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Sample records for 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment

  1. Development of a Web-based concept for patients with ulcerative colitis and 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment

    Elkjaer, Margarita; Burisch, Johan; Avnstrøm, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    life (QoL). Lack of easy access to inflammatory bowel disease clinics and patient education, their understanding of the importance of early treatment at relapse, poor compliance and self-adherence can be partly solved by a newly developed Web-based concept. AIMS: To describe the development and...... validation of the Web-based 'Constant-Care' concept. METHODS: A Web-based treatment program (www.constant-care.dk) and a Patient Educational Centre for UC patients were developed. The feasibility and acceptance of the concept was validated before (group A) and 6 months after (group B) the start of a......-treatment after the educational training (ET). A significant increase in knowledge from 36 to 69% (group A) and 28 to 75% (group B) was obtained. A majority of the patients were satisfied with the ET. Patients' QoL, anxiety, depression and general well-being showed no difference after the ET. CONCLUSION: Patient...

  2. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Bøtker, Johan Peter; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka; Ostergaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid ext...

  3. 5-Aminosalicylic acid dependency in Crohn's disease: A Danish Crohn Colitis Database study

    Duricova, D.; Pedersen, N.; Elkjaer, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims The role of 5 aminosalicylic acid (5 ASA) in Crohns disease is unclear The outcome of the first course of 5 ASA monotherapy with emphasis on 5 ASA dependency was retrospectively assessed in consecutive cohort of 537 Crohn s disease patients diagnosed 1953-2007 Methods Following...

  4. Allopurinol and 5-aminosalicylic acid influence thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro

    Broekman, Mark M. T. J.; Roelofs, Hennie M. J.; Wong, Dennis R.; Kerstholt, Mariska; Leijten, Alex; Hoentjen, Frank; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Geert J A Wanten; de Jong, Dirk J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of thiopurines is frequently accompanied by hepatotoxicity. Studies on hepatocyte cultures showed a time- and dose-dependent increase of thiopurine toxicity. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and allopurinol can influence thiopurine metabolism; however, it is unknown whether this affects in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods Human hepatoma cells (Huh7, HepG2 and HepaRG) were incubated with increasing concentrations of thiopurines, 5-ASA or allopurinol. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt...

  5. Identification of major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid formed in aqueous solutions and in pharmaceuticals

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1992-01-01

    The formation of four major degradation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in buffered solutions at pH 7.0 was demonstrated by gradient HPLC analysis. The isolation and structural elucidation of the resulting degradation products showed that the degradation of 5-ASA led to the formation of......-containing pharmaceuticals, which had not been stored as prescribed, but in diffuse daylight for up to 2 years....

  6. A Novel Preparation Method for 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Loaded Eudragit S100 Nanoparticles

    Sining Li; Yaping Zhao; Daode Hu; Wenjuan Chen; Liang Liu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) technique was applied for the preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) loaded Eudragit S100 (EU S100) nanoparticles. The effects of various process variables including pressure, temperature, 5-ASA concentration and solution flow rate on morphology, particle size, 5-ASA loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. Under the appropriate conditions, drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a spheri...

  7. Examination of coated tablet of 99Tcm-5-aminosalicylic acid for delivering drug in colon

    The radionuclide trace technique is used to examine and determine that 99Tcm-5-aminosalicylic acid coated table delivere drug in colon. 5-aminosalicylic acid labelled with 99Tcm is made to be coated tablet. Which character in artificial gastrointestinal liquid is observed by testing radioactivity leakage of the coated tablet, and in dogs vivo motor process by SPECT. Coated tablet is not dissolved in artificial gastric juice and outward appearance of which does not change. Coated table is take out after laid in artificial gastric juice for 1 h and placed in artificial intestinal liquid, partial coating is corroded and appears a great quantity of hole in a utensil at 3 h, and coating starts to burst and release at 3.5 h. The coated tablet starts to release drug in ascending colon and remain in colon for 6-7 h after taking orally. Therefore coated table of 99Tcm-5-aminosalicylic acid is able to release drug by location in colon. (authors)

  8. Preparation and evaluation of magnetic microspheres of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery

    Satinder Kakar; Deepa Batra; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study magnetic microspheres of mesalamine(5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery.Methods:Magnetic microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique for use in the application of magnetic carrier technology.An attempt was made to target mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) to its site of action i.e. to colon.EudragitS-100, ethylcellulose and chitosan were used in three different drug: polymer ratios i.e.1:1,1:2 and1:3.The microspheres were characterized in terms of particle size, percentage yield, drug content, encapsulation efficiency,in vitro release pattern andex vivo study.The microspheres were uniform in size and shape.Thein vitrorelease profile was studied in pH7.4 phosphate buffer medium usingUSP dissolution apparatus.Results:Chitosan microspheres were found to be better retained in terms of percentage release of the drug.Thus chitosan microspheres could be better retained at their target site.Conclustion:Flow characteristics are also better in case of chitosan magnetic microspheres. Thus reticuloendothelial clearance can be minimized and site specificity can be increased.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-5-aminosalicylic acid (14C-5-ASA) in rats

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. As part of a preclinical metabolism profile with 5-ASA, we evaluated the tissue level and distribution of 14C-5-ASA in rats. Biodistribution of 14C-radioactivity was determined in the major organs of rats after a single oral dose (34 mg/kg; 15 uci/rat). Data from tissue area under the curve (AUC 0-72) indicated that the highest amounts of radioactivity were retained in cecum (481.1 hr.ug.equ/gm), colon-rectum (178.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), ileum (166.7 hr.ug.equ/gm), jejunum (65.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), followed by kidneys (58.0 hr.ug.equ/gm) and liver (14.8 hr.ug.equ/gm). The radioactivity retained in tissues at 72 hours postdose was wither nondetectable or less than 0.1 ppm. The radioactivity concentration in blood was highest at 0.5 hr (tmax) postdose and the terminal half-life (t1/2) of 14C-radioactivity (5-ASA + metabolite) was 2.7 hours. 14C-5-ASA is absorbed and distributed in the body. The greatest amount of 14C-radioactivity was found in the stomach and GI tract. 14C-5-ASA was eliminated completely (44.9% in the urine, 51.7% in the feces) 72 hours after administration without significant tissue retention

  10. Synthesis and structural elucidation of glutathione and N-aceyl-cysteine conjugates of 5-aminosalicylic acid

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to be oxidized to a quinone monoimine compound capable of conjugating with nucleophilic compounds such as N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) has been investigated in vitro. Three isomeric conjugates of 5-ASA and NAC as well as three isomeric...... conjugates of 5-ASA and GSH were found to be formed. 5-ASA was initially oxidized by PbO2 in a solution of TRIS-HCl buffer pH 9.3 followed by the in situ addition of N-acetyl-cysteine or glutathione to the oxidized 5-ASA at pH 7.5. The resulting conjugates were N-acetylated at the aromatic amino group in...

  11. A Novel Preparation Method for 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Loaded Eudragit S100 Nanoparticles

    Sining Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS technique was applied for the preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA loaded Eudragit S100 (EU S100 nanoparticles. The effects of various process variables including pressure, temperature, 5-ASA concentration and solution flow rate on morphology, particle size, 5-ASA loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. Under the appropriate conditions, drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and small particle size with narrow particle size distribution. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that 5-ASA was imbedded into EU S100 in an amorphous state after SEDS processing and the SEDS process did not induce degradation of 5-ASA.

  12. Mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid for colon targeted drug delivery: Synthesis, kinetic studies and pharmacological evaluation

    Nagpal Deepika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid with histidine, was synthesized by coupling L-histidine with salicylic acid, for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed gut tissue, in inflammatory bowel disease. In vitro kinetic studies in HCl buffer (pH 1.2 showed negligible release of 5-aminosalicylic acid, whereas in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, only 14% release was observed over a period of 6h. In rat fecal matter, the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid was almost complete (85.6%, with a half life of 163 min, following zero order kinetics. The azo conjugate was evaluated for its ulcerogenic potential by Rainsford′s cold stress method. Therapeutic efficacy of the carrier system and the mitigating effect of the azo conjugate were evaluated in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid- induced experimental colitis model. The synthesized prodrug was found to be equally effective in mitigating the colitis in rats, as that of sulfasalazine, without the ulcerogenicity of 5-aminosalicylic acid, and adverse effects of sulfasalazine.

  13. Long-term Compliance with Oral 5-aminosalicylic Acid Therapy and Risk of Disease Recurrence in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Prosberg, Michelle V; Vester-Andersen, Marianne K; Andersson, Mikael; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Jon T; Vind, Ida; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noncompliance to long-term medical therapy is a well-known problem among patients treated for ulcerative colitis, but studies of long-term consequences in unselected patients are lacking. The authors aimed to determine the risk of recurrence according to long-term compliance with oral 5......-aminosalicylic acid among unselected patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: The authors conducted a 7-year follow-up study of a population-based inception cohort of 243 Danish patients with ulcerative colitis diagnosed from 2003 to 2004. Compliance was defined as consumption of ≥80% of prescribed oral 5...... treatment, or colectomy) in compliant versus noncompliant patients. RESULTS: In total, 182 patients(75%) experienced at least 1 recurrence during follow-up. For the first year after diagnosis, risk of recurrence did not differ significantly between compliant and noncompliant patients. For 1 to 3 years...

  14. Mucoadhesive microparticulates based on polysaccharide for target dual drug delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid and curcumin to inflamed colon.

    Duan, Haogang; Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Bai, Xiao; Qin, Hongyan; Wei, Yuhui; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, thiolated chitosan/alginate composite microparticulates (CMPs) coated by Eudragit S-100 were developed for colon-specific delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and curcumin (CUR), and the use of it as a multi drug delivery system for the treatment of colitis. The physicochemical properties of the CMPs were evaluated. In vitro release was performed in gradually pH-changing medium simulating the conditions of different parts of GIT, and the results showed that the Eudragit S-100 coating has a pH-sensitive release property, which can avoid drug being released at a pH lower than 7. An everted sac method was used to evaluate the mucoadhesion of CMPs. Ex vivo mucoadhesive tests showed CMPs have excellent mucosa adhesion for the colonic mucosa of rats. In vivo treatment effect of enteric microparticulates systems was evaluated in colitis rats. The results showed superior therapeutic efficiency of this drug delivery system for the colitis rats induced by TNBS. Therefore, the enteric microparticulates systems combined the properties of pH dependent delivery, mucoadhesive, and control release, and could be an available tool for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27239905

  15. 5-aminosalicylic acid is an attractive candidate agent for chemoprevention of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Yang Cheng; Pierre Desreumaux

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is classically subdivided into ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with IBD have increased risk for colorectal cancer. Because the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma has not been entirely defined yet and there is no ideal treatment for colon cancer, cancer prevention has become increasingly important in patients with IBD. The two adopted methods to prevent the development of colon cancer in clinical practice include the prophylactic colectomy and colonoscopic surveillance.But patients and physicians seldom accept colectomy as a routine preventive method and most patients do not undergo appropriate colonoscopic surveillance. Chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or to delay the process of carcinogenesis.Chemoprevention is a particularly useful method in the management of patients at high risk for the development of specific cancers based on inborn genetic susceptibility, the presence of cancer-associated disease, or other known risk factors. Prevention of colorectal cancer by administration of chemopreventive agents is one of the most promising options for IBD patients who are at increased risks of the disease. The chemopreventive efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against intestinal tumors has been well established. But with reports that NSAIDs aggravated the symptoms of colitis, their sustained use for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention has been relatively contraindicated in IBD patients. Another hopeful candidate chemoprevention drug for IBD patients is 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is well tolerated by most patients and has limited systemic adverse effects, and no gastrointestinal toxicity. 5-ASA lacks the well-known side effects of longterm NSAIDs use. Retrospective correlative studies have suggested that the long-term use of 5-ASA in IBD patients may significantly reduce the risk of development of colorectal cancer

  16. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly......Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... fewer ulcerations (4/cm2). The concentrations of 5-ASA and/or its acetylated metabolite were several times higher in the cecum content and twice as high in plasma in the SASP group, indicating a difference in the absorption patterns of 5-ASA and the two drugs. These results and the etiological...

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonoids on the Efflux of -Acetyl 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Intracellularly Formed in Caco-2 Cells

    Shin Yoshimura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -acetyl 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AcASA that was intracellularly formed from 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA at 200 M was discharged 5.3, 7.1, and 8.1-fold higher into the apical site than into the basolateral site during 1, 2, and 4-hour incubations, respectively, in Caco-2 cells grown in Transwells. The addition of flavonols (100 M such as fisetin and quercetin with 5-ASA remarkably decreased the apically directed efflux of 5-AcASA. When 5-ASA (200 M was added to Caco-2 cells grown in tissue culture dishes, the formation of 5-AcASA decreased, and, in addition, the formed 5-AcASA was found to be accumulated within the cells in the presence of such flavonols. Thus, the decrease in 5-AcASA efflux by such flavonols was attributed not only to the inhibition of -acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA but to the predominant cellular accumulation of 5-AcASA. Various flavonoids also had both of the effects with potencies that depend on their specific structures. The essential structure of flavonoids was an absence of a hydroxyl substitution at the C5 position on the A-ring of flavone structure for the inhibitory effect on the -acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA, and a presence of hydroxyl substitutions at the C3 or C4 position on the B-ring of flavone structure for the promoting effect on the cellular accumulation of 5-AcASA. Both the decrease in 5-AcASA apical efflux and the increase in 5-AcASA cellular accumulation were also caused by MK571 and indomethacin, inhibitors of MRPs, but not by quinidine, cyclosporin A, P-glycoprotein inhibitors, and mitoxantrone, a BCRP substrate. These results suggest that certain flavonoids suppress the apical efflux of 5-AcASA possibly by inhibiting MRPs pumps located on apical membranes in Caco-2 cells.

  18. "Protective Effects of Some Azo Derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic Acid and Their Pegylated Prodrugs on Acetic Acid-induced Rat Colitis "

    Alireza Garjani; Soodabeh Davaran; Mohamadreza Rashidi; Nasrin Malek

    2004-01-01

    The protective and anti-inflammatory effects of azo and azo-linked polymeric prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on acetic acid induced colitis in rats were investigated. Three azo prodrugs; 4,4 -dihydroxy-azobenzene-3-carboxilic acid (azo compound I), 4-hydroxy-azobenzene-3,4-dicarboxilic acid (azo compound II), 4,4-dihydroxy-3-formyl-azobenzene-3-carboxylic acid (azo compound III) and their polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) derivatives were synthesized. Rats were pretreated orally (1 hou...

  19. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Azo-Linked to Procainamide Acts as an Anticolitic Mutual Prodrug via Additive Inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappaB.

    Kim, Wooseong; Nam, Joon; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-06-01

    To improve the anticolitic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a colon-specific mutual prodrug of 5-ASA was designed. 5-ASA was coupled to procainamide (PA), a local anesthetic, via an azo bond to prepare 5-(4-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}phenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ASA-azo-PA). 5-ASA-azo-PA was cleaved to 5-ASA and PA up to about 76% at 10 h in the cecal contents while remaining stable in the small intestinal contents. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA and sulfasalazine, a colon-specific prodrug currently used in clinic, to rats showed similar efficiency in delivery of 5-ASA to the large intestine, and PA was not detectable in the blood after 5-ASA-azo-PA administration. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA alleviated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat colitis. Moreover, combined intracolonic treatment with 5-ASA and PA elicited an additive ameliorative effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 5-ASA and PA additively inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) activity in human colon carcinoma cells and inflamed colonic tissues. Finally, 5-ASA-azo-PA administered orally was able to reduce inflammatory mediators, NFκB target gene products, in the inflamed colon. 5-ASA-azo-PA may be a colon-specific mutual prodrug acting against colitis, and the mutual anticolitic effects occurred at least partly through the cooperative inhibition of NFκB activity. PMID:27112518

  20. A dynamic model of once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid predicts clinical efficacy

    Deepak; Parakkal; Eli; D; Ehrenpreis; Matthew; P; Thorpe; Karson; S; Putt; Bruce; Hannon

    2010-01-01

    New once daily mesalamine formulations may improve adherence to medication usage.Response to Asacol and other forms of 5-aminosalicyclic acid(5-ASA)is better correlated with tissue concentrations and best predicted by concentrations of the drug within the lumen of the colon.Our group used computer simulation to predict colonic 5-ASA levels after Asacol administration.In our study,the model simulated Asacol distribution in the healthy colon,and during quiescent and active ulcerative colitis.An Asacol dosage ...

  1. Novel pH-sensitive hydrogels for 5-aminosalicylic acid colon targeting delivery: in vivo study with ulcerative colitis targeting therapy in mice.

    Bai, Xia Yan; Yan, Yan; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Lan Gui; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend patients with active and mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC), who have received initial therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). In this study, a novel drug delivery vehicle achieved by pH-sensitive hydrogels was applied to 5-ASA. In our previous work, a novel P(CE-MAA-MEG) pH-sensitive hydrogel was successfully synthesized by the heat-initiated free radical polymerization method. The aim of this study is to investigate its site-specific delivering of drugs to the colon and evaluate its colon-targeting characteristic in vivo. 5-ASA was chosen as a model drug and successfully loaded in the hydrogel. In vitro investigations were carried out to evaluate its release process. Above all, animal treatment results reveal an obvious effect on the UC healing. Therefore, all results suggested that the developed 5-ASA-P(CE-MAA-MEG) hydrogel (5-ASA-GEL) as a colon-targeting vector might have a great potential application in the UC therapy. PMID:25693641

  2. The effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 lipopolysaccharide on the 5-aminosalicylic acid transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Stětinová, Věra; Smetanová, Libuše; Kholová, Dagmar; Květina, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Zbyněk; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Effect of co-administered EcN LPS (100 µg/ml) or EcN supernatant (50 µg/ml) on the 5-ASA transport (300 µmol/l) was studied using the Caco-2 monolayer (a human colon carcinoma cell line) as a model of human intestinal absorption. Permeability characteristics for absorptive and secretory transport of parent drug and its intracellularly-formed metabolite were determined. The quantification of 5-ASA and its main metabolite N-acetyl-5-amino-salicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results suggest that neither EcN LPS nor EcN supernatant had effect on the total 5-ASA transport (secretory flux greater than absorptive flux) and on the transport of intracellularly formed N-Ac-5-ASA (preferentially transported in the secretory direction). The percent cumulative transport of the total 5-ASA alone or in combination with EcN LPS or EcN supernatant did not exceed 1%. PMID:23846256

  3. Synthesis of Chromium (Ⅲ) 5-aminosalicylate

    LI Wei; HAO Er-jun; JIANG Yu-qin

    2004-01-01

    As we all known that diabetes is a chronic disease with major health consequences.Research has revealed that the occurrence of diabetes have great thing to do with the chromium deficient. Almost 40 years after the first report of glucose tolerance factor(GTF) [1], no conclusive evidence for an isolable ,biologically active form of chromium exited. Three materials have been proposed to be the biologically active form of chromium: "glucose tolerance factor", chromium Picolinate and low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LWMCr) [2] . So there is potential for the design of new chromium drugs .5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is identified as an active component in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis . The therapeutic action of 5-ASA is believed to be coupled to its ability to act as a free radical scavenger [3-4],acting locally on the inflamed colonic mucosa [5-7]. However, the clinical use of 5-ASA is limited, since orally administered 5-ASA is rapidly and completely absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract and therefore the local therapeutic effects of 5-ASA in the colon is hardly expected.In this paper, we report the synthesis of chromium(Ⅲ)5-aminosalicylate from 5-ASA and CrCl3. 6H2O.The synthesis route is as follow:The complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, X-ray powder diffractionand TG-DTA . They indicate that the structure is tris(5-ASA) Chromium . Experiments show that thecomplex has a good activity for supplement tiny dietary chromium, lowering blood glucose levels,lowering serum lipid levels and in creasing lean body mass .

  4. Pharmacokinetics in Wistar Rats of 5-[(4-Carboxybutanoyl)Amino]-2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: A Novel Synthetic Derivative of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA) with Possible Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Correa-Basurto, José; Rosales Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Padilla Martínez, Itzia Irene; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2016-01-01

    5-[(4-carboxybutanoyl)amino]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C2) is a novel synthetic derivative of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is currently being evaluated ex vivo as an anti-inflammatory agent and has shown satisfactory results. This study aimed to obtain the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of C2 in Wistar Rats. Additionally, an HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify C2 in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles of intragastric, intravenous and intraperitoneal administration routes at singles doses of 100, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were studied in Wistar rats. The elimination half-life of intravenously administered C2 was approximately 33 min. The maximum plasma level of C2 was reached approximately 24 min after intragastric administration, with a Cmax value of 2.5 g/mL and an AUCtot value of 157 μg min-1/mL; the oral bioavailability was approximately 13%. Following a single intragastric or oral dose (100 mg/kg), C2 was distributed and detected in all examined tissues (including the brain and colon). The results showed that C2 accumulates over time. The plasma protein binding results indicated that the unbound fraction of C2 at concentrations of 1 to 20 μg/mL ranged from 89.8% to 92.5%, meaning that this fraction of C2 is available to cross tissues. Finally, the blood-plasma partitioning (BP ratio) of C2 in rat plasma was 0.71 and 0.6 at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, which indicates that C2 is free in the plasmatic phase and not inside blood cells. The results of this study suggest that a fraction of the administered C2 dose is absorbed in the stomach, and the fraction that is not absorbed reaches the small intestine and colon. This distribution constitutes the main advantage of C2 compared with 5-ASA for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:27454774

  5. Antioxidant activities and radical scavenging activities of flavonoids studied by the electrochemical methods and ESR technique based on the novel paramagnetic properties of poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid)

    Graphical abstract: ESR spectra of the PAASA/RGO/graphite electrodes: (1) in the buffer solution consisting of 0.20 M phosphate and methanol (80: 20, v/v), (2) in the buffer solutions containing 150 μM of (+)-catechin. -- Abstract: Four kinds of flavonoid, viz. flavanone naringenin, Flavone apigenin, flavonol kaempferol, and flavanol (+)-catechin, are used to investigate their antioxidant and radical scavenging activitis in the water-methanol solution of pH 6.3, using the electrochemical methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid) (PAASA) is first used as a radical source that was polymerized on a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/glassy carbon (GC) disk or on the RGO/graphite fiber electrode. The assessment of the antioxidant activities is performed using both cyclic voltammetry and the open circuit potential measurement. On the basis of results from both electrochemical mathods, the order of the antioxidant actitvities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin However, the difference in the antioxidant activities between naringenin and apigenin is very small. On the basis of the ESR signal intensities of PAASA, the order of the radical scavenging activities of flavonoids is in good agreement with that of the above antioxdant activities.Three oxidation peaks on the cyclic voltammograms of (+)-catechin are first detected, which gives us a deep insight into the oxidation mechanism of (+)-catechin

  6. Colon-specific drug delivery systems based on cyclodextrin prodrugs: In vivo evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid from its cyclodextrin conjugates

    Mei-Juan Zou; Gang Cheng; Hirokazu Okamoto; Xiu-Hua Hao; Feng An; Fu-De Cui; Kazumi Danjo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the release of cyclodextrin-5-amino salicylic acid (CyD-5-ASA) in cecum and colon.METHODS: An anti-inflammatory drug 5-ASA was conjugated onto the hydroxyl groups of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CyDs) through an ester linkage, and the in vivo drug release behavior of these prodrugs in rat' s gastrointestinal tract after the oral administration was investigated.RESULTS: The 5-ASA concentration in the rat's stomach and small intestine after the oral administration of CyD5-ASA conjugate was much lower than that after the oral administration of 5-ASA alone. The lower concentration was attributable to the passage of the conjugate throughthe stomach and small intestine without significant degradation or absorption, followed by the degradation of the conjugate site-specific in the cecum and colon. The oral administration of CyD-5-ASA resulted in lower plasma and urine concentration of 5-ASA than that of 5-ASA alone.CONCLUSION: CyD-5-ASA conjugates may be used as prodrugs for colon-specific drug delivery system.

  7. Common misconceptions about 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease

    Javier P Gisbert; María Chaparro; Fernando Gomollón

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn' s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn' s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related.

  8. NEW METABOLITES OF THE DRUG 5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID .2. N-FORMYL-5-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID

    Tjornelund, J.; Hansen, S. H.; Cornett, Claus

    1991-01-01

    rat liver homogenate when 5-ASA and N-formyl-L-kynurenine were added. Thus N-formyl-5-ASA might be formed by the actions of formamidase in vivo. 5. N-Formyl-5-ASA has been found in human plasma from healthy volunteers dosed i.v. with 5-ASA (250 mg). N-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-ASA, N-acetyl-5-ASA and N...

  9. Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicylic acid [corrected

    Henriksen, Camilla; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    fibres is related to disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with 5-ASA. METHODS: In vitro: 15 g of Ispaghula Husk, wheat bran, citrus-pectin, or wheat flour were incubated in a 37°C buffered solutions of 5-ASA (1 g/l) for 3 hours at pH 6 and 7. The concentrations of 5-ASA were...... Ispaghula Husk (5.3-10.0 mg/g) and wheat bran (4.6-5.5 mg/g), and to a minor degree to citrus-pectin. No differences were found in relation to pH. In vivo: 29 patients completed the scheduled interviews. No significant changes in fibre consumption were observed over time; however, patients consuming a diet...

  10. Severe chest pain in a pediatric ulcerative colitis patient after 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy

    2008-01-01

    Severe reactions to mesalamine products are rarely seen in pediatric patients. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a severe cardiac reaction to a mesalamine product Asacol. Past medical history is significant for ulcerative colitis (UC) diagnosed at 9 years of age. Colo- noscopy one week prior to admission revealed pancoli- tis. He was treated with Asacol 800 mg three times per day and prednisone 20 mg/d. He was subsequently ad- mitted to the hospital for an exacerbation of his UC and started on intravenous solumedrol. He had improvement of his abdominal pain and diarrhea. The patient com- plained of new onset of chest pain upon initiating Asacol therapy. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed non-specific ST-T wave changes with T-wave inversion in the lateral leads. Echocardiogram (ECHO) revealed low-normal to mildly depressed left ventricular systolic function. The left main coronary artery and left anterior descending artery were mildly prominent measuring 5 mm and 4.7 mm, respectively. His chest pain completely resolved within 24-36 h of discontinuing Asacol. A repeat echo- cardiogram performed two days later revealed normal left ventricular function with normal coronary arteries (< 3.5 mm). Onset of chest pain after Asacol and im- mediate improvement of chest pain, as well as improve- ment of echocardiogram and ECG findings after discon- tinuing Asacol suggests that our patient suffered from a rare drug-hypersensitivity reaction to Asacol.

  11. Olsalazine versus placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: a randomised double blind trial.

    Feurle, G E; Theuer, D; Velasco, S; Barry, B A; Wördehoff, D; Sommer, A; Jantschek, G; Kruis, W.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of olsalazine, an analogue of sulphasalazine, consisting of two molecules 5-aminosalicylic acid linked by an azobond has been investigated for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In a randomised double blind trial we compared 2 g olsalazine with placebo for four weeks. Of the 105 patients, with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, entered in the trial 52 received olsalazine, and 53 placebo. Treatment had to be terminated prematurely because of untoward effects of olsalazine (mainl...

  12. Antineoplastic Effects of 5-Aminosalicylates and Potential Cancer Preventive Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    2004-01-01

    Early studies from tertiary referral centers in the United States and Europe showed that patients with long-standing and extensive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colon cancer. It was subsequently appreciated that the degree of risk depended on the population being studied and on both genetic and environmental factors (eg diet, drugs and prior surgical treatment). Indeed, over the past decade or so, the effects of chronically administered medications, including 5-am...

  13. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2011-01-01

    Background E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intesti...

  14. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi;

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  15. Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated E. coli with Ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine

    Andreas Munk Petersen; Susanne Schjørring; Sarah Choi Gerstrøm; Karen Angeliki Krogfelt

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intest...

  16. Identification and Functional Characterization of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases in Eubacteria: Evidence for Highly Selective Acetylation of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid

    Deloménie, Claudine; Fouix, Sylvaine; Longuemaux, Sandrine; Brahimi, Naïma; Bizet, Chantal; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity has been described in various bacterial species. Bacterial N-acetyltransferases, including those from bacteria of the gut flora, may be involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, thereby exerting physiopathological effects. We characterized these enzymes further by steady-state kinetics, time-dependent inhibition, and DNA hybridization in 40 species, mostly from the human intestinal microflora. We report for the first time N-acetyltransferase activity in...

  17. Identification of oxidation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid in faeces and the study of their formation in vitro

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1993-01-01

    products of 5-ASA using H-1-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Reactions carried out in vitro between 5-ASA and oxidants suggested to be present in the inflamed bowel verified that the hypochlorite-mediated oxidation of 5-ASA as well as the haemoglobin-catalysed H2O2-dependent oxidation of 5-ASA...

  18. The Efficacy of Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and 5-ASA (Aminosalicylic Acid) in the Treatment of Experimental Radiation Proctitis in Rats.

    Dandin, Özgür; Akin, Mehmet Levhi; Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Yücel, Ergün; Karakaş, Dursun Özgür; Demirbaş, Sezai; Özdemir, Sevim; Haholu, Apdullah

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study are to demonstrate the effect of probiotic use on the healing of radiation proctitis (RP) and evaluate the efficiency of fecal biomarkers at follow-up of the treatment. Thirty-two male/female rats were randomly separated into four groups of eight rats. The first group (control) was not radiated. RP was created by 17.5 Gy single dose rectal irradiation. The second group (RP) was subjected to RP, but not treated. The third group (RP+ASA) was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) 250 mg/kg daily by gastric lavage for 14 days after the irradiation, and the forth group (RP+LGG) was treated with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) 25 × 100 million CFU daily. Feces samples were taken at the 7th and 14th day of the treatment for fecal biomarkers. Rectums of the rats were resected at the 14th day by laparotomy. Samples were evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically. RP was achieved both macroscopically and microscopically. Weight loss of RP group is statistically significant (p < 0.005) than other groups. The healing ratio of RP+ASA and RP+LGG groups was significantly better than the RP group (p < 0.005) both macroscopically and microscopically. But there was no significant difference between ASA and LGG groups. Biochemically, fecal calprotectin was found to be more effective than fecal myeloperoxidase and fecal lactoferrin to show the efficacy of treatment of radiation proctitis. The results of our study demonstrate that probiotic is as effective as 5-aminosalicylic in the treatment of radiation proctitis, and fecal calprotectin is a useful biomarker in determining the response to the treatment. PMID:26730065

  19. The effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 lipopolysaccharide on the 5-aminosalicylic acid transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Štětinová, V.; Smetanová, L.; Kholová, D.; Květina, J.; Svoboda, Z.; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 371-380. ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1252; GA ČR GA305/08/0535 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : probiotic s * lipopolysacharide * drug transport Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (MBU-M) Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2013

  20. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  1. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  2. Mesalazine preparations for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Are all created equal?

    Bei; Ye; Daniel; R; van; Langenberg

    2015-01-01

    Oral mesalazine(also known as mesalamine) is a 5-aminosalicylic acid compound used in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, with high rates of efficacy in induction and maintenance of remission.The therapeutic effect of mesalazine occurs topically at the site of diseased colonic mucosa. A myriad of oral mesalazine preparations have been formulated with various drug delivery methods to minimize systemic absorption and maximise drug availability at the inflamed colonic epithelium. It remains unclear whether different oral mesalazine formulations are bioequivalent. This review aims to evaluate the differences between mesalazine formulations based on the currently available literature and explore factors which may influence the selection of one agent above another.

  3. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Johannes Meier; Andreas Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring recurrent inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complications of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice- orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  4. Hyaluronic acid based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines: In vitro effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Gaskarova, Aigul R; Khaybrakhmanova, Elvira A; Lukina, Elena S; Odinokov, Victor N

    2016-06-25

    In this study, water soluble hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines and hydrazides such as p- and o-aminophenols, anthranilic, 4- and 5-aminosalicylic acids, nicotinic, N-benzylnicotinic and isonicotinic hydrazides, p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (Streptocide), p-aminobenzoic acid diethylaminoethyl ester (Procaine), and 4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one (4-aminoantipyrene) were examined as matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitors (MMPIs). In a dose of 0.27-270μM, the most efficient MMPIs were HA conjugates with o-aminophenol=4-aminoantipyrine>4-aminosalicylic acid>5-aminosalicylic acid. Conjugates with Streptocide, Procaine and HA hydroxamate showed 40-50% inhibitory effect at all used concentrations. Conjugates with anthranilic acid and isonicotinic hydrazide (Isoniazid) in a dose of 0.27μM inhibited enzyme activity by ∼70%, but with the concentration increase their inhibitory effect was decreased. PMID:27083788

  5. Update in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Greifer, Melanie K; Markowitz, James F

    2006-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an important disease in the paediatric population. Ulcerative colitis is one of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, and is medically incurable. However, the arsenal of medications has grown as knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease advances. This review looks at the classical treatments for children with ulcerative colitis, including the 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and imunomodulators, as well as biological therapy and other, newer modalities. PMID:17020417

  6. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  7. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  8. Colon-specific prodrugs of 4-aminosalicylic acid for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2014-04-01

    Despite the advent of biological products, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab), for treatment of moderate to severe cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), most patients depend upon aminosalicylates as the conventional treatment option. In recent years, the increased knowledge of complex pathophysiological processes underlying IBD has resulted in development of a number of newer pharmaceutical agents like low-molecular-weight heparin, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics and innovative formulations such as high-dose, once-daily multi-matrix mesalamine, which are designed to minimize the inflammatory process through inhibition of different targets. Optimization of delivery of existing drugs to the colon using the prodrug approach is another attractive alternative that has been utilized and commercialized for 5-aminosalicylic acid (ASA) in the form of sulfasalazine, balsalazide, olsalazine and ipsalazine, but rarely for its positional isomer 4-ASA - a well-established antitubercular drug that is twice as potent as 5-ASA against IBD, and more specifically, ulcerative colitis. The present review focuses on the complete profile of 4-ASA and its advantages over 5-ASA and colon-targeting prodrugs reported so far for the management of IBD. The review also emphasizes the need for reappraisal of this promising but unexplored entity as a potential treatment option for IBD. PMID:24707139

  9. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

  10. 5-aminosalicylsyre til induktion af remission eller respons ved Crohns sygdom--en gennemgang af et Cochranereview

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Munck, Lars Kristian; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of 5-aminosalicylates for induction of remission or clinical response in patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's disease is described. The effect of either high (3 to 4.5 g/day) or low dose (1 to 2 g/day) 5-aminosalicylic acid was similar to that...... of placebo. Overall, sulfasalazine was not superior to placebo and was inferior to glucocorticoids for the treatment of mild to moderately active Crohn's disease. Neither published nor unpublished data support any use of 5-aminosalicylates for the treatment of Crohn's disease....

  11. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement......BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  13. Efficacy assessment of paroxetine in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis accompanied with anxiety/depression%帕罗西汀对轻-中度溃疡性结肠炎伴焦虑/抑郁的疗效评价

    宋军民; 战玉华; 李岩

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价帕罗西汀辅助治疗轻-中度溃疡性结肠炎伴焦虑/抑郁的疗效.方法 将30例轻-中度溃疡性结肠炎(UC)伴焦虑/抑郁患者随机分成2组(每组15例),分别接受5-氨基水杨酸和5-氨基水杨酸+帕罗西汀治疗;所有患者治疗前后均进行临床活动指数(CAI)、内镜指数(EI)和焦虑/抑郁测试,并比较治疗后的改善情况.结果 治疗后5-氨基水杨酸+帕罗西汀组的CAI(腹泻和腹痛)和焦虑/抑郁评分较5-氨基水杨酸组显著下降(P<0.05,P<0.001),而EI和其他表现与5-氨基水杨酸组无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 对于轻中度UC伴焦虑/抑郁的患者,帕罗西汀能改善焦虑/抑郁,通过减轻腹泻和腹痛而促进临床缓解,可作为辅助用药之一,但对组织学表现无改善作用.%Objective To assess the efficacy of paroxetine in the adjuvant treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) accompanied with anxiety/depression. Methods 30 patients diagnosed with mild-to-moderate UC accompanied with anxiety/depression were assigned into two groups (15 ones in each group) randomly, and were treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid and 5-aminosalicylic acid combined with paroxetinc, respectively. Clinical activity index (CAI) , endoscopic index (EI) , and anxiety/depression tests were performed before and after the treatment, and the efficacy of treatment was compared. Results The difference was significant between two groups with respect to CAI (diarrhea and abdominal pain) and anxiety/depression scoring after the treatment ( P 0.05). Conclusion Paroxetine can improve anxiety/ depression, and accelerate the clinical remission through attenuating diarrhea and abdominal pain. Therefore, it might be an adjuvant treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate UC accompanied with anxiety/depression. However, it can not improve the histologic appearance.

  14. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  15. Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid after Biofield Treatment

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and...

  16. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti......-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor...

  17. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  18. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    B.S. Nagoba,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group included 19 cases. In group 1, 3% citric acid solution and in group 2, 5% citric acid solution was used for local application to find out its efficacy in the treatment of chronic wound infections in animals. Citric acid was found effective in the control of all 38 cases in 7 to 20 applications. In group 1, the wounds healed in 10-20 applications. In group 2, the wounds healed in 7-15 applications. Citric acid treatment was found most effective and economical approach for the successful treatment of chronic infected wounds in animals not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment and local wound care. These results suggest that when healing of chronic wounds in animals is a matter of great concern, the value of topical agents like citric acid should not be forgotten.

  19. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Full Text Available ... and he says, “Gosh, you know, let’s try something to decrease the amount of acid that’s in ... in the abdomen. In order to avoid spearing something with that suture, if you try to keep ...

  20. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  1. PREPARATION OF HOLLOW LATEX PARTICLES BY ALKALI-ACID TREATMENT

    郝冬梅; 王新灵; 朱卫华; 唐小真; 刘成岑; 施凯

    2001-01-01

    Hollow polymer latex particles were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization. A seed latex consisting of styrene (St), butyl acrylate(BA) copolymer was first prepared, and seeded terpolymerization of St-BA-MA(methacrylic acid) were then carried out in the absence of surfactant. Final latex was treated by a two-step treatment under alkaline and acidic conditions, thus, the particles with hollow structure were obtained. We discussed the effects of pH value, temperature and time in alkali and acid treatment processes on hollow structure within the polymer latex particles and amount of carboxylic group on particle surface. The results show that the hollow polymer latex particles with the largest hollow size can be obtained under a certain condition (pH12.5, 90°C, 3 h in alkali treatment stage and pH2.5, 85°C, 3 h in acid treatment stage).

  2. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

  3. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  4. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  5. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Full Text Available ... GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating the ... 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by Dr. Tom DeMeester originally in which ...

  6. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    B.S. Nagoba,; B.J. Wadher and S.P. Selkar

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group...

  7. Treatment of acid mine drainage and acidic effluents / by Marinda de Beer

    De Beer, Marinda

    2005-01-01

    The scarcity of water in South Africa is exacerbated by pollution of the surface- and ground- water resources. Typical pollutants of the aquatic environment include acid mine drainage and industrial effluents. AMD and acidic effluents can have detrimental effects on mining infrastructure, water reuse options and environmental discharge. As a result, some form of treatment is required at many mine sites. Unless treated, acid water cannot be discharged into public water courses. It ...

  8. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  9. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine.

    Andreas Munk Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. RESULTS: After successful colonization with the IBD associated E. coli strains in mice the introduction of E. coli Nissle did not result in eradication of either IBD associated strains or an E. coli from a healthy control, instead, co-colonization at high levels were obtained. Treatment of mice, precolonized with IBD associated E. coli, with ciprofloxacin for three days alone apparently resulted in effective eradication of tested E. coli. However, treatment of precolonized mice with a combination of ciprofloxacin for 3 days followed by E. coli Nissle surprisingly allowed one IBD associated E. coli to re-colonize the mouse intestine, but at a level 3 logs under E. coli Nissle. A prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin for 7 days did not change this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the mouse model E. coli Nissle can not be used alone to eradicate IBD associated E. coli; rather, 3 days of ciprofloxacin are apparently efficient in eradicating these strains, but surprisingly, after ciprofloxacin treatment (3 or 7 days, the introduction of E. coli Nissle may support re-colonization with IBD associated E. coli.

  10. On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment

    Calsavara V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtained at 723K showed a large reduction in the acidic activity of the alkaline-treated zeolite, as the treatment conditions became more severe (the longer the treatment time or the higher the temperature, the higher the degree of dealumination. On the other hand, treated samples displayed some isopropanol dehydrogenation activity (basic sites. However, this activity was not very significant and did not depend on the alkaline treatment or ultrastabilization conditions used. The effect of reaction temperature and acid leaching on activity is also shown.

  11. Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid

    Bulent Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillonite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

  12. Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.

    Jazrawi, R P; Pigozzi, M G; Galatola, G; Lanzini, A; Northfield, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patien...

  13. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001 in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09. None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  14. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident...

  15. Coal pyrite passivation due to humic acids and lignin treatment

    Lalvani, S.B.; Zhang, G.; Lalvani, L.S. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1996-11-01

    A significant decrease in pyrite dissolution rate can be achieved by subjecting it to a humic acids treatment. In this study, the following two sources of pyrite were used: (1) an acid refuse (coal slurry) sample, and (2) a coal pyrite sample. In addition to pyrite dissolution rate measurements, column studies also were carried out. The leachate iron, sulfur, chromium, vanadium and cadmium metal contents were determined. Pyrite passivation was also studied using some model compounds of humic acids. The data obtained suggest that catechol and 4-aminophenol addition to pyrite can result in a significant suppression of pyrite dissolution under nitrogen and air atmospheres whereas oxalic acid addition enhances pyrite dissolution. In a related research work, it is shown that lignin addition also results in a decrease in pyrite dissolution rate. 6 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma

    Kumari Rashmi; Thappa Devinder

    2010-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35%) versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20%) for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI) of 10 were recruited in the s...

  17. Properties of Ferrofluid Nanoparticles Prepared by Coprecipitation and Acid Treatment

    A new stable acid water-based CoFe2O4 ferrofluid is prepared by coprecipitation and acid treatment. The properties of the nanoparticles forming the ferrofluid are examined by means of X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and annihilation technique. The results show that the particles are cubic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which have an average diameter of 12.2 nm and are coated with a low density porous amorphous layer. The CoFe2O4 particles in an acid aqueous medium exist in two kinds of forms, one is a single spherical particle and another is an aggregation of several spherical particles

  18. Properties of Ferrofluid Nanoparticles Prepared by Coprecipitation and Acid Treatment

    Li Jian [Southwest China Normal University, Physics Department (China); Dai Dalin [Southwest China Normal University, Life-Science Department (China); Zhao Baogang; Lin Yueqiang; Liu Cenye [Southwest China Normal University, Physics Department (China)

    2002-06-15

    A new stable acid water-based CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrofluid is prepared by coprecipitation and acid treatment. The properties of the nanoparticles forming the ferrofluid are examined by means of X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and annihilation technique. The results show that the particles are cubic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, which have an average diameter of 12.2 nm and are coated with a low density porous amorphous layer. The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in an acid aqueous medium exist in two kinds of forms, one is a single spherical particle and another is an aggregation of several spherical particles.

  19. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye

    Katherine; Atley; Edward; Ridyard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid(HF) exposure to the human cornea.METHODS: A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies.· RESULTS: Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye.CONCLUSION: In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients.

  20. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  1. Reduction of radiostrontium mobility in acid soils by carbonate treatment

    Development of chemical treatments to immobilize 90Sr in soil to prevent its leaching from radioactive waste disposed in shallow land burial sites is highly desirable. Six in situ carbonate-precipitating treatments, varying the amounts of carbonate, alkaline earth cation (Ca or Ba as chlorides), and order of addition were examined for their ability to immobilize radiostrontium in laboratory soil columns. The Na2CO3-followed by CaCl2-treatment was most consistently successful at reducing the leachability of radiostrontium by 0.05M CaCl2 from three low organic matter-acid soils, immobilizing as much as 53% of added radiostrontium. For the high organic matter-slightly acid soil, Na2CO3 alone, without supplemental Ca or Ba, resulted in the best immobilization (39%); dissolution of soil organic matter and the alkalinity-induced aggregate dispersion probably interfered with CaCO3 and/or BaCO3 precipitation. Success of the treatments is based primarily on their ability to generate, in situ, Ca(Sr,Mg)CO3 or Ba(Ca,Mg,Sr)CO3 precipitates that exchange radiostrontium very slowly with eluting Ca ions. Allied tests with 137Cs, which is commonly codisposed with 90Sr, indicated that the treatments describe did not interfere with the natural tendency of the selected soils to fix 137Cs strongly

  2. Hyaluronic acid as a treatment for ankle osteoarthritis

    Sun, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yi-Jiun; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Chen, Wen-ling

    2009-01-01

    Viscosupplementation refers to the concept of synovial fluid replacement with intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the relief of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Intra-articular viscosupplementation was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997. It is currently indicated only for the treatment of pain associated with knee OA. However, OA can occur in several of the weight-bearing joints of the foot and ankle. Ankle OA produces chronic disability tha...

  3. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Bahareh Ebrahimi; Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty...

  4. IBD medications during pregnancy and lactation

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Maxwell, Cynthia; Hendel, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    contraindicated during pregnancy and breast-feeding, alternatives to ciprofloxacin, natalizumab and sodium phosphate should also be considered for pregnant women. Breast-feeding is also discouraged while on treatment with ciclosporin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. However, therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid...

  5. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  6. The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching

    The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

  7. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mouth design. Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA and degree of stain removal (DSR, were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H 3 PO 4 -pumice. Conclusion: The H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound.

  8. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  9. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron′s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  10. Sumatra success : acid tunnelling succeeded where conventional acid treatments, proppant frac failed

    Roche, P.

    2009-03-15

    This article described an acid-tunneling technology developed by BJ Services which provides an economic and efficient stimulation alternative for wells completed openhole in carbonate reservoirs. The patented process, called StimTunnel, uses coiled tubing to convey a jointed nozzle that jets acid at the formation rock, dissolving it to create several mechanically stable, stimulated tunnels in the formation. These tunnels, and a range of wormholes and expanded pores, increase reservoir contact and improve productivity by distributing inflow across more surface area. The process has been used to get more oil out of a mature field in the Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The oil pools in the Ogan Komering Block were discovered in 1988 but have resisted efforts at well stimulation. Drill bits are not used in the StimTunnel concept. Instead, hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve the carbonate rock. Prior to StimTunnel treatment, the 9 wells in the Ogan Komering Block were averaging 638 bbls of oil per day. One year following treatment, the wells averaged 1,494 bbls of oil per day, a sustained increase in production of 134 per cent. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  11. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Carolyn Payus; Olga David; Moh Pak Yan

    2014-01-01

    The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovativ...

  12. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ω-OH/ω-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the

  13. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    International audience Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic aci...

  14. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  15. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment.

    Luciano, Randy L; Perazella, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a compound extracted from the Aristolochia species of herbs. It has been used for centuries as a remedy for various illnesses and diseases. However, in the early 1990s in the setting of a weight loss herbal remedy, AA exposure was associated with a syndrome of kidney injury, termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). This entity is marked by elevated serum creatinine, significant anemia, and histopathologic changes demonstrating a hypocellular interstitial infiltrate with severe fibrosis. Progression towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is rapid, with most patients having chronic kidney disease for less than 2 years. In addition, AAN is associated with a 40-45 % prevalence of urothelial carcinomas. Treatment of AAN is limited to glucocorticoids that have been shown to delay progression in non-randomized trials. As most patients progress to ESRD, need for renal replacement therapy, as either dialysis or kidney transplant, usually ensues. However, given the high malignant potential, care must be taken to minimize future development of upper urinary tract cancers by performing prophylactic bilateral nephroureterectomies and aggressive cancer surveillance. PMID:25446374

  16. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  17. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid.

    Di Geronimo, G; Caccese, A Fonzone; Caruso, L; Soldati, A; Passaretti, U

    2009-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral mononeuropathy; its symptoms and functional limitations significantly penalize the daily activities and quality of life of many people. While surgery is reserved to most severe cases, the earlier stages of disease may be controlled by a pharmacological treatment aimed to "neuroprotection", i.e. to limiting and correcting the nerve damage. Our study was aimed to compare the efficacy of a fixed association of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) 600 mg/die and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) 360 mg/die, and a multivitamin B preparation (Vit B6 150 mg, Vit B1 100 mg, Vit B12 500 microg daily) for 90 days in 112 subjects with moderately severe CTS. Demographic, case-history and treatment efficacy data were collected; the Boston questionnaire was administered and the patients were evaluated by Hi-Ob scale and electro-myography. A significant reduction in both symptoms scores and functional impairment (Boston questionnaire) was observed in ALA/GLA group, while the multivitamin group experienced a slight improvement of symptoms and a deterioration of functional scores. Electromyography showed a statistically significant improvement with ALA/GLA, but not with the multivitamin product. The Hi-Ob scale showed significant efficacy of ALA/GLA in improving symptoms and functional impairment, while in the multivitamin group the improvement was significant, but less marked than in the ALA/GLA group. In conclusion, the fixed association of ALA and GLA proved to be a useful tool and may be proposed for controlling symptoms and improving the evolution of CTS, especially in the earlier stages of disease. PMID:19499849

  18. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  19. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino – sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  20. Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters

    Hanefeld Christoph

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE. Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®. Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months, a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia. Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

  1. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  2. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    1998-09-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  3. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Bahareh Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05. No differences were seen in patients′ and investigator′s satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05. However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study′s results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma.

  4. Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron

    Highlights: ► Treatment of AMD dominated with Fe is problematic due to its low pH. ► The goal of AMD treatment is pH increasing and Fe controlled removal. ► An MFC could fulfill both these requirements by treating AMD at the aerated cathode. ► The performance was proportional to the charge transfer up to 880 C. ► The treated AMD met the discharge limits both for Fe (>99% recovery) and pH (7.9). - Abstract: Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4 ± 0.1; 500 mg L−1 Fe3+). Briefly, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe2+ re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L−1 in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5–9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6 ± 2.3 W m−3, which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

  5. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma

    Kumari Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

  6. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  7. Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.

    Nakamura, Y; Daidai, M; Kobayashi, F

    2004-01-01

    Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely. PMID:15461411

  8. Comparative tolerability of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Stein, R B; Hanauer, S B

    2000-11-01

    Despite limited understanding of therapeutic aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, there is a strong evidence base for the efficacy of pharmacological and biological therapies. It is equally important to recognise toxicity of the medical armamentarium for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Sulfasalazine consists of sulfapyridine linked to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) via an azo bond. Common adverse effects related to sulfapyridine 'intolerance' include headache, nausea, anorexia, and malaise. Other allergic or toxic adverse effects include fever, rash, haemolytic anaemia, hepatitis, pancreatitis, paradoxical worsening of colitis, and reversible sperm abnormalities. The newer 5-ASA agents were developed to deliver the active ingredient of sulfasalazine while minimising adverse effects. Adverse effects are infrequent but may include nausea, dyspepsia and headache. Olsalazine may cause a secretory diarrhoea. Uncommon hypersensitivity reactions, including worsening of colitis, pancreatitis, pericarditis and nephritis, have also been reported. Corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for treatment of moderate to severe IBD. Despite short term efficacy, corticosteroids have numerous adverse effects that preclude their long term use. Adverse effects include acne, fluid retention, fat redistribution, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, psycho-neurological disturbances, cataracts, adrenal suppression, growth failure in children, and osteonecrosis. Newer corticosteroid preparations offer potential for targeted therapy and less corticosteroid-related adverse effects. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are associated with pancreatitis in 3 to 15% of patients that resolves upon drug cessation. Bone marrow suppression is dose related and may be delayed. The adverse effects of methotrexate include nausea, leucopenia and, rarely, hypersensitivity pneumonia or hepatic fibrosis. Common adverse effects of cyclosporin include nephrotoxicity, hypertension, headache

  9. Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Karpova, I.V.; Titova, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of freshly produced acid tars and pond tars, gives an analysis of the acid part of the tars, and obtains data on the change in composition of the acid tar in the course of storage--data that are needed in developing methods for utilizing the tar. The acid-pond tars consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons with a very low content of acids, whereas the freshly produced acid tars consist mainly of sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, and carboxylic acids. In the course of storage, hardening of acid tars in the volume proceeds through reactions of polymerization, condensation, and oxidation of the surface layer that is in contact with air.

  10. Efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid and 50% glycolic acid peel in the treatment of frictional melanosis: A comparative study

    S Sacchidanand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15% peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50% peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15% and glycolic acid (50% is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid.

  11. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  12. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H.; Morris, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  13. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels;

    2008-01-01

    Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  14. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  15. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  16. Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hyper...

  17. Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.

    Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2002-07-22

    This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. PMID:12117467

  18. Effect of Malic Acid and Calcium Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Apple Fruits During Storage

    Kazemi, M; Shirzadeh, E

    2011-01-01

    -1) or at three calcium concentrations (0, 0.35 and 0.7% w/v). Results showed that fruit weight loss significantly decreased in malic acid+calcium treatments in comparison to control. Also, results showed that malic acid+calcium treatments increase fruit firmness, Catalase activity (CAT), Titratable acidity (TA) and Perlim index while decreasing of pH, Total soluble solids/Titratable acidity ratio and Peroxidase activity (POD) during cold storage at 0-2C for 5 month (p=0.05). The results show...

  19. The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds

    Murat ZENCİRKİRAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Solid Complexes with Sodium 5-Aminosalicylate

    Zhang Xiuying; Li Shujing; Lei Xuefeng; Ma Junxian

    2005-01-01

    Ten new rare earth solid complexes were synthesized by the reaction of sodium 5-aminosalicyliate with rare earth chloride. The structure character, physical and chemical properties of these complexes were studied by IR, UV, 1H NMR spectra, TG-DTA, fluorescence, elemental analyses, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The ten rare earth complexes exist in dimeric form probably and the coordination number is seven. The antibacterial activity of the ligand and six complexes was also tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the effect of Yb complex at 20 mg·ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus is most significant.

  1. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher

  2. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Trivedi, Palak J; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts, resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, fibrosis and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Timely intervention with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent survival, although approximately one-third of all patients fail to achieve biochemical response, signifying a critical need for additional therapeutic strategies. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent ligand of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects against toxic accumulation in models of cholestasis and facilitates hepatic regeneration in preclinical studies. Data from recent Phase II and III controlled trials suggest a therapeutic impact of OCA in PBC biochemical nonresponders, as evidenced by change in proven laboratory surrogates of long-term outcome. Dose-dependent pruritus is a common adverse effect, but may be overcome through dose-titration. Longer term studies are needed with focus on safety and long-term clinical efficacy. PMID:26549695

  3. Plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid deficits and the effect of nutritional support in chemotherapy treatment.

    Ching, N; Grossi, C; Jham, G; Angers, J; Zurawinsky, H; Ching, C Y; Nealon, T F

    1984-06-01

    The deficits in plasma amino acids and serum unesterified fatty acids of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were studied to delineate the special requirements of the patients and efficacy of our nutritional therapy. Seven general surgery patients and 13 patients treated by the Head-Neck Service had baseline levels measured as part of their nutritional evaluation prior to surgical treatment of their cancers. Fifteen chemotherapy outpatients maintained on their regular diets had fasting levels analyzed. Twenty-six patients who were admitted for their therapy had their intake of the regular hospital diet supplemented with a low-residue enteral diet formula (Vivonex High Nitrogen Diet); parenteral nutrition was used only if their oral intake was totally inadequate. Baseline and sequential measurements were made of plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid levels by gas liquid chromatographic techniques. Before operation the patients had normal levels of amino acids except for a significant deficiency of threonine and glycine observed in patients with head-neck tumors. Outpatients with and without hepatic metastases had significantly depressed levels of the essential amino acids valine, leucine, threonine, and methionine and the nonessential amino acids serine, glycine, and proline. The baseline levels of the patients admitted for treatment had similar deficiencies except for more evidence of lysine deficiency. Patients supported with total parenteral nutrition had rapid elevation of the amino acid levels. The patients whose intake was supplemented with the oral diets had improvement in their amino acid levels, but the deficiency in the leucine and threonine fractions persisted up to 4 weeks of therapy. Although the lysine levels were normal when first analyzed, significant differences developed in the patients without hepatic metastases after the start of chemotherapy with return to normal only after chemotherapy was discontinued

  4. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...

  5. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  6. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice.

    van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Groot, Martijn J; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet

    2010-12-01

    Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cognitive outcome and quality of life in patients with PKU. Following various theories about the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in PKU, LNAA supplementation may have multiple treatment targets: a specific reduction in brain phenylalanine concentrations, a reduction in blood (and consequently brain) phenylalanine concentrations, an increase in brain neurotransmitter concentrations, and an increase in brain essential amino acid concentrations. These treatment targets imply different treatment regimes. This review summarizes the treatment targets and the treatment regimens of LNAA supplementation and discusses the differences in LNAA intake between the classical dietary phenylalanine-restricted diet and several LNAA treatment forms. PMID:20976625

  7. Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults

    Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease A Review of the Research for Adults Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, if: A doctor said that you have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a chronic disease that causes ongoing ...

  8. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  9. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  10. Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids

    Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pickering, Gisèle; Lyan, Bernard; Ducheix, Gilles; Brandolini-Bunlon, Marion; Glomot, Françoise; Dardevet, Dominique; Dubray, Claude; PAPET, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on ...

  11. Valproic acid for the treatment of myeloid malignancies.

    Kuendgen, Andrea; Gattermann, Norbert

    2007-09-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as an anticonvulsant for decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that VPA also acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and induces differentiation and apoptosis in a variety of malignant cells in vitro. The effect of VPA on tumor cells differs according to cell type, degree of differentiation, and underlying genetic alterations. Clinical trials with VPA have focused on acute myeloid leukemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. When it was used as monotherapy or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid, which synergizes in vitro, VPA achieved hematologic improvement in a subset of patients. Similar to other inhibitors of histone deacetylases, complete or partial remissions rarely were observed. In this report, the authors reviewed the in vitro and in vivo data obtained with VPA, and they considered possible combination regimens aimed at improving therapeutic efficacy. PMID:17647267

  12. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between...

  13. Topical pyruvic acid (70% versus topical salicylic acid (16.7% compound in treatment of plantar warts: A randomized controlled trial

    Zabihollah Shahmoradi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Topical pyruvic acid and compound salicylic acid had the same efficacy and complications in treating plantar warts. Decision for choosing the treatment can be made based on the costs and individual factors as well as patients preferences.

  14. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    B S Chandrashekar; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  15. Degradation of Acid Cyanide Poison in Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis) after Treatment with Rice Husk Ash

    Dewi Fortuna; Abdul Rahimsyah; Yuniwati Puspitasri

    2015-01-01

    Rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) contains protein (17.41 %) and non-essential amino acid cysteine (0.78 %) and acid cyanide poison (186.00 mg/kg). The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of rice husk ash on degradation of acid cyanide in rubber seed. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using treatment of rice husk ash concentration with 5 levels of treatments (45; 60; 75; 90; 105 %) and 4 replications. The result showed nonsignificant differences (p>0.05)...

  16. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    P.V. Gurgel; S.A. FURLAN; S.E.R. MARTINEZ; I.M. MANCILHA

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  17. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  18. Coal acid mine drainage treatment using cement kiln dust

    Edgar Alberto Martínez; Jorge Iván Tobón; Juan Guillermo Morales

    2014-01-01

    Sulphurs are present in different rocks. During mining activities and the sulphur removal processes Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) may be produced, by sulphate ions (SO4 2-) in solution. AMDs are the main source of pollution from mining operations and in Colombia their discharge into natural bodies of water must comply with national environmental regulations (pH between 5 and 9). Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), with calcium carbonate as its main component, from a Cementos Argos S.A. plant was used to neutr...

  19. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins. PMID:26723492

  20. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  1. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-01-01

    This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H2O2). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the...

  2. Oxidative acid treatment and characterization of new biocarbon from sustainable Miscanthus biomass.

    Anstey, Andrew; Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Rodriguez-Uribe, Arturo; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar Kumar

    2016-04-15

    Oxidative acid treatments of biochar produced from Miscanthus were performed in this study using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and a mixture of both. The structural and morphological changes of the acid-treated biochar were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, organic elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Improved surface functionality of the treated biochars was observed in their respective FT-IR spectra through the presence of nitro and carboxylic acid functional groups. SEM-EDS and elemental analysis revealed a large increase in the oxygen to carbon ratio in the biochar, which was evidence of chemical oxidation from the acid treatment. Further, TGA study showed the reduced thermal stability of acid-treated biochar over 200°C due to the increased oxygen content. Acid treatments also influenced the graphitic structure of the biochar, as observed in the Raman spectra. The results suggest that biochar can be successfully functionalized for composite applications and provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon additives. PMID:26820927

  3. Mechanism and controlling strategy of the production and accumulation of propionic acid for anaerobic wastewater treatment

    任南琪; 李建政; 赵丹; 陈晓蕾

    2002-01-01

    The production and accumulation of propionic acid affect significantly anaerobic wastewater treatment system, but the reasons are not approached until now. Based on the results of continuous-flow tests and the analysis of biochemistry and ecology, two mechanisms of producing propionic acid have been put forward. It is demonstrated that the reasons of propionic acid production and accumulation are not caused by higher hydrogen partial pressure. The combination of specific pH value and ORP is the ecological factor affecting propionic acid production, and the equilibrium regulation of NADH/NAD+ ratio in cells is the physiological factor. Meanwhile, it is put forward that using the two-phase anaerobic treatment process and the ethanol type fermentation in anaerobic reactor to avoid propionic acid accumulation are efficient methods.

  4. Nucleic acid labeling with [3H]orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of [3H]orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes

  5. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this

  6. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  7. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  8. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

  9. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  10. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  11. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice

    van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cognitive outcome and quality of life in patients with PKU. Following various theories about the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in PKU, LNAA supplementation may have multiple treatment targets:...

  12. Randomized clinical trial: pharmacokinetics and safety of multimatrix mesalamine for treatment of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    Cuffari C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Cuffari,1 David Pierce,2 Bartosz Korczowski,3 Krzysztof Fyderek,4 Heather Van Heusen,5 Stuart Hossack,6 Hong Wan,5 Alena YZ Edwards,7 Patrick Martin5 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 3Medical College, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland; 4University Children’s Hospital of Cracow, Cracow, Poland; 5Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 6Covance Clinical Research Unit Limited, Leeds, UK; 7ICON Early Phase Services, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, UK Background: Limited data are available on mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA use in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC.Aim: To evaluate pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of 5-ASA and metabolite acetyl-5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA after once-daily, oral administration of multimatrix mesalamine to children and adolescents with UC.Methods: Participants (5–17 years of age; 18–82 kg, stratified by weight with UC received multimatrix mesalamine 30, 60, or 100 mg/kg/day once daily (to 4,800 mg/day for 7 days. Blood samples were collected pre-dose on days 5 and 6. On days 7 and 8, blood and urine samples were collected and safety was evaluated. 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA plasma and urine concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental methods and used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model.Results: Fifty-two subjects (21 [30 mg/kg]; 22 [60 mg/kg]; 9 [100 mg/kg] were randomized. On day 7, systemic exposures of 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA exhibited a dose-proportional increase between 30 and 60 mg/kg/day cohorts. For 30, 60, and 100 mg/kg/day doses, mean percentages of 5-ASA absorbed were 29.4%, 27.0%, and 22.1%, respectively. Simulated steady-state exposures and variabilities for 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA (coefficient of variation approximately 50% and 40%–45%, respectively were similar to those observed previously in adults at comparable doses. Treatment-emergent adverse events were

  13. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris

    Iraji Fariba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student′s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  14. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  15. Effects of Boronizing Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of 65Mn Steel in two Acid Mediums

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhao, Yufeng; Yuan, Xiaoming; Chen, Kangmin; Xu, Ruihua

    To explore the soil workability of rotary blade suitable for large tilling depth (over 20 cm) manufactured through boronizing treatment, this work focuses on the corrosion behavior of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment in two acid mediums, i.e. the strong acidic medium that hydrochloric solution and the weak acidic that fertilizer-containing soil, and the comparison with existing technology of general rotary blade (lonnealing after overall quenching). The result shows that the corrosion resistance in the two acid mediums of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment is remarkably improved. After 168 hours' corrosion in the hydrochloric acid solution, the weight loss of boronizing-status sample is only 27.9% of that of lonnealing-status sample. Moreover, there is no obvious weight loss in boronizing-status sample after 168 hours' corrosion in the fertilizer-containing soil, while the weight of lonnealing-status sample is lighter than the original weight after about 150 hours' corrosion. The improvement of the corrosion resistance lies in the significant reduction of the anodization speed in strong acid medium and the effective prevention of phosphorization reaction in weak acidic medium.

  16. Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems

    Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios

  17. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment. PMID:26413704

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  19. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

  20. Degradation of Acid Cyanide Poison in Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis after Treatment with Rice Husk Ash

    Dewi Fortuna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis contains protein (17.41 % and non-essential amino acid cysteine (0.78 % and acid cyanide poison (186.00 mg/kg. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of rice husk ash on degradation of acid cyanide in rubber seed. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD using treatment of rice husk ash concentration with 5 levels of treatments (45; 60; 75; 90; 105 % and 4 replications. The result showed nonsignificant differences (p>0.05 in degradation of acid cyanide level during aging and significant differences (p<0.05 during soaking. Rubber seed treated with 90% of rice husk ash during aging period contained cyanide 47.25 ppm and rubber seed treated with 60% of rice husk ash during soaking period contained cyanide 40.37 ppm.

  1. Treatment feasibility of the acidic intermediate level radioactive liquid waste - a laboratory scale study

    The acidic ILW from PREFRE-2 have higher concentrations of U, Fe, Mn and TBP degraded products. During the pretreatment of this acidic ILW prior to ion exchange process, there was formation of large volumes of precipitate having poor settling characteristics. This was reducing the throughput of the processing plant. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to remove the precipitating constituents by solvent extraction using Di - 2 -Ethyl Hexyl Phosporic acid (D2EHPA). In single contact almost 99 % of U and Fe got extracted in D2EHPA in 0.2 M acidic condition. After making alkaline the aqueous part forms only small quantities of Mn(OH)2 precipitate. Decant of this is amenable for conventional ion exchange treatment. The low active effluent from RF resin column is amenable for chemical co-precipitation treatment. (author)

  2. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively. PMID:15889712

  3. Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid

    Khalifa E Sharquie; Adil A Noaimi; Entesar A. Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. ...

  4. Moringa oleifera lectin and binding affinity to humic acids : application to water treatment

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Luz, Luciana A.; Cunha, M. G. C.; Paiva, Patrícia M.G.; Teixeira, J.A.; Brito, A. G.; R. Nogueira; L. C. B. B. Coelho

    2007-01-01

    Humic acids, natural organic matter, constitute a problem in water treatment; they react with chlorine forming undesirable disinfection byproducts. The aim of this work was the purification of a saline soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (SSMoL) and characterization of its affinity to humic acids. SSMoL isolation included extraction of seed flour, saline fractionation and guar gel chromatography. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) of extract (E), fraction (0-60F) and SSMoL was assessed...

  5. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as g...

  6. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as g...

  7. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Urszula Małolepsza; Henryk Urbanek; Justyna Polit

    2013-01-01

    The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  8. Ursolic and oleanolic acids as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory compounds for tuberculosis treatment

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; López-García, Sonia; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina, Brenda; Torres, Javier; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Background New alternatives for the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed and medicinal plants represent a potential option. Chamaedora tepejilote and Lantana hispida are medicinal plants from Mexico and their hexanic extracts have shown antimycobacterial activity. Bioguided investigation of these extracts showed that the active compounds were ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA). Methods The activity of UA and OA against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four monoresistant ...

  9. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  10. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models

    Thimmappa S. Anekonda; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Joseph F. Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48–7...

  11. Modification of cation-exchange properties of activated carbon by treatment with nitric acid

    The uptake of inorganic cations by high-surface-area activated carbon can be increased by an order of magnitude by controlled exposure to high concentrations of nitric acid at elevated temperatures. Distribution coefficients of cations are also increased. Oxidation treatment causes some loss in particle strength. Acid strength of the functional groups from the nitric acid treatment is greater than those of the starting material. Surface area measurements from small-angle neutron scattering indicate that the increase in effective ion-exchange capacity is not accompanied by gross changes in the structure of the material. 13C-NMR on solid samples suggests that the concentration of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups in the carbon is increased by the treatment

  12. Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment

    Hamayoon Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45 was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to capillary condensation between allophane unit particles (RH≥0.6 was greater for KyP sample. These indicate that allophane hollow spherical particles in KyP sample were directly connected each other with the preheating, but those in KnP sample were not. Heat treatment caused the enhancement in the surface acidity of nano-ball allophane samples. The enhancement in the surface acidity after heat treatment is attributed to the inductive effect on the Si-OH groups present at the pore region of the hollow sphere. The results showed that surface acidity of the allophane with higher Si/Al ratio (KnP was stronger than the (KyP sample having lower Si/Al ratio. This trend was observed under RH between 0 and 75%; then the acid strength for the two samples was the same at RH of 98%. After the heat treatment at lower level of RH, the surface acidity of KnP was higher than KyP. The presence of polymerized silicate tails exposed outside of hollow spherical allophane particles (KnP, causes the enhancement of the BrØnsted acidity and also prevent direct connection between the particles after heating.

  13. Stability of ion exchangers against treatment with nitric acid and radiation. Pt. 2

    The change in the sorption properties of chelating ion exchangers with amino acetic acid and amino diacetic acid groups of the type Wof MC 50, Chelex 100 and Dowex A-1 after treatment with nitric acid is examined. The nitric acid concentration is varied in the range 1-10.5 N; the reaction time varied from 0.5 to 25 h. The reaction temperature was 680C. By destruction of the amino diacetic acid groups the sorption properties are changed. The sorption of cations (Cs+ -0.019 N NH4C1) decreases, goes through a minimum and increases again when the COOH capacity is increased. The sorption of anions (TcO-4 -1 N HNO3) and anionic complexes (PdC142- -1 N HC1) decreases in correlation with the N-content. (orig.)

  14. Inhibition of acid hydrolase activity in human granulocytes by PUVA treatment

    The activity of acid hydrolases in peripheral blood granulocytes was determined. No significant differences could be revealed between healthy and psoriatic donors. During PUVA therapy of psoriasis patients the activity of acid hydrolases in granulocytes was moderately decreased in most cases, but the differences were not significant (high individual variability). Isolated granulocytes were treated in vitro with doses of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as can be achieved in situ in the epidermis during PUVA therapy. A reduced acid hydrolases activity was found in the cells after the treatment, which was not due to secretion of the enzyme or cytotoxic damage. The presence of reduced glutathione prevented this effect. Free extracellular acid hydrolases were not inactivated by PUVA. PUVA-treated granulocytes showed an unimpaired superoxide generation after phagocytic stimulation. These results show that an intracellular inactivation of acid hydrolases and possibly other lysosomal enzymes in granulocytes infiltrating the psoriatic epidermis contribute to the antipsoriatic effects of PUVA therapy. (author)

  15. Photo-Fenton-like treatment of K-acid: assessment of treatability, toxicity and oxidation products.

    Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Gelegen, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Photo-Fenton-like treatment of the commercially important naphthalene sulphonate K-acid (2-naphthylamine-3,6,8-trisulphonic acid) was investigated using UV-C, UV-A and visible light irradiation. Changes in toxicity patterns were followed by the Vibrio fischeri bioassay. Rapid and complete degradation of K-acid accompanied with nearly complete oxidation and mineralization rates (>90%) were achieved for all studied irradiation types. On the other hand, detoxification was rather limited and did not change significantly during photo-Fenton-like treatment. Several oxidation products could be identified via liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses, such as desulphonated and hydroxylated naphthalene derivatives, quinones, and ring-opening as well as dimerization products. Photo-Fenton-like treatment of K-acid with UV-C, UV-A and visible light irradiation occurred through a series of hydroxylation and desulphonation reactions, followed by ring cleavage. A common degradation pathway for photo-Fenton-like treatment of K-acid using different irradiation types was proposed. PMID:25259495

  16. Proton pump inhibitors in acid-related diseases. Issues in diagnosis, treatment and outcome

    Jonasson, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Acid-related disease (ARD) is a term used to describe a range of conditions in which acid is involved in the generation of symptoms and/or complications. Two of the most common ARDs are gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). PPIs are today regarded as the gold standard in the treatment of both symptoms and mucosal injury in patients with GERD as well as for prevention and acute treatment of PUD. Since the PPIs were introduced in the late 1980-ie...

  17. Treatment of Pu-containing waste by acid digestion (wet combustion)

    Acid digestion as a process of treatment of plutonium-containing solid waste was developed and demonstrated under conditions of an active operation with respect to the recovery of plutonium. The process composes the following main steps: waste shredding, waste carbonisation, waste oxidation and conversion of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulphate, off-gas treatment, acid recovery and plutonium separation. The technical, safety and operational details of the plant will be presented. Furthermore, methods of the purification of separate plutonium and solidification of secondary waste for final disposal will be described. (orig./RW)

  18. Immunomodulators and Immunosuppressants for Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Shigeki Bamba; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Masaya Sasaki; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Akira Andoh

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by a long-standing chronic course with remissions and exacerbations. Previously, patients do not respond to 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids are considered for colectomies, however, in recent years, alternative treatments emerged for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent UC. In this review article, we focus on immunomodulators (such as azathioprine [AZA] and 6-mercaptopurine [6-MP]) and immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine A [C...

  19. Soluble mediators and the interaction of drugs in IBD

    Rask-Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    , which provides the clinical manifestations of IBD. Other important soluble mediators of inflammation include complement-derived and chemotactic peptides, specific adhesion molecules, neuropeptides and reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen. Current established therapies, such as glucocorticoids and...... 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), inhibit raised concentrations of these interdependent soluble mediators of inflammation, which may amplify one another or have parallel effects. Future medical options for treatment of IBD aim at removing perpetuating antigens or inhibiting the entry of inflammatory...

  20. Validation of HPLC, DPPH• and nitrosation methods for mesalamine determination in pharmaceutical dosage forms Validação dos métodos de CLAE, DPPH• e nitrosação para determinação de mesalazina em formas farmacêuticas

    Janice Aparecida Rafael; José Roberto Jabor; Rúbia Casagrande; Sandra Regina Georgetti; Maria de Fátima Borin; Maria José Vieira Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) is used because of its local effects in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, the aims of this work were to compare and validate three analytical methods for the quality control of commercial coated tablets containing 5-ASA: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and nitrosation. The parameters linearity, precision and accuracy were studied in this work. HPLC with ultraviole...

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  2. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  3. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment.

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip J; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2008-09-01

    Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. The combination of presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis was found to give the highest sugar yields. The use of atmospheric air gave the highest xylose yield (94.9% xylose, 61.3% glucose), while hydrogen peroxide gave the highest glucose yield (82.4% xylose, 63.7% glucose). PMID:18164954

  4. Effects of Acid Vapor, Basic Vapor and Heat Treatments on the Properties of Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Divalent Metal Salts of Fatty Acids

    Saito, Mitsuyoshi; Sugi, Michio; Ikegami, Keiichi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Iizima, Sigeru

    1986-06-01

    When LB films are exposed to the atmosphere vaporized from acid at room temperature, the X-ray diffraction peaks attributed to the lamellar structure disappear and new peaks appear depending on the metal ion species of the salt, whereas such noticeable change is not observed by basic vapor treatment and heat treatment. Diffraction patterns for LB films of free fatty acids are not influenced by these three treatments.

  5. Jaw osteonecrosis management around a dental implant inserted 2 years before starting treatment with zoledronic acid

    Marín Fernández, A.B.; García Medina, Blas; Aguilar Salvatierra, Antonio; Jiménez Burkhardt, Alberto; Gómez Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are a type of drug known to inhibit bone resorption through complex interventions. Their primary mechanism of action is aimed at the cellular level, inhibiting osteoclast activity and so bone resorption. BPs are widely used, with many patients receiving continuous treatment for years. But it is well known that these drugs can produce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an intravenous BP used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bone disease in patients ...

  6. Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid Injections Vs. Dextrose Prolotherapy in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain

    S Nasiripour; F Hassanzadeh Kiyabi; M Nikooseresht; Razavi, S; F Madadi; SM Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conservative treatment needs to be tried prior to surgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed to evaluate the short-term effects of dextrose prolotherapy on pain relief and functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis in comparison with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections. Methods: In this double blind clinical trial, 100 patients, aged 40-70 years, with complaints of knee pain lasting >3 months were recruited in Akhtar hospital during the years 2010...

  7. Modification of acidity of Mo-Fe/HZSM-5 zeolite via argon plasma treatment

    Xinli ZHU; Kailu YU; Dangguo CHENG; Yueping ZHANG; Qing XIA; Changjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    The NH3-TPD characterization was conducted to confirm that the acidity of Mo-Fe/HZSM-5 zeolite could be selectively modified via the glow discharge plasma treatment. The plasma catalyst treatment could totally change the distribution of aromatic products with higher methane conversion compared to the untreated catalyst. Some polycyclic aromatics such as anthracene, pyrene and phenanthrene were also produced over the plasma treated catalyst, in addition to benzene, toluene and naphthalene, which were normally obtained over the untreated catalyst.

  8. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    Akif Turk; Ahmet Selimoglu; Kadir Demir; Osman Celik; Erkin Saglam; Fatih Tarhan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male) with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81%) chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cyst...

  9. A review of minodronic acid hydrate for the treatment of osteoporosis

    Tanishima S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Tanishima, Yasuo MorioDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Misasa Onsen Hospital, Misasa, Tottori, JapanAbstract: Minodronic acid hydrate was the first bisphosphonate developed and approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. With regard to inhibition of bone resorption, minodronic acid hydrate is 1000 times more effective than etidronic acid and 10–100 times more effective than alendronic acid. Clinical trials conducted to date have focused on postmenopausal female patients suffering from primary osteoporosis. In these trials, 1 mg of oral minodronic acid hydrate was administrated once daily, and a significant increase was observed in lumbar-spine and hip-joint bone density 1–2 years after administration. All markers of bone metabolism urinary collagen type 1 cross-linked N-telopeptide, urinary free deoxypyridinoline, serum bone alkaline phosphatase, and serum osteocalcin were decreased. The incidence rate of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was also decreased. Therefore, effectiveness in fracture prevention was confirmed. A form of minodronic acid (50 mg requiring once-monthly administration has been developed and is currently being used clinically. A comparative study between this new formulation and once-daily minodronic acid (1 mg showed no significant differences between the two formulations in terms of improvement rates in lumbar-spine and hip-joint bone density, changes in bone metabolism markers, or incidence of side effects. This indicates the noninferiority of the monthly formulation. Side effects such as osteonecrosis of the jaw or atypical femoral fractures were not reported with other bisphosphonates, although it is believed that these side effects may emerge as future studies continue to be conducted. On the basis of studies conducted to date, minodronic acid hydrate is considered effective for improving bone density and preventing fractures. We anticipate further investigations in the future

  10. Anaerobic waste water treatment: influencing parameters on the acid formation of citric acid production waste - investigation in lab scale and on a large treatment plant

    Based on the biochemical background of anaerobic waste water treatment processes and on the kinetic criteria the problems of acid formation in one and two stage fermentations are discussed. Chemical analytics play an important role on the control of anaerobic processes. In a separate chapter the significance of different parameters and their application for the control of acidification processes is discussed. Of special importance is an early information on process disturbances and considerations concerning the balancing of the relevant processes. Analytical problems that occur in practice are also dealt with. The practical experience with the large scale wastewater treatment plant, where the described procedures were applied are the main purpose of the thesis. The main influencing parameters on both the lab scale and large scale processes are compared and the influence of important process variables like temperature, pH, load, waste water composition and addition of aerobic and anaerobic sludges on the acid formation is investigated. The results of the work are discussed and compared with results from the literature. In addition a mathematical model dealing with the main pH-dependent equilibrium conditions for acidification reactions was developed on basis of existing models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes. (author)

  11. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate treatment of lamb breast to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Ramirez, A J; Acuff, G R; Lucia, L M; Savell, J W

    2001-09-01

    Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate (TSP) were evaluated for the ability to reduce Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts (APCs) on lamb breasts that were inoculated with a lamb fecal paste. A 90-s water rinse was applied followed by either a 9-s (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, a 60-s (55 degrees C) 12% TSP dip, or a combined treatment of both lactic acid and TSP treatments. Lactic acid reduced E. coli and APCs by 1.6 log10/cm2, and TSP caused a 1.8-log10/cm2 reduction in E. coli and a 0.7-log10/cm2 reduction in APCs. Combined reductions by the lactic acid spray followed by the TSP dip were 1.8 and 1.5 log10/cm2 for E. coli and APCs, respectively. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate, used alone or in combination, were effective in reducing numbers of E. coli and could be useful as pathogen intervention steps in lamb slaughter processing. PMID:11563525

  12. Alpha lipoic acid : a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes?

    Mijnhout, G. S.; Alkhalaf, A.; Kleefstra, N.; Bibo, H. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. We identified those studies in the literature in which the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid as a treatment for neuropathic pain was evaluated. Methods: Systematic literature review. The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the keyword

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Augmentation of Citalopram Treatment for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Gertsik, Lev; Poland, Russell E.; Bresee, Catherine; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of combination therapy with citalopram plus omega-3 fatty acids versus citalopram plus placebo (olive oil) in the initial treatment of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that combination therapy would not only lead to greater efficacy, but a more rapid onset of therapeutic response.

  14. Effect of a reduction in uric acid on renal outcomes during losartan treatment

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A; Laverman, Goos D;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We theref...

  15. Р-LIPOIC ACID PREPARATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    O E Zinov'eva; O E Zinovyeva

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical signs of somatic and autonomic diabetic neuropathy (DN) are discussed. Based on the present views of the pathogenetic mechanisms of peripheral DN, the author provides evidence for the expedient use of r-lipoic acid preparations (Espa-lipon) in the therapy of this complication of diabetes mellitus. Treatment regimens are given depending on the stage of DN.

  16. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  17. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative...

  18. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  19. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  20. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated. PMID:11763043

  1. Treatment of type 2 diabetes by free Fatty Acid receptor agonists

    Watterson, Kenneth R; Hudson, Brian D; Ulven, Trond;

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently...... removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti......-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and...

  2. Duration of wrinkle correction following repeat treatment with Juvéderm hyaluronic acid fillers

    Smith, Stacy R.; Jones, Derek; Thomas, Jane A.; Murphy, Diane K.; Beddingfield, Frederick C.

    2010-01-01

    Many patients elect to have repeat treatments with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers to maintain wrinkle correction, but the clinical performance of these products after repeat treatments has not been formally assessed. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Juvéderm injectable gel (Juvéderm Ultra, Juvéderm Ultra Plus, and Juvéderm 30) through 1 year after repeat treatment of nasolabial folds (NLFs) that were previously treated with Juvéderm or Zyplast 6–9 month...

  3. Metabolomics reveals amino acids contribute to variation in response to simvastatin treatment.

    Miles Trupp

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Statins are widely prescribed for reducing LDL-cholesterol (C and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, but there is considerable variation in therapeutic response. We used a gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics platform to evaluate global effects of simvastatin on intermediary metabolism. Analyses were conducted in 148 participants in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics study who were profiled pre and six weeks post treatment with 40 mg/day simvastatin: 100 randomly selected from the full range of the LDL-C response distribution and 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of this distribution ("good" and "poor" responders, respectively. The metabolic signature of drug exposure in the full range of responders included essential amino acids, lauric acid (p<0.0055, q<0.055, and alpha-tocopherol (p<0.0003, q<0.017. Using the HumanCyc database and pathway enrichment analysis, we observed that the metabolites of drug exposure were enriched for the pathway class amino acid degradation (p<0.0032. Metabolites whose change correlated with LDL-C lowering response to simvastatin in the full range responders included cystine, urea cycle intermediates, and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, citrulline and lysine. These dibasic amino acids share plasma membrane transporters with arginine, the rate-limiting substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS, a critical mediator of cardiovascular health. Baseline metabolic profiles of the good and poor responders were analyzed by orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis so as to determine the metabolites that best separated the two response groups and could be predictive of LDL-C response. Among these were xanthine, 2-hydroxyvaleric acid, succinic acid, stearic acid, and fructose. Together, the findings from this study indicate that clusters of metabolites involved in multiple pathways not directly connected with cholesterol metabolism may play a role in modulating

  4. Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid

    Yung-Cheng Su

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL. The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Taiwan. All patients received ATRA as an induction regimen with or withoutconventional chemotherapy.Results: Eight of the 102 patients (7.8% experienced RAS which developed after amedian of 9 days (range: 2 to 23 days of ATRA treatment. Respiratory distressand fever were the most common presentations, occurring in 7 of 8patients (87.5%. Age, gender, morphological or molecular subtypes, an initialwhite blood cell (WBC count of more than 10 x 109/L and concurrentchemotherapy did not statistically attribute to the occurrence of RAS. Onepatient developed RAS manifesting with pulmonary hemorrhage but experienceda complete recovery after administration of high-dose dexamethasone.The RAS-related mortality was 12.5% (1 out of 8 patients.Conclusion: The incidence of RAS in this study was similar to those of other series withATRA and concurrent chemotherapy. Age, gender, morphological or molecularsubtypes, an initial leukocyte count of more than 10 x 109/L or the presenceof concurrent chemotherapy is not significantly associated with theoccurrence of the RAS.

  5. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  6. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  7. Combined γ-ray irradiation-activated sludge treatment of humic acid solution from landfill leachate

    Humic acid, which is a typical microbially refractory organic substance, was extracted from a landfill leachate. The humic acid solution (COD=367 mg 1-1; TOC=293 mg 1-1; BOD=27 mg 1-1) was applied to a batch scale activated sludge treatment after the modification of its biodegradability by γ-ray irradiation. The BOD increased to 64 mg 1-1 by irradiation of 15 kGy (1.5 Mrad), while the COD and TOC decreased to 231 and 230 mg 1-1, respectively. When the irradiated sample was treated with an activated sludge, the BOD decreased rapidly to a similar value as the unirradiated sample. The elimination efficiency of TOC by the sludge treatment was approximately equal to that obtained by irradiation of 15 kGy. These facts suggest a utility of applying microbial processes after radiation treatment of microbially refractory wastewaters. (author)

  8. [Comparison between penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of recurrent tonsillopharyngitis in childhood].

    Asensi, F; López-Hontangas, J L; Otero, M; Santos, M; Román, J; Pérez-Tamarit, D

    1999-09-01

    Fifty-one children aged 2-14 years with recurrent tonsillopharyngitis, presenting dysphagia, fever and lymphadenitis, with more than two similar episodes in the last three years and showing a beta-hemolytic group A streptococci in the pharyngeal smear, were studied. They underwent random treatment for ten days with phenoxymethylpenicillin (40-60 mg/kg/day) (n = 28) or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20-40 mg/kg/day) (n = 23) taken orally three times a day. Clinical and bacteriological tests were carried out at 10 days and 2, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The clinical and bacteriological results showed the superiority of the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment both in the short term (disappearance of symptoms) and in the long term (decrease in recurrence). These results support the idea that betalactamases produced by the pharyngeal flora play an important role in the failures of penicillin. PMID:10878510

  9. Critical appraisal of the use of alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy

    McIlduff CE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Courtney E McIlduff, Seward B RutkoveDepartment of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USABackground: The most common of the neuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN is a syndrome of diffuse, length-dependent, symmetric nerve dysfunction. The condition is linked with substantial morbidity, frequent healthcare utilization, and compromised quality of life due to related discomfort. Correspondingly, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids are regularly prescribed with the goal of pain control. However, the agents rarely provide complete pain relief and fail to address progression of the disorder. Whereas strict blood glucose control can slow the onset and worsening of DSPN, near-normoglycemia is not easily attainable. Evidence implicating oxidative processes in the pathogenesis of DSPN offers one potentially important therapeutic avenue. Due to its properties as a potent antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid (ALA could mitigate the development of DSPN and attenuate resultant symptoms and signs. Approved for treatment of DSPN in Germany, the agent is not more widely used due to uncertainty about its efficacy and reported adverse effects. Here we review the effectiveness and tolerability of ALA in the treatment of symptomatic DSPN.Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language literature on the topic. Randomized, blinded studies comparing parenteral and oral ALA with placebo in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic adults were selected. Analysis included studies with a level of evidence of at least 2b.Results: The current appraisal summarizes data from 1160 participants in the ALADIN, SYDNEY, ORPIL, SYDNEY 2, and ALADIN III trials. In four of the studies, ALA provided significant improvement in manifestations of DSPN.Conclusion: Treatment with ALA 600 mg iv daily for 3 weeks represents a well-tolerated and effective

  10. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    Highlights: ► Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. ► Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. ► Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  11. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    Dong Chenbo; Campell, Alan S.; Eldawud, Reem; Perhinschi, Gabriela [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Dinu, Cerasela Zoica, E-mail: cerasela-zoica.dinu@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  12. ASPIRIN AND NICOTINIC ACID AS TWO FACES OF SAME COIN IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA

    RK Mohamed Mutahar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally cardiovascular diseases are believed to be the no.1 cause of death. According to the current estimates of World Health Organisation, approximately one-third of all deaths (16.7 million people around the globe resulted from cardiovascular diseases. Eighty percent of these deaths were reported from low and middle income countries. The main intention of writing this review article is that, India being the second most highly populated country characterized by a majority of low and middle income population, the need for an effective treatment for this devastating disease both cost and efficacy wise is most desired. Since a long time, antidislipidemic agent nicotinic acid has been continuously under consideration to tackle the cardiovascular diseases by treating dyslipidemia. But its use has been limited due to its notorious yet harmless side effect of flushing. Now the focus of attention would be to use nicotinic acid by cleverly handling the flush. At this adjuncture the entry of acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin has been taken to give the best result. No doubt the major intention to take aspirin (low dose with the combination of major drug nicotinic acid is to reduce nicotinic acid -induced flushing, but its associated properties or remedies as you may tell are more equally supportive to the very treatment of cardiovascular diseases itself. Hence it may be construed that aspirin and nicotinic acid are nothing but the two sides of the same coin in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Hence the hypothesis “People with heart disease should be on aspirin anyway”.

  13. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite (HNT is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1, 3 h (H3, 8 h (H8, and 21 h (H21. The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO6 octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO4 tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO6 octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO4. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites.

  14. Comparative electrochemical degradation of salicylic and aminosalicylic acids: Influence of functional groups on decay kinetics and mineralization.

    Florenza, Xavier; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2016-07-01

    Solutions of 100 mL with 1.20 mM of salicylic acid (SA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were carried out with a stirred tank reactor with a BDD anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H2O2 production. A marked influence of the functional groups of the drugs was observed in their decay kinetics, increasing in the order SA H2O2 and 5-ASA H2O2 H2O2 at 100 mA cm(-2). The mineralization rate in EF and PEF grew in the order: 4-ASA 98% mineralization for all the drugs at 100 mA cm(-2). Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final short-linear aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC, allowing the fast photolysis of their Fe(III) complexes by UVA light to justify the high power of PEF. PMID:27045634

  15. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  16. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a study of the association with valproic acid.

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rocca, Giuseppe; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have received increasing interest due to their effects in stabilizing plasmatic membranes and regulating cell signaling. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders, in particular mood disorders, has been studied. There have been two trials on eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present 12-week controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of the association of EPA and DHA with valproic acid, compared to single valproic acid, in 43 consecutive BPD outpatients. Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks with: Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Scales for depression and anxiety (HAM-D, HAM-A), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - version 11 (BIS-11), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) and Dosage Record Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). PMID:24196948

  17. Characterization of N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria and their role in plant growth under humic acid treatment

    Diazo trophic bacteria isolated from rice belonged to the six genera i.e. Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Xanthobacter, Flavobacterium and Zoogloea. During reinoculation studies it was observed that the rice roots grow well under humic acid treatment. The maximum root length 49.5 cm, was recorded at 10 ppm in plants inoculated with Azospirillum strain K-1. The total plant dry weight increase was also observed with the same organism at the similar humic acid concentration. In wheat the bacterial inoculation or humic acid treatment separately increased the dry weight of plant, however the humic acid treatment followed by inoculation of bacteria always cause decrease in total dry weight of plants. (author)

  18. In-situ treatment of acid mine waters using fluidized bed ash: Field study

    A slurry of mine water and fluidized bed ash (FBA) was injected into an abandoned coal mine in eastern Oklahoma in July 1997. Oil-field technology was used to inject 1.8 Gg (418 tons) of FBA through five wells in 15 hours. Prior to injection the seep water had a pH of 4.4, was net acidic (acidity over 400 mg/L as CaCO3), and had relatively high metal concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-200; Mn-7; and Al-6). After injection, during the period of effective treatment, the seep water had a pH above 6.0, less net acidity, and had lower metals concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-120; Mn-5; and Al-< PQL). When the treated seep water exited the mine, the dissolved metals oxidized and hydrolyzed. As the metals precipitated, the alkalinity introduced by the FBA was consumed and the pH dropped. However, the seep water characteristics upon entering the receiving stream were improved, compared to pre-injection. The resulting seep water quality is such that it is more amenable to further treatment by passive treatment methods, such as anoxic limestone drains or wetlands. Alkaline injection is a finite treatment process. Eventually, the added alkalinity is exhausted, at which time the seep returns to pre-injection conditions, necessitating another injection of ash. For the study discussed in this paper, the treatment lasted approximately 15 months. While the amount of alkalinity added to the mine could have potentially treated much more than a year's volume of seep water, it is believed that much of the injected alkalinity was unavailable in backwater areas in the mine. This alkalinity contributed little, if any, to the treatment of water flowing through the mine. Mine hydrology, especially during injection are crucial to treatment longevity

  19. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  20. Effect of Post Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of Phytic Acid Conversion Coated Magnesium

    R.K. Gupta; K. Mensah-Darkwa; D. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    An environment friendly chemical conversion coating for magnesium was obtained by using a phytic acid solution.The effect of post-coating 1heat treatment on the microstructures and corrosion properties of phytic acid conversion coated magnesium was investigated.It was observed that the microstructure and corrosion resistive properties were improved for the heat treated samples.The corrosion current density for bare magnesium,phytic acid conversion coated magnesium,and post-coating heat treated magnesium was calculated to be 2.48 × 10-5,1.18 × 10-6,and 9.27 × 10-7 A/cm2,respectively.The lowest corrosion current density for the heat treated sample indicated its highest corrosion resistive effect for the magnesium.The maximum corrosion protective nature of the heat treated sample was further confirmed by the largest value of impedance in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies.

  1. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. PMID:26247412

  2. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300 Area waste acid treatment system

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents

  3. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  4. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  5. THE TREATMENT OF SALICYLIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT(NDA—100)

    WANGXuejiang; ZHANGQuanxing; 等

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of salicylic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-100 resin was investigated.The sorption intensity of phenol was found to be strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase.Equilibrium adsorption data fit to both Langmuir and Freundlich models.The column adsorption showed that this process was suitable for the treatment of salicylic acid manufacturing wastewater.About 99.9% COD cr removal was obtained under the optimal operating conditions.The resin could be completely regenerated with I VB8%(w/w) NaOH+2BV H2O,the recovery of 98.9% of the substance was reached.This process makes it possible to recover the valuable material from the wastewater and to improve the effluent water quality.

  6. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ► In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ► Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ► Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ► Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  7. Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment

    Hamayoon Khan; Rozina Khan; Naoto Matsue; Teruo Henmi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs) was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45) was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to ...

  8. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on extraction and fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil

    Gutte Krishna B.; Sahoo Akshaya K.; Ranveer Rahul C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extracion of flaxseed oil process by ultrasonic treatment and determination of its effect on ω-3 fatty acid. The extraction of flaxseed oil was optimized by using different solvents like methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, ethanol, hexane and dichloromethane. The ultrasonication treatment was optimized with respect to amplitude (20–80 kHz), temperature (25–40 °C), sonication time (20–80 min) and solid to solvent ratio (1:5, 1:10 and 1:15) for extraction o...

  9. Low removal of acidic and hydrophilic pharmaceutical products by various types of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Christian Gagnon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical substances represent a risk for aquatic environments and their potential impacts on the receiving environment are poorly understood. Municipal effluents are important sources of contaminants including common pharmaceuticals like anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive substances. The removal of pharmaceuticals, particularly those highly soluble can represent a great challenge to conventional wastewater treatment processes. Hydrophilic drugs (e.g. acidic drugs have properties that can highly influence removal efficiencies of treatment plants. The performance of different wastewater treatment processes for the removal of specific pharmaceutical products that are expected to be poorly removed was investigated. The obtained results were compared to inherent properties of the studied substances. Clofibric acid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen were largely found in physicochemical primary-treated effluents at concentrations ranging from 77 to 2384 ng/L. This treatment type showed removal yields lower than 30%. On the other hand, biological treatments with activated sludge under aerobic conditions resulted in much better removal rates (>50% for 5 of the 8 studied substances. Interestingly, this latter type of process showed evidence of selectivity with respect to the size (R2=0.7388, solubility (R2=0.6812, and partitioning (R2=0.9999 of the removed substances; the smallest and least sorbed substances seemed to be removed at better rates, while the persistent carbamazepine (392 ng/L and diclofenac (66 ng/L were poorly removed (<10% after biological treatment. In the case of treatment by aerated lagoons, the most abundant substances were the highly soluble hydroxy-ibuprofen (350-3321 ng/L, followed by naproxen (42-413 n/L and carbamazepine (254-386 ng/L. In order to assess the impacts of all these contaminants of various properties on the environment and human health, we need to better understand the chemical and physical

  10. The potential role of boswellic acids in cancer prevention and treatment.

    Roy, Nand Kishor; Deka, Anindita; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Mishra, Srishti; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2016-07-10

    Despite the extensive research carried out in the field of cancer therapeutics, cancer is one of the most dreadful diseases in the world with no definitive treatment to date. The key attributes responsible for this are the various limiting factors associated with conventional chemotherapeutics that primarily include adverse side-effects and development of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an utter need to find compounds that are highly safe and efficacious for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Boswellic acid, a group of pentacyclic compounds, seems to be promising enough due to its inherent anti-cancerous properties. Considering this perspective, the present review highlights the established studies related to the anti-cancer potential of boswellic acid against different cancer types. The molecular mechanisms underlying the targets of boswellic acid that are accountable for its potent anti-cancer effect are also discussed. Overall, this review projects the pieces of evidence that reveal the potential of boswellic acid as a suitable candidate that can be appropriately developed and designed into a promising anti-cancer drug. PMID:27091399

  11. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  12. The influence of acid treatments over vermiculite based material as adsorbent for cationic textile dyestuffs.

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Freitas, Olga; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Komędera, Kamila; Błachowski, Artur; Figueiredo, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    The influence of different acid treatments over vermiculite was evaluated. Equilibrium, kinetic and column studies have been conducted. The results showed that vermiculite first treated with nitric acid and then with citric acid has higher adsorption capacity, presenting maximum adsorption capacities in column experiments: for Astrazon Red (AR), 100.8 ± 0.8 mg g(-1) and 54 ± 1 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively; for Methylene Blue (MB) 150 ± 4 mg g(-1) and 55 ± 2 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively. Materials characterization by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, N2 adsorption and CEC determination, has been performed. The results suggest the existence of exchange of interlayer cations, leaching of metals from vermiculite's sheets and formation of an amorphous phase in the material. Adsorption follows pseudo 2(nd) order model kinetics for both dyestuffs and equilibrium occurs accordingly to Langmuir's model for AR and Freundlich's model for MB. In column systems Yan's model is the best fit. The enhanced properties of acid treated vermiculite offer new perspectives for the use of this adsorbent in wastewater treatment. PMID:27015571

  13. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of cholestasis in patients with hepatic amyloidosis

    Faust Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amyloidosis represents a group of different diseases characterized by extracellular accumulation of pathologic fibrillar proteins in various tissues and organs. Severe amyloid deposition in the liver parenchyma has extrahepatic involvement predominantly in the kidney or heart. We evaluated the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, in four patients with severe hepatic amyloidosis of different etiologies, who presented with increased alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase. Case report. The study included four patients who presented with amyloidosis-associated intrahepatic cholestasis. Three of them had renal amyloidosis which developed 1-3 years before cholestasis occurred, the remaining one having intrahepatic cholestasis as the primary sign of the disease. Amyloidosis was identified from liver biopsies in all patients by its specific binding to Congo red and green birefringence in polarized light. The biochemical nature and the class of amyloid deposits were identified immunohistochemically. In addition to their regular treatment, the patients received 750 mg ursodeoxycholic acid per day. After 2-4 weeks all patients had a significant decrease of serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, and their general status significantly improved. Conclusion. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid may be beneficial in patients with hepatic amyloidosis, and do extend indications for the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in amyloidotic cholestatic liver disease.

  15. The Loss of Weight and Release of Formaldehyde in Acid Treatment of Basofil Fiber

    JIANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    The Basofil fiber is a new type of hightemperature fiber. Its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value reaches 32. It does not melt, drop down or smolder when it contacts fire. The fiber is condensed from melamine and formaldehyde into a cross-linked with methylene-ether and methylene bridge bond. This thesis discusses the change of fiber structure and performance after the acid treatment.

  16. TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER FROM PRODUCTION PROCESS OF 2,3—ACID

    FENGWenguo; SUXing; 等

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from production process of 2,3-acid was treated by adsorption using macroporous resin NDA-708.After only one-step treatment by resin adsorption,removal efficiency of three kinds of naphthalene chemicals was above 99%;removal eficiency of CODcr was above 96%.Under proper operating condition,desorptionefficiency was around 100%.The running records of the industrial facility showed that the naphthlene chemicals in desorption effluent could be reused without obvious influence on the quality of the product.

  17. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye.

    Kokke, K. H.; Morris, J A; LAWRENSON, J.

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of dry eye are commonly reported in contact lens wearers and are a frequent cause of non-tolerance. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with particular omega-6 fatty acids in the form of evening primrose oil (EPO) on subjective symptoms, ocular surface signs and tear film characteristic in patients with contact lens associated dry eye.

  18. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    See, Siew-Ju; Levin, Victor A.; Yung, W.-K. Alfred; Hess, Kenneth R.; Groves, Morris D.

    2004-01-01

    Basic science and clinical investigations have demonstrated that 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) has activity against malignant gliomas. To assess its effectiveness in the setting of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records and neuroimaging results of patients with recurrent GBM who were treated with cRA. The toxicity profile of cRA, response, and effect on progression-free survival from initiation of treatment were end points of our ana...

  19. Cancer treatment scheduling and dynamic heterogeneity in social dilemmas of tumour acidity and vasculature

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Velde, Robert Vander; Scott, Jacob G.; Basanta, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tumours are diverse ecosystems with persistent heterogeneity in various cancer hallmarks like self-sufficiency of growth factor production for angiogenesis and reprogramming of energy-metabolism for aerobic glycolysis. This heterogeneity has consequences for diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression. Methods: We introduce the double goods game to study the dynamics of these traits using evolutionary game theory. We model glycolytic acid production as a public good for all tumo...

  20. Retinoic Acid Promotes Interleukin-4 Plasmid-Dimethylsulfoxide Topical Transdermal Delivery for Treatment of Psoriasis

    Chen, Zhong-Wen; Zhang, Yin-Bing; Chen, Xaing-Jun; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Xi-Kun; Qiu, Ji; Zhang, Nan-Nan; Teng, Xiu; MAO, YONG-QIU; Liu, Chang-Yong; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that is caused by a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1-dominant immunity. It has been established as an effective treatment to counteract psoriasis by subcutaneous injection of recombinant interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-4 gene therapy by topical transdermal penetration has shown its antipsoriatic effect in mice. Retinoic acid (RA) and dimethylsulfoxide can increase the efficiency of gene transfection in the topical transdermal delivery system. Ob...

  1. Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux with Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Children

    Cerwinka, Wolfgang H.; Hal C. Scherz; Andrew J. Kirsch

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this review is to present current indications, injectable agents, techniques, success rates, complications, and potential future applications of endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Materials and Methods. The endoscopic method currently achieving one of the highest success rates is the double hydrodistention-implantation technique (HIT). This method employs dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer, which has been used in pediatric urology for ove...

  2. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H3PO4), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 oC or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38oBe, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H3PO4 at 50 oC for 2 hours, continued by rettingprocess

  3. Regulating acidity, porosity, and morphology of hierarchical SAPO-11 zeolite by aging treatment.

    Liu, Yuxiang; Xu, Lu; Lv, Yuchao; Liu, Xinmei

    2016-10-01

    A facile method to modify pore structure, acidic character, and morphology of SAPO-11 molecular sieve was proposed. Aging treatment (e.g., microwave irradiation or lyophilization) is introduced in the preparation of dry gel. It regulates the kinetics of zeolitic nucleation and growth. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N2-adsorption, temperature programmed desorption, laser particle analyzer, and (29)Si MAS NMR were employed to investigate the effects of aging treatments on SAPO-11 products. The experimental results indicate that depolymerization reaction of silicon species is enhanced aged by microwave irradiation with a higher temperature (90°C). Ratio of SM 3 to SM 2 substituting mode increases producing more strong Brønsted acid sites. Lyophilization technology, as another aging method, was employed to control the morphology of SAPO-11. Nano-sized hierarchical SAPO-11 molecular sieve (200nm in length) is obtained with an oriented growth. Activity of hydroisomerization catalysts is regulated by aging treatment. Cracking reaction attributes to a high conversion nearly 87wt% for M90. The hydroisomerization reaction is enhanced for M40 due to a large proportion of moderate acid sites. PMID:27362909

  4. Symptomatic Hypocalcemia Associated with Zoledronic Acid Treatment for Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    Abdulmohsen H. Al Elq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous bisphosphonates are widely used in the management of solid tumors, metastatic bone disease, metabolic bone diseases and hypercalcemia of malignancies. Recently, yearly intravenous injections of zoledronic acid, one of the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, have also been approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although infrequently observed, asymptomatic hypocalcemia mainly due to intravenous bisphosphonates has been documented. Here we report a female patient who exhibited profound symptomatic hypocalcemia after receiving intravenous zoledronic acid as treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The patient was not assessed for calcium status prior to the intravenous bisphosphonate therapy, and she was later found to have severe vitamin D deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with symptomatic hypocalcemia to be reported after zoledronic acid was approved for the management of osteoporosis. We highlight the importance of evaluating calcium and vitamin D levels before initiating intravenous bisphosphonate treatment, particularly in the presence of widespread vitamin D deficiency and the likelihood of future increases in the prescription of intravenous bisphosphonates.

  5. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on extraction and fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil

    Gutte Krishna B.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize extracion of flaxseed oil process by ultrasonic treatment and determination of its effect on ω-3 fatty acid. The extraction of flaxseed oil was optimized by using different solvents like methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, ethanol, hexane and dichloromethane. The ultrasonication treatment was optimized with respect to amplitude (20–80 kHz, temperature (25–40 °C, sonication time (20–80 min and solid to solvent ratio (1:5, 1:10 and 1:15 for extraction of flaxseed oil. The extracted oil was subjected to GC analysis to determine ω-3 fatty acid. The recovery of flaxseed oil was higher with hexane followed by dichloromethane. The ultrasonic treatment at frequency of 40 kHz, temperature of 30 °C, extraction time of 40 min and solid to solvent ratio: 1:10 gave best results for extraction. The ultrasonic assisted extraction improves the extraction yield by 11.5% with similar amount of solvent. The chromatograph showed that there were no significant effects on α-Linolenic acid (ω-3 by the ultrasonic assisted extraction. This will beneficial to the oil extractor to recover higher amount of oil from same amount of the raw materials.

  6. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

  7. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  8. The effect of limestone treatments on the rate of acid generation from pyritic mine gangue.

    Burt, R A; Caruccio, F T

    1986-09-01

    Surface water enters the Haile Gold Mine, Lancaster County, South Carolina by means of a small stream and is ponded behind a dam and in an abandoned pit. This water is affected by acidic drainage. In spite of the large exposures of potentially acid producing pyritic rock, the flux of acid to the water is relatively low. Nevertheless, the resulting pH values of the mine water are low (around 3.5) due to negligible buffering capacity. In view of the observed low release of acidity, the potential for acid drainage abatement by limestone ameliorants appears feasible.This study investigated the effects of limestone treatment on acid generation rates of the Haile mine pyritic rocks through a series of leaching experiments. Below a critical alkalinity threshold value, solutions of dissolved limestone were found consistently to accelerate the rate of pyrite oxidation by varying degrees. The oxidation rates were further accelerated by admixing solid limestone with the pyritic rock. However, after a period of about a month, the pyrite oxidation rate of the admixed samples declined to a level lower than that of untreated pyrite. Leachates produced by the pyrite and limestone mixtures contained little if any iron. Further, in the mixtures, an alteration of the pyrite surface was apparent.The observed behaviour of the treated pyrite appears to be related to the immersion of the pyrite grains within a high alkalinity/high pH environment. The high pH increases the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron which results in a higher concentration of ferric iron at the pyrite surface. This, in turn, increases the rate of pyrite oxidation. Above a threshold alkalinity value, the precipitation of hydrous iron oxides at the pyrite surface eventually outpaces acid generation and coats the pyrite surface, retarding the rate of pyrite oxidation. PMID:24214013

  9. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    Akif Turk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81% chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Results Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%, grade 2 in 16 (32%, grade 3 in 21 (42% and grade 4 in six (12% renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28% were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1 and 36 renal units (72% were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2. The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%. The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79% in group 1 and 29 renal units (81% in group 2 (p = 0.71. There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00. Conclusions The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure.

  10. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    Olga N. Uchakina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  11. Bioassessment of a combined chemical-biological treatment for synthetic acid mine drainage.

    Pagnanelli, F; De Michelis, I; Di Muzio, S; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2008-11-30

    In this work, ecotoxicological characteristics of synthetic samples of acid mine drainage (AMD) before and after a combined chemical-biological treatment were investigated by using Lepidium sativum and Daphnia magna. AMD treatment was performed in a two-column apparatus consisting of chemical precipitation by limestone and biological refinement by sulphate reducing bacteria. Synthetic samples of AMD before treatment were toxic for both L. sativum (germination index, G, lower than 10%) and D. magna (100% immobility) due to acid pH and presence of copper and zinc. Chemical treatment (raising pH to 5-6 and eliminating copper) generated effluents with reduced toxicity for L. sativum (G=33%), while 100% immobility was still observed for D. magna. Dynamic trends of toxicity for the first and fifth outputs of the biological column denoted a gradual improvement leading to hormesis for Lepidium (after the initial release of organic excess), while a constant residual toxicity remained for Daphnia (probably due to H(2)S produced by sulphate reducing bacteria). PMID:18394799

  12. Fractionating vacuum thermal deposition of polyaniline films. Effect of post-deposition acid-base treatment

    Nekrasov, A.A. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Ivanov, V.F. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Gribkova, O.L. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Vannikov, A.V. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation))

    1994-07-15

    Vacuum thermal evaporation of a single portion of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PAN) base powder was performed step-by-step within four temperature intervals in the 240-450 C range. The vapour was deposited on quartz and SnO[sub 2]-glass substrates, each fraction being deposited on a separate substrate. The samples obtained were subjected to cyclic contrast acid-base treatment, and UV-Vis spectra of the fractions after each treatment cycle were registered. The spectra of the as-deposited fractions appear to have little in common with conventional PAN spectra. The appearance of absorption bands essential for conventional PAN spectra is found to occur for some of the fractions only after the above treatment. This is apparently due to recombination of PAN oligomer radical fragments, formed in the course of the evaporation, resulting in restoration of PAN macromolecule structure. The recombination may be intensified by conformational changes during the acid-base treatment. Cyclic voltammetry curves for the most PAN-like fractions resemble the ones for conventional PAN. ((orig.))

  13. Preparation of Ethylcellulose Coated Gelatin Microspheres as a Multiparticulate Colonic Delivery System for 5-Aminosalicilic Acid

    Fatemeh Atyabi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the long-term management of ulcerative colitis patients, repeat dosing maybe required. Since 5-ASAis largely absorbed from the upper intestine, selective delivery of drugs into the colon may be regarded as a better method of drug delivery with fewer side effects and a higher efficacy. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate a double coated multiparticulate system for 5-ASA delivery using gelatin and ethylcellulose as the primary and secondarypolymer respectively. Gelatin microspheres containing 5-aminosalicylic acid was produced using the solvent evaporation method. Prepared gelatin microspheres were spherical, freeflowing, non-aggregated and showed no degradation in the acidic medium. Entrapment efficacy of microspheres was about 50%. Results showed that drug release was fast and complete and is affected by the amount of core material entrapped. Gelatin microspheres werethen coated by ethylcellulose using a coacervation phase separation technique. The idea for this approach was to prepare a delayed drug delivery system, in which, ethylcellulose protects particles for the first 6 h transit through the gastrointestinal tract. However, it was shown that this system could provide a suitable drug release pattern for colonic delivery of active agents, as 30% of the drug was released from the ethylcellulose-coated microcapsules within 6 h,while this amount was 90% of the loaded drug for gelatin microspheres under the same condition.

  14. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  15. Analysis of free amino acids in green coffee beans. II. Changes of the amino acid content in arabica coffees in connection with post-harvest model treatment.

    Arnold, U; Ludwig, E

    1996-10-01

    To investigate amino acid changes in green coffee beans in the post-harvest period, amino acid concentrations were determined in green beans and after modelled drying, fermentation and storage. After the drying at alternating temperatures up to maximally 40 degrees C, considerable changes in the concentrations of individual amino acids were identified. At the beginning of the storage period, significant changes in concentration were found to a minor extent. Under the condition of drying, it was mainly the concentration of glutamic acid that changed considerably. There was an increase in all the samples by 500 mg/kg dry matter on average, which corresponds to an increase of about 50% of the original value. In contrast, the concentration of aspartic acid in most of the samples decreased clearly due to drying. For the predominant part of the coffee samples, there was a significant increase in the hydrophobic amino acids Val, Phe, Ile and Leu. Changes of the quantities of other amino acids were non-uniform and only insignificant. Constant drying at 80 degrees C for most of the amino acids brought about only minor concentration changes compared to those values obtained at 40 degrees C. Modelled fermentation had no significant effect on the concentrations of the individual amino acids. After a 4-week storage of dried beans, amino acid concentrations did not change further. It is very possible that different post-harvest treatment parameters may influence the amount of aroma precursor compounds in the coffee beans. PMID:9123976

  16. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid-our experience

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We report our experience with subureteral submucosal injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux and determine the safety and efficacy in patients treated with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer. Background: Vesicoureteral reflux affects 1% of children and increases the chances of urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency. The aim of identifying and treating vesicoureteral reflux in children is to prevent occurrence of long term complications. Method: A total of sixty three patients aged between 1-21 years with grade III – V vesicoureteral reflux, who had failed on conservative treatment were considered for this study during February 2004 to May 2012.Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cysto-urethrogram (VCUG. They underwent subureteral injection of dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer. Results: Among the sixty three patients treated, 51(81% were cured with single injection while a second injection raised the cure rate to 60(95%. Conclusion: The minimally invasive treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with deflux (dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer is an effective alternative procedure to open surgical technique requiring minimal operating time with low morbidity.

  17. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  18. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  19. Comparison of limestone, dolomite and fly ash as pre-treatment agents for acid mine drainage

    Potgieter-Vermaak, S.S.; Potgieter, J.H.; Monama, P.; Van Grieken, R. [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-04-15

    The physical, chemical and biological nature of Vaal Dam water, the main source of water in Gauteng, South Africa, is often affected by underground water pollution (acid mine water) and industrial effluents. The ecological significance and detrimental effects necessitate investigations into treating the water prior to discharge into public streams. In this investigation, limestone, dolomite and fly ash were selected as pre-treatment agents based on their low cost. Simulated acid mine water containing these agents was tested using a Jar Test apparatus. Samples were analyzed before and after treatment for pH, ferrous, ferric, calcium, magnesium and sulphate ions. The study demonstrated that the quality of the water improved with an increase in the amount and surface area of the raw material dosed and an increase in contact time. It was also influenced by the chemical composition of the acid mine water and aeration. Chemical cost savings of 38% are achieved when lime is replaced with limestone, and cost savings of 23% and 48% can be accomplished when limestone is substituted with dolomite and fly ash respectively. This could result in significant savings to the gold and coal mining industries, and could lead to a mutual benefit/gain between industrialists/polluters and the public.

  20. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  1. Acid Separation, Catalytic Oxidation and Coagulation for ATC Waste Liquid Treatment

    DING Xiaoling; JIA Chunning

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to treat 2-amino-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) waste liquid effectively at present for its characteristics of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high salinity and low biodegradability. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents several kinds of physical-chemical treatment unit techniques, including acid separation, catalytic oxidation and coagulation. First of all, acid separation was adopted to precipitate relevant organics at isoelectric point. When the temperature and pH value of acid separation were controlled at about 5 ℃ and 2.2 respectively, the COD removal rate could reach 27.6%. Secondly, oxidation was used to break chemical constitution of refractory organics. The optimal reaction parameters of catalytic oxidation should be 20 ℃, pH adjusted to 5.0 and [Fe2+] 300 mg/L. Then with 5% H 2O 2 added and after one-hour reaction, the COD removal rate could achieve about 52%. Finally, coagulation was adopted to remove a portion of refractory organics, and 15% polymeric molysite flocculant was the best for the coagulation, and the COD removal rate could reach about 15%. Therefore, the proposed feasible process of physical-chemical pretreatment for ATC waste liquid could have about 70% COD removed in total.

  2. Heavy metal extraction from PCB wastewater treatment sludge by sulfuric acid

    Heavy metals contaminated wastewater sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and needs to be properly treated to prevent releasing heavy metals to the environment. In this study, the wastewater treatment sludge from a printed circuit board manufacturing plant was treated in a batch reactor by sulfuric acid to remove the contained heavy metals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration and solid to liquid ratio on the heavy metal removal efficiencies were investigated. The experimental results showed that the total and individual heavy metal removal efficiencies increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration, but decreased with increasing solid to liquid ratio. A mathematical model was developed to predict the residual sludge weights at varying sulfuric concentrations and solid to liquid ratios. The trivalent heavy metal ions, iron and chromium were more difficult to be removed than the divalent ions, copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium. For 5 g/L solid to liquid ratio, more than 99.9% of heavy metals can be removed from the sludge by treating with 0.5 M sulfuric acid in 2 h.

  3. Decontamination of polluted water by treatment with a crude humic acid blend

    Yates, L.M. III; Wandruszka, R. von (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

    1999-06-15

    The use of humic acid for contaminant extraction from environmental matrices is an attractive concept because of the natural origin of the material and its low pollution potential. The problem of availability and the need for alkaline extraction were circumvented by the use of an unrefined leonardite humic acid (LHA) material used as received. This mined product has a high humic acid content, is inexpensive, and is available in bulk. LHA, applied without alkaline extraction, was used in the decontamination of water containing organic and inorganic test pollutants. The former included pyrene, difenzoquat, and rhodamine B base, while the latter were comprised of Pb[sup 2+], Zn[sup 2+], Ni[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], As[sup 3+], Ag[sup +], and Mg[sup 2+]. Simulated acidic waste solutions were treated by both batch precipitation and column extraction, with the pollutants applied singly and as mixtures. In the precipitation procedure, commercial lime was used as the coagulant, and virtually complete removal of the metals was achieved. Pyrene and difenzoquat were also removed, but rhodamine B base was not. With LHA column elution, all three organic compounds were fully extracted from waste solutions, including those containing mixed contaminants. Removal of metals by column treatment gave encouraging results, with Pb[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], and Sr[sup 2+] being extracted most effectively.

  4. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  5. New developments in the treatment of hyperammonemia: emerging use of carglumic acid

    Marta Daniotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marta Daniotti1, Giancarlo la Marca2, Patrizio Fiorini1, Luca Filippi11Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Perinatal Medicine, “A. Meyer” University Children’s Hospital, Florence, Italy; 2Mass Spectrometry, Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology Laboratory, Neuroscience Department, “A. Meyer” University Children’s Hospital, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Hyperammonemia is a true neonatal emergency with high toxicity for the central nervous system and developmental delay. The causes of neonatal hyperammonemia are genetic defects of urea cycle enzymes, organic acidemias, lysinuric protein intolerance, hyperammonemia–hyperornithinemia–homocitrullinemia syndrome, transient hyperammonemia of the newborn, and congenital hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia. In some of these conditions the high blood ammonia levels are due to the reduction of N-acetylglutamate, an essential cofactor necessary for the function of the urea cycle, or to the reduction of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-I activity. In these cases, N-carbamylglutamate (carglumic acid can be administered together with the conventional therapy. Carglumic acid is an analog of N-acetylglutamate that has a direct action on carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-I. Its effects are reactivation of the urea cycle and reduction of plasma ammonia levels. As a consequence it improves the traditional treatment, avoiding the need of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In this review we evaluate the possible field of application of carglumic acid and its effectiveness and safety.Keywords: hyperammonemia, N-carbamylglutamate, carglumic acid, urea cycle disorder, metabolic disorders

  6. Nalidixic acid and pivmecillinam for treatment of acute lower urinary tract infections.

    Hovelius, B; Mårdh, P A; Nygaard-Pedersen, L; Wathne, B

    1985-11-01

    Women, 15-45 years of age, with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (UTI) were randomly treated with nalidixic acid (1 g X 3) or pivmecillinam (200-400 mg X 3) for three or seven days, respectively. Therapeutic failure, relapse, or reinfection occurred among 18% of 82 women, even though the isolated strains of gram-negative rods in these patients were susceptible in vitro to the antibiotics used. Therapeutic failure, i.e. no effect or at best only a minor effect on the symptoms, was registered in 10 of 13 cases of UTI caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus and treated with nalidixic acid, which was consistent with the high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) (128-512 micrograms/ml) of this antibiotic. S. saprophyticus was isolated in 9 of 12 patients during treatment with nalidixic acid. On the other hand, pivmecillinam therapy was clinically effective in 16 of 18 patients with UTI caused by S. saprophyticus, even though the MIC of mecillinam to these strains was considerably higher (8-64 micrograms/ml) than that vis-à-vis gram-negative rods. Thus the clinical effect of pivmecillinam was significantly better than that of nalidixic acid in cases of UTI caused by S. saprophyticus. The organism was not isolated from 14 patients receiving pivmecillinam therapy. PMID:4081404

  7. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of acid mine drainage waters

    This study investigated the separation of uranium and other elements in high concentrations from acid mine waters at Caldas Uranium Mining, in the southeast of Brazil, using nanofiltration membranes. Nanofiltrarion is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to removed dissolved species like uranium from acid mine water drainage was measured. Two composite aromatic polyamide commercially membranes of FilmTec/Dow were tested and it found that uranium rejections of greater than 90% and also showed potential for the separation of aluminum and manganese. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source. PMID:20430523

  9. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  10. Optimizing the productivity of acid-fracture treatments in horizontal wells

    Allen, E.

    1995-12-31

    Existing prediction methods are inadequate for unstable radial displacement, with prediction errors of up to 500%. This work provides a new theoretical basis for understanding unstable displacements in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, based on a detailed analysis of the fingering morphology and a new derivation using fractional flow theory for radial flow. Design guidelines are given to assist in optimizing the design of fingered acid-fracture treatments for horizontal wells in carbonate formations. Unstable radial displacement creates power-law (fractal) displacement patterns, for a wide range of mobility ratios, and the displacement efficiency can be expressed as a function of the mobility ratio M. The finger wavelength is a function of the Peclet number and the fracture aperture, and the detailed morphology can be understood in terms of the fluid theology. The size of the fingering zone can be predicted from the mobility ratio and Peclet number. A productivity index factor PIF can be used to compare different treatment scenarios, and thus optimise the productivity of acid-fracture treatments.

  11. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  12. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  13. Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis

    Giana da Silveira Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Actinic cheilitis (AC is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic AC were treated twice a day with topical diclofenac during a period of 30 to 180 days. The individuals were followed up every 15 days by means of clinical examination and digital photographic documentation. RESULTS: Of the 27 patients that completed the study, 12 (44% showed complete remission of the whitish plaques and exfoliative areas, and 15 (56% had partial remission of the clinical picture of cheilitis. The latter group was submitted to excision of the leukoplakic areas which diagnosis varied from mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a promising role for diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. This treatment has the advantages of not being invasive and showing few side effects.

  14. Efficacy of tepronone and folic acid in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis evaluated by the marking targeting biopsy

    裘力锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of tepronone and folic acid in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) evaluated by the marking targeting biopsy(MTB).Methods A total of 224 H.pylori negative

  15. Effect of the ascorbic acid treatment on the NADHd-positive myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Priscila de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the ascorbic acid on the myenteric neurons of diabetic rats proximal colon. Fifteen rats (90 days old) were divided into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic with ascorbic acid (DA). After 120 days of daily treatment with ascorbic acid, the intestinal segments were submitted to the NADH-diaphorase (NADHd) histochemistry technique to expose the myenteric neurons. The group DA showed a higher neuronal density (33.4 %) whe...

  16. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid Treatment on Viability and Vigor Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedling under Drought Stress

    HAMIDAH HAMAMA; ENDANG MURNIATI

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in the laboratory and the field to examine the effects of ascorbic acid treatment on germination and seedling growth under drought stress. The laboratory works consisted of two experiments and were designed to determine the critical osmotic potential of maize and to determine the optimum ascorbic acid concentration. The field study was designed to examine the effects of soaking seed in ascorbic acid on seedling growth under drought stress. Drought condition was simula...

  17. A study comparing chemical peeling using modified jessner′s solution and 15% trichloroacetic acid versus 15% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of melasma

    Safoury Omar; Zaki Nagla; El Nabarawy Eman; Farag Eman

    2009-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a symmetric progressive hyperpigmentation of the facial skin that occurs in all races but has a predilection for darker skin phenotypes. Depigmenting agents, laser and chemical peeling as classic Jessner′s solution, modified Jessner′s solution and trichloroacetic acid have been used alone and in combination in the treatment of melasma. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the therapeutic effect of combined 15% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA...

  18. A STUDY COMPARING CHEMICAL PEELING USING MODIFIED JESSNER'S SOLUTION AND 15%TRICHLOROACETIC ACID VERSUS 15% TRICHLOROACETIC ACID IN THE TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    Safoury, Omar Soliman; Zaki, Nagla Mohamed; El Nabarawy, Eman Ahmad; Farag, Eman Abas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a symmetric progressive hyperpigmentation of the facial skin that occurs in all races but has a predilection for darker skin phenotypes. Depigmenting agents, laser and chemical peeling as classic Jessner's solution, modified Jessner's solution and trichloroacetic acid have been used alone and in combination in the treatment of melasma. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the therapeutic effect of combined 15% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and modified Jessner's...

  19. False-Positive Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results In Vivo during Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment

    Mattei, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Mordini, Nicola; Cuda, Federica; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Musso, Maura; Arnelli, Aldo; Cagnassi, Sebastiano; Gallamini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Positive Platelia Aspergillus test results were observed in consecutive serum samples from an immunocompromised host during amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, and a correlation between plasmatic amoxicillin concentration and galactomannan optical density index was observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid vials tested positive for galactomannan but were negative for Aspergillus DNA.

  20. A clinical study to assess the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based procedure for treatment of premature ejaculation

    Littara, A; Palmieri, B.; Rottigni, V; Iannitti, T

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is a sexual debilitating condition affecting a large number of men worldwide and leading to important dysfunctions influencing the patients' affective and emotional life. Hyaluronic acid is a natural and safe compound that has been widely used not only in the aesthetic medicine clinic, but also for treatment of osteoarthritis. The present study shows the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based procedure for treatment of premature ejaculation. A hundred and ten male pati...

  1. Effect of intercalation of (HBO2)n and mechanochemical treatment on acid-base properties of kaolinite

    The effect of intercalation of (HBO2)n in kaolinite and mechanochemical treatment of mixtures of mineral with H3BO3 on acid-base properties of kaolinite surface was studied by potentiometric titration. It was found that intercalation of the mineral as well as mechanochemical treatment of the mixture depressed the acidity of the kaolinite surface, specifically at their combined effect. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Water Quality Based Design Guidelines for Successive Alkalinity-Producing Systems Used in the Treatment of Acidic Mine Drainage

    Jage, Christopher Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Water Quality Based Design Guidelines for Successive Alkalinity-Producing Systems Used in the Treatment of Acidic Mine Drainage by Christopher Raymond Jage Carl Zipper, Chair Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) Successive Alkalinity-Producing Systems (SAPS) have proven to be a viable alternative to chemical treatment for renovating acidic mine drainage (AMD). The lack of water quality based design guidelines, however, is believed to be a cause of the variability...

  3. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. PMID:26742620

  4. Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase as an adjuvant to sorafenib treatment of experimental liver cancer.

    Radoslav Savić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The only approved systemic treatment for unresectable HCC is the oral kinase inhibitor, sorafenib. Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM, which hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, is an orphan drug under development for the treatment of Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD. Due to the hepatotropic nature of rhASM and its ability to generate pro-apoptotic ceramide, this study evaluated the use of rhASM as an adjuvant treatment with sorafenib in experimental models of HCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro, rhASM/sorafenib treatment reduced the viability of Huh7 liver cancer cells more than sorafenib. In vivo, using a subcutaneous Huh7 tumor model, mouse survival was increased and proliferation in the tumors decreased to a similar extent in both sorafenib and rhASM/sorafenib treatment groups. However, combined rhASM/sorafenib treatment significantly lowered tumor volume, increased tumor necrosis, and decreased tumor blood vessel density compared to sorafenib. These results were obtained despite poor delivery of rhASM to the tumors. A second (orthotopic model of Huh7 tumors also was established, but modest ASM activity was similarly detected in these tumors compared to healthy mouse livers. Importantly, no chronic liver toxicity or weight loss was observed from rhASM therapy in either model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rhASM/sorafenib combination exhibited a synergistic effect on reducing the tumor volume and blood vessel density in Huh7 xenografts, despite modest activity of rhASM in these tumors. No significant increases in survival were observed from the rhASM/sorafenib treatment. The poor delivery of rhASM to Huh7 tumors may be due, at least in part, to low expression of mannose receptors. The safety and efficacy of this approach, together with the novel findings regarding enzyme targeting

  5. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  6. Nucleic Acids in Human Glioma Treatment: Innovative Approaches and Recent Results

    S. Catuogno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications, these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas.

  7. Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs): a new paradigm in the treatment of hyperkeratotic disorders.

    Verfaille, Christel J; Borgers, Marcel; van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2008-05-01

    Synthetic vitamin A derivatives, retinoids,have long been the mainstay of treatment for several disorders of keratinization, notably the ichthyoses and severe acne. Some forms of psoriasis also respond well. Their considerable power comes at a price. They have dose-limiting side effects and can be highly teratogenic, limiting their use in women of childbearing age.Thus, retinoids are used less often than their potential would warrant. However, the recent development of compounds that block the catabolism of endogenous vitamin A, called Retinioic Acid Metabolism Blocking Agents or RAMBAs, offers new possibilities. With these drugs, retinoid effects with less side effects and a reduction of the post-treatment teratogenicity period due to their favourable pharmacokinetic profile might be expected. In this review, we discuss how retinoids work, how they are metabolized and how RAMBAs influence this process. We also review the presently available data from clinical trials with RAMBAs. PMID:17941881

  8. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    equilibrium constant (Keq.) and maximum surface coverage (Γmax) were determined based on the model. In general, the ionomer showed stronger adsorption for MWCNTs (Keq. = 21 − 377 depending on treatment) comparing to Vulcan (Keq. = 18), and slightly lower monolayer coverage. The interaction was found to be...... strongly affected by surface composition, morphology, porosity and oxygen containing functional groups, which are varied with purification and functionalization treatments. The modification of the surface properties was also studied with HR-TEM, BET, porosity measurement, EDXS, XPS, Raman and TG. The......The interaction between high surface area nano-carbon catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acid (Nafion®) ionomer was studied 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F-NMR). The method was developed and improved for more...

  9. THE TREATMENT OF SALICYLIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT (NDA-100)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of salicylic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-100 resin wasinvestigated. The sorption intensity of phenol was found to be strongly dependent on pH of theaqueous phase. Equilibrium adsorption data fit to both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thecolumn adsorption showed thatthis process was suitable for the treatment of salicylic acidmanufacturing wastewater About 99.9% CODcr removal was obtained under the optimal operatingconditions. The resin could be completely regenerated with 1 BV8%(w/w) NaOH+2BV H2O, therecovery of 98.9% of the substance was reached. This process makes it possible to recover thevaluable material from the wastewater and to improve the effluent water quality.

  10. A cosmeceutical formulation based on boswellic acids for the treatment of erythematous eczema and psoriasis

    Togni S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Togni,1 Giada Maramaldi,1 Francesco Di Pierro,2 Massimo Biondi3 1Indena S.p.A., Milan, Italy; 2Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 3Dermatology Unit, ASL Piacenza, Piacenza, Italy Background: Boswellic acids (BAs show anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and asthma. A topical administration route is currently used to deliver active compounds in psoriatic and eczematous patients. In this double-blind study we compare a novel BA formulation (containing Bosexil®, INCI [International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients]: lecithin, Boswellia serrata resin extract with a placebo formulation. A third arm of the trial received a formulation of Vaccinium myrtillus seed oil, previously demonstrated as an effective local treatment for psoriatic lesions. Methods: Patients with psoriasis or erythematous eczema were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to Bosexil®, V. myrtillus seed oil, or placebo. In order to evaluate the effects of treatment, the changes of scales and erythema from diagnosis to the end of treatment were scored in psoriatic patients, while changes in itch and erythema were analyzed for erythematous eczema patients. Psoriasis Area Severity Index and Eczema Area and Severity Index scores were also calculated. Results: In patients with psoriasis, scales and erythema improved both with Bosexil® and the V. myrtillus seed oil treatment in comparison with placebo. In particular, the treatment with Bosexil® formulation improved scales (70% of cases and erythema (50% of cases without any case of worsening. In patients with eczema, the administration of placebo did not result in any improvement in 90% of cases, and in the remaining 10% worsened both itch and erythema. Bosexil® formulation improved both itch (60% of cases and erythema (60% of cases without any case of worsening. V. myrtillus seed oil improved itch and erythema in 66.7% and 77.8% of patients

  11.  Kynurenic acid – a new tool in the treatment of hiperhomocysteinemia and its consequences?

    Patrycja Nowicka-Stążka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Atherosclerosis together with its cardiovascular consequences is the most common and significant cause of death, particularly in highly developed countries. The process of atherogenesis begins as soon as in childhood and depends on classical risk factors. Atherosclerosis also results from a chronic inflammatory-immune process which takes place in the vascular walls. Furthermore, it has been known for a number of years that the development of atherosclerotic lesions is closely connected with the concentration of homocysteine in serum. Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid originating from methionine.An increased concentration of homocysteine in blood harmfully influences blood vessels, leading to a higher risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. Since tackling classical atherosclerosis risk factors is not efficient enough when it comes to protecting the cardiovascular system from diseases, new substances possessing anti-atherogenic properties, especially endogenous ones, are sought.Recently, researchers have paid attention to a connection between homocysteine and an endogenous tryptophan derivative, kynurenic acid. Recently, it was revealed that kynurenic acid counteracts the harmful effects of homocysteine on endothelium cells in vitro. The hypothesis assuming homocysteine-kynurenate interplay suggests the existence of a new mechanism of atherogenesis and gives us an opportunity to use this knowledge in both prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L-1 in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL-1 and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L-1. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO2. (author)

  13. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    Xavier, Katiane Cruz Magalhaes; Santos, Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos; Santos, Maria Rita Morais Chaves; Oliveira, Marilia Evelyn Rodrigues; Osajima, Josy Antevelli; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L{sup -1} in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L{sup -1}. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO{sub 2}. (author)

  14. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  15. Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux with Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid in Children

    Andrew J. Kirsch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this review is to present current indications, injectable agents, techniques, success rates, complications, and potential future applications of endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children. Materials and Methods. The endoscopic method currently achieving one of the highest success rates is the double hydrodistention-implantation technique (HIT. This method employs dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer, which has been used in pediatric urology for over 10 years and may be at present the first choice injectable agent due to its safety and efficacy. Results. While most contemporary series report cure rates of greater than 85% for primary VUR, success rates of complicated cases of VUR may be, depending on the case, significantly lower. Endoscopic treatment offers major advantages to patients while avoiding potentially complicated open surgery. As the HIT method continues to be applied to complex cases of VUR and more outcome data become available, the indication for endoscopic treatment may exceed the scope of primary VUR. Conclusions. Endoscopic injection is emerging as the treatment of choice for VUR in children.

  16. The use of constructed wetlands in the treatment of acid mine drainage

    US government regulations require that all effluents from industrial operations, including mining, meet certain water quality standards. Constructed wetlands have proven to be useful in helping to attain those standards. Application of this biotechnology to mine water drainage can reduce water treatment costs and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water drainage from abandoned mines. Over 400 constructed wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands largely as a result of research by the US Bureau of Mines. Wetlands are passive biological treatment systems that are relatively inexpensive to construct and require minimal maintenance. Chemical treatment costs are reduced sufficiently to repay the cost of construction in less than a year. The mine waste water is typically treated in a series of excavated ponds that resemble small marsh areas. The ponds are engineered to facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron. Ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate supporting a population of sulphate-reducing bacteria which raises the pH. Constructed wetlands in the USA are described - their history, functions, construction methodologies, applicabilities, limitations and costs. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs

  17. Electrochemical treatment of Acid Red 1 by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes

    Camilo González-Vargas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small volumes (100 mL of acidic aqueous solutions with 30-200 mg L-1 TOC of the toxic azo dye Acid Red 1 (AR1 have been comparatively treated by various electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs. The electrolytic system consisted of a BDD anode able to produce ·OH and an air-diffusion cathode that generated H2O2, which subsequently reacted with added Fe2+ to yield additional ·OH from Fenton’s reaction. Under optimized conditions (i.e., 1.0 mM Fe2+, 60 mA cm-2, pH 3.0, 35 ºC, the analysis of the initial rates for decolourization and AR1 decay assuming a pseudo-first-order kinetics revealed a much higher rate constant for photoelectro-Fenton (PEF, ~ 2.7x10-3 s-1 compared to electro-Fenton (EF, ~ 0.6x10-3 s-1. Mineralization after 180 min was also greater in the former treatment (90 % vs 63 %. The use of UV radiation in PEF contributed to Fe(III photoreduction as well as to photodecarboxylation of refractory intermediates, yielding a mineralization current efficiency as high as 85% during the treatment of solutions of 200 mg L-1 TOC. Primary reaction intermediates included three aromatic derivatives with the initial naphthalenic structure and four molecules only featuring benzenic rings, which were totally mineralized in PEF. 

  18. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP > HPOP > OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na+ in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper

  19. Inhaled hyaluronic acid as ancillary treatment in children with bacterial acute rhinopharyngitis.

    Varricchio, A; Capasso, M; Avvisati, F; Varricchio, A M; De Lucia, A; Brunese, F P; Ciprandi, G

    2014-01-01

    Acute rhinopharyngitis (ARP) is the most common upper respiratory infection in children and represents a social problem for both the pharmaco-economic impact and a burden for the family. Topical antibiotic therapy is usually effective in bacterial ARP, but ancillary treatment might improve its efficacy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising molecule that has been recently proposed in upper respiratory disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ancillary HA treatment in children with bacterial ARP. Globally, 51 children (27 males, mean age 5.9 ± 2.1 years) with bacterial ARP were enrolled in the study. At baseline, children were randomly assigned to the treatment with: 125 mg of thiamphenicol diluted in 4 mL of saline isotonic solution twice daily (group A) or with 125 mg of thiamphenicol plus 4 ml of sodium hyaluronate 0.2% plus xylitol 5% (Aluneb, Sakura Italia) twice daily (group B) administered by the nasal device Rinowash (Airliquide Medical System, Italy) and connected to an aerosol nebulizer with pneumatic compressor (1.5 bar per 5 L/min) Nebula (Airliquide Medical System, Italy), for 10 days. sVAS, nasopharyngeal spotting, neutrophils and bacteria were assessed at baseline and after the treatment. Both treatments induced significant reduction of symptom perception, spotting, neutrophil and bacteria count. However, thiamphenicol plus HA was able to significantly induce a greater effect on sVAS (p=0.006), neutrophil count (p=0.01), and bacteria count (p=0.0003) than thiamphenicol alone. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that intranasal HA, as ancillary treatment, may be able to improve topical antibiotic efficacy in children with bacterial ARP. PMID:25316142

  20. Tranexamic acid in surgical treatment of scoliosis in children: A case report

    Rakić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Children who are subjected to surgical treatment for scoliosis usually end up receiving a lot of blood transfusions since they tend to lose one or more blood volumes during the surgery. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent, increasingly used in children to reduce perioperative blood loss in various settings, including corrective surgery of scoliosis. Case Report. A 12-year-old girl, weighing 44 kg, was admitted to our hospital for scoliosis correction. She had congenital scoliosis caused by congenital malformation of vertebrae. The surgery was performed under balanced general anesthesia. Two central and one peripheral line were cannulated in case massive transfusion would be required. Invasive monitoring was used, as well as prevention of hypothermia. Since massive blood loss was expected, bolus of tranexamic acid had been administered prior to the surgery. Tranexamic acid was given continuously in an intravenous infusion during the surgery. Blood loss was only 10 ml/kg, and since the hemoglobin value was borderline (89 g/l during the surgery, the patient received 10 ml/kg of packed red blood cells. The child was hemodynamically stable throughout the surgery. After the completion of surgery, which lasted for 5 hours, the patient was extubated in the operating room. Postoperatively, the patient was transferred to the surgical ward. Hemoglobin values were stable and there was no need for additional blood replacement. Conclusion. Extensive blood loss is common in pediatric scoliosis correction surgery, transfusion being unavoidable in the majority of cases. In our patient, tranexamic acid proved safe and effective in reducing peri-operative blood loss and transfusion requirement.

  1. Geochemical modelling of EGS fracture stimulation applying weak and strong acid treatments

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Sif Pind Aradottir, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Engineered Geothermal systems (EGS) provide geothermal power by tapping into the Earth's deep geothermal resources that are otherwise not exploitable due to lack of water and fractures, location or rock type. EGS technologies have the potential to cost effectively produce large amounts of electricity almost anywhere in the world. The EGS technology creates permeability in the rock by hydro-fracturing the reservoir with cold water pumped into the first well (the injection well) at a high pressure. The second well (the production well) intersects the stimulated fracture system and returns the hot water to the surface where electricity can be generated. A significant technological hurdle is ensuring effective connection between the wells and the fracture system and to control the deep-rooted fractures (can exceed 5 000 m depth). A large area for heat transfer and sufficient mass flow needs to be ensured between wells without creating fast flowing paths in the fracture network. Maintaining flow through the fracture system can cause considerable energy penalty to the overall process. Therefore, chemical methods to maintain fractures and prevent scaling can be necessary to prevent excessive pressure build up in the re-injection wells of EGS systems. The effect of different acid treatments on the porosity development of selected rock types was simulated with the aid of the Petrasim interface to the Toughreact simulation code. The thermodynamic and kinetic database of Aradottir et al. (2014) was expanded to include new minerals and the most important fluoride bearing species involved in mineral reactions during acid stimulation of geothermal systems. A series of simulations with injection waters containing fluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and CO2 or mixtures thereof were then carried out and porosity development in the fracture system monitored. The periodic injection of weak acid mixtures into EGS systems may be cost effective in some isolated cases to prevent pressure

  2. Improving the Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Cut Alstroemeria Flowers by Pre and Post-harvest Salicylic Acid Treatments

    Elnaz SOLEIMANY-FARD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping quality and length of vase life are important factors for evaluation of cut flowers quality, for both domestic and export markets. Studding the effect of pre- and post-harvest salicylic acid applications on keeping quality and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers during vase period is the approach taken. Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM were sprayed to run-off (approximately 500 mL per plant, about two weeks before flowers harvest. The cut flowers were harvested in the early morning and both of cut flowers treated (sprayed and untreated were kept in vase solutions containing salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM. Sucrose at 4% was added to all treatments as a base solution. The changes in relative fresh weight, water uptake, water loss, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life were estimated during vase period. The results showed that the relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life decreased significantly while the water loss increased significantly during experiment for all treatments. A significant difference between salicylic acid and control treatments in all measured parameters is observed. During vase period, the salicylic acid treatments maintained significantly a more favourable relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and supressed significantly water loss, as compared to control treatment. Also, the results showed that the using salicylic acid increased significantly the vase life cut alstroemeria flowers, over control. The highest values of measured parameters were found when plants were treated by pre + post-harvest application of salicylic acid at 3 mM. The result revealed that the quality attributes and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers were improved by the use of salicylic acid treatment.

  3. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  4. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD

  5. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD. PMID:16375949

  6. Effect of pre and post treatment of ascorbic acid on wheat and maize seeds exposed to gamma radiation

    Seeds treated with and grown in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) showed reduction in germination, seedling height and chlorophyll content. The LD50 of AA was found to be 0.7 M and 10 M for wheat and maize, respectively. Pre-irradiation treatment of the seeds with ascorbic acid showed relatively increased germination, seedling height and chlorophyll content compared to that of AA treatment after irradiation. The protection rendered by the pre-treatment of AA may be due to AA acting as a free radical scavenger and thus protecting seeds from radiation induced damages. (author)

  7. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  8. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Ristić Vanja I.; Ristić Gordana N.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid...

  9. Significant improvement in the pore properties of SBA-15 brought about by carboxylic acids and hydrothermal treatment

    Milan Kanti Naskar; M Eswaramoorthy

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of the pore properties of SBA-15 samples prepared under nonhydrothermal and hydrothermal conditions, in the absence and presence of carboxylic acids such as succinic, tartaric and citric acids has been carried out. In the absence of carboxylic acid, flake-like and spheroid particles were generally obtained irrespective of the preparative procedures. On the other hand, stirring of the pre-mix induces a rod-like morphology in presence of carboxylic acids. The samples prepared under non-hydrothermal conditions exhibit a higher degree of silicate condensation compared to those synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. SBA-15 samples prepared under hydrothermal conditions show higher values of the d (100) spacing independent of the presence of carboxylic acids. Presence of carboxylic acids as well as hydrothermal treatment improves the pore properties of SBA-15.

  10. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  11. Recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids from cornstalk at different hydrothermal treatment severity.

    Zhu, Zhangbing; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Si, Buchun; Shen, Ruixia; Lu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degradation of cornstalk and recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at different hydrothermal treatment severity (HTS) (4.17-8.28, 190-320°C). The highest recovery of reducing sugars and VFAs reached 92.39% of aqueous products, equal to 34.79% based on dry biomass (HTS, 6.31). GC-MS and HPLC identified that the aqueous contained furfural (0.35-2.88 g/L) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0-0.85 g/L) besides reducing sugars and VFAs. Hemicellulose and cellulose were completely degraded at a HTS of 5.70 and 7.60, respectively. SEM analysis showed that cornstalk was gradually changed from rigid and highly ordered fibrils to molten and grainy structure as HTS increased. FT-IR and TGA revealed the significant changes of organic groups for cornstalk before and after hydrothermal treatment at different HTS. Hydrothermal treatment might be promising for providing feedstocks suitable for biohythane production. PMID:26316401

  12. Photoluminescence Enhancement and Structure Repairing of Monolayer MoSe 2 by Hydrohalic Acid Treatment

    Han, Hau-Vei

    2015-12-30

    Atomically thin two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted much attention recently due to their unique electronic and optical properties for future optoelectronic devices. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is able to generate TMDCs layers with a scalable size and a controllable thickness. However, the TMDC monolayers grown by CVD may incorporate structural defects, and it is fundamentally important to understand the relation between photoluminescence and structural defects. In this report, point defects (Se vacancies) and oxidized Se defects in CVD-grown MoSe2 monolayers are identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These defects can significantly trap free charge carriers and localize excitons, leading to the smearing of free band-to-band exciton emission. Here, we report that the simple hydrohalic acid treatment (such as HBr) is able to efficiently suppress the trap-state emission and promote the neutral exciton and trion emission in defective MoSe2 monolayers through the p-doping process, where the overall photoluminescence intensity at room temperature can be enhanced by a factor of 30. We show that HBr treatment is able to activate distinctive trion and free exciton emissions even from highly defective MoSe2 layers. Our results suggest that the HBr treatment not only reduces the n-doping in MoSe2 but also reduces the structural defects. The results provide further insights of the control and tailoring the exciton emission from CVD-grown monolayer TMDCs.

  13. Acid gas injection: Another approach of acid gas treatment%酸气回注——酸气处理的另一途径

    John J.Carroll; Shouxi Wang; 汤林

    2009-01-01

    目前在北美,很多生产富含硫化氢和二氧化碳的天然气公司均采用一种新技术处理其废气,该废气的主要成分为硫化氢和二氧化碳,故称为"酸气".这种处理酸气的过程被称为酸气回注系统,其过程主要涉及酸气压缩、输送以及注入地下储存层.这种酸气回注技术解决了地面硫的回收和二氧化碳排放对空气污染的问题,已经逐渐成为一种切实可行的酸气处理方法.为此,针对不同回注酸气流的组成,分别从回注酸气的地层、回注酸气的管道、酸气流体相包络曲线、酸气压缩机、酸气含水量和压缩机操作过程中的注意事项等方面全面介绍了酸气回注技术及酸气回注系统的设计要点.该方法是酸气处理的另一条途经.%At present, many sour natural gas producers in North America adopt a new technology to deal with the waste gas, so-called acid gas, which mainly contains H_2S and CO_2. The acid gas treatment technology is also called acid gas injection system, the process of which involves the compression, transportation, and subsurface injection of acid gas stream. This technology has become a feasible and practical method of acid gas treatment which has solved the problems of sulfur recovery and carbon dioxide emission. According to different compositions of acid gas stream, acid gas injection design requires many sides of considerations including the underground stratum and pipes of acid flooding, the envelop curve of acid gas stream, the acid gas compressor, the water content in acid gas, and the operation process of the compressor, etc. This new technology has been proved to be another good approach of dealing with acid gas in fields.

  14. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid Treatment on Viability and Vigor Maize (Zea mays L. Seedling under Drought Stress

    HAMIDAH HAMAMA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratory and the field to examine the effects of ascorbic acid treatment on germination and seedling growth under drought stress. The laboratory works consisted of two experiments and were designed to determine the critical osmotic potential of maize and to determine the optimum ascorbic acid concentration. The field study was designed to examine the effects of soaking seed in ascorbic acid on seedling growth under drought stress. Drought condition was simulated by PEG-6000 and regulation of water treatment. During the first experiment, interactions of both osmotic potential and varieties were significant at all variables. Germination percentage and speed of germination were significantly decreased by increasing of osmotic potential. The second experiment showed that interactions of both factors were significant at all variables except vigor index, the length of shoot, primary, and seminal root. The results showed that the ascorbic acid treatment improved the germination percentage, the speed of germination and the vigor index compared with the control, besides the increase in length of shoot, primary and seminal root and number of seminal root. However, the best result was showed by 55 mM ascobic acid. The result of field experiment showed that interactions were not always significant and 55 mM ascorbic acid treatment increased the seedling height, the number of leaves and leaf area but it had no effect on the water deficit and the root length.

  15. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions. PMID:20719502

  16. Improvement in ionic conductivities of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) by treatment with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid

    Anna Gogoi; Neelotpal Sen Sarma

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis, characterization and improved ionic conductivities of the salts of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid are reported here. In this study, the alternating current conductivity measurements were carried out within the temperature range of 30–90° C and the frequency range of 1 Hz–100 kHz in solid state. A two- to three-fold increase in conductivity was observed for vinyl acetic acid salt whereas one- to twofold increase was observed for crotonic acid salt. The ionic transport numbers of the salts were measured with the help of the Wagner polarization technique which reveals that the percentage of ionic character of the salts are significantly higher compared with the polymer. The percentage of water uptake by the polymer and its salts were also observed.

  17. A new amino acid mixture permits new approaches to the treatment of phenylketonuria.

    Buist, N R; Prince, A P; Huntington, K L; Tuerck, J M; Waggoner, D D

    1994-12-01

    A new amino acid mixture for incorporation into medical foods for the treatment of hyperphenylalaninemia has been tested in a regular clinic. The mix is designed to be as unobtrusive as possible, consistent with good nutrition. After more than 1 year of trial as a beverage, we have shown that it is safe and well tolerated but that plasma phenylalanine is no better controlled than with some other products. The mix can be incorporated into a large number of different foods without affecting the taste. Occult monitoring of the quantity of medical foods purchased compared with the amounts reported to be consumed in diet histories provides an excellent way to monitor dietary compliance. PMID:7766965

  18. Combined endoscopic and ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of biliary cast syndrome in a non-transplant patient

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Grigoris Chatzimavroudis; Ioannis Pilpilidis; George Paroutoglou; Jannis Kountouras; Christos Zavos

    2008-01-01

    A 76-year-old diabetic man underwent cholecystectomy for gangrenous calculous cholecystitis.His postoperative course was complicated by the development of Candida albicans esophagitis necessitating antifungal therapy,and total parenteral nutrition(TPN)for 15 d.Seven weeks after cholecystectomy,he presented with cholangitis.Endoscopic retrograde ch0Iangiopancreatography(ERCP)demonstrated extrahepatic filling defects.Despite endoscopic extraction of a biliary cast,cholestasis remained unchanged.Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA),750 mg/d,resulted in normalization of liver function tests.We,therefore,propose for the first time,combined endoscopic plus UDCA treatment for the management of biliary cast syndrome.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All righis reserved.

  19. Acid ceramidase and the treatment of ceramide diseases: The expanding role of enzyme replacement therapy.

    Schuchman, Edward H

    2016-09-01

    Ceramides are a diverse group of sphingolipids that play important roles in many biological processes. Acid ceramidase (AC) is one key enzyme that regulates ceramide metabolism. Early research on AC focused on the fact that it is the enzyme deficient in the rare genetic disorder, Farber Lipogranulomatosis. Recent research has revealed that deficiency of the same enzyme is responsible for a rare form of spinal muscular atrophy associated with myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME). Due to their diverse role in biology, accumulation of ceramides also has been implicated in the pathobiology of many other common diseases, including infectious lung diseases, diabetes, cancers and others. This has revealed the potential of AC as a therapy for many of these diseases. This review will focus on the biology of AC and the potential role of this enzyme in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27155573

  20. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial.

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Moretti, Lorenzo; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Fiore, Alessandra; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-03-01

    Until now glucosamine sulfate (GS) has been the most widely used supplement and has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and boswellic acids (BA) are new effective supplements for the management of inflammation and joint degeneration, according to previous experimental studies. The aim of our study is to test the effectiveness of association of MSM and BA in comparison with GS in knee arthritis.In this prospective randomized clinical trial, MEBAGA (Methylsulfonylmethane and Boswellic Acids versus Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee Arthritis), 120 participants affected by arthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to an experimental group (MB group) or a control group (GS group) treated for 60 days with 5 g of MSM and 7.2 mg of BA or with 1500 mg of GS daily, respectively. At the 2-month (T1) and 6-months (T2) follow-up , the efficacy of these two nutraceuticals was assessed using the visual analog pain scale (VAS) and the Lequesne Index (LI) for joint function, along with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-cyclooxygenase-2).The repeated measures ANOVA analysis shows that for VAS, LI, and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs scores there are improvements due to the time in the two groups (respectively, F=26.0; P<0.0001; F=4.15; P=0.02; F=3.38; P=0.04), with a tendency to better values for the MB group at T2.On the basis of these preliminary data, we could support the efficacy of the MSM in association with BA in the treatment of OA. These results are consistent with the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects previously occurred in experimental studies. This new combination of integration (MSM and BS) has presented good results and satisfactory in comparison with GS, until now the cornerstone of the treatment of arthritis in according to guidelines. PMID:26684635

  1. Flaxseed treatments to reduce biohydrogenation of alpha-linolenic acid by rumen microbes in cattle.

    Kronberg, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Murphy, E J

    2007-12-01

    Enrichment of beef muscle with n-3 fatty acids (FA) is one means to introduce these FA into the diet, but ruminal biohydrogenation limits their bioavailability. To address this problem, we evaluated the ability of condensed tannin (quebracho), in the presence or absence of casein, to protect 18:3n-3 in flaxseed from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes in cattle using an in vitro fermentation approach coupled with evaluation in cattle in vivo. Treated and untreated flaxseed was incubated with bovine rumen fluid for 0 and 24 h. With tannin treated flaxseed, hydrogenation of 18:3n-3 was limited to only 13% over 24 h compared to 43% for untreated flaxseed, while addition of casein to the tannin added no additional protection. To determine if a similar level of protection would occur in vivo, we used two groups of five steers fed either a grain-based or forage-based diet. Five steers were given a grain-based diet during the trial and were fed either ground flaxseed or tannin treated flaxseed for 15 days prior to blood collection for plasma lipid fatty acid analysis. The forage fed steers followed the same regimen. Ingestion of tannin-treated flaxseed did not increase 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in plasma neutral lipids as compared to non-treated flaxseed. Thus, we demonstrated that treating ground flaxseed with quebracho tannin is not useful for increasing 18:3n-3 in the neutral lipid of bovine blood plasma, and suggest caution when interpreting results from in vitro trials that test potential treatments for protecting fatty acids from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes. PMID:17985170

  2. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  3. Improved photovoltaic performances by post-deposition acidic treatments on tetrapod shaped colloidal nanocrystal solids

    The ligand exchange reaction with pyridine is the standard procedure for the integration of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) in photovoltaic devices; however, for large sized and irregularly shaped branched NCs, such as CdSe-CdTe tetrapods, this procedure can lead to a considerable waste of materials and the aggregation of NCs in the colloidal solution, therefore resulting in the formation of an inhomogeneous film and low device performances. Here, we report on alternative post-deposition treatments with carboxylic acids on films of CdSe-CdTe tetrapod shaped NCs. This approach guarantees the removal of the insulating surfactant, necessary to obtain good charge transport among NCs, while preserving the film integrity. We perform a complete characterization of the nanocrystalline films treated with different carboxylic acids and demonstrate the successful integration of such films in photovoltaic devices, showing a doubled efficiency with respect to the standard ligand exchange procedure. Our approach represents a general route towards the development of NC based devices with improved performances and minimized waste of material. (paper)

  4. Modeling and optimization of ammonia treatment by acidic biochar using response surface methodology

    Narong Chaisongkroh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission of ammonia (NH3 contaminated waste air to the atmosphere without treatment has affected humans andenvironment. Eliminating NH3 in waste air emitted from industries is considered an environmental requisite. In this study,optimization of NH3 adsorption time using acidic rubber wood biochar (RWBs impregnated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 wasinvestigated. The central composite design (CCD in response surface methodology (RSM by the Design Expert softwarewas used for designing the experiments as well as the full response surface estimation. The RSM was used to evaluate theeffect of adsorption parameters in continuous mode of fixed bed column including waste air flow rate, inlet NH3 concentration in waste air stream, and H2SO4 concentration for adsorbent surface modification. Based on statistical analysis, the NH3symmetric adsorption time (at 50% NH3 removal efficiency model proved to be very highly significant (p<0.0001. The optimum conditions obtained were 300 ppmv inlet NH3 concentration, 72% H2SO4, and 2.1 l/min waste air flow rate. This resultedin 219 minutes of NH3 adsorption time as obtained from the predicted model, which fitted well with the laboratory verification result. This was supported by the high value of coefficient of determination (R2=0.9137. (NH42SO4, a nitrogen fertilizerfor planting, was the by-product from chemical adsorption between NH3 and H2SO4.

  5. Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) for treatment of cancer and dermatological diseases.

    Njar, Vincent C O; Gediya, Lalji; Purushottamachar, Puranik; Chopra, Pankaj; Vasaitis, Tadas Sean; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Mehta, Jhalak; Huynh, Carlic; Belosay, Aashvini; Patel, Jyoti

    2006-07-01

    The naturally occurring retinoids and their synthetic analogs play a key role in differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and their use/potential in oncology, dermatology and a variety of diseases are well documented. This review focuses on the role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the principal endogenous metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) and its metabolism in oncology and dermatology. ATRA has been used successfully in differentiated therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia, skin cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and also in the treatment of acne and psoriasis. However, its usefulness is limited by the rapid emergence of acquired ATRA resistance involving multifactoral mechanisms. A key mechanism of resistance involves ATRA-induced catabolism of ATRA. Thus, a novel strategy to overcome the limitation associated with exogenous ATRA therapy has been to modulate and/or increase the levels of endogenous ATRA by inhibiting the cytochrome P450-dependent ATRA-4-hydroxylase enzymes (particularly CYP26s) responsible for ATRA metabolism. These inhibitors are also referred to as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs). This review highlights development in the design, synthesis, and evaluation of RAMBAs. Major emphasis is given to liarozole, the most studied and only RAMBA in clinical use and also the new RAMBAs in development and with clinical potential. PMID:16530416

  6. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  7. Improvement Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw for Bioethanol Production by Combined Treatment of Radiation and Acid

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The cost of ethanol production from starch and sucrose for use as a vehicle fuel is ultimately high. Consequently, it has been suggested that the large-scale use of ethanol as a fuel will require the utilization of cellulosic feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as a low cost and renewable feedstock for bioconversion into fermentable sugars, which can be further utilized for biofuel production. It is estimated that there is over one billion tons of biomass available for conversion into biofuels on a renewable basis to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Among different pretreatment methods such as biological, physical, chemical, and physic-chemical pretreatments, chemical pretreatment using dilute acid as catalyst, which has been extensively evaluated for treating a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, is reported as one of the leading pretreatment technologies. Ionizing radiation can easily penetrate lignocellulosic structure and undoubtedly produce free radicals useful in modification of lignin structure as well as breakdown cellulose crystal regions. Phenoxy radicals appeared to be important radical intermediates that ultimately transformed into o-quinonoid structures in lignin. Therefore, ionizing radiation such as gamma ray and electron beam can be a great alternative. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation of wheat straw prior to dilute sulfuric acid treatment is investigated. The combined pretreatment for wheat straw was performed to evaluate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and compared with that of the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis by individual pretreatment

  8. Nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid: a new treatment option in metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    Ur Rehman, Sana Saif; Lim, Kian; Wang-Gillam, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly disease with half of patients diagnosed in the metastatic setting. Until recently, patients after progression on front-line gemcitabine-based regimen had no standard second-line option, although flouropyrimidine-based regimens were frequently used in this setting. Encapsulation of chemotherapeutics in liposomal formulation is an effective way of prolonging drug deposition thereby enhancing cytotoxic efficacy. In a large phase III randomized trial on metastatic PDAC patients who progressed after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, a novel nanoliposome-encapsulated irinotecan (PEP02, MM-398, nal-IRI, Onivyde, Merrimack, Boston, US) plus fluorouracil and folinic acid demonstrated a significant survival advantage compared to fluorouracil and folinic acid alone. This pivotal study led to the recent FDA approval of nanoliposomal irinotecan in patients with metastatic PDAC. In this article, we will review the literature regarding existing treatment options for metastatic PDAC, focusing specifically on nanoliposomal irinotecan in the clinical setting and its future implication. PMID:27043737

  9. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  10. Sweet’s syndrome during the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid

    Park, Chi Jun; Bae, Young Deok; Choi, Ji Yong; Heo, Pil Seog; Lee, Keun Seok; Park, Young Suk; Lee, Jung-Ae

    2001-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the standard induction treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Quite many ATRA-related side effects, including retinoic acid syndrome, were reported. So far, it has rarely been reported that Sweet’s syndrome, characterized by fever, neutrophilia, painful erythematous cutaneous plaques, dense dermal infiltrates of mature neutrophils and rapid response to steroid therapy, is associated with ATRA. In the case that Sweet’s syndrome associated with ATRA ...

  11. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in treatment of urinary tract infection due to gram-negative bacteria resistant to penicillin.

    Martinelli, R; A.A. Lopes; Oliveira, M.M.; Rocha, H

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two adult patients with urinary tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant bacteria completed treatment with amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Of the 13 patients treated with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, the absence of bacteriuria within 7 days of therapy was observed in 85%, as compared with only 25% of the 8 patients receiving amoxicillin only. There were no significant side effects nor any clinical, biochemic...

  12. Differential effects of jasmonic acid treatment of Brassica nigra on the attraction of pollinators, parasitoids, and butterflies

    Bruinsma, M.; IJdema, H.; Loon, van, J.Th.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of herbivores as well as that of their natural enemies. Jasmonic acid is one of the key hormones involved in both these direct and indirect induced defences. Jasmonic acid treatment of plants changes the composition of defence chemicals in the plants, induces volatile emission, and increases the production of extrafloral nectar. However, few studies have addressed the potential influence of induced defences on flower nectar chemistry an...

  13. Influence of Dilute Acetic Acid Treatments on Survival of Monoecious Hydrilla Tubers in the Oregon House Canal, California

    Spencer, David F.; Ksander, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.)Royle), a serious aquatic weed, reproduces through formation of underground tubers. To date, attacking this life-cycle stage has been problematic. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of exposure to dilute acetic acid on monoecious hydrilla tubers under field conditions. In this field experiment, treatments were acetic acid concentration (0, 2.5, or 5%) and sediment condition (perforated or not perforated). Each of 60, 1x1 m plots (in t...

  14. Bile Acid-Activated Receptors, Intestinal Microbiota, and the Treatment of Metabolic Disorders.

    Fiorucci, Stefano; Distrutti, Eleonora

    2015-11-01

    The composition of the bile acid pool is a function of the microbial metabolism of bile acids in the intestine. Perturbations of the microbiota shape the bile acid pool and modulate the activity of bile acid-activated receptors (BARs) even beyond the gastrointestinal tract, triggering various metabolic axes and altering host metabolism. Bile acids, in turn, can also regulate the composition of the gut microbiome at the highest taxonomic levels. Primary bile acids from the host are preferential ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), while secondary bile acids from the microbiota are ligands for G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1). In this review, we examine the role of bile acid signaling in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and how changes in bile acid composition affect human metabolism. Bile acids may offer novel therapeutic modalities in inflammation, obesity, and diabetes. PMID:26481828

  15. Acidity control of the oxidation reactions induced by non-thermal plasma treatment of aqueous effluents in pollutant abatement processes

    The acid properties of a non-thermal plasma in humid air (e.g., a gliding arc device) induced in an aqueous solution may deeply affect the efficiency of the matching oxidising properties, especially when the aqueous targets involve organic solutes. Hence, their oxidation rate may be strongly modified. A series of buffers is proposed to control the pH of aqueous target for at least one-hour treatments. The selected acid-base systems were selected for their inertia towards oxidation reaction, to cover a very large range of acidity. The reported results are essential from both fundamental and applied points of view. They first allow the acute controlling of the degradation rate of organic compounds. They also enable estimating the efficiency of the gliding arc treatments in environmental applications. Besides, they allow getting reliable data on the bactericidal effect on the plasma treatments, which are a merging application of the electric discharges. (author)

  16. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  17. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Ristić Vanja I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

  18. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water. PMID:21819089

  19. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  20. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.

    Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted. PMID:21168957

  1. Wine wastes as carbon source for biological treatment of acid mine drainage.

    Costa, M C; Santos, E S; Barros, R J; Pires, C; Martins, M

    2009-05-01

    Possible use of wine wastes containing ethanol as carbon and energy source for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and activity in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) is studied for the first time. The experiments were performed using anaerobic down-flow packed bed reactors in semi-continuous systems. The performance of two bioreactors fed with wine wastes or ethanol as carbon sources is compared in terms of sulphate reduction, metals removal and neutralization. The results show that efficient neutralization and high sulphate removal (>90%) were attained with the use of wine wastes as substrate allowing the production of effluents with concentrations below the required local legislation for irrigation waters. This is only possible provided that the AMD and wine wastes are contacted with calcite tailing, a waste material that neutralizes and provides buffer capacity to the medium. The removal of metals using wine wastes as carbon source was 61-91% for Fe and 97% for both Zn and Cu. The lower removal of iron, when wine waste is used instead of ethanol, may be due to the presence of iron-chelating compounds in the waste, which prevent the formation of iron sulphide, and partial unavailability of sulphide because of re-oxidation to elemental sulphur. However, that did not affect significantly the quality of the effluent for irrigation. This work demonstrates that wine wastes are a potential alternative to traditional SRB substrates. This finding has direct implication to sustainable operation of SRB bioreactors for AMD treatment. PMID:19201010

  2. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  3. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    Vaiopoulou, E., E-mail: vaiop@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Melidis, P., E-mail: pmelidis@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Aivasidis, A., E-mail: aavazid@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO{sub 2} content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  4. Influence of pH-control in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Highlights: • The photocatalytic activity was suppressed by phosphoric acid treatment. • The obtained pigment had small particles with sub-micrometer size. • By phosphoric acid treatment, the smoothness of samples improved. - Abstract: Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with phosphoric acid at various pH to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium oxide, however, these peak intensity became weak by phosphoric acid treatment. These samples without heating and heated at 100 °C included the small particles with sub-micrometer size. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders became weak by phosphoric acid treatment at pH 4 and 5 to protect the sebum on the skin

  5. Influence of pH-control in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp; Matsukura, Aki

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The photocatalytic activity was suppressed by phosphoric acid treatment. • The obtained pigment had small particles with sub-micrometer size. • By phosphoric acid treatment, the smoothness of samples improved. - Abstract: Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with phosphoric acid at various pH to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium oxide, however, these peak intensity became weak by phosphoric acid treatment. These samples without heating and heated at 100 °C included the small particles with sub-micrometer size. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders became weak by phosphoric acid treatment at pH 4 and 5 to protect the sebum on the skin.

  6. Salicylic acid derivatives as potential anti asthmatic agents using disease responsive drug delivery system for prophylactic therapy of allergic asthma.

    Raju, Kalidhindi Rama Satyanarayana; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Mulukutla, Shashank; Gupta, Saurabh; Murthy, Vishakantha; Kumar, M N Kiran; Madhunapantula, Subba Rao V; Kuppuswamy, Gowthamarajan; Elango, Kannan

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a multi-factorial and complicated lung disorder of the immune system which has expanded to a wider ambit unveiling its etiology to be omnipresent at both ends of the spectrum involving basic pharmacology and in-depth immunology. As asthma occurs through triggered activation of various immune cells due to different stimuli, it poses a great challenge to uncover specific targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent pharmacotherapeutic approaches for asthma have been focused on molecular targeting of transcription factors and their signaling pathways; mainly nucleus factor kappa B (NFκB) and its associated pathways which orchestrate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, GM-CSF), chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1a, eotaxin), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and inflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS). 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sodium salicylate are known to suppress NFκB activation by inhibiting inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKκB). In order to target the transcription factor, a suitable carrier system for delivering the drug to the intracellular space is essential. 5-ASA and sodium salicylate loaded liposomes incorporated into PEG-4-acrylate and CCRGGC microgels (a polymer formed by crosslinking of trypsin sensitive peptide and PEG-4-acrylate) could probably suit the needs for developing a disease responsive drug delivery system which will serve as a prophylactic therapy for asthmatic patients. PMID:26643666

  7. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey;

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  8. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  10. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun, E-mail: biochelab@yuhs.ac; Chung, Won-Yoon, E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  11. A novel model of in vitro osteocytogenesis induced by retinoic acid treatment

    D Mattinzoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent research which more and more stresses the importance of osteocytes in regulating bone and systemic mineral metabolism, current molecular and functional knowledge of osteocyte properties are still incomplete, mostly due to limited availability of in vitro models.Osteocytes are terminally differentiated dendritic cells, and therefore are not easy to obtain and maintain in primary cultures. As an alternative, osteocyte differentiation can be induced by progressive osteoblast embedding in mineralised extracellular matrix. In this model, which is suitable for reproduction of bone development, the presence of calcified matrix prevents several cell biological methods from being used. Therefore, the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line continues to be the most widely used cellular system.Here we show that treatment of primary osteoblasts or MC3T3-E1 cells with retinoic acid generates a homogeneous population of ramified cells with osteocyte features, as confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. The first morphological changes are detectable in primary cells after 2 days of treatment, and in the cell line after 4 days of treatment. Differentiation is complete in 5 and 10 days, respectively, with progressive development of dendrites, loss of the ability to produce extracellular matrix, down-regulation of osteoblast markers, and up-regulation of osteocyte-specific molecules, most notably among them sclerostin.Compared to other published protocols, our method has a number of advantages. It is easy to perform and does not require special instrumentation, it is highly reproducible, and rapidly generates a mature osteocyte population in the complete absence of extracellular matrix, allowing the use of these cells for unlimited biological applications.

  12. A novel model of in vitro osteocytogenesis induced by retinoic acid treatment.

    Mattinzoli, D; Messa, P; Corbelli, A; Ikehata, M; Zennaro, C; Armelloni, S; Li, M; Giardino, L; Rastaldi, M P

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent research which more and more stresses the importance of osteocytes in regulating bone and systemic mineral metabolism, current molecular and functional knowledge of osteocyte properties are still incomplete, mostly due to limited availability of in vitro models. Osteocytes are terminally differentiated dendritic cells, and therefore are not easy to obtain and maintain in primary cultures. As an alternative, osteocyte differentiation can be induced by progressive osteoblast embedding in mineralised extracellular matrix. In this model, which is suitable for reproduction of bone development, the presence of calcified matrix prevents several cell biological methods from being used. Therefore, the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line continues to be the most widely used cellular system. Here we show that treatment of primary osteoblasts or MC3T3-E1 cells with retinoic acid generates a homogeneous population of ramified cells with osteocyte features, as confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. The first morphological changes are detectable in primary cells after 2 days of treatment, and in the cell line after 4 days of treatment. Differentiation is complete in 5 and 10 days, respectively, with progressive development of dendrites, loss of the ability to produce extracellular matrix, down-regulation of osteoblast markers, and up-regulation of osteocyte-specific molecules, most notably among them sclerostin. Compared to other published protocols, our method has a number of advantages. It is easy to perform and does not require special instrumentation, it is highly reproducible, and rapidly generates a mature osteocyte population in the complete absence of extracellular matrix, allowing the use of these cells for unlimited biological applications. PMID:23160992

  13. Seed treatment with beta-aminobutyric acid protects Pennisetum glaucum systemically from Sclerospora graminicola.

    Shailasree, S; Sarosh, B R; Vasanthi, N S; Shetty, H S

    2001-08-01

    beta-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R Br] seeds influenced seedling vigour and protected the seedlings from downy mildew disease caused by the oomycetous biotropic fungus Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc) Schroet. Of the different concentrations of BABA tested, viz 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM, seeds treated with 50 mM for 6 h resulted in the maximum of 1428 seedling vigour and showed 23% disease incidence in comparison with the control which recorded a seedling vigour of 1260 and 98% disease incidence i.e. 75% protection from disease. Seeds treated with BABA when challenged for downy mildew disease using zoospores of S graminicola required 48 h after inducer treatment to develop maximum resistance. Durability of induced resistance was also tested in plants raised from seeds treated with the inducer and identified as resistant, by second challenge inoculation with the downy mildew pathogen at tillers and inflorescence axes. Reduced disease incidence of only 10 and 12% in these plants, compared with 71 and 76% disease in control plants inoculated at the tillers and inflorescence axes, respectively, suggested that resistance induced in seeds with BABA remained operative through vegetative and reproductive growth of pearl millet plants. Induction of resistance by seed treatment with BABA enhanced vegetative growth, viz height, fresh weight, leaf area and tillering, and reproductive growth, viz early flowering, number of productive ear heads and 1000 seed weight. Studies on induction of resistance in different cultivars of pearl millet with varying resistance reaction to downy mildew indicated that the protection offered by BABA is independent of the nature of cultivars used and not dependent on their constitutive resistance. PMID:11517726

  14. Zonun’s regime (35% glycolic acid peel with microneedling followed by tretinoin 0.05% plus glycolic acid 12% application followed by salicylic acid 30% peeling for treatment of acne scars: a pilot study

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermis brought on by acne. The scar is created by the wound trying to heal itself resulting in too much collagen in one spot. Current treatment available are not much satisfactory. Microneedling injure the dermis, thereby stimulating collagen formation. Glycolic acid acts as vehicle for delivery of drugs to dermis: in addition to that, it also has a role in collagen induction. Tretinoin helps in collagen formation. Salicylic acid remodel the superficial skin after the treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 4 patients in which 3 out of 4 patient, grade 3 acne scars and 1 out of 4 had grade 2 scar were treated with the regime. After taking consent 35% Glycolic acid peeling was done followed by microneedling. From the next day 12% Glycolic acid plus 0.05% Tretinoin is applied once a day for 2 months. After 2 months 30% Salicylic acid peeling is done. Photographs were taken before treatment, after 1 month and after 2 months of completion of the therapy and compared. Objective assessment was done according to Global Acne Scarring Classification. Result: subjectively 2 patients reported excellent response and 2 patients reported good response. Objectively, all patients showed good to excellent response. Conclusion: Zonun’s regime may be effective for treatment of acne scars.

  15. Decontamination of media filters in a groundwater treatment plant by dissolution processes using organic acid solutions

    Ground water was collected from a depth of 1,200 m in the Al-Qasim area in mid-Saudi Arabia. This underground water contains minerals, mainly Fe and Mn and radio-nuclides like radium and other ionic materials. This water was filtered through a sand bed, which contains layers of sands of different sizes in order to remove those impurities from water. Mn and Fe were deposited on outer layer of each sand granule during filtration and radium was adsorbed on surfaces of these minerals. Ra was separated from these minerals by dissolving them in various acids such as ascorbic acid, citric acid, tannic acid, salicylic acid, tartaric acid and lactic acid under different experimental conditions like acid concentration, contact time, shaking speed, particle size, temperature and liquid/solid ratio. The effectiveness of these acids on radium removal was found as follows: ascorbic acid ∼ citric acid > tartaric acid > tannic acid > lactic acid > salicylic acid. Various reaction parameters were also optimized. Reaction kinetic and mechanism parameters of dissolution process were studied and compared with other published data. (author)

  16. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Vilar, José M.; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M.; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J.; Carrillo, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs. PMID:26886592

  17. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Errami, Mohamed; Qatibi, Abdel-illah; Bennisse, Rhizlane; Errachidi, Faouzi; El Asli, Abdelghani

    2005-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % w...

  18. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of herbal drugs (fennelin and vitagnus) and mefenamic acid in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    Zeraati, Fatemeh; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mansour; Araghchian, Malihe; Bekhradi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Different therapeutic methods have been applied for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and the method with the lesser side effects is preferred. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of herbal products (fennelin and vitagnus) and mefenamic acid in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This ouble-blind clinical trial was carried out in 105 students with mild and moderate dysmenorrhea. The students were randomly divided into four groups which received t...

  19. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. PMID:27443453

  20. Unraveling the confusion behind hyaluronic acid efficacy in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    Miller LE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1 Roy D Altman,2 Louis F McIntyre3 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 2Department of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 3Northwell Physician Partners, Sleepy Hollow, NY, USA Abstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA is a commonly prescribed treatment for knee pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA. Although numerous HA products have been approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the efficacy of HA injections for knee OA remains disputed with meta-analyses and societal clinical guidelines drawing disparate conclusions. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS recently published a best-evidence systematic review and concluded that available data did not support the routine use of HA for knee OA. The purpose of the current article is to highlight issues that confound interpretation of meta-analyses on HA for knee OA, to provide realistic estimates of the true efficacy of HA injections in knee OA, and to provide commentary on the methods and conclusions from the AAOS systematic review. In general, the clinical benefit of HA is underestimated using conventional meta-analytic techniques. When accounting for differential control group effects in HA studies, it can be reasonably concluded that HA injections may be beneficial to an appreciable number of patients with knee OA. In addition, the systematic review methodology used by AAOS was questionable due to exclusion of numerous relevant studies and inclusion of studies that used HAs not approved for use in the US, both of which underestimated the true efficacy of HA injections. Overall, the efficacy of HA injections for knee OA is likely better than previously reported. Future clinical trials and meta-analyses should account for differential control group effects in order to avoid the continued confusion surrounding HA injection efficacy. Keywords: effect size, hyaluronic acid, injection, knee, minimal important difference

  1. Research of three-dimensional model for acid fracturing and optimum design for the treatments

    Guo, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, J. [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong, Sichuan (China); Luo, J. [Hade District of Tarim Oilfield (China)

    2004-07-01

    Natural fractures and cavities are prevalent in carbonate reservoirs which are primary mediums for storage or flowing hydrocarbons. The critical factors controlling well stimulation include the fracture length and conductivity. Several field practices have confirmed the feasibility of acid fracturing as a well stimulation method. Acid fracturing improves communication between natural fractures and cavities. This study accurately simulated the acid-etched fracture length and in-situ conductivity. A model for acid transport in fractures was developed based on the following assumptions: (1) acid flows along fractures in 3D stable laminar flow, (2) acid cannot be compressed, (3) fractures are filled with acid during acid flow, and (4) fracture boundaries are impermeable. The design technique was applied to a gas well in a dolomite gas field in a calcareous reservoir of the Tahe oilfield in China. The productivity of the acid fractured wells was significantly improved. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  2. Analytical study of fatty acids in bioreactor of an anaerobic treatment of distillery effluent

    An anaerobic digestion in bioreactors, offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. In this study, fatty acids in an anaerobic reactor are studied. The reactor exhibits a notable variation at different corks (1-6). The concentrations for both acetic acid and propionic acid are at maximum range at cork 2 and 5. For isobutyric acid; it is maximum at 1 and 2 corks. Butyric acid is maximum at 5; isovaleric acid is maximum at cork-2. This shows that cork-2 location has its maximum activity for fatty acids. Being nearest to the agitator this location has maximum agitation and resulted more formation of the fatty acids. This acidic effect will ultimately affect the reactor output for Biogas generation. (author)

  3. A novel viscoelastic surfactant suitable for use in high temperature carbonate reservoirs for diverted acidizing stimulation treatments

    Holt, Stuart; Zhou, Jian; Gadberry, Fred [AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Nasr-El-Din, Hisham; Wang, Guanqun [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Due to the low permeability of many carbonate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs, it is difficult to achieve economic hydrocarbon recovery from a well without secondary stimulation. Bullheading of strong acids, such as HCl is practiced in low temperature reservoirs, but as the bottom hole temperature (BHT) rises, the acid becomes increasingly corrosive, causing facial dissolution and sub-optimal wormhole network development. In the last decade, viscoelastic surfactants (VES) have been added to HCl acid systems to improve the stimulation of HT carbonate reservoirs. The VES form 'living polymers' or worm-like micelles as electrolyte concentration rises in the acid due to reaction with the reservoir. This leads to viscosification of the stimulation fluid. The viscosification slows further acid reaction in the region already contacted by the acid, and forces the acid to take an alternate path into the rock, leading to diversion of the acids further down the well to the harder to access toe or lower permeability zones. Until recently, the maximum BHT that such VES-based diverting systems could be used was up to about 250 deg F/120 deg C. Above that temperature, all viscous properties of the fluid are lost, destroying the mechanism of acid diversion. A recently developed novel viscoelastic surfactant provides nearly 100 deg F/55 deg C extension in the BHT range in which diverted acid treatments can be used. These fluids are able to maintain both viscosity up to about 375 deg F/190 deg C, with the elastic modulus predominating up to 350 deg F/175 deg C. It is the elasticity which is particularly important in acid diversion. These fluids can have their viscosity readily broken by in-situ hydrocarbons, dilution with water or by using a mutual solvent. The broken fluids are readily removed from the near-well bore, leaving the newly created wormhole network to produce the target hydrocarbons. The new VES is significantly more environmentally benign compared with current

  4. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods

  6. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo.

    Hall, M B; Nennich, T D; Doane, P H; Brink, G E

    2015-06-01

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with "study" as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83 mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol+31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ+112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30 kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7 kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of "cow" in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol+86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24

  7. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham. - Highlights: → We compare irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of pathogens. → We examine changes in the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. → Irradiation at 2 kGy is more effective in sliced ham than fumaric acid treatment. → Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety of sliced ham during storage.

  8. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham. - Highlights: > We compare irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of pathogens. > We examine changes in the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. > Irradiation at 2 kGy is more effective in sliced ham than fumaric acid treatment. > Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety of sliced ham during storage.

  9. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  10. Lactic acid as a new therapeutic peeling agent in the treatment of lifa disease (frictional dermal melanosis

    Khalifa E Sharquie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifa disease (frictional dermal melanosis is a common dermatological problem. Full strength lactic acid has been proved to be effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and the safety of lactic acid chemical peeling in the treatment of lifa disease. Materials and Methods: This open label therapeutic trial was conducted in Department of Dermatology in Najaf and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals, from March 2007-October 2008. Full strength lactic acid (92%, pH 3.5 was used as a peeling agent. The treatment sessions were done every 2 weeks until the desired response was achieved (but not more than 6 sessions. The response to therapy was evaluated by objective and subjective methods. All patients were followed monthly for 3 months after the last treatment session. Results: 52 patients with typical clinical features of lifa disease were included. All patients were slim with prominent bones and low body mass index, and gave history of using the lifa (washing agent during bathing. The number of sessions ranged from 2-6 sessions. The pigmentation was improved in all patients as revealed by objective and subjective methods, and this response was statistically highly significant. No significant side effects were recorded in all treated patients. The improvement has been sustained without any obvious relapse throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion: Lactic acid peel is a new, non-costly mode of therapy in treating dermal melanosis in patients with lifa disease.

  11. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  12. Effect of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic (thioctic) acid on heart and kidney microvasculature in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Tomassoni, Daniele; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells represent an important vascular site of signaling and development of damage during ischemia, inflammation and other pathological conditions. Excessive reactive oxygen species production causes pathological activation of endothelium including exposure of cell to adhesion molecules. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) are members of the immunoglobulin super-family which are present on the surface of endothelial cells. These molecules represent important markers of endothelial inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate, with immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, the effect of treatment with (+/-)-alpha lipoic (thioctic) acid and its enantiomers on heart and kidney endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Arterial hypertension is accompanied by an increased oxidative stress status in the heart characterized by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nucleic acid oxidation increase. The higher oxidative stress also modifies adhesion molecules expression. In the heart VCAM-1, which was higher than ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, was increased in SHR. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression was significantly greater in the renal endothelium of SHR. (+/-)-Alpha lipoic acid and (+)-alpha lipoic acid treatment significantly decreased TBARS levels, the nucleic acid oxidation and prevented adhesion molecules expression in cardiac and renal vascular endothelium. These data suggest that endothelial molecules may be used for studying the mechanisms of vascular injury on target organs of hypertension. The effects observed after treatment with (+)-alpha lipoic acid could open new perspectives for countering heart and kidney microvascular injury which represent a common feature in hypertensive end-organs damage. PMID:26207883

  13. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  14. Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash forming acid-resistant material

    To recycle municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash, synthesis of hydrothermal minerals from bottom ash was performed to stabilize heavy metals. MSWI bottom ash was mixed with SiO2, Al(OH)3, and Mg(OH)2 so its chemical composition was similar to that of hydrothermal clay minerals. These solid specimens were mixed with water at a liquid/solid ratio of 5. The reaction temperature was 200 deg. C, and reactions were performed for 24-240 h. Generation of kaolinite/smectite mixed-layer clay mineral was found in the samples after the reaction of the mixture of bottom ash, SiO2, and Mg(OH)2. Calcium silicate hydrate minerals such as tobermorite and xonotlite were also generated. X-ray powder diffraction suggested the presence of amorphous materials. Leaching tests at various pHs revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leachates from MSWI bottom ash hydrothermally treated with SiO2 and Mg(OH)2 was lower than that in leachates from non-treated bottom ash, especially under acid conditions. Hydrothermal treatment with modification of chemical composition may have potential for the recycling of MSWI bottom ash

  15. Enzymatic treatment for controlling irreversible membrane fouling in cross-flow humic acid-fed ultrafiltration

    Exploring reasonable ways to remove foulant is of great importance in order to allow sustainable operation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in water/wastewater treatment technology. Compounds of organic and inorganic origin largely contribute to irreversible fouling. This study attempted to remove problem of UF membrane fouling by using four different enzymes including α-amylase, lipase, cellulase and protease. This investigation showed that none of the above mentioned enzymes was found to be effective for the removal of foulant when used alone. However, when these enzymes were used in combination with NaOH and citric acid, about 90% cleaning was achieved. The addition of non-ionic surfactant to the enzymatic solution appears to increase the efficiency of flux recovery by reducing the adhesion of foulant species to the membrane surface through the decrease of contact angle. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed to qualitatively illustrate the foulant characteristics. The surface roughness through AFM was used to explain the potential mechanism for the enzymatic cleaning.

  16. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: diagnosis and treatment of Wolman and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Diseases.

    Porto, Anthony F

    2014-09-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases and dystipidemia which may be confused with the diagnosis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. CESD is currently underdiagnosed and has an estimated prevalence as high as I in 40,000 individuals. Radiologic findings in WD is calcification of the adrenal glands. Hepatomegaly is noted on CT scan in both WD and CESD. MRI may demonstrate accumulation of cholesterol esters and may be useful to study effects of potential medical therapies. The diagnosis of WD and CESD is based on LIPA gene sequencing and the measurement of LAL levels in peripheral blood leukocytes. Treatment of LAL deficiency is currently limited to control of cholesterol levels and to prevent premature atherosclerosis. Use of enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human LAL in short-term studies has shown to be safe and effective. PMID:25345094

  17. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  18. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  19. Enzymatic treatment for controlling irreversible membrane fouling in cross-flow humic acid-fed ultrafiltration

    Yu, Chien-Hwa [Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Nanya Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fang, Lung-Chen; Lateef, Shaik Khaja [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chung-Hsin, E-mail: chunghsinwu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien Kung Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Fang [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Exploring reasonable ways to remove foulant is of great importance in order to allow sustainable operation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in water/wastewater treatment technology. Compounds of organic and inorganic origin largely contribute to irreversible fouling. This study attempted to remove problem of UF membrane fouling by using four different enzymes including {alpha}-amylase, lipase, cellulase and protease. This investigation showed that none of the above mentioned enzymes was found to be effective for the removal of foulant when used alone. However, when these enzymes were used in combination with NaOH and citric acid, about 90% cleaning was achieved. The addition of non-ionic surfactant to the enzymatic solution appears to increase the efficiency of flux recovery by reducing the adhesion of foulant species to the membrane surface through the decrease of contact angle. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed to qualitatively illustrate the foulant characteristics. The surface roughness through AFM was used to explain the potential mechanism for the enzymatic cleaning.

  20. Fluoride removal from groundwater by limestone treatment in presence of phosphoric acid.

    Gogoi, Sweety; Nath, Suresh K; Bordoloi, Shreemoyee; Dutta, Robin K

    2015-04-01

    Fluoride removal from groundwater has been studied by addition of dilute phosphoric acid (PA) to the influent water before limestone treatment through laboratory plug-flow column experiments and bench-scale plug-flow pilot tests. In this PA-enhanced limestone defluoridation (PAELD) technique, fluoride is removed from 0.526 mM to 0.50-52.60 μM in 3 h with near neutral final pH. The presence of PA increases the fluoride removal capacity of limestone to 1.10 mg/g compared to 0.39 mg/g reported in its absence. The changes in fluoride removal with variation in initial PA concentration, initial fluoride concentration and the final pH have been found to be statistically significant with p capacity, safety, environment-friendliness, low cost and simplicity of operation make the PAELD a potential technique for rural application. PMID:25621387

  1. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  2. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs)

  3. Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.

    Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of

  4. Is there a role for vedolizumab in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease?

    Gilroy L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leah Gilroy, Patrick B Allen Department of Gastroenterology, Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, Northern Ireland Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for millions of patients worldwide. Current treatment options include corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates, immunosuppressants, and TNFα antagonists. However, these are frequently ineffective in achieving sustained response and remission over time. At present, gastroenterologists lack safe and effective treatments if patients fail anti-TNF therapy. Vedolizumab is a promising new agent for IBD patients refractory to anti-TNF therapy. Vedolizumab is an integrin antagonist which is thought to act by reducing inflammation by selectively inhibiting leukocyte migration in the gut. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests a potential role for vedolizumab in both ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD, particularly in patients who have previously failed biological therapy. The safety profile of vedolizumab appears reasonable, possibly because it has a “gut-selective” mode of action, with no reported cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a condition which has been linked to another integrin antagonist, natalizumab. This review discusses the available evidence for integrin antagonists and their potential role in the management of IBD. Keywords: vedolizumab, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease

  5. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II–V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease. (paper)

  6. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    Geringer, Jean; Demanget, Nicolas; Pellier, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II-V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease.

  7. Treatment of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D.) sapwood with aqueous solution of acetic acid

    LUBao-wang; DUGuang-hua; MATSUITakanao; MATSUSHITAYoh-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Sugi sapwood samples were processed with aqueous solution of acetic acid in order to find the response of the weight of sugi sapwood and the treatment of aqueous solution of acetic acid. The result showed that loss of weight for the treated sugisapwood was about equal to yield of extracts from sugi sapwood, and increased with the increment of the concentration of aqueous solution of acetic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra changes of the treated sugi wood and extracts from sugi sapwood were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. Increasing tendency of absorption intensities of the stretching vibration at 3 400 cm-1 of hydroxyl group (OH) and C=C in lignin stretching vibration at 1510 cm-1 of benzene ring inlignin were observed from FT-IR of the treated sugi sapwood. From FT-IR spectra of extracts from sugi sapwood by aqueoussolution of acetic acid, the dissolution of lignin was observed during the treatment with 30% acetic acid solution aqueous.

  8. Observations on the effects of acid rain treatment on needle surfaces of scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings were subjected to acid rain treatment at pH 3, pH 4 and pH 7 in a field experiment during 1986-1989. SEM+EDS, TEM, and measurements of wax quantity were used to detect changes in needle surfaces. After 5 weeks at pH 3 and pH 4 acid rain treatment, CaSO4-crystallites were observed on visibly undamaged pine and spruce needle surfaces. Direct acid rain damage in conjunction with CaSO4-crystallites was observed only occasionally in wax structures. Two-month-old pine needles had 50% less wax in early August after exposure at pH 3 and pH 4 than water controls. The occurrence of CaSO4-crystallites on acid rain-treated needle surfaces, and more abundant deposition of Ca oxalate crystallites in the inner walls of epi- and hypodermal cells could be involved with acid rain-induced calcium leaching. Calcium sulphate is probably a result of the disturbed wax and cuticle biosynthesis resulting in undeveloped, permeable cuticles. At the end of experiment, no CaSO4-crystallites were seen on needle surfaces. Soil analysis revealed an increase in the soluble Ca concentrations at pH 3. (orig.)

  9. Efficacy of intravenous zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis:A meta-analysis

    Jun Zhang; Ran Wang; Yi-Lei Zhao; Xiao-Hui Sun; Hong-Xing Zhao; Tan Lu; De-Cai Chen; Hai-Bin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of zoledronic acid in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis with placebo.Methods:Random control trials regarding zoledronic acid in treatment of osteoporosis were retrieved by selectingMedline,EMbase andPubmed databases tillApril2012. TheRevMan software was used for all of the statistical analysis.Results:A total of9 trials were included in this meta-analysis.The pooled effect showed that zoledronic acid could increase the bone mineral density by2.98 times compared with placebo, and reduce the rate of fracture in patients by32%.The results should the zoledronic acid intervention had significantly less serious adverse events than controls, and the odds ratio was0.81(0.76-0.87).The longer term intervention, more than12 months intervention, could gain a better prevention effect for osteoporosis(OR,95%CI forBMD was3.35,2.77-3.92; for fracture was0.67,0.54-0.82).Conclusions:This present study shows that zoledronic acid could be effective approach in the prevention of osteoporosis, and could increase the bone mineral density and reduce the risk of facture.

  10. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  11. Differences in determination of chemical elements in soil and attic dust samples due to various acid treatments, Slovenia

    Robert Šajn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an assessment of relationship existing between analytical values of samples, which were treated with two different acid procedures: four acid digestion and extraction in aqua regia. The sample population consisted of 256 soil samples and 139 atticdust samples collected within the frame of various geochemical studies in Slovenia. After acid treatments, elementary composition of the samples was determined by means of ICP method. As we were interested in functional relationships between both treatment procedures, we performed bivariate analysis of elementary compositions. A regression line based on the logarithms of data was used as a basic correlation indicator. We correlated the following 31 elements: Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn.The majority of analytical values for elements in our samples, treated with both procedures,showed a high degree of correlation and a good functional relationship. A weak relationship existed only between those elements that were on detection limits of theanalytical method or had a weak variability (Ag, Ba, Bi, K, Na, Ti, and W. On the basis of the results of double treatment and analysis of samples we calculated the boundary, warning and critical values, which are related to four acid digestion.

  12. Effective fall treatment of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) with a new formulation of formic acid in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    Calderone, N W

    2000-08-01

    New formulations of formic acid and thymol, both individually and in combination with various essential oils, were compared with Apistan to determine their efficacy as fall treatments for control of Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), a parasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Percent mite mortality in colonies treated with 300 ml of 65% formic acid averaged 94.2 +/- 1.41% (least square means +/- SE, n = 24), equivalent to those receiving four, 10% strips of Apistan (92.6 +/- 1.79%, n = 6). Treatment with thymol (n = 24) resulted in an average mite mortality of 75.4 +/- 5.79%, significantly less than that attained with Apistan or formic acid. The addition of essential oils did not affect treatment efficacy of either formic acid or thymol. The ratio of the coefficients of variation for percentage mortality for the formic acid (CVFA) and Apistan (CVA) groups was CVFA/CVA = 0.66. This indicates that the formic acid treatment was as consistent as the Apistan treatment. Thymol treatments did not provide as consistent results as Apistan or formic acid. Coefficient variation ratios for percentage mortality for the thymol group (CVT) with the Apistan and formic acid groups were CVT/CVA = 4.47 and CVT/CVFA = 6.76, respectively. In a second experiment, colonies received a 4-wk fall treatment of either 300 ml of 65% formic acid (n = 24) or four, 10% strips of Apistan (n = 6). The next spring, mite levels in the formic acid group (554.3 +/- 150.20 mites) were similar to those in the Apistan treatment group (571.3 +/- 145.05 mites) (P = 0.93). Additionally, the quantities of bees, brood, pollen, and nectar/honey in the two treatment groups were not significantly different (P > or = 0.50 each variable). These results suggest that formic acid is an effective alternative to Apistan as a fall treatment for varroa mites in temperate climates. PMID:10985013

  13. A study comparing chemical peeling using modified jessner′s solution and 15% trichloroacetic acid versus 15% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of melasma

    Safoury Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a symmetric progressive hyperpigmentation of the facial skin that occurs in all races but has a predilection for darker skin phenotypes. Depigmenting agents, laser and chemical peeling as classic Jessner′s solution, modified Jessner′s solution and trichloroacetic acid have been used alone and in combination in the treatment of melasma. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the therapeutic effect of combined 15% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA and modified Jessner′s solution with 15% TCA on melasma. Materials and Methods: Twenty married females with melasma (epidermal type, with a mean age of 38.25 years, were included in this study. All were of skin type III or IV. Fifteen percent TCA was applied to the whole face, with the exception of the left malar area to which combined TCA 15% and modified Jessner′s solution was applied. Results: Our results revealed statistically highly significant difference between MASI Score (Melasma Area and Severity Index between the right malar area and the left malar area. Conclusion: Modified Jessner′s solution proved to be useful as an adjuvant treatment with TCA in the treatment of melasma, improving the results and minimizing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  14. Case study of the effectiveness of nitrogen foam and water-zone diverting agents in multistage matrix acid treatments

    Several oil wells producing water have been stimulated successfully with multistages of mud acid, nitrogen foam, and water-zone diverting agents. This procedure has improved well performance significantly while having little or no effect on post-treatment water production. The diverters' effectiveness was analyzed with radioactive tracers, gamma spectroscopy logs, and surface pressure equipment. Results indicate that water-ozone diverters and nitrogen foam are effective diverters when used in matrix acid stimulations. Case histories and associated data are included in this paper

  15. Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Treatment on Postdischarge Outcomes After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Greene, Stephen J; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Campia, Umberto; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Degli Esposti, Luca; Buda, Stefano; Veronesi, Chiara; Butler, Javed; Nodari, Savina

    2016-02-01

    Clinical trials studying the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing adverse events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have yielded conflicting results, and data regarding the influence of n-3 PUFA treatment after AMI in routine clinical practice are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study including patients from 5 Italian Local Health Units who were discharged from the hospital with a primary diagnosis of AMI from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011. Using unique patient identifiers, patients were linked across governmental hospital discharge, medication prescription, and mortality databases and followed for 12-months post-index discharge. Patient characteristics and risk of all-cause mortality and repeat AMI were compared by n-3 PUFA prescription after discharge (for outcome analyses, defined as ≥ 2 prescriptions) at a presumed dose of 1 g/day. Overall, 11,269 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 2,425 patients (21.5%) were prescribed n-3 PUFA during follow-up. Patients treated with n-3 PUFA tended to be younger, men, and carry a diagnosis of diabetes and were more likely to be receiving guideline-recommended post-AMI medical therapy, including β blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, statins, and antiplatelet therapy (all p <0.001). After adjusting for patient characteristics and concurrent therapies, n-3 PUFA treatment was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97) and recurrent AMI (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.87) through 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, in this large, contemporary, observational study of "real-world" Italian patients hospitalized for AMI, the use of n-3 PUFA was independently associated with a robust reduction in all-cause mortality and recurrent AMI. These data support further randomized controlled trials with n-3 PUFA therapy in the post-AMI setting. PMID:26708689

  16. Docosahexenoic acid treatment ameliorates cartilage degeneration via a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Ai; Ma, Lifeng; Yu, Haomiao; Zhang, Liang; Meng, Hai; Cui, Yinpeng; Yu, Fei; Yang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by cartilage degradation. The aberrant expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of OA. The anti‑inflammatory property of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) was previously revealed and showed that DHA retards the progress of many types of inflammatory disease. To evaluate the prophylactic function of DHA in OA, the effect of DHA on cartilage degeneration was assessed in interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β) stimulated human chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells or a rat model of adjuvant‑induced arthritis (AIA). The safe concentration range (0‑50 µg/ml in vitro) of DHA was determined by flow cytometry and MTT assay. The inhibitory effects of DHA on MMP‑13 mRNA and protein expression were confirmed by RT‑qPCR, ELISA and western blotting. Furthermore, findings of an in vivo study showed that DHA can increase the thickness of articular cartilage and decrease MMP‑13 expression in cartilage matrix in a rat AIA model. We also revealed the mechanism by which DHA ameliorates cartilage degeneration from OA. The DHA-mediated inhibition of MMP‑13 expression was partially attributed to the inactivation of the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases pathway by suppressing p‑p38 in IL-1β-stimulated SW1353 cells and a rat AIA model. Our findings suggested that DHA is a promising therapeutic agent that may be used for the prevention and treatment of OA. PMID:27082436

  17. Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes.

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Vines, Brannon L; Miller, David W; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Amara, Amy W

    2016-03-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. Case series with retrospective chart and literature review. Three patients without pre-existing epilepsy who presented to our institution with generalized seizures between 2013 and 2014 were identified. Seizures proved refractory to first and second-line therapies and persisted beyond 24 hours. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old female who had elevated serum GAD-Ab titres at 0.49 mmol/l (normal: partial seizure control. Patient 2 was a 61-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l. EEG showed persistent generalized periodic discharges despite maximized therapy with anticonvulsants but no immunotherapy, resulting in withdrawal of care and discharge to nursing home. Patient 3 was a 50-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l, and was discovered to have pulmonary sarcoidosis. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in seizure resolution. Due to the responsiveness to immunotherapy, there may be an association between GAD-Abs and refractory seizures, including refractory status epilepticus. Causation cannot be established since GAD-Abs may be elevated secondary to concurrent autoimmune diseases or formed de novo in response to GAD antigen exposure by neuronal injury. Based on this report and available literature, there may be a role for immuno- and chemotherapy in the management of refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. PMID:26878120

  18. The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders.

    Ramaekers, V T; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoimmunity with low CSF N(5)-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) underlies most CFD syndromes, whereas FRα gene abnormalities and mitochondrial gene defects are rarely found. The age at which FRα antibodies of the blocking type emerge, determines the clinical phenotype. Infantile CFD syndrome and autism with neurological deficits tend to be characterized by elevated FRα antibody titers and low CSF MTHF. In contrast, in infantile autism and intractable schizophrenia, abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms may wax and wane with fluctuating FRα antibody titers over time accompanied by cycling changes in CSF folate, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and neurotransmitter metabolites ranging between low and normal levels. We propose a hypothetical model explaining the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on findings from clinical, genetic, spinal fluid and MRI spectroscopic studies, we discuss the neurochemical changes associated with these disorders, metabolic and regulatory pathways, synthesis and catabolism of neurotransmitters, and the impact of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of these conditions. A diagnostic algorithm and therapeutic regimens using high dose folinic acid

  19. Ariab acidic min-influenced water: a waste to waste treatment

    Six samples of acidic mine-influenced water (AMIW) from Ariab area, Red Sea Hills, northeastern part of Sudan, were analyzed for some waste water parameters. The investigation showed that, the pH ranged between 1.30 to 1.88, sulphate content between 40200 to 235300 mg/1, total iron 9879 to 103969 mg/1, copper, 280.0 to 1112.5 mg/1, zinc, 1825 to 3345 mg/1, manganese, 210.0 to 570.0 mg /1 in addition to high contents of cobalt and cadmium which are known for their negative impact on the environment. Khartoum Refinery Sour Water (KRSW) sample was analyzed for some pollutants, the analysis showed that it is alkaline industrial waste having a pH of 10.10, alkalinity of 26381 mg/1 as CaC3/1, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 29400 mg/1 as O2. It was found to be relatively free of heavy and environmentally hazardous elements such as Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Mg. A waste to waste treatment was carried to Ariab AMIW with KRSW, satisfactory results were obtained in reduction of the parameters studied in the treated effluent. The pH of AMIW was raised to about 8.50, and the element contents of Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb were either completely removed or reduced to levels that meet the allowed limits of the industrial effluent disposal threshold. Sulphate content, however, decreased due to dilution, but still above the specified limits of the effluent disposal. (Author)

  20. Effects of cold work, sensitization treatment and its combination on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in nitric acid

    In the Purex reprocessing process, the spent nuclear fuels from light water reactors are dissolved in nitric acid to separate and recover the fissile materials such as Uranium and Plutonium from the radioactive fission products. To ensure safety and reliable operation of the reprocessing plant, superior corrosion resistance is required to the structural materials of the plant, and stainless steels have been used as one of the main structural materials because of its very good performance in a nitric acid environment. Corrosion behavior of stainless steels was investigated in nitric acid for the effect of cold work, sensitization heat treatment and its combination. Corrosion rate of solution-treated Type 304 with extra low carbon (304 ELC) increased with time and reached constant values after 1,000 h of immersion time. Constant corrosion rates, however, were obtained for 25Cr-20Ni-Nb (310 Nb) from the initial stage of immersion. Cold work mitigated corrosion of the solution-treated stainless steels. The effect of cold work was different on the two stainless steels with sensitization heat treatment, showing accelerated corrosion for 304 ELC. The corrosion resistance of 310 Nb was superior to 304ELC after all the treatments. Chromium concentration of the sensitization treated 304 ELC was lower in the grain-boundary region than that of the solution-treated one, although no chromium carbide precipitation was observed. This might be the cause of corrosion enhancement by sensitization treatment

  1. Study on the use of omega-3 fatty acids as a therapeutic supplement in treatment of psoriasis.

    Balbás, G Márquez; Regaña, M Sánchez; Millet, P Umbert

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a benefit for patients with plaque psoriasis when omega-3 fatty acids are added to topical treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a nutritional complement rich in omega-3 fatty acids in patients with mild or moderate plaque psoriasis. Thirty patients were recruited, 15 of whom were given topical treatment with tacalcitol, forming the control group. The remaining 15 patients were given topical tacalcitol and 2 capsules of Oravex(®) daily. Three visits, the baseline, intermediate (week 4), and final (week 8), were held over an 8-week period. The main efficacy endpoints were the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) and Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI). A clear and significant improvement was observed in all the efficacy endpoints in both groups between the baseline visit and the end visit. This improvement was significantly greater in the group treated additionally with Oravex(®) than in the control group. Supplementary treatment with omega-3 fatty acids complements topical treatment in psoriasis, and makes a significant contribution to reducing PASI and NAPSI and improving DLQI; and to reducing scalp lesion and pruritus, erythema, scaling, and infiltration of the treated areas. PMID:21760742

  2. Chrysotile asbestos detoxification with a combined treatment of oxalic acid and silicates producing amorphous silica and biomaterial.

    Valouma, Aikaterini; Verganelaki, Anastasia; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, Pagona; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-03-15

    This study was primarily imposed by the ever increasing need for detoxification of asbestos and asbestos containing materials (ACM), with potential application onsite. The present work investigates potential detoxification of pure chrysotile (Chr) asbestos via a combined treatment of oxalic acid dihydrate (Oxac) (Η2C2Ο4·2Η2Ο) with silicates, such as tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) (SiH20C8O4) and pure water glass (WG) (potassium silicate) (K2SiO3). These reagents used in the experimental procedure, do not cause adverse effects on the environment and are cost effective. The results of FTIR, XRD, optical and scanning microscopy coupled with EDS analyses indicated that all of the applied treatments destructed the Chr structure and yielded silica of amorphous phase and the biomaterial glushinskite from the Oxac reacted with brucite [Mg(OH)2] layer. Each of the proposed formulations can be applied for the detoxification of asbestos, according to priorities related to the specific products of the recovery treatment. Therefore, Oxac acid leaching followed by the TEOS addition is preferred in cases of glushinskite recovery; TEOS treatment of asbestos with subsequent Oxac addition produced amorphous silica production; finally Oxac acid leaching followed by WG encapsulated the asbestos fibers and can be used in cases of onsite asbestos and ACM detoxification. PMID:26685063

  3. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  4. Acid Fermentation Process Combined with Post Denitrification for the Treatment of Primary Sludge and Wastewater with High Strength Nitrate

    Allen Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, combined with a post denitrification process, was applied to treat primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and wastewater with a high concentration of nitrate. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs was maximized with a short hydraulic retention time in the acid fermentation of the ABR process, and then the produced VFAs were supplied as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process. The laboratory scale experiment was operated for 160 days to evaluate the VFAs’ production rate, sludge reduction in the ABR type-acid fermentation process, and the specific denitrification rate of the post denitrification process. As results, the overall removal rate of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, total suspended solids (TSS, and total nitrogen (TN were found to be 97%, 92%, 73%, respectively, when considering the influent into ABR type-acid fermentation and effluent from post denitrification. We observed the specific VFAs production rate of 0.074 gVFAs/gVSS/day for the ABR type-acid fermentation, and an average specific denitrification rate of 0.166 gNO3−-N/gVSS/day for the post denitrification. Consequently, we observed that a high production of VFAs from a primary sludge, using application of the ABR type acid fermentation process and the produced VFAs were then successfully utilized as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process, with a high removal rate of nitrogen.

  5. Clinical and electroencephalographic effects of folinic acid treatment in Rett syndrome patients

    E.E.O. Hagebeuk; J.H.T.M. Koelman; M. Duran; N.G. Abeling; A. Vyth; B.T. Poll-The

    2011-01-01

    Rett syndrome is characterized by the development of stereotypic hand movements and seizures, which are often difficult to treat. Previous studies have shown conflicting results during add-on folinic acid. Here, the authors reevaluate the response to folinic acid in terms of epilepsy control and ele

  6. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  7. Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Bakker, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membra

  8. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  9. Plasma concentrations of amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis - potential biomarkers of disease activity and drug treatment.

    Smolenska, Zaneta; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in plasma amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a search for potential biomarkers of the disease activity and the effect treatment. Analysis of plasma metabolite patterns with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed specific changes in RA as well as correlations with clinical parameters. Combined concentration parameter calculated as [aspartic acid] + [threonine] + [tryptophan] - [histidine] - [phenylalanine] offered the strongest correlation (p < 0.001) with pain joint count, swollen joint count and DAS 28. Such analysis of amino acid and related metabolite pattern offers potential for diagnosis as well as for monitoring disease progression and therapy in RA. PMID:26811910

  10. Effect of thermal treatment conditions on properties of vanadium molybdenum oxide catalyst in acrolein oxidation reaction to acrylic acid

    The effect of thermal treatment conditions (temperature and gas medium) on properties of vanadium molybdenum oxide catalyst in acrolein oxidation reaction to acrylic acid is investigated. It is shown that active and selective catalysts are formed in the course of thermal decomposition of the drying product of ammonium metavanadate and paramolybdate under the conditions ensuring the vanadium ion reduction up to tetravalent state with conservation of molybdenum oxidation degree equal to 6. It is possible to realize it either by treatment of the catalyst calcinated in the air flow at 300 deg by the reaction mixture at the activation stage or by gas-reducer flow treatment at 280 deg. Thermal treatment in the reducing medium of the oxidized catalyst does not lead to complete regeneration of its properties

  11. Ecological benefits of passive wetland treatment systems designed for acid mine drainage: With emphasis on watershed restoration

    Western Pennsylvania has been a large source of coal for much of the US since the late 1800's. During the extraction of the coal resources, acid mine drainage (AMD) often resulted. AMD from abandoned discharges has effectively rendered thousands of kilometers of streams lifeless in the Appalachian coal region. Restoration of these streams has been limited in previous years primarily because of the lack of cost-effective treatment for AMD. Conventional treatment can treat AMD effectively but is costly to operate and maintain and is effective only when receiving human attention. Passive wetland treatment systems have proven to be the only realistic AMD treatment strategy, in terms of watershed restoration activities. If ecosystem health is the reason for implementing effluent standards then it can be reasonably argued that passive wetland treatment systems supply the most effective overall treatment, even if they do not meet one or more of the current effluent standards. Recent advancements in passive wetland treatment system technology have provided a management tool that could be used to treat the majority of AMD discharges cost-effectively, and when used strategically could reasonably be employed to restore the thousands of kilometers of AMD-affected streams in the coal regions of Appalachia. Secondary benefits that have been observed with passive wetland treatment systems suggest that these systems may be providing for accelerated ecological recovery independent of regulated effluent standards

  12. An efficient process for wastewater treatment to mitigate free nitrous acid generation and its inhibition on biological phosphorus removal

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA), which is the protonated form of nitrite and inevitably produced during biological nitrogen removal, has been demonstrated to strongly inhibit the activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Herein we reported an efficient process for wastewater treatment, i.e., the oxic/anoxic/oxic/extended-idle process to mitigate the generation of FNA and its inhibition on PAOs. The results showed that this new process enriched more PAOs which thereby achieved higher ph...

  13. Two percent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid chelation treatment for band-shaped keratopathy, without blunt scratching after removal of the corneal epithelium

    Kobayashi W; Yokokura S; Hariya T; Nakazawa T

    2015-01-01

    Wataru Kobayashi,1 Shunji Yokokura,1 Takehiro Hariya,1 Toru Nakazawa1–3 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Ophthalmology, 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 2% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for the treatment of band-shaped keratopathy.Methods: We studied 24 eyes of 16 patients with band-shaped kerato...

  14. Pre-Treatment of High Free Fatty Acids Oils by Chemical Re-Esterification for Biodiesel Production—A Review

    Godlisten G. Kombe; Abraham K. Temu; Hassan M. Rajabu; Godwill D. Mrema; Jibrail Kansedo; Keat Teong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Non edible oil sources have the potential to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, they usually contain significant high amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that make them inadequate for direct base catalyzed transesterification reaction (where the FFA content should be lower than 3%). The present work reviews chemical re-esterification as a possible method for the pre-treatment of high FFA feedstock for biodiesel production. The effects of temperature, amount of glycerol, type and amount of ca...

  15. Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment in Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase–Producing Organisms

    Beytur, Ali; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Oguz, Fatih; Otlu, Baris; Kaysadu, Halim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing problems. The involvement of ESBL-producing organisms is associated with higher rates of carbapenem usage in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Though some strains are susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) in vitro, there is very less data about the consequences of AMC usage for such infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of AMC treatment in UTIs caus...

  16. Induction of Systematic Resistance in Soybean Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease by Seed Treatment with Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM; Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH), humic acid (HA) and their combination when used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Both inducers and their combination were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i. e Minia and New Valley ...

  17. Toxicity and efficacy evaluation of multiple targeted polymalic acid conjugates for triple-negative breast cancer treatment

    Ljubimova, Julia Y; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Patil, Rameshwar; Ding, Hui; Inoue, Satoshi; Markman, Janet L.; Rekechenetskiy, Arthur; Konda, Bindu; Gangalum, Pallavi R.; Chesnokova, Alexandra; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L.; Holler, Eggehard

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are widely used for delivery of drugs but frequently lack proof of safety for cancer patient's treatment. All-in-one covalent nanodrugs of the third generation have been synthesized based on a poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) platform, targeting human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). They significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice by blocking synthesis of epidermal growth factor receptor, and α4 and β1 chains of laminin-411, the tumor vascular wall protein and ...

  18. Use of Acid Treatment and a Selective Medium To Enhance the Recovery of Francisella tularensis from Water ▿

    Humrighouse, B. W.; Adcock, N. J.; Rice, E W

    2011-01-01

    Francisella tularensis has been associated with naturally occurring waterborne outbreaks and is also of interest as a potential biological weapon. Recovery of this pathogen from water using cultural methods is challenging due to the organism's fastidious growth requirements and interference by indigenous bacteria. A 15-min acid treatment procedure prior to culture on a selective agar was evaluated for recovery of F. tularensis from seeded water samples. Mean levels of reduction of virulent st...

  19. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on nutrition and liver function in patients with cystic fibrosis and longstanding cholestasis.

    Cotting, J; Lentze, M J; Reichen, J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of biliary and hepatic diseases is increasing in patients with cystic fibrosis as more of them reach adult life. There is no effective treatment or method of preventing cholestasis in cystic fibrosis, although beneficial effects have been ascribed to the tertiary bile acid, ursodeoxycholate, in other forms of chronic cholestasis. We evaluated prospectively the effects of a six month course of ursodeoxycholate (15-20 mg/kg per day) in eight, mostly adult, patients with cystic fi...

  20. Effect of acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment on structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch

    Sun, Qingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Modification of starch led to new products with new desirable properties. Corn starch samples modified by acid hydrolysis combined with heat moisture treatment (AH-HMT) were made by changing pH, moisture content and treated temperature. After modification, swelling power at temperature higher than 75 °C of corn starches decreased while solubility of the starches increased. After AH-HMT, pasting temperature (PT) of all treated starch samples increased. But lower peak viscosity (PKV), trough vi...

  1. Effect of Combined Treatment with Alpha Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Vascular Function and Blood Pressure in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    McMackin, Craig J.; Widlansky, Michael E.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Huang, Alex L.; Weller, Susan; Holbrook, Monika; Gokce, Noyan; Hagen, Tory M.; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In a double blind, crossover study, we examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid /acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (eight weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3...

  2. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  3. Regeneration of spent three-way catalysts with nano-structured platinum group metals by gas and acid treatments.

    Kim, Sang Chai; Nahm, Seung Won; Wang, Geun Shim; Seo, Seong Gyu; Lee, Jae Wook

    2008-10-01

    The influence of physicochemical treatments on the catalytic activity of the spent nano-structured three way catalysts (TWCs) was examined to evaluate the possibility of using spent TWCs for removing VOCs. Thermal gases and acid aqueous solutions were used to regenerate the spent nano-structured TWCs. The characterization of the spent catalyst and its modified forms was carried out by using XRD, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The catalytic activity tests revealed that the spent nano-structured TWCs have a great potential for removing toxic compounds. The activities of catalysts were also found to be highly dependent on the treatment conditions. The acid aqueous treatments were very useful for improving the catalytic activity because they removed various contaminants such as fuel additives, lubricant oil additives, and metallic compounds. However, the thermal gas treated TWCs were less active than the parent TWCs. Furthermore, the activities of the catalysts treated with acids were closely connected with the remaining Pt/Al ratios. PMID:19198464

  4. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  5. Disseminated Exfoliative Dermatitis Associated with All-Transretinoic Acid in the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Yonal Ipek; Dogru Hulya; Aktan Melih

    2012-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a biologically and clinically separate type of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARa) locus on chromosome 17, the great majority of which is t(15; 17)(q24.1; q21.1) (Collins (1998), Melnick and Licht (1999), and Grimwade (1999)). Retinoic acid is a critical ligand in the differentiation pathway of multiple tissues, mediated through binding to an RAR. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a sub...

  6. Surface acid chemistry associated with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment of polyethylene

    Dockery, K P; Sieber, K D; Knapp, F A; Wilson, T E [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, NY 14650-02132 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The chemistry associated with atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in air has been studied. Laboratory and industrial DBD systems have been investigated. In this work, we have emphasized the use of aqueous extractions of treated surfaces, followed by analyses by ion chromatography to study the DBD chemistry. A range of DBD factors including dose, humidity, airflow and electrode configuration (one versus two dielectric barriers) is found to influence the levels of acids, notably nitrous, nitric and oxalic acids, on the treated surfaces. A mechanistic rationale involving the primary formation of the nitrous and nitric acids in the gas phase is proposed.

  7. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  8. Zonun’s regime (35% glycolic acid peel with microneedling followed by tretinoin 0.05% plus glycolic acid 12% application followed by salicylic acid 30% peeling) for treatment of acne scars: a pilot study

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermis brought on by acne. The scar is created by the wound trying to heal itself resulting in too much collagen in one spot. Current treatment available are not much satisfactory. Microneedling injure the dermis, thereby stimulating collagen formation. Glycolic acid acts as vehicle for delivery of drugs to dermis: in addition to that, it also has a role in collagen induction. Tretinoin helps in collagen formation....

  9. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection

    Bowlus CL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Bowlus Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC, previously known as primary biliary “cirrhosis”, is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression. However, a significant minority of PBC patients do not have a complete response to UDCA and remain at risk of continued disease progression. Although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, UDCA provided proof of concept for BA therapy in PBC. Obeticholic acid (OCA, a novel derivative of the human BA chenodeoxycholic acid, is a potent agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor, which regulates BA synthesis and transport. A series of clinical trials of OCA in PBC, primarily in combination with UDCA, have established that OCA leads to significant reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase that are predicted to lead to improved clinical outcomes, while dose-dependent pruritus has been the most common adverse effect. On the basis of these studies, OCA was given conditional approval by the US Food and Drug Administration with plans to establish the long-term clinical efficacy of OCA in patients with advanced PBC. Keywords: primary biliary cholangitis, nuclear receptors, farnesoid X receptor, bile acid, obeticholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid

  10. Platelet Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid Blend for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: Rheological and Biological Evaluation.

    Fabrizio Russo

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common musculoskeletal disease. Current treatments for OA are mainly symptomatic and inadequate since none results in restoration of fully functional cartilage. Hyaluronic Acid (HA intra-articular injections are widely accepted for the treatment of pain associated to OA. The goal of HA viscosupplementation is to reduce pain and improve viscoelasticity of synovial fluid. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been also employed to treat OA to possibly induce cartilage regeneration. The combination of HA and PRP could supply many advantages for tissue repair. Indeed, it conjugates HA viscosupplementation with PRP regenerative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and biological properties of different HA compositions in combination with PRP in order to identify (i the viscoelastic features of the HA-PRP blends, (ii their biological effect on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and (iii HA formulations suitable for use in combination with PRP.HA/PRP blends have been obtained mixing human PRP and three different HA at different concentrations: 1 Sinovial, 0.8% (SN; 2 Sinovial Forte 1.6% (SF; 3 Sinovial HL 3.2% (HL; 4 Hyalubrix 1.5% (HX. Combinations of phosphate buffered saline (PBS and the four HA types were used as control. Rheological measurements were performed on an Anton PaarMCR-302 rheometer. Amplitude sweep, frequency sweep and rotational measurements were performed and viscoelastic properties were evaluated. The rheological data were validated performing the tests in presence of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA up to ultra-physiological concentration (7%. Primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes were cultured in vitro with the HA and PRP blends in the culture medium for one week. Cell viability, proliferation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content were assessed.PRP addition to HA leads to a decrease of viscoelastic shear moduli and increase of the crossover point, due to a pure dilution effect. For viscosupplements

  11. THE VARIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AFTER SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA L.

    Odeta Grama-Tiganasu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Simazin has in certain conditions stimulatory effects on nucleic acids biosynthese. The biosyntese and mitotic division stimulation sugest the possibility to use simazin like growing and germination stimulator.

  12. Initial performance of corn in response to treatment of seeds with humic acids isolated from bokashi

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The humified organic matter presents bioactivity similar to the auxinic effect. As bokashi is produced by a special process of humification, information is needed about the bioactive potential of its humic acids. The objective of this work was studying the initial performance of corn-indicator plants in response to the application of different concentrations of humic acids isolated from bokashi. The corn seeds were treated for 16 hours with solutions containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and ...

  13. N-3 (Omega-3) Fatty Acids in Postpartum Depression: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    Beth Levant

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that low dietary intake and/or tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with postpartum depression. Low tissue levels of n-3 PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are reported in patients with either postpartum or nonpuerperal depression. Moreover, the physiological demands of pregnancy and lactation put childbearing women at particular risk of experiencing a loss of DHA from ti...

  14. Hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Kanerva, M., E-mail: Mikko.Kanerva@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J.M. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Revitzer, H. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sarlin, E. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O.B. 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Brander, T.; Saarela, O. [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • XPS and AFM analysis of the effect of hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid on tungsten. • Dreiling's model established 54.4% thinning of WO{sub 3} due to 67 s treatment. • Strain energy release rate increased ≈8.4 J/m{sup 2} at the interface. • Failure loci analysis expressed the oxide and carbon fibre surfaces as weak points. - Abstract: Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten–CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔG{sub c}≈ 8.4 J/m{sup 2}.

  15. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  16. Fenofibric acid: a new fibrate approved for use in combination with statin for the treatment of mixed dyslipidemia

    Peter Alagona Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peter Alagona JrPenn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: The last two to three decades have seen an explosive growth in interest and information regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD risk assessment and treatment. Evidence for the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL in risk has led to a series of clinical guidelines/recommendations on the importance of LDL lowering with statin treatment. There is also substantial evidence on a number of lipoproteins in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and CV events. Health care professionals have not embraced easily novel approaches to identifying those at increased risk and more aggressive treatment. This is especially true for non-LDL factors. The use of non-statin drugs such as fibrates has been modest and many health care professionals avoid consideration of combination therapy due to an inordinate fear of toxicity. This review will attempt to provide appropriate background information on lipids/lipoproteins, including non-high density lipoprotein and risk, as well as data available on fibrates and combination pharmacologic therapy. We will review a new agent, TriLipix® (fenofibric acid, and its potential role in treatment.Keywords: dyslipidemia, peroxisome proliferated activated receptors, fibrate, fenofibric acid, TriLipix, very-low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, non-high density lipoprotein

  17. Hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Highlights: • XPS and AFM analysis of the effect of hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid on tungsten. • Dreiling's model established 54.4% thinning of WO3 due to 67 s treatment. • Strain energy release rate increased ≈8.4 J/m2 at the interface. • Failure loci analysis expressed the oxide and carbon fibre surfaces as weak points. - Abstract: Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten–CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2

  18. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. PMID:25846935

  19. Increasing bioavailability of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid to boost antioxidant activity in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Maglione, Emilia; Marrese, Cinzia; Migliaro, Elisa; Marcuccio, Fortuna; Panico, Claudia; Salvati, Carmine; Citro, Giuseppe; Quercio, Marco; Roncagliolo, Federico; Torello, Carlo; Brufani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    a-lipoic acid (a-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant because it has a broad spectrum of action towards a great many free radical species and boosts the endogenous antioxidant systems.Although it is a multi-functional molecule, its pharmacokinetic characteristics pose restrictions to its use in the treatment of oxidative stress-dependent illnesses. Formulations that increase the bioavailability of a-LA have a better potential efficacy as adjuvants for the treatment of these conditions.This objective was achieved with a liquid formulation for oral use containing only R-aLA, the natural enantiomeric and most active form of a-lipoic acid.For the first time, the effects of this formulation were evaluated on neuropathic pain, a symptom caused by an increase in oxidative stress, regardless of the underlying cause. Neuropathic patients who have used this dietary supplement noticed an improvement in their quality of life and a significant reduction was observed in a number of certain descriptive pain parameters (intensity, burning, unpleasantness, superficial pain).Undoubtedly further, more in-depth, studies need to be conducted; however, this first investigation confirms the role of R-aLA as an anti-oxidant for the aetiological treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Increasing its plasma bioavailability even after a non-invasive administration through the oral route is a good starting point for proposing a valid adjuvant for the treatment of pain symptoms. PMID:26694149

  20. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  1. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Fujiwara, Tohru [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, Kiwamu [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Ishizawa, Kenichi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Ichinohasama, Ryo [Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, Yukio [Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Harigae, Hideo, E-mail: harigae@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  2. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  3. Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Kanerva, M.; Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J. M.; Revitzer, H.; Sarlin, E.; Brander, T.; Saarela, O.

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2.

  4. RESPONSE OF SPECKLED SPUR-FLOWER TO SALINITY STRESS AND SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENT

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations to using ornamental plants in green areas is too high salinity and alkalization of the soil. The adverse effect of salinity on plant growth and development may be effectively reduced by application of salicylic acid. Plectranthus ciliatus is an attractive bed plant with ornamental leaves, recommended for growing in containers, hanging baskets, or sunny borders. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of P. ciliatus to salicylic acid and calcium chloride. The plants were grown in pots in a glasshouse and were sprayed with solution of 0.5 mM salicylic acid and watered with 200 mM calcium chloride. The application of salicylic acid resulted in an increased weight of the aboveground parts, higher stomatal conductance and leaf greenness index and enhanced leaf content of nitrogen, potassium, iron and zinc. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by reduced weight, stomatal conductance and leaf greenness index. Salt stress caused also a drop in leaf content of nitrogen, potassium and iron, and an increase in calcium, sodium, chlorine, copper and manganese concentration. Salicylic acid seemed to relieve salinity-mediated plant stress.

  5. Toxicity and efficacy evaluation of multiple targeted polymalic acid conjugates for triple-negative breast cancer treatment.

    Ljubimova, Julia Y; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Patil, Rameshwar; Ding, Hui; Inoue, Satoshi; Markman, Janet L; Rekechenetskiy, Arthur; Konda, Bindu; Gangalum, Pallavi R; Chesnokova, Alexandra; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L; Holler, Eggehard

    2013-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are widely used for delivery of drugs but frequently lack proof of safety for cancer patient's treatment. All-in-one covalent nanodrugs of the third generation have been synthesized based on a poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) platform, targeting human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). They significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice by blocking synthesis of epidermal growth factor receptor, and α4 and β1 chains of laminin-411, the tumor vascular wall protein and angiogenesis marker. PMLA and nanodrug biocompatibility and toxicity at low and high dosages were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The dual-action nanodrug and single-action precursor nanoconjugates were assessed under in vitro conditions and in vivo with multiple treatment regimens (6 and 12 treatments). The monitoring of TNBC treatment in vivo with different drugs included blood hematologic and immunologic analysis after multiple intravenous administrations. The present study demonstrates that the dual-action nanoconjugate is highly effective in preclinical TNBC treatment without side effects, supported by hematologic and immunologic assays data. PMLA-based nanodrugs of the Polycefin™ family passed multiple toxicity and efficacy tests in vitro and in vivo on preclinical level and may prove to be optimized and efficacious for the treatment of cancer patients in the future. PMID:24032759

  6. Superhydrophilic poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun membranes for biomedical applications obtained by argon and oxygen plasma treatment

    Correia, D. M.; Ribeiro, C.; Botelho, G.; Borges, J.; Lopes, C.; Vaz, F.; Carabineiro, S. A. C.; Machado, A. V.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-05-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, electrospun membranes and films were plasma treated at different times and power with argon (Ar) and oxygen (O2), independently, in order to modify the hydrophobic nature of the PLLA membranes. Both Ar and O2 plasma treatments promote an increase in fiber average size of the electrospun membranes from 830 ± 282 nm to 866 ± 361 and 1179 ± 397 nm, respectively, for the maximum exposure time (970 s) and power (100 W). No influence of plasma treatment was detected in the physical-chemical characteristics of PLLA, such as chemical structure, polymer phase or degree of crystallinity. On the other hand, an increase in the roughness of the films was obtained both with argon and oxygen plasma treatments. Surface wettability studies revealed a decrease in the contact angle with increasing plasma treatment time for a given power and with increasing power for a given time in membranes and films and superhydrophilic electrospun fiber membranes were obtained. Results showed that the argon and oxygen plasma treatments can be used to tailor hydrophilicity of PLLA membranes for biomedical applications. MTT assay results indicated that plasma treatments under Ar and O2 do not influence the metabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells.

  7. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  8. Treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid: Bench-scale study on hydrogen evolution

    At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to its zero state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them, there are small quantities of platinum group metals. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to their zero states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. The production of hydrogen gas presented the DWPF with a safety issue. Therefore, the objective of this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of what controlled the hydrogen evolution so that a practical solution to the safety issue could be obtained. A bench-scale parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: rhodium > ruthenium much-gt palladium; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; and when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

  9. Assessment of the chemical changes induced in human melanoma cells by boric acid treatment using infrared imaging

    Acerbo, A.; Miller, L.

    2009-07-01

    Boron is found in everyday foods and drinking water in trace quantities. Boron exists as boric acid (BA) within plants and animals, where low levels have been linked to cancer incidence. However, this correlation is not well characterized. In this study, we examined the chemical and morphological effects of BA on human skin melanoma cells (SK-MEL28) using Fourier Transform InfraRed Imaging (FTIRI) with a Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector. Cells were grown under concentrations of BA ranging from 0 to 50 mM. Cell viability was determined after 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days using trypan blue staining. With FTIRI, images of approximately twenty cells per time point per condition were collected. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate changes in cell composition, with particular focus on the lipid, protein, and nucleic acid spectral components. Results from trypan blue staining revealed decreased cell viability as BA concentration increased. FTIRI data indicated that the protein and lipid contents (as indicated by the lipid/protein ratio) did not undergo substantial changes due to BA treatment. In contrast, the nucleic acid/protein ratio significantly decreased with BA treatment. PCA results showed an increase in {beta}-sheet protein at higher concentrations of BA (12.5, 25, and 50 mM). Together, these results suggest that high concentrations of BA have an anti-proliferative effect and show signs consistent with apoptosis.

  10. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties of CVD-Grown Graphene with Ascorbic Acid Treatment

    Tang, Chunmiao; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Yanhui; Sui, Yanping; Yu, Guanghui; Cao, Yijiang

    2016-02-01

    Ascorbic acid was used to modify to chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films transferred onto SiO2 substrate. Residual polymer (polymethyl methacrylate), Fe3+, Cl-, H2O, and O2 affected the electrical and thermal properties on graphene during the transfer or device fabrication processes. Exposure of transferred graphene to ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced electrical properties with increased charge carrier mobility. All devices exhibited more than 30% improvement in room temperature carrier mobility in air. The carrier mobility of the treated graphene did not significantly decrease in 21 days. This result can be attributed to electron donation to graphene through the -OH functional group in ascorbic acid that is absorbed in graphene. This work provides a method to enhance the electrical properties of CVD-grown graphene.

  11. Anti-tumor effect in human lung cancer by a combination treatment of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors: SL142 or SL325 and retinoic acids.

    Shaoteng Han

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors arrest cancer cell growth and cause apoptosis with low toxicity thereby constituting a promising treatment for cancer. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity in lung cancer cells of the novel cyclic amide-bearing hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors SL142 and SL325. In A549 and H441 lung cancer cells both SL142 and SL325 induced more cell growth inhibition and cell death than the hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA. Moreover, the combination treatment using retinoid drugs ATRA or 9-cis RA along with SL142 or SL325 significantly induced more apoptosis and suppressed colony formation than the single use of either. The expression of the retinoic acid receptors RARα, RARβ, RXRα and RXRβ were unchanged with the treatment. However a luciferase reporter construct (pGL4. RARE 7x containing seven tandem repeats of the retinoic acid responsible element (RARE generated significant transcriptional activity after the combination treatment of retinoic acids and SL142 or SL325 in H441 lung cancer cells. Moreover, apoptosis-promoting Bax expression and caspase-3 activity was increased after the combination treatment. These results suggest that the combination treatment of SL142 or SL325 with retinoic acids exerts significant anti-tumor activity and is a promising therapeutic candidate to treat human lung cancer.

  12. Treatment of acidic INEEL waste using a countercurrent cobalt dicarbollide-based universal solvent extraction process

    A tertiary solvent containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and polyethylene glycol in different diluents was evaluated for the separation of cesium, strontium, actinides and rare earth elements from acidic liquid radioactive waste in countercurrent solvent extraction processes. This universal solvent extraction process has been demonstrated in 24-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plants, using simulated acidic tank waste, at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), St. Petersburg, Russia, and at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Demonstration of the universal extraction process with actual tank waste is scheduled at the INEEL in 1998

  13. Potential opportunities for treatment of metabolic syndrome withalpha-lipoic acid (Berlithion®300

    T I Romantsova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of experi mental data confirmed the influence of alpha-lipoi с acid on activity of AMPK enzyme, receptors PPARα/γ and uncoupling proteins that prev ent oxidative phosphorylation (UCPl. AMPK is the enzyme responsible for food intake and energy expenditure in hypothalamus as w ell as in peripheral adipose tissue. PPARγ is the key modulator of lipid ho meostasis and adipocyte differentiation. UCPl is located in the brown adipose tissue and provides termogenesis. Via regulation of mentioned biological targets alpha-lipoic acid (Berlithion®300 lowers insulinresistance, favors weight losing process and improvement of blood lipid profile.

  14. Possible role of alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries

    Ranieri Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings on the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with α-lipoic acid (α-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve confirm the possible usefulness of α-LA administration in humans with peripheral nerve injuries. We discussed this issue in relation with our recent results in which the combined employment of α-LA and γ-linolenic acid with a rehabilitation program for six weeks reduced sensory symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with compressive radiculopathy syndrome from disc-nerve root conflict in comparison with patients submitted to rehabilitation program alone for six weeks.

  15. Possible role of alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries

    Ranieri Maurizio; Sciuscio Manuela; Cortese Annamaria; Stasi Marilena; Panza Francesco; Megna Marisa; Fiore Pietro; Santamato Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings on the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve confirm the possible usefulness of α-LA administration in humans with peripheral nerve injuries. We discussed this issue in relation with our recent results in which the combined employment of α-LA and γ-linolenic acid with a rehabilitation program for six weeks reduced sensory symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with compressive radiculopathy syndrome f...

  16. Rapid reduction of lead leachate from hazardous fly ash using microwave treatment with acid combination.

    Chou, Chih-Mei; Wang, Li-Pang; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Yu-Min

    2016-02-01

    The novelty of this study is to rapidly reduce hazardous lead leachates from solid waste using microwave digestion treatment, which is an energy-saving and low greenhouse gas emission technology. The article presents the reduction of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration in the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by the microwave digestion treatment in HNO3/H2SO4 combination, and focuses on the effects of treatment time and temperature. The results obtained from this study indicated a significant reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration and showed sufficient reduction in leaching levels to render the treated fly ash safe in lead compound leaching characteristics. The reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration can reach 98% in 15 minutes of treatment time. This is equivalent to the original toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration of 46.2 mg L(-1) in raw fly ash being reduced down to less than 1.0 mg L(-1). Based on the experimental data obtained in this study, a useful correlation between reduction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed. For engineering applications, the necessary minimum treatment time is solved using a graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time (t(min)) is obtained if the desired reduction efficiency (η) and treatment temperature (T) are known. The effects of treatment time and temperature are discussed. Some problems caused by the microwave digestion treatment method are also delineated in this article. PMID:26526019

  17. Berberine target key enzymes and amino acid inibitiors in AD treatment-----creation from berberine-based structure screening

    Yau Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main components of berberine from coptis have a variety of pharmacological activity include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The principle of berberine is inhibiting the lower activity of enzyme and amino acid to prevent (AD. Enzyme like acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE, butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BchE and monoamine oxidase (MAO; Amino acid like beta-amyloid (Aβ. Unfortunately, the single chemical structures of berberine is no significance to regulation effect. As a part of our consideration, the review paper studies on chemically modified and synthesis from berberine-derivatives. Results show that the structures of (23, (10, (86, (52, and (61 have a potential effect for AchE, BuChE and Aβ-amyloid inhibitors for the first time. Especially in (23 and (52 also has better than two western medicine were compared.

  18. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy combined with CO2 laser therapy in treatment of laryngeal papilloma: Case report.

    Zhang, Yunjie; Yang, Yuguang; Zou, Xianbiao; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the case of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy (ALA-PDT) via self-retaining laryngoscope under general anesthesia combined with CO2 Laser Therapy in the treatment of three patients with juvenile laryngeal papilloma. Laryngeal papilloma Clinically, it features rapid growth, multi-focus, frequent recurrence and possibility of spreading to the lower respiratory tract. ALA-PDT via self-retaining laryngoscope under general anesthesia combined with CO2 Laser Therapy is safe and effective for clearing laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal papilloma was fully removed from the three patients, with no recurrence during the 6-24 months of follow-up medical examination. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy (ALA-PDT) via self-retaining laryngoscope under general anesthesia combined with CO2 Laser can be used for treating laryngeal papilloma. PMID:27045601

  19. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-[11C]methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells

  20. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.G.; Gee, A.D.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B5

    1987-09-01

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-(/sup 11/C)methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

  1. Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Pashangeh, Safoora; Farahnaky, Asgar; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Jamalian, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of reducing phytic acid content of wheat bran, particle size reduction (from 1,200 to 90 μm), hydrothermal (wet steeping in acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 55 °C for 60 min) and fermentation (using bakery yeast for 8 h at 30 °C) and combination of these treatments with particle size reduction were applied and their effects on some properties of the bran were studied. Phytic acid content decreased from 50.1 to 21.6, 32.8 and 43.9 mg/g after particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fe...

  2. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  3. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE BY THE ALUMINA-LIME-SODA PROCESS

    The alumina-lime-soda process is a chemical desalination process for waters in which the principal sources of salinity are sulfate salts and has been field tested at the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Acid Mine Drainage Research Facility, Hollywood, Pennsylvania, as a method to r...

  4. Lisianthus vase life after 1-methylcyclopropene and salicylic acid postharvest treatment

    Cavasini, R.; Laschi, D.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the effects of application of 0.5 μl L-1 1-methyl-cyclopropene (1-MCP), 1000 mg L-1 salicylic acid (SA) and the interaction between the two products at room temperature and pre-exposure at 9±2°C for 24 h in maintaining postharvest quality of lisianthus flowers. After applying...

  5. Kaempferia parviflora extract ameliorates the cognitive impairments and the reduction in cell proliferation induced by valproic acid treatment in rats.

    Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Kaempferia parviflora is a herbal plant whose rhizomes are used in traditional medicine. Investigations of this plant have shown it to have antidepressant activity and to improve learning and memory in animal models. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether K. parviflora could protect the brain from the impairments in cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis which are caused by valproic acid (VPA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (180-200g) were given once daily K. parviflora extract (100mg/kg) via oral gavage for 21 days. Rats received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of valproic acid (300mg/kg) from days 8 to 21 of the experiment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test five days after the end of treatment. Cell proliferation in the sub granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus was quantified by immunohistochemistry and levels of doublecortin (DCX) were determined by Western blotting. Co-treatment of VPA and K. parviflora prevented the cognitive decline and reduction in proliferating cells caused by VPA. Furthermore, co-treatment significantly increased DCX protein levels within the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that K. parviflora is able to prevent the brain from VPA-induced the impairments of spatial memory and proliferating cells within the SGZ. PMID:27142346

  6. Host cell reactivation by human cells of DNA expression vectors damaged by ultraviolet radiation or by acid-heat treatment

    We utilized a plasmid vector host cell reactivation assay to probe the biological functioning of DNA expression vectors and their encoded genes. We studied the effect of ultraviolet radiation or acid-heat treatment on the transient expression of genes transfected into normal human cells and into DNA repair deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum) cells and modification of gene expression by sodium butyrate. The results showed that u.v. damage of DNA expression vectors was subject to repair by the normal host cells, but acid-heat treatment resulted in damage (apurinic sites) that was handled in a similar manner by excision repair deficient and excision repair proficient human cells. In both normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells sodium butyrate treatment of cells resulted in a greater stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression with u.v. damaged than with undamaged plasmid. This assay thus permits examination of the effects of defined types of DNA damage on plasmid expression and study of its modulation by cellular repair activities. (author)

  7. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. PMID:27209395

  8. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on the acid and redox functions of a Ga/HZSM5 catalyst

    M.G.F. Rodrigues

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available After steaming at 530° C for 30 minutes and for 6 hours, a Ga/HZSM5 catalyst was characterized by three model reactions (meta-xylene isomerization, propane aromatization and methylcyclohexane transformation. The activity and selectivity of this catalyst were compared to those of a fresh Ga/HZSM5 catalyst. It was demonstrated that hydrothermal treatment provokes a significant decrease in the dehydrogenation activity of the gallium species and a small decrease in the protonic acidity of the catalyst.

  9. Hyaluronic acid preparations in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Synvisk®(Hylan G-F 20: Efficacy and safety

    Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on osteoarthrosis treatment using hyaluronic acid (HA preparations, on the functions of hyaluronan (HN in synovial fluid (SF, synovial tissue, and articular cartilage, and on differences in the symptom-modifying effect of HN with varying molecular weight. HN with average molecular weight demonstrates its benefits. The analgesic effect of HA preparations is shown to be determined by not only the improvement of SF elastoviscous properties and by the protection of pain receptors in joint tissues, but by their anti-rheumatic properties.

  10. Effect of domestic processing treatments on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid and polyphenols of pearl millet

    Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma; Ankit Goyal; Sumit Arora; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various processing treatments (individual and combination) on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid, polyphenols and ash content of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanam). Grains were subjected to soaking, pressure cooking, steaming, malting, pearling and extrusion cooking for different time intervals such as soaking for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h; steaming for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; pressure cooking for 2, 5, 7 and 10 min; controlled germination (m...

  11. Delivery of LLKKK18 loaded into self-assembling hyaluronic acid nanogel for tuberculosis treatment

    Silva, João P.; Gonçalves, Carine; Costa, C.; Sousa, Jeremy; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Castro, António G.; Pedrosa, Jorge; Appelberg, Rui; Gama, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    uberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, recently joined HIV/AIDS on the top rank of deadliest infectious diseases. Low patient compliance due to the expensive, long-lasting and multi-drug standard therapies often results in treatment failure and emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. In this scope, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) arise as promising candidates for TB treatment. Here we describe the ability of the exogenous AMP LLKKK18 to effic...

  12. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  13. [Treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with a new acid-resistant pancreatin product].

    Kempelen, I; Szilárd, M

    1995-09-17

    The authors summarised pathophysiology and therapy possibility of the chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. They introduce a new product of pancreatin use for treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this prospective study was to asses the efficacy of this new drug in the treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The treatment was carried out by new pancreatin product containing 10,000 FIP U lipase, 9000 FIP U amylase, and 500 FIP E protease. During the study 30 patients--suffering from alcoholic pancreatitis--were treated. They received, two tablets three times daily in a period of two weeks. The following parameters were observed and compared before and after the period of treatment: complaints of the patients, the characteristics of the stool (daily weight, frequency, fat contents, consistency) the change of the body weight and degree of abdominal pain. These parameters were compared using a score-system, before and after the period of treatment. The authors could analyse the data of 21 patients. It was proved that there was a significant decrease in frequency, daily weight and fat contents of the stool and in abdominal pain. There was not significant change in the body weight. The authors concluded that this new product is a good pancreatin preparation which is useful and suitable for effective treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, if the patient keeps abstinence. PMID:7566938

  14. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Biotoxins: A New Paradigm Toward the Treatment and Diagnostic Approach

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody-based therape...... nucleic acid aptamers developed against various biotoxins of plant, microorganism, or animal origin and show how these can be used in diagnostics (e.g., biosensors) and therapy.......-based therapeutic and diagnostic approach currently employed against biotoxins pose major limitations such as the requirement of a live animal for the in vivo enrichment of the antibody species, decreased stability, high production cost, and side effects. Aptamer technology is a viable alternative that can be used...

  15. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  16. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice. PMID:15041031

  17. Selective extraction of metals from products of mine acidic water treatment

    A study was made on possibility of processing of foam products prepared during flotation purification of mine acidic waters for the purpose of selective extraction of non-ferrous (Co, Ni) and rare earth elements (REE) and their separation from the basic macrocomponent of waters-iron. Optimal conditions of selective metal extraction from foam flotation products are the following: T=333 K, pH=3.0-3.5, ratio of solid and liquid phase - 1:4-1:7, duration of sulfuric acid leaching - 30 min. Rare earth extraction under such conditions equals 87.6-93.0%. The degree of valuable component concentration equals ∼ 10. Rare earths are separated from iron by extraction methods

  18. A cosmeceutical formulation based on boswellic acids for the treatment of erythematous eczema and psoriasis

    Togni S; Maramaldi G; Di Pierro F; Biondi M

    2014-01-01

    Stefano Togni,1 Giada Maramaldi,1 Francesco Di Pierro,2 Massimo Biondi3 1Indena S.p.A., Milan, Italy; 2Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 3Dermatology Unit, ASL Piacenza, Piacenza, Italy Background: Boswellic acids (BAs) show anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and asthma. A topical administration route is currently used to deliver active compounds in psoriatic and eczematous patients. In this double-blind study we ...

  19. The Efficacy, Longevity, and Safety of Combined Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Skin Rejuvenation

    Kim, Hyuk; Park, Kui Young; Choi, Sun Young; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Young; Park, Won-Seok; Bae, Il-Hong; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and radiofrequency (RF) devices have been made in the context of skin rejuvenation and cosmetic surgery. Moreover, combination regimens with both techniques are currently being developed. Objective The present study was designed to examine the clinical and histologic effects of a new needle that incorporates an RF device for HA injections. Methods A new intradermal needle RF device (INNOfill; Pacific Pharma, Korea) was assessed in the...

  20. Controlled trial of oligopeptide versus amino acid diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease.

    Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M. H.; Holdsworth, C D

    1995-01-01

    Elemental diets are effective in inducing remission in active Crohn's disease, but how they exert this therapeutic effect is unclear. In a previous study a whole protein containing diet proved less effective than one in which food antigens were excluded, suggesting that exclusion of food antigens from the gut was a possible mechanism. This study was designed to test whether an oligopeptide diet of hydrolysed proteins was as effective as an amino acid based diet. These diets were equally antig...

  1. Effects of brief milling and acid treatment on two ordered and disordered kaolinite structures

    Valášková, M.; Barabaszová, K.; Hundáková, M.; Ritz, M.; Plevová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2011), s. 70-76. ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1398 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/09/0352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : kaolinite * milling * hydrochloric acid Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169131711002675

  2. Water treatment technologies for removal of acid, sulphate and metals / Andries Johannes Geldenhuys

    Geldenhuys, Andries Johannes

    2004-01-01

    A great deal of research effort has been undertaken to find an effective solution to the problem of acid mine drainage. Indeed, South African legislation requires mining companies to respect environmental regulations by minimising water intake from local municipalities and providing a rehabilitation plan. In order for the South African mining industry to remain competitive, the proposed solutions have to be not only efficient but also economic. This is the reason for the use of a waste materi...

  3. Alpha-lipoic acid in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy treatment

    Tat'yana Yul'evna Demidova; Yuliya Aleksandrovna Trakhtenberg

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to assess the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Materials and methods. 47 patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were included in this trial. Dynamics of ophthalmologic parameters were assessed by means of stereoscopic photography of ocular fundus. Patients were examined every 6 months in order to register new cases of clin...

  4. Potential opportunities for treatment of metabolic syndrome withalpha-lipoic acid (Berlithion®300)

    T I Romantsova; I. S. Kuznetsov

    2009-01-01

    There are a lot of experi mental data confirmed the influence of alpha-lipoi с acid on activity of AMPK enzyme, receptors PPARα/γ and uncoupling proteins that prev ent oxidative phosphorylation (UCPl). AMPK is the enzyme responsible for food intake and energy expenditure in hypothalamus as w ell as in peripheral adipose tissue. PPARγ is the key modulator of lipid ho meostasis and adipocyte differentiation. UCPl is located in the brown adipose tissue and provides termogenesis. Via regulation o...

  5. Free fatty acid receptors: emerging targets for treatment of diabetes and its complications

    Vangaveti, Venkat; Shashidhar, Venkatesh; Jarrod, Ghassan; Bernhard T. Baune; Kennedy, R. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are important as metabolic substrates and as structural components of biological membranes. However, they also function as signalling molecules. Recently, a series of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) for FAs has been described and characterized. These receptors have differing specificities for FAs of differing chain length and degree of saturation, for FA derivatives such as oleoylethanolamide, and for oxidized FAs. They are a critical component of the body's nutrient sens...

  6. Influence of concentration in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Hiroaki Onoda; Aki Matsukura

    2015-01-01

    Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with various concentrations of phosphoric acid to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium ox...

  7. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid-our experience

    Prasad Mylarappa; Prathvi; Puvvada Sandeep; Kailash B Banale; D. Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We report our experience with subureteral submucosal injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux and determine the safety and efficacy in patients treated with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer. Background: Vesicoureteral reflux affects 1% of children and increases the chances of urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency. The aim of identifying and treating vesicoureteral reflux in children is to prevent occurrence of long term c...

  8. Recovery of volatile fatty acids from fermentation of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Longo, S; Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Renzi, D; Fatone, F

    2014-10-01

    This work investigated the pilot scale production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from sewage sludge through alkaline fermentation and the subsequent membrane filtration. Furthermore, the impact of the fermentation liquid on nutrient bioremoval was examined. The addition of wollastonite in the fermenter to buffer the pH affected the composition of the carbon source produced during fermentation, resulting in higher COD/NH4-N and COD/PO4-P ratios in the liquid phase and higher content of propionic acid. The addition of wollastonite decreased the capillary suction time (CST) and the time to filter (TTF), resulting in favorable dewatering characteristics. The sludge dewatering characteristics and the separation process were adversely affected from the use of caustic soda. When wollastonite was added, the permeate flux increased by 32%, compared to the use of caustic soda. When fermentation liquid was added as carbon source for nutrient removal, higher removal rates were obtained compared to the use of acetic acid. PMID:25459853

  9. Disseminated Exfoliative Dermatitis Associated with All-Transretinoic Acid in the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Yonal Ipek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a biologically and clinically separate type of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARa locus on chromosome 17, the great majority of which is t(15; 17(q24.1; q21.1 (Collins (1998, Melnick and Licht (1999, and Grimwade (1999. Retinoic acid is a critical ligand in the differentiation pathway of multiple tissues, mediated through binding to an RAR. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a subgroup of the retinoid family, which induces complete remission (CR in APL by causing differentiation and apoptosis in immature malignant promyelocytes rather than inducing cell death by cytotoxicity (Warrell et al. (1993, Liu et al. (2000, and Cassinat et al. (2001. ATRA-associated toxicity consisting of headache, fever, weakness, fatigue, dry skin, dermatitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and hypertriglyceridemia has been shown to be mild (Kurzrock et al. (1993. Herein, we describe a patient with APL that developed an erythematous reaction of the whole body followed by desquamation and exfoliation during ATRA therapy.

  10. Acid properties of HY zeolite dealuminated by steaming and EDTA treatment - NMR, XPS and IR studies

    Steaming of zeolite is known to remove some Al atoms from the framework, which results in the formation of extraframework Al species and in the increase of the framework Si/Al ratio (Si/Alfram). The effects of these factors on the nature, concentration, strength, homogeneity and accessibility of the acid sites in Y zeolite were followed by an IR study of the adsorption/desorption of ammonia and pyridine. The status of Si and Al atoms on the surface and in the bulk was followed by XPS and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies. The effect of the extra framework Al was shown by comparing two HY zeolites with the same Al contents (non dealuminated HY1 and steamed HY1S, Si/Alglobal = 2.6), but the second one containing extraframework Al. The effect of Si/Alfram was deducted from the comparison of HY1(Si/Alfram = 2.6) with dealuminated HY2SD (steamed then EDTA treated, Si/Alfram = 11.4) both samples being free of extraframework Al. The interaction of bridging hydroxyls with non framework Al, present as Lewis sites in steamed zeolites, generates a high acidity. Moreover, the strongly acidic Lewis sites (PyL band at 1452 cm-1), formed by steaming, are shown to be similar to those observed in dehydroxylated HY and they correspond to Al species strongly interacting with the framework. (author)

  11. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  12. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children

    Kar P

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 50 children in each group (total 200 with mild to severe pyodermas. Majority (47% had impetigo. Fifty (25% children had mild pyoderma, 56 (28% had moderate and 94 (47% children had severe pyoderma. Pure growth of S aureus was isolated in 130 (65% children, S pyogenes in 42 (21% and both organisms in 28 (14% children. In mild to moderate pyoderma either of the drug tried was equally effective. In severe pyoderma, 24 of twenty five (96% children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 18 of twenty (90% children in amoxicillin group, 20 of twenty four (83.3% children in erythromycin group and 13 of twenty five (52% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure of therapy. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated in children and there was no significant side effect except mild diarrhoea in two cases (4% which was well controlled by taking the drug with meals.

  13. Effect of some physical treatments on anti nutritional factors and fatty acids composition of Vicia faba L. seeds

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of irradiation (gamma irradiation at dose levels of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 kGy, He-Ne and their combination) on nutritive characteristics of Vicia faba L. seeds (Giza 843). Analyses included levels of anti-nutrients (total phenolic compounds, tannins, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and vicine), chemical composition (sugars, crude proteins, fat, dry matter and ash) and fatty acids profile. All treatments caused significant (P<0.05) decreases in the antinutrational factors under investigation. The reduction in the content of tannins and phenolic compounds were more pronounced with He-Ne alone or He-Ne in combination with gamma irradiation. At dose levels 10.0 and 20.0 kGy without or with combination of He-Ne were more efficiency in the reduction of phytic acid content by 24.3, 32.8, 34.5 and 45.5 %, respectively. Also, for trypsin inhibitor activity, the maximum inhibition was observed with the treatment of 20 kGy + He-Ne (36.7 %). In addition, in case of He-Ne alone or in combination with gamma irradiation at different dose levels used, the decrease of vicine content was more pronounced. On the other hand, no major difference was observed for sugars between the treatments tested. There were slight significant changes were observed for crude fat and crude protein by the all treatments used, compared to control. While insignificant changes in dry matter and ash contents (P < 0.05) were observed by the all treatments used. Moreover, He-Ne alone or combined with gamma irradiation caused increases in the ratio of USFA/SFA but, gamma irradiation alone at all dose levels used, caused decreases. The results obtained in this study suggest that gamma irradiation with laser irradiation may be chosen as a future method that allows a reasonable improvement in the quality of broad bean seeds

  14. Evaluation of residual iron in carbon nanotubes purified by acid treatments

    Edwards, E.R., E-mail: eliltonedwards@hotmail.com [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Antunes, E.F. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Aeronautical Institute of Technology - ITA, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP: 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Botelho, E.C. [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Baldan, M.R.; Corat, E.J. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces after non-oxidative and oxidative purification treatments in liquid-phase. The MWCNT were produced by pyrolysis of camphor and ferrocene, that provides a high yield but with high iron contamination ({approx}15% wt). The elimination and/or oxidation of iron nanoparticles were monitored by Fe2p and O1s core level. Oxygen-based functional groups attachment was also investigated by C1s fitting. The effectiveness of each treatment in iron removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The integrity of the MWCNT structure was verified by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A purity degree higher than 98% was achieved only with non-oxidative treatments using sonification process.

  15. Optimization of narrow-band uvb with a 5% oleic acid cream in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Martín-Ezquerra, G; Sánchez-Regaña, M; Umbert-Millet, P

    2007-03-01

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid with a known action of penetration enhancer which has been used for various purposes, such as a tanning increaser. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is a also first-line treatment for psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the use of a 5% oleic acid emulsion previous to the phototherapy sessions was useful in reducing the total dosage necessary for whitening in patients with psoriasis. Forty-four patients were included, 24 received application of the emulsion before phototherapy and 20 received phototherapy with no emulsion. Patients received the UVB sessions just to achieve a reduction of 80% of the basal PASI. The total dose received and number of sessions were compared within the 2 groups. A reduction in these parameters (29.68 J/cm(2) vs. 18.16 J/cm(2); 24 vs. 19 sessions) was seen in the group that received application of the emulsion. However, this was not statistically significant. The fact that we did not achieve the statistical significance may be due to the small sample size. These results must be cautiously interpreted and confirmed with further studies. PMID:17373190

  16. Induction of Systematic Resistance in Soybean Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease by Seed Treatment with Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH, humic acid (HA and their combination when used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Both inducers and their combination were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i. e Minia and New Valley governorates. The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except number of branches plant-1, and seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 + HA (4 g/l was the most potent in this respect treatment. Soybean seed soaking in BTH+ HA recorded the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. Whereas, HA treatment was recorded the lowest increased of these oxidative enzymes. Also, similar results were obtained in case of total phenol but HA increased the total phenol more than BTH in all tested cultivars.

  17. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (Ptreatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. PMID:22239909

  18. Ineffectiveness of erythromycin for treatment of Haemophilus vaginalis-associated vaginitis: possible relationship to acidity of vaginal secretions.

    Durfee, M A; Forsyth, P S; Hale, J A; Holmes, K K

    1979-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of oral erythromycin in the treatment of nonspecific vaginitis (NSV), conducted a nonrandom, unblinded pilot study among 17 women with symptoms and signs of NSV. At the completion of treatment, 10 of 13 patients had persistent symptoms, 9 of 13 had persistent abnormal discharge, and 11 of 13 had persistently positive cultures for Haemophilus vaginalis. Ten patients with persistent or relapsing NSV and four who did not complete erythromycin treatment were retreated with oral metronidazole, and 14 of 14 showed clinical improvement and eradication of H. vaginalis. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates of H. vaginalis to erythromycin was determined at pH 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0. The minimal inhibitory concentration of erythromycin for H. vaginalis was approximately 10-fold higher at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0. Erythromycin is not effective for the treatment of H. vaginalis-associated NSV; this may be partly attributable to the reduced activity of this drug in acidic vaginal secretions. PMID:43114

  19. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma and factors affecting the response to treatment: A clinical trial

    Zohreh Tehranchinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer in humans. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive therapeutic modality that may be considered as a valuable treatment option for BCC. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of PDT in treatment of BCC and factors that may affect the response rate. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 12 patients (28 BCC lesions who were treated with aminulevulinic acid (ALA-PDT, monthly, up to 6 sessions and the clinical response, cosmetic results, and possible side effects were evaluated. Results: The study was performed on 28 BCC lesions from 12 patients. Complete response was achieved in 9 (32.1% lesions. Complete response rate was higher in younger patients ( P < 0.01 and those with smaller lesions ( P < 0.001. Superficial type also had significant higher response rate ( P < 0.05. Patients with history of radiotherapy for the treatment of tinea capitis in childhood showed less response ( P < 0.05. Cosmetic results were excellent or good in 77.5% cases. After 6 months of follow-up, none of the resolved lesions recurred. Conclusion: PDT would be a good therapeutic option in treatment of BCC with acceptable efficacy and low side effects. Younger patients, superficial BCCs, and smaller lesions show better response to ALA-PDT. History of radiotherapy may be associated with a lower response rate.

  20. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models.

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Del Carmen, Silvina; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB) described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i) GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii) GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems) for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties) as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients. PMID:26064086