential therapy, 93 completed treatment. In the triple-therapy arm, 103 of 117 patients completed treatment. The eradication rate was 58/93 (62.3% with sequential therapy and 69/102 (67.6% with standard triple therapy, P = 0.44. Risk ratio was 0.92 (95% CI; 0.75–1.13, and number needed to treat was 19. Overall primary resistance: Metronidazole (48.5%, clarithromycin (23.3%, amoxicillin (14.8%, levofloxacin (11.1%, and tetracycline (2.3%. Mild adverse events occurred in 35 and 17 patients in the sequential and standard therapy groups, respectively. Conclusion: Sequential and standard triple therapies were similarly effective at eradicating H. pylori in two-thirds of Saudi patients. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance to H. pylori strains was common.

  5. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...

  6. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects. PMID:26948730

  7. Lévy Bases and Extended Subordination

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole

    The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields....

  8. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  9. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  10. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: increase in numbers of naive CD4 cells and CD34 cells makes G-CSF a candidate for use in gene therapy or to support antiretroviral therapy

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Dam-Larsen, S;

    1998-01-01

    The potential of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize CD4 cells and/or CD34 cells for use in gene therapy or to support antiretroviral therapy was examined. Ten human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were treated with G-CSF (300 microg/day) for 5 days. Numbers of CD4.......01/microL (P CSF induced increases in numbers of CD34 cells and CD4 cells in HIV-infected patients...