WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5-1-2008 test compatibility

  1. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  2. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  3. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  4. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  5. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  6. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  7. Chemical Compatibility Testing Final Report Including Test Plans and Procedures

    This report provides an independent assessment of information on mixed waste streams, chemical compatibility information on polymers, and standard test methods for polymer properties. It includes a technology review of mixed low-level waste (LLW) streams and material compatibilities, validation for the plan to test the compatibility of simulated mixed wastes with potential seal and liner materials, and the test plan itself. Potential packaging materials were reviewed and evaluated for compatibility with expected hazardous wastes. The chemical and physical property measurements required for testing container materials were determined. Test methodologies for evaluating compatibility were collected and reviewed for applicability. A test plan to meet US Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency requirements was developed. The expected wastes were compared with the chemical resistances of polymers, the top-ranking polymers were selected for testing, and the most applicable test methods for candidate seal and liner materials were determined. Five recommended solutions to simulate mixed LLW streams are described. The test plan includes descriptions of test materials, test procedures, data collection protocols, safety and environmental considerations, and quality assurance procedures. The recommended order of testing to be conducted is specified

  8. Compatibility Heuristics for Modern Mobile Games : Mobile games, Game testing.

    Gitau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate ways to perform a compatibility test for a modern mobile game. These tests were performed by running a tastephone midlet to the mobile handset to determine its characteristics and the equivalent implementation. Compatibility check test was also aimed to help a specified mobile game application to run successfully into a mobile phone. Compatibility heuristics for modern mobile games was also designed to study the factors that shoul...

  9. Preparation of refractory cermet structures for lithium compatibility testing

    Heestand, R. L.; Jones, R. A.; Wright, T. R.; Kizer, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    High-purity nitride and carbide cermets were synthesized for compatability testing in liquid lithium. A process was developed for the preparation of high-purity hafnium nitride powder, which was subsequently blended with tungsten powder or tantalum nitride and tungsten powders and fabricated into 3 in diameter billets by uniaxial hot pressing. Specimens were then cut from the billets for compatability testing. Similar processing techniques were applied to produce hafnium carbide and zirconium carbide cermets for use in the testing program. All billets produced were characterized with respect to chemistry, structure, density, and strength properties.

  10. MRI-compatible micromanipulator; design and implementation and MRI-compatibility tests.

    Koseki, Yoshihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible micromanipulator, which can be employed to provide medical and biological scientists with the ability to concurrently manipulate and observe micron-scale objects inside an MRI gantry. The micromanipulator formed a two-finger micro hand, and it could handle a micron-scale object using a chopstick motion. For performing operations inside the MRI gantry in a manner such that the MRI is not disturbed, the system was designed to be nonmagnetic and electromagnetically compatible with the MRI. The micro-manipulator was implemented with piezoelectric transducers (PZT) as actuators for micro-motion, strain gauges as sensors for closed-loop control, and a flexure parallel mechanism made of acrylic plastic. Its compatibility with a 2-Tesla MRI was preliminarily tested by checking if the MRI obtained with the micromanipulator were similar to those obtained without the micromanipulator. The tests concluded that the micromanipulator caused no distortion but small artifacts on the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI significantly deteriorated mainly due to the wiring of the micromanipulator. The MRI caused noise of the order of ones of volts in the strain amplifier. PMID:18001990

  11. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing of Implantable Neurostimulators Exposed to Metal Detectors

    Seidman, Seth J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Casamento, Jon; Witters, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing of three implantable neurostimulators exposed to the magnetic fields emitted from several walk-through and hand-held metal detectors. The motivation behind this testing comes from numerous adverse event reports involving active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) and security systems that have been received by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). EMC testing was performed using three neurostimulators exposed to the ...

  12. Project W-314 Polyurea Special Protective Coating (SPC) Test Plan Chemical Compatibility and Physical Characteristics Testing

    This Test Plan outlines the testing to be done on the Special Protective Coating (SPC) Polyurea which includes: Tank Waste Compatibility, Decontamination Factor Testing, and Adhesion Strength Testing after a sample has been exposed to Radiation

  13. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A. [ENEA CR Casaccia, 301 Via Anguillarese, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Damiani, C.; Dubus, G. [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, n° 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  14. Neutron irradiation and compatibility testing of Li2O

    A study was made of the neutron-irradiation behavior of 6Li-enriched Li2O material in EBR-II. In addition, a stress-corrosion study was performed ex-reactor to test compatibility of Li2O materials with a variety of stainless steels. Results of the irradiation testing showed that tritium and helium retention in the Li2O (approx. 89% dense) lessened with neutron exposure. Helium and tritium retention appear to approach steady-state after approx. 1% 6Li burnup. The stress-corrosion studies, using 316 stainless steel (Ti-modified) and a 35% Ni alloy, showed that stress does not enhance the corrosion, and that dry Li2O is not significantly corrosive, the LiOH content producing the corrosive effects. Corrosion, in general, was not severe as a passivation in sealed capsules seemed to occur after a time, greatly reducing corrosion rates

  15. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse- Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  16. Compatibility tests of steels in flowing liquid lead-bismuth

    Barbier, F.; Benamati, G. E-mail: benamati@brasimone.enea.it; Fazio, C.; Rusanov, A

    2001-06-01

    The behaviour of steels exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi was evaluated. The materials tested are the two austenitic steels AISI 316L and 1.4970, and the six martensitic steels Optifer IVc, T91, Batman 27, Batman 28, EP823 and EM10 which were exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h and at two temperatures (573 and 743 K). The corrosion tests were conducted in the non-isothermal loop of IPPE-Obninsk under a controlled oxygen level (10{sup -6} wt%). The compatibility study showed that at a lower temperature, a very thin oxide layer (<1 {mu}m) was formed on the steels. At higher temperature, austenitic steels also exhibited a thin oxide layer sufficient to prevent their dissolution in the melt. A thicker oxide, which grew according to a parabolic law, was observed on the surface of the martensitic steels. The oxidation resistance behaviour of the martensitic steels was correlated with their alloying elements.

  17. Compatibility tests of steels in flowing liquid lead-bismuth

    Barbier, F.; Benamati, G.; Fazio, C.; Rusanov, A.

    2001-06-01

    The behaviour of steels exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi was evaluated. The materials tested are the two austenitic steels AISI 316L and 1.4970, and the six martensitic steels Optifer IVc, T91, Batman 27, Batman 28, EP823 and EM10 which were exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h and at two temperatures (573 and 743 K). The corrosion tests were conducted in the non-isothermal loop of IPPE-Obninsk under a controlled oxygen level (10 -6 wt%). The compatibility study showed that at a lower temperature, a very thin oxide layer (<1 μm) was formed on the steels. At higher temperature, austenitic steels also exhibited a thin oxide layer sufficient to prevent their dissolution in the melt. A thicker oxide, which grew according to a parabolic law, was observed on the surface of the martensitic steels. The oxidation resistance behaviour of the martensitic steels was correlated with their alloying elements.

  18. Space hardware compatibility tests with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization

    Faye, Delphine; Aguila, Alexandre; Debus, Andre; Remaury, Stephanie; Nabarra, Pascale; Darbord, Jacques C.; Soufflet, Caroline; Destrez, Philippe; Coll, Patrice; Coscia, David

    The exploration of the Solar System shall comply with planetary protection requirements handled presently by the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR). The goal of planetary protection is to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and also to protect the Earth environment from an eventual contamination carried by return samples or by space systems. For project teams, avoiding the biological contamination of other Solar System bodies such as Mars imposes to perform unusual tasks at technical and operational constraints point of view. The main are the reduction of bioburden on space hardware, the sterile integration of landers, the control of the biological cleanliness and the limitation of crash probability. In order to reduce the bioburden on spacecraft, the use of qualified sterilization processes may be envisaged. Since 1992 now, with the Mars96 mission, one of the most often used is the Sterrad(R) process working with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. In the view of future Mars exploration programs, after tests performed in the frame of previous missions, a new test campaign has been performed on thermal coatings and miscellaneous materials coming from an experiment in order to assess the compatibility of space hardware and material with this sterilization process.

  19. Compatibility Heuristics for Modern Mobile games. : Mobile games.Mobile Game testing

    Gitau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate ways to perform a compatibility test for a modern mobile game. These tests were performed by running a tastephone midlet to the mobile handset to determine its characteristics and the equivalent implementation.Compatibility check test was also aimed to help a specified mobile game application to run successfully into a mobile phone. Compatibility heuristics for modern mobile games was also designed to study the factors that should be considered...

  20. Image Theory's Compatibility Test and Evaluations of the Status Quo.

    Richmond; Bissell; Beach

    1998-01-01

    The research on image theory's concept of progress decisions about either (1) the acceptability of the status quo vis a desired state or (2) the acceptability of movement toward a desired state has been limited to the laboratory. To demonstrate the feasibility of research on nonlaboratory, job-related progress decisions and to develop methods for doing it with minimal intrusion on participant work time, two experiments examined evaluations of the status quo vis a desired state in the context of three organizations: a controller's office, a pretrial services office, and a chain of fast food restaurants. Experiment 1 used fairly elaborate, time consuming methods in the controller's office and pretrial services office to measure the compatibility between participants' images of desirable supervision and their images of current supervision as well as their satisfaction with both supervision and with the organization. In both cases, as compatibility decreased, satisfaction decreased, but satisfaction with the organization appeared to derive from satisfaction with supervision rather than directly from compatibility. Experiment 2 measured the same concepts in the fast food chain using simple, single-item methods, obtaining roughly the same results as Experiment 1, except that it also demonstrated that hope for change can mitigate the effects of incompatibility on satisfaction. These results provide evidence for the role of compatibility in decision making and for the feasibility of using simple methods of measuring compatibility, acceptability, and hope in nonlaboratory research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9705793

  1. Almost compatible observables in quantum tests of contextuality

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Kleinmann, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake [Institutionen foer Systemteknik och Matematiska Institutionen, Linkoepings Universitet (Sweden); Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Gerritsma, Rene; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The Kochen-Specker-Theorem proves that in a hidden variable description of a quantum system, the value of a particular property (observable) depends on the context in which the value is to be revealed. The conflict here is between the hidden variable approach and the theory of quantum mechanics. In order to establish this conflict as the inability to employ a hidden variable description of an actual experiment, it has been suggested to extend the notion of non-contextuality to sequential measurements of compatible observables. However, in an experimental implementation the requirement of perfect compatibility cannot be reached. We show that this ''compatibility loophole'' can be addressed and that a recent experiment using trapped ions then excludes a large class of non-contextual hidden variable models.

  2. Project W-314 Polyurea Special Protective Coating (SPC) Test Report Chemical Compatibility and Physical Characteristics Testing

    This Engineering Test report outlines the results obtained from testing polyurea on its decon factor, tank waste compatibility, and adhesion strength when subjected to a high level of gamma radiation. This report is used in conjunction with RPP-7187 Project W-314 Pit Coatings Repair Requirements Analysis, to document the fact polyurea meets the project W-314 requirements contained in HNF-SD-W314-PDS-005 and is therefore an acceptable SPC for use in W-314 pit refurbishments

  3. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests

    Perry, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  4. Isothermal Microcalorimetric Evaluation of Compatibility of Proposed Injector Materials with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    Gostowski, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    High-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. All surfaces wetted by HTP must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid. In the case of tanks, lines and valves compatibility is required to preserve the HTP oxygen and energy content and to avoid overpressurization due to decomposition. With injectors and regenerative cooling passages shorter exposure time reduces these concerns. However, phase changes from fluid to gas impact heat transfer and become the dominant compatibility concern. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) provides a convenient and reproducible means to observe the decomposition of HTP when exposed to structural materials and therefore the compatibility of those materials'. The instrument provides heat flow values in terms of watts that may be converted to a reaction rate given the heat of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. These values are then converted to percent active oxygen loss per week (%AOL/wk) to preserve an earlier convention for quantifying HTP compatibility. Additionally, qualitative designations of compatibility have been assigned to these values. This scheme consists of four classes with Class 1 being the most compatible. While historical compatibility data is available its current applicability is in question due to subtle changes in the compositions of both HTP and structural materials. Trace levels of molecules can have significant influence on compatibility. Therefore representative samples of materials must be evaluated with current HTP formulations. In this work seven materials were selected for their strength characteristics at high temperature as expected in a HTP injector. The materials were then evaluated by IMC for HTP compatibility.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging compatibility test of a cranial prosthesis with titanium screws

    Jimenez, R.; Benavides, A.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Solis, S. E.; Uribe, E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2012-10-01

    The follow-up of patients with skull prosthesis is necessary to provide adequate medical care. Skull prostheses for cranioplasty have been developed at the Faculty of Odontology of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. We built a skull prosthesis phantom and tested for compatibility with standard magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Results showed full compatibility but susceptibility artefacts occurred due to titanium used to fix the prosthesis to the skull.

  6. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Oxygen materials compatibility testing

    Schoenman, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    Particle impact and frictional heating tests of metals in high pressure oxygen, are conducted in support of the design of an advanced rocket engine oxygen turbopump. Materials having a wide range of thermodynamic properties including heat of combustion and thermal diffusivity were compared in their resistance to ignition and sustained burning. Copper, nickel and their alloys were found superior to iron based and stainless steel alloys. Some materials became more difficult to ignite as oxygen pressure was increased from 7 to 21 MPa (1000 to 3000 psia).

  7. Cesium Chloride Compatibility Testing Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1984

    Bryan, G.H.; Divine, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of a prior examination, it was found that one of the aged test capsules exhibited discoloration and pitting on the outer surface of the inner capsule. The damage was attributed to problems encountered in the electropolishing operation, which is used to decontaminate the inner capsule after it is loaded with the CsCl and welded shut. A study was carried out in FY 1984 to: determine if the pitting was associated with the electropolishing operation; identify acceptable solution(s) to the problem; and establish the effect, if any, on the long-term integrity of the capsule. Another special study performed in FY 1984 was that of examining two capsules from the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) storage pool. The objective was to establish the extent of the capsule corrosion while in storage. The study of cause and long-term consequences of the pitting on the WESF cesium chloride capsules has found: The pitting is caused by a nonuniform current distribution at the rack/capsule contact, which forms localized hot spots. The high temperature causes the acid to become more concentrated through boiling of the acid. The concentrated boiling phosphoric acid causes a high rate of corrosion which forms the crevice. The lack of intergranular attack at the base of the crevices and the favorable results of the mechanical testing leads to the conclusion that there will be no long-term failure mechanism accentuated by the pitting, beyond that of having a small hole in the capsule wall with a consequential thinner wall. An attempt to penetrate the capsule wall by electropolishing failed after 30 min with the loss of electrical contact. Consequently, the maximum wall penetration is 40 mils, out of a total thickness of 136 mil. No justification was found to require examination and repack of the existing capsules. A modification of the rack design is recommended for future work, however, to eliminate the pitting.

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  9. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    Cepero, J. R.; Encabo Fernandez, F. J.; Pepe, I.; Verdugo, A.

    2009-05-21

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  10. Mixed waste chemical compatibility: A testing program for plastic packaging components

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the United States have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). The design requirements for both hazardous [49 CFR 173.24 (e)(1)] and radioactive [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging at sign d any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] and Type B (10 CFR 71.43) packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program attempts to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. This program has been described in considerable detail in an internal SNL document, the Chemical Compatibility Test Plan ampersand Procedure Report (Nigrey 1993)

  11. Assessing a Couple's Relationship and Compatibility Using the MARI[R] Card Test and Mandala Drawings

    Frame, Phyllis G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the MARI[R] Card Test, a transpersonal assessment tool which includes archetypal designs and color choices, as well as the drawing of a white and black mandala, or circle picture, for assessing the compatibility of two people in a committed relationship. In an informal pilot research study, 22 couples were given…

  12. Proposal of a two-qutrit contextuality test free of the finite precision and compatibility loopholes

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that any test of quantum contextuality is nullified by the fact that perfect orthogonality and perfect compatibility cannot be achieved in finite precision experiments. We introduce an experimentally testable two-qutrit violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories in which orthogonality and compatibility are guaranteed by the fact that measurements are performed on separated qutrits. The inequality is a direct translation of the basic building block of Kochen and Specker's proof of quantum contextuality for a qutrit, despite inequality's proof be completely independent of this diagram.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and..., App. B Appendix B to Part 173—Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the...

  14. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  15. Compatibility and pollinator efficiency tests on Pyrus communis L. cv.'Conference'

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Michotte-Van der Aa, Agnès; Raspé, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness of pollination was predicted in a 'Conference' pear orchard by examining pollen tube growth. This histological technique allows a reliable and rapid estimation of pollination quality. Intra- and inter-cultivar compatibility was tested by hand pollinations with 'Conference' or 'Doyenne' pollen, respectively. In intra-cultivar pollinated flowers, limited pollen tube growth and large callose plugs were observed. This cultivar was thus considered self-incompatible. As insect pollina...

  16. Compatibility test between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel(F82H)

    In a fusion blanket, beryllium has been identified for use as neutron multiplier, where it will be in contact with the structural material. Austenitic stainless steel, 316SS has been considered as the structural material. However, from some studies, it is reported that beryllium reacts with 316SS above 600 C. In our investigations, we found that the reaction product between beryllium and nickel, BeNi was formed on 316SS side at 600 C. Therefore, the compatibility between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel without nickel, F82H(Fe - 8%Cr - 2%W - 0.2%V) as the new structural material in JAERI was investigated to determine if it was more compatible with beryllium. In this study, for clarifying the chemical interaction between beryllium and F82H, the out-of-pile compatibility test has been carried out with diffusion couples of beryllium and F82H which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas. Annealing temperatures was 400, 600 and 800 C, and annealing periods was 100, 300 and 1000 h, respectively. From the results of this test, it is obvious that the thickness of reaction layer in F82H is 2/3 of that in 316SS in the case of annealing at 800 C for 1000 h. (orig.)

  17. Compatibility tests on steels in molten lead and lead-bismuth

    The compatibility of steels with liquid lead and liquid lead-bismuth is a critical issue for the development of accelerator-driven system (ADS). In this work the results of a set of preliminary tests carried out in stagnant molten lead at 737 K and in lead-bismuth at 573, 673 and 749 K are summarised. The tests were conducted for 700, 1200, 1500 and 5000 h. Three steels were tested: two martensitic steels (mod. F82H and MANET II) and one austenitic steel (AISI 316L). The martensitic steels underwent oxidation phenomena at the higher testing temperature, due to oxygen dissolved in the melts. At a lower test temperature (573 K) and higher exposure time (5000 h) the oxidation rate of the martensitic steel seems to be lower and the developed oxide layer protective against liquid metal corrosion. The austenitic steel, in turn, exhibited an acceptable resistance to corrosion-oxidation under the test conditions

  18. Compatibility tests between Solar Salt and thermal storage ceramics from inorganic industrial wastes

    Highlights: • ESEM and XRD characterizations have been performed. • Compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at 500 °C. • Tested ceramics have relevant properties to store thermal energy up to 1000 °C. • Feasibility of using ceramics as filler materials in thermocline is demonstrated. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using several post-industrial ceramics as filler materials in a direct thermocline storage configuration. The tested ceramics, coming from several industrial processes (asbestos containing waste treatment, coal fired power plants or metallurgic furnaces) demonstrate relevant properties to store thermal energy by sensible heat up to 1000 °C. Thus, they represent at low-cost a promising, efficient and sustainable approach for thermal energy storage. In the present study, the thermo-chemical compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at medium temperature (500 °C) under steady state. In order to determine the feasibility of using such ceramics as filler material, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterizations have been performed to check for their chemical and structural evolution during corrosion tests. The final objective is to develop a molten salt thermocline direct storage system using low-cost shaped ceramic as structured filler material. Most of the tested ceramics present an excellent corrosion resistance in molten Solar Salt and should significantly decrease the current cost of concentrated solar thermal energy storage system

  19. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3: Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad

  20. Feasibility Study on the Sodium Compatibility Test for Fuel Cladding of SFR

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Shin, Sang Hun; Park, Sang Gyu; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), a reactor that uses fast neutrons as a fission process, is considered one of the most probable candidates in next-generation reactors because it can maximize the uranium utilization when compared to conventional water reactor. Liquid sodium is used as a coolant in a SFR, because it has superior efficiency of fast neutron economy and high thermal conductivity, which enables a high power core design. However, previous research reported that fuel cladding materials like austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) react sodium coolant so that it results in the loss of the thickness, intergranular attack, and carburization or decarburization process to induce the change of the mechanical property. Fuel cladding, a seamless tube which has approximately 0.5mm in thickness and 3m in length is the component which covers fuel to protect radioactive species from being released. Because of its smaller thickness, the mechanical properties of the cladding are easily affected by the small changes of material property. This paper summarizes the status of sodium-material compatibility facility and proposes the optimal option in the case of the SFR fuel cladding. Previous researches revealed that assessing in-situ mechanical property is important in the case of cladding material owing to its dimensional characteristic. Optimal test method for assessing sodium compatibility of the cladding tube can be proposed that pressurized creep test under the controlled liquid sodium environment.

  1. Magnetic resonance compatibility of multichannel silicon microelectrode systems for neural recording and stimulation: design criteria, tests, and recommendations.

    Martínez Santiesteban, Francisco M; Swanson, Scott D; Noll, Douglas C; Anderson, David J

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of biomedical implants and devices represents a challenge for designers and potential risks for users. This paper addresses these problems and presents the first MR-compatible multichannel silicon chronic microelectrode system, used for recording and electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for animal models. A standard chronic assembly, from the Center for Neural Communication Technology at the University of Michigan, was tested on a 2 Tesla magnet to detect forces, heating, and image distortions, and modified to minimize or eliminate susceptibility artifacts, tissue damage, and electrode displacement, maintaining good image quality and safety to the animals. Multiple commercial connectors were tested for MR compatibility and several options for the reference electrode were also tested to minimize image artifacts and provide a stable biocompatible reference for shortand long-term neural recordings. Different holding screws were tested to anchor the microelectrode assembly on the top of the skull. The final selection of this part was based on MR-compatibility, biocompatibility, durability, and mechanical and chemical stability. The required adaptor to interconnect the MR-compatible microelectrode with standard data acquisition systems was also designed and fabricated. The final design is fully MR-compatible and has been successfully tested on guinea pigs. PMID:16532782

  2. Compatibility test of the capsule with cone shape bottom guide structures to the HANARO reactor

    The design modification of bottom guide structures of the instrumented capsule, which is used for the irradiation test in the HANARO reactor, was required because of the trouble of the bottom guide arm's pin during irradiation. The previous structure with 3-pin arms was changed into the cone shape of one body. The specimens of the bottom end cap ring with three different sizes (Φ68/70/72mm) were designed and manufactured. The out-pile tests for the capsule with previous and new three bottom guide structures were performed in the one-channel flow test facilities. In order to evaluate the compatibility with HANARO and the structural integrity of the capsule, a loading/unloading, a pressure drop, a thermal performance, a vibration, and an endurance test were conducted. From out-pile test results, the capsule with the cone shape bottom guide structures was found to be more stable than the previous structure and the optimized size of the bottom guide structure selected was 70 mm in diameter. It is expected that the new bottom guide structures will be applicable to all material and special capsules which will be designed and manufactured for the irradiation tests in the future

  3. Does the compatibility effect in the race Implicit Association Test reflect familiarity or affect?

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2005-06-01

    In the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) involving race classification (white vs. black), an apparent compatibility effect is found between the "pleasant" attribute and the "white" category. This race IAT effect has been interpreted in terms of "implicit prejudice"--that is, more positive evaluation of whites than of blacks that is not open to consciousness. We suggested instead that the race IAT effect is better interpreted in terms of the salience asymmetry account proposed by Rothermund and Wentura (2004), whereby greater familiarity with the white category makes it more salient. Evidence that has been presented against the familiarity interpretation is considered, and alternative interpretations of findings related to the race IAT effect are discussed. PMID:16235627

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing for Conducted Susceptibility Along Interconnecting Signal Lines. Final report

    Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shourbaji, A. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beets, B. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-31

    This document presents recommendations and the associated technical basis for addressing the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) along interconnecting signal lines in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in assisting the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMIIRFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research efforts have provided recommendations on (1) electromagnetic compatibility design and installation practices, (2) the endorsement of EMI/RFI and SWC test criteria and test methods, (3) the determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants, and (4) the development of recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes applicable to locations where safety-related I&C systems will be installed. The current research focuses on the susceptibility of l&C systems to conducted EMIIRFI along interconnecting signal lines. Coverage of signal line susceptibility was identified as an open issue in previous research on establishing the technical basis for EMIIRFI and SWC in safety-related I&C systems. Research results provided in this report will be used to establish the technical basis for endorsing U.S. Department of Defense and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization test criteria and test methods that address signal-line susceptibility. In addition, recommendations on operating envelopes are presented based on available technical information.

  5. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  6. Compatibility Testing of Non-Metallic Materials for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) of International Space Station (ISS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts will convert urine into potable water with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The urine is distilled, with the concentrated form containing about 15% brine solids, and the dilute form as a blend of pre-treated urine/wastewater. Eighteen candidate non-metallic materials for use with the UPA were tested in 2000 for compatibility with the concentrated and dilute urine solutions for continuous times of at least 30 days, and at conditions of 0.5 psia pressure and 100 F, to simulate the working UPA environment. A primary screening test for each material (virgin and conditioned) was dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in the stress relaxation mode, with the test data used to predict material performance for a 10-year use in space. Data showed that most of the candidate materials passed the compatibility testing, although a few significant changes in stress relaxation modulus were observed.

  7. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  8. Towards a four technique GGOS site: VLBI - DORIS compatibility tests at Wettzell

    Klügel, Thomas; Didelot, Francois; Kodet, Jan; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Mähler, Swetlana; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, Christian; Saunier, Jérôme; Schüler, Torben; Walter, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), co-location sites are of special importance for the evaluation and mutual control of the individual geodetic space techniques. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacon could complete the geodetic instrumentation consisting of three Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes, two Laser Ranging (LR) systems and a number of multi- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Integrating all fourth geodetic instrumentation into one site generates new problems with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). While the VLBI system is designed to receive very weak signals from quasars, the DORIS beacon emits strong signals in the UHF frequency band at 401.25 MHz and in the S band at 2036.25 MHz. During the observation of quasars with VLBI there is a high risk of coupling DORIS S band signals into the VLBI receiving chain generating spurious signal and, in the worst case, overloading receiving chain electronics and risking its damage. Before a DORIS beacon is operated at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, it must be ensured that it can be operated alongside the VLBI system without any risk of damage or degradation of the measurement. Field tests under different setups were performed to assess the impact of the DORIS signal on the classical geodetic VLBI 20-m and the VGOS 13-m radio telescopes. Different locations on the observatory each at a distance of more than 100 m were occupied by the DORIS antenna. It has been shown that obstacles like buildings or earth mounds attenuate the signal up to 20 dB. However the power received at the input of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) is still at a critical level when the radio telescope points towards the DORIS beacon. The quality of the correlated signals is not or barely affected at long baselines. At local baselines however, the DORIS emission as a common mode signal degrades

  9. Design and testing of an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for non-invasive cardiac assessments during exercise

    Gusso Silmara; Salvador Carlo; Hofman Paul; Cutfield Wayne; Baldi James C; Taberner Andrew; Nielsen Poul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited. Methods We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates. Results We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer...

  10. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  11. Development of Experimental System for Material Compatibility Test for Ultra-long Cycle Fast Reactor (UCFR)

    Sodium is a candidate for fast reactor coolants that has been believed to have favorable compatibility with structural materials. However, recent studies showed results which need for a more careful attention at this previous belief. For prolonging the service life time of cladding and structural materials in contact with liquid sodium, more detail analysis methods are needed to examine this material compatibility issue with sodium. As a candidate of liquid metals coolants of Ultra-long Cycle Fast Reactor (UCFR), the compatibility of sodium with cladding materials has to be investigated in detail with long term exposure time. It is known that sodium promotes corrosion in two ways. One is corrosion produced by dissolution of alloy elements into sodium and the other is corrosion produced through a chemical reaction with impurities in sodium (especially, dissolved oxygen). The use of the technique of impedance spectroscopy to measure the electrical impedance response of any oxide layers may be a good experimental tool to this monitoring system. The motivation of current study is to investigate the relationship between the electrochemical behaviors of oxide scales on martensitic and austenitic steels and their corrosion rates in liquid sodium

  12. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  13. An Overview of Demise Calculations, Conceptual Design Studies, and Hydrazine Compatibility Testing for the GPM Core Spacecraft Propellant Tank

    Estes, Robert H.; Moore, N. R.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design for demise" spacecraft. This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. This paper will describe GSFC-performed spacecraft and tankage demise analyses, vendor conceptual design studies, and vendor performed hydrazine compatibility and wettability tests performed on 6061 and 2219 aluminum alloys.

  14. ECLSS Sustaining Metal Materials Compatibility Final Report, Electrochemical and Crevice Corrosion Test Results

    Lee, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical test results are presented for six noble metals evaluated in two acidic test solutions which are representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The two test solutions consisted of fresh waste liquid which had been modified with a proposed or alternate pretreatment formulation and its associated brine concentrate. The six test metals included three titanium grades, (Commercially Pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V Low Interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel® 625 and Hastelloy® C276), and one high tier stainless steel (Cronidur® 30).

  15. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  16. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  17. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  18. Compatibility tests of materials for a prototype ceramic melter for defense glass-waste products

    The corrosion--erosion resistance of potential electrode and refractory materials was evaluated by static and dynamic tests in simulated glass waste. Based on corrosion--erosion behavior, thermal and electrical properties, and cost and availability, Monofrax K3 (Carborundum Co.) and Inconel 690 (International Nickel Co.) were selected as the contact refractory and electrode materials, respectively, for a prototype ceramic melter

  19. Short and long-term tests of elastomers with hot hostile fluids. Environmental Compatibility Test Program final report

    Friese, G.J.

    1982-12-30

    Equipment manufacturers and elastomer houses were called to find the best currently available high-temperature elastomers. Tensile specimens of 46 such compounds were immersion tested for five days in six 190C fluids of interest: isobutane, brine, ASTM No. 1 oil, ASTM No. 3 oil, Pacer DHT-185M synthetic oil, and Chevron Cylinder Grade 460X oil. The best eight were selected based upon the least change in mechanical properties. These eight were then simultaneously tested (a) by immersion in five 190C fluids for six months and (b) as 0-rings for 46 hours at 190C, 230C, and 265C (accelerated ageing) in three fluids and at a differential pressure of 21 MPa. Based upon these 0-ring tests, four compounds were selected for testing as 0-rings in three 204C fluids at 21 MPa differential pressure. The data were evaluated and conclusions were drawn. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. There was immersion testing of primarily L'Garde compounds in brine and CL3 mineral oil for 6 months at 190C. L'Garde had formulated several compounds specifically for 260C brine, and their applicability to a specific problem was assessed early in the program.

  20. Chemical compatibility of B-4C/Na/S.S. system. Pt.2: Effects of test period and oxygen content in sodium

    The simulation specimens of the fast breeder reactor' control rod were put into the thermal convection sodium loop, and the out of pile tests for B4C/Na/S.S. system chemical compatibility were performed at 550 degree C, and the effects of the test period and oxygen content in sodium on the compatibility characters were investigated. The appearance of B4C pellets is integral, and crack or break are not found after compatible test. There is B penetration in cladding inner surface, the amount of B penetration is proportional to the square root of the test period. The depth of B penetration is not changed with the add of the test period. The microhardness at the cladding inner surface increases clearly, its increment is increasing slightly with the add of the test period. The depth of the hardening layers is about 40 μm for different test periods. The reaction products Cr2B, Na4B10O17, B6Fe23, CrB, Nib and NiB12 are formed according to priority at the cladding inner surface for 80 to 400 d. The diffusion of B into the cladding relates to the temperature, test period and the oxygen content, and the oxygen promotes the B diffusion

  1. Compatible solutes

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  2. Development of High-Temperature Sodium Loop System for Materials Compatibility Test for Ultra-long Cycle Fast Reactor (UCFR)

    Sodium is a candidate for fast reactor coolants that has been believed to have favorable compatibility with structural materials. However, recent studies showed results which need for a more careful attention at this previous belief. For prolonging the service life time of cladding and structural materials in contact with liquid sodium, more detail analysis methods are needed to examine this material compatibility issue with sodium. As a candidate of liquid metals coolants of Ultra-long Cycle Fast Reactor (UCFR), the compatibility of sodium with cladding materials has to be investigated in detail with long term exposure time. It is known that corrosion promotes corrosion in two ways. One is corrosion produced by dissolution of alloy elements into sodium and the other is corrosion produced through a chemical reaction with impurities in sodium, especially dissolved oxygen. The use of the technique of impedance spectroscopy to measure the electrical impedance response of any oxide layers may be a good experimental tool to this monitoring system. The motivation of current study is to investigate the relationship between the electrochemical behaviors of oxide scales on ferritic-martensitic (FM) steel and austenitic steels (as shown in Table I) and their corrosion rates in liquid sodium environment

  3. Metoda ispitivanja kompatibilnosti sredstava lične NHB zaštite / Method of testing compatibility of personal NBC protection devices

    Dušan Rajić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Na primeru izabranih sredstava lične NHB zaštite demonstrirana je primena metode procene kompatibilnosti, kao vrlo bitne taktičko-tehničke karakteristike za svako novouvedeno sredstvo naoružanja i vojne opreme (NVO u Vojsci Srbije. Utvrđeno je da zaštitno filtrirajuće odelo, zaštitni laki ogrtač i zaštitne rukavice ispunjavaju postavljene kriterijume kompatibilnosti. Opisana metoda provere kompatibilnosti može da se primenjuje i na druga sredstva NVO u fazama razvoja, proizvodnje i eksploatacije. / The selected personal NBC protection devices have served as an example for demonstrating the application of the compatibility evaluation method as a very important tactical-technical characteristic of each newly introduced item of weapon and military equipment in the Serbian army. It has been determined that a filtering protective suit, a light protective coat and protective gloves meet the required criteria of compatibility. The described method of testing compatibility can be also applied to other weapons and military equipment in stages of development, production and exploitation.

  4. U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

    Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R ampersand D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication

  5. Isothermal Calorimetric Observations of the Affect of Welding on Compatibility of Stainless Steels with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    Gostowski, Rudy C.

    2002-01-01

    Compatibility is determined by the surface area, the chemical constituency and the surface finish of a material. In this investigation exposed area is obviously not a factor as the welded samples had a slightly smaller surface than the unwelded, but were more reactive. The chemical makeup of welded CRES 316L and welded CRES 304L have been observed in the literature to change from the parent material as chromium and iron are segregated in zones. In particular, the ratio of chromium to iron in CRES 316L increased from 0.260 to 0.79 in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the weld and to 1.52 in the weld bead itself. In CRES 304L the ratio of chromium to iron increased from 0.280 to 0.44 in the HAZ and to 0.33 in the weld bead. It is possible that the increased reactivity of the welded samples and of those welded without purge gas is due to this segregation phenomenon. Likewise the reactivity increased in keeping with the greater roughness of the welded and welded without purge gas samples. Therefore enhanced roughness may also be responsible for the increased reactivity.

  6. Real-time-MR guidance for placement of a self-made fully MR-compatible atrial septal occluder: in vitro test

    Purpose: This in vitro study investigated the feasibility to visualize the placement of three different atrial septal occluder systems using real-time MR control. Methods: The experiments were performed on an interventional 1.5 T high field whole body system. Real-time MR imaging was achieved by radial or spiral k-space filling in conjunction with the sliding window reconstruction technique yielding an imaging speed of 15 frames per second. The CardioSeal, Ampaltzer Septal Occluder and a specially designed MR-compatible closure device were tested in a water bath. A punctured plastic wall served as model for the atrial septal defect. Results: The delivery systems of the CardioSeal and Amplatzer Occluder were ferromagnetic and caused substantial artifacts, making the device placement impossible, even if the magnetic forces would have been acceptable. The self-made prototype caused only minor susceptibility artifacts allowing its visualization on the MR images. The MR imaging techniques applied enabled real-time control of the occluder including steering through the artificial septal foramen and visualization of the occluder deployment. Conclusion: Real-time MR imaging allows for guidance and placement of an MR-compatible septal occluder in vitro suggesting the feasibility to perform atrial septal occlusion under MR-guidance in vivo as well. (orig.)

  7. 输血相容性实验室检测方法的建立%Development of the laboratory testing methodology for blood transfusion compatibility

    郭文敬; 刘燕明

    2012-01-01

    分析了输血相容性检测项目的必要性,通过综合评价输血实验室的检测要求,结合输血专业特点和临床输血技术规范,从ABO血型检测项目、RhD血型检测项目和筛检与交叉配血检测项目3个方面对建立适宜的实验室检测技术进行探讨,以期达到临床用血的安全性和有效性.%The paper analyzed the necessity of the testing items for blood transfusion compatibility.By means of a comprehensive evaluation of the testing requirements of blood transfusion labs,and a basis on characteristics of blood transfusion profession and technical specifications in clinical transfusion,the paper probed into building appropriate lab examination techniques in terms of ABO blood type testing item,RhD blood type testing item and screening test,and cross-matching testing items,for the purpose of achieving the safety and effectiveness of clinical blood use.

  8. Characterization and wall compatibility testing of a 40K pound thrust class swirl-coaxial injector and calorimeter combustion chamber

    Petersen, E. L.; Rozelle, R.; Borgel, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Subscale injector-combustor tests under the NASA Space Transportation Engine Thrust Chamber Technology program measured characteristic velocity (c-asterisk) efficiencies and wall heat fluxes for the pressure range 1710 psia to 2360 psia and for the overall O2/H2 mixture ratio range 5.5 to 6.4. Tests involving radially-uniform mixture ratio profiles produced c-asterisk efficiencies above 99 percent; nonuniform profiles associated with wall durability-enhancement schemes resulted in lower efficiencies. Though all three wall protection methods proved successful at reducing wall heat flux, scarfing of the outer-row, swirl-coaxial injection elements was the technique which resulted in the least debit in c-asterisk per unit reduction in heat flux.

  9. Biological compatibility test on films of added SEO [poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide)] PVP

    Membranes composed by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), agar and water crosslinked by ionizing radiation, can have the mechanical properties improved by the addition of copolymers. Due to the hydrophilic property also by the medical grade as it is supplied, the copolymer poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) was added to the PVP membranes. Varied concentrations of SEO were used in the preparation of PVP membranes by electron beam irradiation at dose rate of 25 kGy. For testing the bicompatibility of the SEO composed membrane the in vitro assay of cytotoxicity, with Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), was carried out. However, the membranes showed a cytotoxic characteristic in cell culture, which was stronger as the amount of SEO increased in the composition. (author)

  10. Automatically produced FRP beams with embedded FOS in complex geometry: process, material compatibility, micromechanical analysis, and performance tests

    Gabler, Markus; Tkachenko, Viktoriya; Küppers, Simon; Kuka, Georg G.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Milwich, Markus; Knippers, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the presented work was to evolve a multifunctional beam composed out of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and an embedded optical fiber with various fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG). These beams are developed for the use as structural member for bridges or industrial applications. It is now possible to realize large scale cross sections, the embedding is part of a fully automated process and jumpers can be omitted in order to not negatively influence the laminate. The development includes the smart placement and layout of the optical fibers in the cross section, reliable strain transfer, and finally the coupling of the embedded fibers after production. Micromechanical tests and analysis were carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor. The work was funded by the German ministry of economics and technology (funding scheme ZIM). Next to the authors of this contribution, Melanie Book with Röchling Engineering Plastics KG (Haren/Germany; Katharina Frey with SAERTEX GmbH & Co. KG (Saerbeck/Germany) were part of the research group.

  11. Patch repair: compatibility issues

    Garbacz, Andrzej; Courard, Luc; Bissonnette, Benoît; Głodkowska, W.

    2014-01-01

    Repair of any concrete structure results in formation of complex, at least two-component repair systems. Compatibility approach is treated as a basic requirement during selection of repair material. Recently, the understanding for compatibility requirements in repair systems approach is demonstrated in many papers. The aim of this paper is analyzing the compatibility between repair materials and concrete substrate in the case of patch repair. The compatibility issues were discussed in light o...

  12. Electro-magnetic compatibility

    Maidment, H.

    1980-05-01

    The historical background to the growth in problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in UK Military aircraft is reviewed and the present approach for minimizing these problems during development is discussed. The importance of using representative aircraft for final EMC assessments is stressed, and the methods of approach in planning and executing such tests are also outlined. The present equipment qualification procedures are based on assumptions regarding the electromagnetic fields present within the airframe, and the nature of the coupling mechanisms. These cannot be measured with any certainty in representative aircraft. Thus EMC assessments rely on practical tests. Avionics systems critical to flight safety, and systems vital to mission effectiveness require test methods that provide a measure of the safety and performance margins available to account for variations that occur in production and service use. Some proven methods are available, notably for detonator circuits, but in most other areas further work is required. Encouraging process has been made in the use of current probes for the measurement of interfering signals on critical signal lines, in conjunction with complementary test house procedures, as a means for obtaining the safety margins required in flight and engine control systems. Performance margins for mission systems using digital techniques are difficult to determine, and there is a need for improved test techniques. The present EMC qualification tests for equipment in the laboratory do not guarantee freedom from interference when installed, and the results are limited in value for correlating with aircraft tests.

  13. Hydrazine Materials Compatibility Database

    Schmidt, E. W.

    2004-10-01

    Anhydrous hydrazine and its methyl derivatives MMH and UDMH have been safely used as monopropellants and bipropellant fuels in thousands of satellites and space probes, hundreds of expendable launch vehicles and hundreds of piloted reusable launch vehicle flights. The term hydrazine(s) is used here to describe the three propellant hydrazines and their mixtures. Over the years, a significant amount of experience has accumulated in the selection of compatible materials of construction for these and other rocket propellants. Only a few materials incompatibility issues have arisen in the recent past. New materials of construction have become available during the past decades which have not yet been extensively tested for long-term compatibility with hydrazine(s). These new materials promise lightweight (i. e., lighter weight) propulsion system designs and increased payloads in launch vehicles and satellites. Other new materials offer reduced contamination caused by leached ingredients, e. g. less silica leaching from diaphragms in propellant management devices in propellant tanks. This translates into longer mission life.

  14. Introduction of the Instruments of Electromagnetic Compatibility Test for Medical Electrical Equipment%医用电气产品电磁兼容测试设备介绍

    范文; 缪佳

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the standard YY 0505-2012 with its test items for medical electrical products during electromagnetic compatibility testing, and introduces the requirements of various test items and the conifguration of test equipment,etc.%本文介绍了医用电气产品电磁兼容检测时的依据标准YY 0505-2012及其所适用的测试项目,并介绍了各个检测项目中特殊设备的要求以及测试设备配置等。

  15. Prediction of ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests as it relates to siting of a nuclear waste storage facility at NTS and compatibility with the weapons test program

    This report assumes reasonable criteria for NRC licensing of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Nevada Test Site where it would be exposed to ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests. Prediction equations and their standard deviations have been determined from measurements on a number of nuclear weapons tests. The effect of various independent parameters on standard deviation is discussed. That the data sample is sufficiently large is shown by the fact that additional data have little effect on the standard deviation. It is also shown that coupling effects can be separated out of the other contributions to the standard deviation. An example, based on certain licensing assumptions, shows that it should be possible to have a nuclear waste storage facility in the vicinity of Timber Mountain which would be compatible with a 700 kt weapons test in the Buckboard Area if the facility were designed to withstand a peak vector acceleration of 0.75 g. The prediction equation is a log-log linear equation which predicts acceleration as a function of yield of an explosion and the distance from it

  16. Compatible spanning trees

    Garcia Olaverri, Alfredo Martin; Huemer, Clemens; Hurtado Díaz, Fernando Alfredo; Tejel Altarriba, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Two plane geometric graphs are said to be compatible when their union is a plane geometric graph. Let S be a set of n points in the Euclidean plane in general position and let T be any given plane geometric spanning tree of S. In this work, we study the problem of finding a second plane geometric tree T' spanning S, such that is compatible with T and shares the minimum number of edges with T. We prove that there is always a compatible plane geometric tree T' having at most #n - 3#/4 edges in ...

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility engineering

    Ott, Henry W

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems ""Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others.""-EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications t

  18. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  19. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The Phase II study of this project includes the analysis of impact on the reactor safety, the development of core design technology, the development of fuel supply technology of optimal composition, and feasibility analysis on localization and license of DUPIC fuel. From the reactor safety analysis results, it is known that DUPIC fuel satisfies the safety limit of reactor containment and public dose for single failure. But, the safety limit may be exceeded for dual failure. Therefore, more analysis is needed for the removal of excessive conservatism in accident analysis methodology and modification of transient fuel behavior analysis methodology. The results of the validation calculations of core design methodology have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of compatibility and fuel fabrication have shown that DUPIC fuel is technically feasible. For practical use and licensing, however, more research items required in the practical use, fuel rod and bundle design and fuel loading are should be performed. When these items are performed and resolved, the compatibility of the DUPIC fuel is achieved, and, eventually, the possibility of DUPIC fuel licensing can be confirmed

  20. Socially compatible technology management

    The public has a critical eye on the impacts of technology, and there is a growing awareness of the social impacts in addition to health hazards and economic and ecologic impacts. 'Socially compatible technology management' is the magic formula frequently used which has emerged as a political demand in the course of the social controversy about the hazards of large-scale technology. It marks a position in the conflict between those who declare existing market and policy instruments to be sufficient regulatory tools, and those who understand the incidents ranging from inadequacy to desaster as a warning, and call for more precaution in decisions with an impact on the future. The concept of 'social compatibility' has to be given shape by elaborating criteria and methods for achieving this goal. The book shows that social compatibility cannot sufficiently be defined either as a quality of a technology and of a socio-technical system (acceptability), or as the willingness of the people concerned to accept a technology (acceptance). The investigation explains by means of empirical analysis and examples that participation is the only way to combine acceptability and acceptance into a socially compatibly designed technology. The leading theoretical and political formula developed for this purpose is 'acquisition'. To put it in a provocative way: Man has to learn to manage and master technical systems as if they were an integral part of themselves. Which means, man has to acquire the required knowledge and skill in the changing social structures, and the real power of disposal. Sociology of technology is a branch of research that can and should give support in the process of designing and managing technological systems in a way compatible with social needs. (orig./HP)

  1. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  2. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu; Elizabeth da Costa Mattos; Koshun Iha

    2010-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetry), VST (Vacuum stability test) and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished...

  3. Testing for compatibility of reduced activation ferritic steel with plasma on JFT-2M partial coverage of the vacuum vessel with ferritic steel

    The compatibility of reduced activation ferritic steel (F82H), which is a leading candidate material for the demo reactor (e.g. SSTR), with plasma has been investigated in the JFT-2M tokamak with 3 steps in an AMTEX (Advanced Material Tokamak EXperiment). In the first step, the reduction of fast ion losses was well demonstrated with the ferritic steel outside the vacuum vessel. In the second step, the ferritic steel was installed inside the vacuum vessel in order to perform a preliminary investigation of the effect of the ferromagnetism on plasma stability and control, and impurity release. For this purpose, ferritic steels of 7 mm thickness were installed to form 2 sets of toroidally uniform belts, which cover 20% of the vacuum vessel. No deteriorative effects were observed regarding mode locking, plasma control, and impurity desorption. The initial boron coating was applied in order to modify the surface of the ferritic steel. The impurity is remarkably reduced and high normalized-beta plasma was obtained. Thus encouraging results were obtained for the third step, where whole vacuum vessel wall will be covered with ferritic steel. (author)

  4. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  5. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  6. Bigness in compatible systems

    Snowden, Andrew; Wiles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Clozel, Harris and Taylor have recently proved a modularity lifting theorem of the following general form: if rho is an l-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of a number field for which the residual representation rho-bar comes from a modular form then so does rho. This theorem has numerous hypotheses; a crucial one is that the image of rho-bar must be "big," a technical condition on subgroups of GL(n). In this paper we investigate this condition in compatible systems. Our main r...

  7. Compatible use issues

    As part of a general review of rights-of-way policies at British Columbia Hydro, a task team was charged with examining issues related to compatible use, defined as any use of rights-of-way which does not compromise safety requirements, the security of BC Hydro plant and property rights, the ability to serve customers, and the ability to upgrade, modify, and maintain electric plant. The following issues were examined: modification of transmission works; preload activity on and adjacent to rights-of-way; Canadian Standards Association and BC Hydro standards and rights-of-way use; proactive right-of-way management; right-of-way use and future planning; right-of-way use administration; and transmission right-of-way identity. The task team was concerned about whether BC Hydro policy unnecessarily restricts land use, whether right-of-way policies are efficient, if policies on compatible uses of rights-of-way are well-developed and well-known, and if standards relative to right-of-way use are adequate. Each issue is described and recommendations are provided on policies, procedures, and guidelines. Each recommendation is supported by a justification statement and information on current practices and issue backgrounds. Alternative options are analyzed, and attention is given to cost effectiveness, internal and external goodwill, public opinion, and the implications for the future

  8. Uhv compatible chopper system

    A time-of-flight system utilizing a novel mechanical chopper has been developed to measure the energy spectrum of neutral deuterium atoms emitted from a tokamak plasma. The chopper system consists of a motor, a magnetically levitated shaft, and a chopper disc. The 20 g disc is rigidly attached to a 159 g shaft assembly and the set is supported against gravity in vacuum by permanent magnets and a stabilizing servo system. All components are uhv compatible to avoid contamination to the tokamak and to the detector. The 25.4 cm OD, .005 cm thick, 301 stainless steel chopper disc has 24 .025 cm wide slots photoetched at an 11.4 cm radius. An effective aperture time of .55 μs is achieved during typical steady state operation at 22,500 rpm with a vacuum pressure of 2 x 10-8 torr

  9. Uhv compatible chopper system

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1979-11-01

    A time-of-flight system utilizing a novel mechanical chopper has been developed to measure the energy spectrum of neutral deuterium atoms emitted from a tokamak plasma. The chopper system consists of a motor, a magnetically levitated shaft, and a chopper disc. The 20 g disc is rigidly attached to a 159 g shaft assembly and the set is supported against gravity in vacuum by permanent magnets and a stabilizing servo system. All components are uhv compatible to avoid contamination to the tokamak and to the detector. The 25.4 cm OD, .005 cm thick, 301 stainless steel chopper disc has 24 .025 cm wide slots photoetched at an 11.4 cm radius. An effective aperture time of .55 ..mu..s is achieved during typical steady state operation at 22,500 rpm with a vacuum pressure of 2 x 10/sup -8/ torr.

  10. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition.

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-03-01

    Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product's compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  11. 开关电源电磁兼容性试验的问题及整改%The analyse of electromagnetic compatibility test to switching power supply and rectiifcation

    丁华

    2015-01-01

    对某型开关电源的电磁兼容性试验进行研究,为解决该电源在电磁兼容性试验中出现的电磁干扰问题,分析产生的原因及机理,提出了滤波、屏蔽等相应的解决措施。试验结果表明,该措施有效地解决了开关电源传导发射和辐射发射的超标,提高了产品的电磁兼容性,对类似产品的电磁兼容性设计也具有一定的指导意义。%To resolve the EMI(electromagnetic interference) of the switching power supply during the EMC(electromagnetic compatibility) test ,the test results and the mechanism of EMI were analysed. Afterwards,the corresponding solutions such as filtering and shielding were thrown out. The results of the test indicate that the solutions effectively restrain the overstandard of conducted emission and radiated emission. The solutions enhance the EMC of switching power supply ,and there is some guidance to the similar produces on EMC design.

  12. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  13. Compatible quantum theory

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  14. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  15. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  16. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet...

  17. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    Szymurski, S. R.; Hawley, M.; Hourahan, G. C.; Godwin, D. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  18. The electromagnetic and nuclear compatibility

    The extraordinary development of electronics has increased the research needs in electromagnetic compatibility and nuclear radiations hardening. The knowledge relative to both aspects has been brought together in this single book divided in two parts and 11 chapters. The first part is devoted to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and deals successively with: the definition and stakes of EMC, the architecture of an EMC simulator (topological approach), the faradization of systems (physical mechanisms, diffraction, diffusion, coupling, characterization), the interconnection of systems, and the specification of components. The second part concerns the nuclear compatibility (NC) and deals with: the definition and stakes of NC, the radiations and their interaction with matter, the radiative environments (nuclear explosions, space, atmosphere, nuclear facilities etc..), the different radiative effects (cumulated dose, dose rate, neutron fluence, heavy ions and protons) and the associated technological hardening, the protection of components, circuits and systems, and the hardening standards and quality assurance (nuclear and aerospace industry). (J.S.)

  19. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  20. Radiotracer experiments with biopolymers and bio-compatible polymers

    The applications of biopolymer and biocompatible polymer employing radiotracers have been reviewed. Two different aspects have been studied. Environmentally benign methodologies for the removal, immobilization, separation or speciation of heavy, toxic elements and clinically important radionuclides have been developed using biopolymer and bio-compatible polymer as well. The complex formation ability of a bio-compatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with clinically important radionuclides have been tested which have tremendous importance in radiopharmaceutical sciences. (author)

  1. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  3. Rubber composition compatible with hydrazine

    Repar, J.

    1973-01-01

    Formulation improves compatibility of butyl rubbers with hydrazine while reducing permeation to low levels necessary for prolonged storage in space. This is accomplished by replacing carbon-black filler with inert materials such as hydrated silica or clay. Pressure increases suggest that hydrazine is decomposed only slightly by new type of rubber.

  4. Socio-compatible energy policies

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Efficiency Improvement of Fully Automatic Microcolumn Glass Sphere Technology Used in Blood Group Compatibility Tests%全自动微柱玻璃珠技术提高血型相容性检测效能

    蒋光明; 王保龙; 完晓菊; 王敏; 周建华; 廖艳秋

    2011-01-01

    microcolumn glass sphere technology were analysed, by comparing to the referenc assays. The results showed that the sensitivities of the ORTHO AutoVue Innova tests were 1: 69.8, 1:33.4, 1: 1448.1, 1:139.6 and 1:32.0 for IgM anti-C, anti-c, anti-D, anti-E and anti-e respectively; the corresponding value of saline medium tests were 1: 16.7,1: 16.6,1: 430.5,1: 34.9 and 1: 9.9. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of each tests ( t values were 14.38, 5.48, 10.25, 12.65 and 9.59 for IgM anti-C,anti-c,anti-D,anti-E and anti-e respectively ,p <0.05). For IgG anti-D,tbe sensitivities of the ORTHO AutoVue Innova test, polybrene test and antiglobulin test were 1: 980.6,1: 181.0 and 1: 304.4 respectively. There was statistically significant difference among the 3 groups( F = 51.15 ,p < 0.01 ). It is concluded the use of ORTHO AutoVue Innova system for blood group compatibility test can obtain more accurate results than tradifional tube tests, it is reliable and safe for routine tests performed in immunohaematoiogy laboratories.

  6. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  7. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  8. [Compatibility determinations Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides two compatibility determinations; one stated that the proposed agricultural practices (row crop farming) are compatible with Refuge...

  9. Compatibility Determination : [Crescent Lake NWR 2003 hunting

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Compatibility Determination states that hunting deer and upland birds at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge is compatible with Refuge purposes.

  10. Propellant material compatibility program and results

    Toth, L. R.; Cannon, W. A.; Coulbert, C. D.; Long, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of long-term (up to 10 years) contact of inert materials with earth-storable propellants were studied for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion system components that can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. The primary experimental work, and results to date are reported. Investigations include the following propellants: hydrazine, hydrazine-hydrazine nitrate blends, monomethyl-hydrazine, and nitrogen tetroxide. Materials include: aluminum alloys, corrosion-resistant steels, and titanium alloys. More than 700 test specimen capsules were placed in long-term storage testing at 43 C in the special material compatibility facility. Material ratings relative to the 10-year requirement have been assigned.

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  12. 交河故城土体裂隙灌浆材料性能试验%PERFORMANCE TEST OF COMPATIBLE SLURRY GROUTING INTO SOIL FRACTURE AT ANCIENT CITY OF JIAOHE

    杨涛; 李最雄; 汪万福

    2009-01-01

    以PS为主剂,粉煤灰和交河故城原生土为填充材料,氟硅酸钠为固化剂制得PS-(F+C)浆液,测定浆液的初凝速度,并观测结石体的收缩变形性.测试结石体在不同龄期时的强度,对比固化温度、固化剂掺量、PS模数、PS浓度以及水灰比等因素对结石体强度的影响.对PS-(F+C)浆液结石体进行水稳定性、抗冻融性、安定性和耐碱性等耐候性试验.试验结果表明,PS-(F+C)浆液和易性与可灌性非常好,它与交河故城生土遗址相兼容,浆液的凝结速度适中且可调,水灰比为0.60时的线性收缩率约2.6%,PS主剂浓度是决定浆材长期强度的最关键参数,吐鲁番夏天较高的固化温度有利于气硬性PS-(F+C)浆液结石体强度的增长,而且浆液结石体的耐候性能良好.PS-(F+C)浆液将用于封护加固交河故城生土遗址中的裂隙,防止雨水沿裂隙冲蚀下切崖体.%The PS-(F+C) slurry is prepared by mixing PS(Potassium Silicate in optimum modulus) as binding ingredient,fly ash(F) generated from thermal power plant and pulverized native raw soil(C) at the ancient city of Jiaohe as filling substance,and sodium fluosilicate as treatment agent,its initial setting time is obtained and the shrinkage behavior of its concretion is monitored. The uniaxial compressive strength of PS-(F+C) grouting material is tested at different ages and the influencing factors for its strength. Treatment temperature,amount of sodium fluosilicate,modulus of PS,concentration of PS and water-ash ratio are also discussed. Furthermore,the durability experiment including its resistance to water,to cyclic freezing-thawing,to saline crystallization in porous PS-(F+C) grouts and to aqueous alkali is carried out. It is shown that the slurry of PS-(F+C) with good workability is more compatible with the soil mass at the ancient city of Jiaohe because of adding native raw soil in a half weight of fly ash,and it shrinks less for the spherical bulking material

  13. High-temperature compatibility study of iridium (DOP-26 alloy) with graphite and plutonia

    This report outlines the materials compatibility tests conducted on DOP-26 iridium alloy and carbon. The carbon used was in the form of woven graphite as present in the impact shell used to encase plutonia in nuclear heat sources. In addition, compatibility tests of the DOP-26 alloy with plutonia are described. The reactivity observed in both systems is discussed. 4 refs., 6 figs

  14. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  15. Compatibility of desoximetasone and tacrolimus.

    Levitt, Jacob; Feldman, Terry; Riss, Ildiko; Leung, On-Tai

    2003-12-01

    The physical and chemical compatibility of desoximetasone ointment 0.25% and tacrolimus ointment 0.1%, both widely used to treat atopic dermatitis, were determined. A 1:1 (w/w) mixture of desoximetasone ointment 0.25% (Topicort, Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.) and tacrolimus ointment 0.1% (Protopic, Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc.) were prepared and stored under three different temperature/relative humidity conditions: 25 degrees C/60% RH; 30 degrees C/60% RH; and 40 degrees C/75% RH. Unmixed ointments stored under the same temperature and humidity conditions as the mixture served as controls. Samples were evaluated at days 1, 2, 7, 14, and 28 for color, degree of physical separation, and chemical stability via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Ranges of relative recovery for each active ingredient for all storage conditions ((% Mixture/% Control) x 100) were 89.6-109.3% for tacrolimus and 99.0-103.4% for desoximetasone. No significant difference in physical appearance or chromatographic profile between the mixture and controls was observed. Therefore, we conclude that desoximetasone ointment 0.25% (Topicort) and tacrolimus ointment 0.1% (Protopic) are physically and chemically compatible up to four weeks when mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (w/w). PMID:14711143

  16. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  17. Compatibility problems with beryllium in ceramic blankets

    Compatibility of beryllium with structural materials (316L austenitic steel and 1.4914 martensitic steel) and with tritium breeding ceramics (lithium aluminate or silicate) has been studied in contact tests between 550 C and 700 C and for durations reaching 3000 hours. Beryllium-ceramic interaction is negligeable in all the temperature range with aluminate and up to 600 C with silicates. On the other hand, noticeable interaction is observed between beryllium and 316L steel at 580 C and above. Beryllium interaction with 1.4914 steel is visible only at 650 C and above and its amplitude is lower than 316L steel one. In these two cases, the superficial layer is brittle, and adherent to the steel. Comparison between beryllium - 0.4 wt% calcium alloy and beryllium at 700 C shows that interaction with steels or ceramics is qualitatively the same but slightly weaker. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO2 as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO2-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined

  19. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected. PMID:17281892

  20. Studies of waste-canister compatibility

    Compatibility studies were conducted between 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister structural materials. The waste forms were Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus silicon carbide. The canister materials included carbon steel (bare and with chromium or nickel coatings), copper, Monel, Cu-35% Ni, titanium (grades 2 and 12), several Inconels, aluminum alloy 5052, and two stainless steels. Tests of either 6888 or 8821 h were conducted at 100 and 3000C, which bracket the low and high limits expected during storage. Glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, which reacted preferentially with copper, nickel, and alloys of these metals. The Pb-Sn matrix alloy stuck to all samples and the carbon-coated particles to most samples at 3000C, but the extent of chemical reaction was not determined. Testing for 0.5 h at 8000C was included because it is representative of a transportation accident and is required of casks containing nuclear materials. During these tests (1) glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, (2) FUETAP evolved large amounts of gas, (3) Synroc stuck to titanium alloys, (4) glass was molten, and (5) both matrix alloys were molten with considerable chemical interactions with many of the canister samples. If this test condition were imposed on waste canisters, it would be design limiting in many waste storage concepts

  1. Compatibility of heat resistant alloys with boron carbide, 5

    This paper includes an experimental result of out-of-pile compatibility and capsule design for irradiation test in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The compatibility between sheath material and neutron absorber materials for control rod devices (CRD) was examined for potential use in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) which is under development at JAERI. The purpose of the compatibility tests are preliminary evaluation of safety prior to irradiation tests. Preliminary compatibility evaluation was concerned with three items as follows : 1) Lithium effects on the penetrating reaction of Incoloy 800H alloy in contact with a mixture of boronated graphite and lithium hydroxide powders, 2) Short term tensile properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite and fracture mode analysis, 3) Reaction behavior of both alloys under transient power conditions of a VHTR. It was clear that the reaction rate constant of the Incoloy 800H alloy was accelerated by doping lithium hydroxide into the boron carbide and graphite powder. The mechanical properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite were decreased. Ultimate tensile strength and tensile ductilities at temperatures over 850 deg C were reduced, but there was no change in the proof (yield) stress. Both alloys exhibited a brittle intergranular fracture mode during transient power conditions of a VHTR and also exhibited severe penetration. Irradiation capsules for compatibility test were designed to simulate three irradiation conditions of VHTR: 1) steady state for VHTR, 2) Transient power condition, 3) Service limited life of CRD. Capsule irradiation experiments have been carried out satisfactorily and thus confirm the validity of the capsule design procedure. (author)

  2. Evaluation and Usage of Browser Compatibility Tools during the Software Development Process

    Boyaci, Burak

    2016-01-01

    The software testing process is one of the most important phases during software development to check that the developed software product meets its specified specifications/requirements. This is especially true for the software products used in the health-industry. Supported browsers can also be documented into the requirements. Thus browser compatibility testing needs to be considered, especially while performing testing on web-based software products. Browser compatibility testing is perfor...

  3. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study...... was conducted to determine the congruence of an organisation's value and IT value compatibility. This study found that there was a high correspondence in the organisational structure and practice dimensions; however, there were organisational culture disparities. The cultural disparities reflected the self...

  4. INCENTIVE COMPATIBILITY AND PRICING UNDER MORAL HAZARD

    Belen Jerez

    2003-01-01

    We study a simple insurance economy with moral hazard, in which random contracts overcome the non-convexities generated by the incentive-compatibility constraints. The novelty is that we use linear programming and duality theory to study the relation between incentive compatibility and pricing. Using linear programming has the advantage that we can impose the incentive-compatibility constraints on the agents that are uninformed (the insurance firms). In contrast, most of the general equilibri...

  5. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  6. Preparation and Blood Compatibility of Oxidized-chitosan Films

    Yue Dong YANG; Jiu Gao YU; Yong Guo ZHOU; Pei Guo LI

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan membrane was modified by the selective oxidization of chitosan molecules on its surface with NO2 gas. FTIR spectra indicated there were plenty of-COOH and -COO- groups on the modified membrane surface. The SEM study showed the modified membrane surface was rough rather than smooth as chitosan membrane. All antithrombosis test, hemolysis test and blood cell morphology observation with SEM revealed that modified chitosan membranes have superior blood compatibility to chitosan.

  7. 76 FR 23824 - Guidance for Industry: “Computer Crossmatch” (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility Between...

    2011-04-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: `Computer Crossmatch' (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility between the Donor's Cell Type and the Recipient's Serum or Plasma Type)'' dated April 2011. The guidance document provides blood establishments that perform compatibility testing using a computer crossmatch......

  8. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH)

  9. Spectral averaging for trace compatible operators

    Azamov, Nurulla; Sukochev, Fyodor

    2007-01-01

    In this note the notions of trace compatible operators and infinitesimal spectral flow are introduced. We define the spectral shift function as the integral of infinitesimal spectral flow. It is proved that the spectral shift function thus defined is absolutely continuous and Krein's formula is established. Some examples of trace compatible affine spaces of operators are given.

  10. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  11. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  12. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during...

  13. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  14. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  15. Compatibility of anhydride cured epoxies with hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)

    Massis, T.M.; Wischmann, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    The explosives HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene) and HNS (hexanitrostilbene) have compatibility problems with amine-cured epoxy systems. A program was instituted to find compatible polymeric substitutes for use with these explosives. These polymeric materials must have rigid structures after curing for both adhesive and encapsulant applications. A promising class of epoxy materials using anhydride curing agents with various catalysts to trigger the cure reaction were developed. These polymeric systems have very good compatibility with HNS. Of those tested with HNAB, the anhydride epoxy system that used uranyl nitrate as the catalyst was found to be marginally compatible while the others were incompatible. These results indicated further studies are needed. The CRT (chemical reactivity test) was used to evaluate the compatibility of these materials. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Compatibility of anhydride cured epoxies with hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)

    The explosives HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene) and HNS (hexanitrostilbene) have compatibility problems with amine-cured epoxy systems. A program was instituted to find compatible polymeric substitutes for use with these explosives. These polymeric materials must have rigid structures after curing for both adhesive and encapsulant applications. A promising class of epoxy materials using anhydride curing agents with various catalysts to trigger the cure reaction were developed. These polymeric systems have very good compatibility with HNS. Of those tested with HNAB, the anhydride epoxy system that used uranyl nitrate as the catalyst was found to be marginally compatible while the others were incompatible. These results indicated further studies are needed. The CRT (chemical reactivity test) was used to evaluate the compatibility of these materials. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  17. Compatibility between Be12Ti and SS316LN

    Beryllides have good properties and are one of the candidate materials for the neutron multiplier of the DEMO reactor in which good performance is required at 600-800 deg. C. Therefore, a good compatibility with structural materials is expected for the beryllides. In this study, a compatibility test between Be12Ti and SS316LN was carried out as first step to evaluate the compatibility between beryllides and structural materials. The thickness of the reaction layer between Be12Ti and SS316LN at 800 deg. C after 1000 h was approximately 30 μm, whereas that of beryllium metal was 300 μm. At 600 deg. C after 1000 h, the thickness of the reaction layers as to Be12Ti and Be was less than 10 and 100 μm, respectively. The compatibility between Be12Ti and SS316LN was evaluated and Be12Ti was perfectly better than that between beryllium metal and SS316LN at high temperature (600-800 deg. C). The advantage of beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the Demo reactor was proved

  18. Physicochemical compatibility of nebulizable drug admixtures containing colistimethate and tobramycin.

    Wollstadt, A; Krämer, I; Kamin, W

    2013-09-01

    Inhalation therapy with nebulizable antibiotic drugs is a mainstay in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of tobramycin and colistin was found to be superior to monotherapy in killing P. aeruginosa in biofilms. The simultaneous inhalation of tobramycin and colistin might be an option to increase the compliance of patients. The objective of this in-vitro study was to determine whether admixtures of inhalation solutions containing colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) and tobramycin are physicochemically compatible. Physical compatibility was determined by measuring pH and osmolality. Chemical compatibility was determined by testing the antibiotic activity of the mixtures by the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay and comparing the results to those of standard solutions. Samples were analyzed immediately after mixing and after 24 h. Values of pH and osmolality remained unchanged and in physiologically acceptable ranges. Neither for colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) nor for tobramycin losses of antibiotic potency were registered at any time. Admixtures of nebulizer solutions containing CMS and tobramycin were shown to be physicochemically compatible. Further investigations are needed to determine whether drug delivery is affected by mixing the nebulizer solutions to ensure that simultaneous inhalation is recommendable. PMID:24147342

  19. The Compatibility of Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizers with Cement

    LI Chongzhi; WANG Dongmin; SONG Shaomin; CHEN Jialong

    2005-01-01

    Four polycarboxylate-type (PC) superplasticizers of different functional groups were used;their dispersing and retaining behaviors were analyzed through ZETA potential measurement, mini-slump test of cement paste and performance test of concrete. The experimental results show that the dispersing and flow-retaining ability of PC was determined by two factors of anionic groups and nonionic groups: the density of anionic groups - COO- or -SOf acted on the electronic repulsive force, and the length and proportion of nonionic graft groups of PEO in PC chemical structure affected the steric effect. The compatibility between PC superplasticizers and cement mainly depended on the type of PEO groups; furthermore, adding mineral powders is good to the compatibility for high performance concretes ( HPCs ).

  20. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 4000C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi)3 and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  1. Radiochemical compatibility of EPDM/PP blends

    The capacity of ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer to be cross-linked by its exposure to high energy radiation was considered in this work. γ-irradiation of EPDM/PP (ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer/polypropylene) blends proved that free radicals provided by PP can be grafted on the EPDM backbone. Gel content measurements over all blending concentrations revealed a maximum level cross-linking at around 200 kGy. Simultaneity of cross-linking and oxidative degradation in irradiated polymers requires the choice of proper conditions to obtain high durability. IR spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl and hydroxyl indexes emphasize that low concentrations in radiolytic products is attained at short exposure (less than 200 kGy). This work presents the difference between raw and degraded polypropylene used for mixture preparation. The radiochemical behaviour of similar compositions of blends is proved. Thermal stability of non-irradiated EPDM/PP blend was checked by oxygen uptake method that confirms the higher probability of polypropylene to provide free radicals in a large extent. The high temperature used in the oxidation testing of present blends requires radiochemical compatibility of polymers. (authors)

  2. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  3. The evolution of polymorphic compatibility molecules

    Boer, R.J. de

    1995-01-01

    Several primitive colonial organisms distinguish self from nonself by means of polymorphic compatibility molecules bearing similarity to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The evolution of such polymorphisms is generally explained in terms of resistance to parasites. Ignoring parasites, I d

  4. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  5. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military...

  6. Informative Advertisement of Partial Compatible Products

    Roig, Guillem

    2014-01-01

    Product design and advertisement strategy have been theoretically studied as separate firms decisions. In the present paper, we look at the link between advertisement and product design and we analyze how firms' advertising decisions influence the market effect of product design. We consider a model of informative advertisement where two firms produce a bundle of complementary products which are partially compatible. A product design with more compatible components is associated with a larger...

  7. Compatibility problems in tritium breeding blankets

    Compatibility between tritium breeding materials (liquid or solid), neutron multiplier and structural steels is a concern for the choice of a tritium breeding blanket for NET. For solid tritium breeding blanket, it seems that the more severe compatibility problem is due to the interaction of beryllium with steel. As for the water-cooled Pb17Li blanket, the first results obtained in experimental conditions closed to the concept have evidenced lower corrosion rates than those measured in thermal convection loops

  8. Compatibility of repair mortars in restoration projects

    Schueremans, Luc; Van Balen, Koenraad; Cizer, Özlem; Janssens, Elke; Serré, Gerty; Elsen, Jan; Brosens, Kris; Ignoul, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Mortars used for restoration must be highly compatible with historic materials in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties in order to assure the durability of masonry on the long term. Compatibility criteria are defined based on the original mortar characteristics but the efficiency and the performance of the repair mortar after application on masonry are not generally evaluated. From this perspective, historic mortars and repair mortars from 3 historic masonry structures were a...

  9. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    Toh, Tze-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  10. Compatibility and product design in software markets

    Woeckener, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between compatibility and product design decisions in a symmetric software duopoly with network effects. We show that suppliers do not always offer differentiated product designs and compete within the market. Rather, when ever both the significance of the network effects and the costs of compatibility are high, they offer homogeneous and incompatible variants and compete for the market, although this leads to Bertrand competition with zero profits. Moreover,...

  11. Evaluating the compatibility of multi-functional and intensive urban land uses

    Taleai, M.; Sharifi, A.; Sliuzas, R.; Mesgari, M.

    2007-12-01

    This research is aimed at developing a model for assessing land use compatibility in densely built-up urban areas. In this process, a new model was developed through the combination of a suite of existing methods and tools: geographical information system, Delphi methods and spatial decision support tools: namely multi-criteria evaluation analysis, analytical hierarchy process and ordered weighted average method. The developed model has the potential to calculate land use compatibility in both horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the compatibility between the use of each floor in a building and its neighboring land uses can be evaluated. The method was tested in a built-up urban area located in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The results show that the model is robust in clarifying different levels of physical compatibility between neighboring land uses. This paper describes the various steps and processes of developing the proposed land use compatibility evaluation model (CEM).

  12. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100,000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100,000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high temperatures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  13. Preparation of anionic polyurethane nanoparticles and blood compatible behaviors.

    Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian

    2012-05-01

    The anionic polyurethane nanoparticles (APU-NPs) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization method. It was found that the average size of the prepared APU-NPs is about 84 nm, and the APU-NPs have zeta-potential of -38.9 mV. The bulk characterization of synthesized APU-NPs was investigated by FTIR. The blood compatibility of APU-NPs was characterized by in vitro for coagulation tests, complement activation, platelet activation, cytotoxicity experiments, and hemolysis assay. The results showed that the APU-NPs synthesized in this paper are blood compatible with low level of cell cytotoxicity, and the results were significant for their potential use in vivo. PMID:22852346

  14. Compatibility and stability of valsartan in a solid pharmaceutical formulation

    Tamíris Amanda Júlio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL is a highly selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor that has been widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Active pharmaceutical ingredient compatibility with excipients (crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and titanium dioxide is usually evaluated in solid pharmaceutical development. Compatibility and stability can be evaluated by liquid chromatography. Studies were performed using binary mixtures of 1:1 (w/w VAL/excipient; samples were stored under accelerated stability test conditions (40 ºC at 75% relative humidity. The results indicate that VAL is incompatible with crospovidone and hypromellose, which reduced the VAL content and gave rise to new peaks in the chromatogram due to degradation products.

  15. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  16. Canister compatibility with Carlsbad salt

    No significant reaction was found when candidate canister alloys were heated with salt from Carlsbad, New Mexico, for up to 5000 hours in sealed capsules and for up to 10,000 hours in unsealed capsules at temperatures (80 to 2250C) that bracket the maximum temperature calculated for reference Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste containers at 20-foot spacings in salt. Additional tests were made at 6000C in sealed capsules to characterize reactions that may occur between candidate canister alloys and any component of the salt that is released when decrepitation occurs. Under these extreme conditions there was no significant attack of Type 304L stainless steel. But, there was up to 20-mils attack of the low-carbon steel

  17. Testing of an environmental compatible dismantling technology for activated metallic reactor components (water abrasive jetstream technic) under real conditions. Final report; Erprobung des Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlverfahrens (WASS) bei der Zerlegung aktivierter metallischer Reaktorkomponenten (RDB u.a.) unter realen Bedingungen. Endbericht

    Kalwa, H.; Louis, H.; Brandt, C. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2000-07-01

    The water abrasive suspension jetstream cutting (WASJ) was tested during the past research program for its general practicability. The programs goal was to investigate the dismantling of the lower part of the core baffel as well as of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself. For this purpose the University of Hanover established a lab-scale testing program to optimize the following parameters: different abrasives, cutting performance, remote tools monitoring and handling, verification of the forces to the manipulators, adaptation of cutting parameters to the different cutting tasks and the analyses for water-processing to maintain sub-aquatic visibility. Based on the results obtained in minor-scale testing the process parameters were adapted to the pilot manifold (ALBA-WASS) in VAK. This program served also for the training of personnel and the certification of the procedure by experts and the authorities. During the pre-operational phase a solids extraction and water-purification device was developed to enable the use of the technique under sub-aquatic conditions. The core-baffel was dismantled with the 1400 bar WASS into parts ready for final storage. For the cutting of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself, the WASS was modified to a jetstream-pressure of 2000 bar. At the end of the operation we were able to determine that for the dismantling of nuclear-power-plants an additional efficient cutting technique is now available. (orig.) [German] Das Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlschneiden war in vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben auf seine generelle Einsatzbarkeit untersucht worden. Die Aufgabenziele waren, die Zerlegung des Kernmantelunterteiles sowie die Zerlegung des Reaktordruckbehaelters. Zu diesem Zweck wurden mit der Laboranlage der Universitaet Hannover Untersuchungen verschiedener Abrasivmittel bezueglich Schneidfaehigkeit und Truebung, Versuche zur Optimierung der Werkzeugueberwachung und -handhabung, Ermittlung der Kraefte am Handhabungssystem, Anpassung der

  18. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 1015 to 3 x 1017 ions/cm2 to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author)

  19. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  20. Materials compatibility and corrosion issues for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The need to understand the materials issues in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system is essential. This report focuses on the spallation container material, as this material is exposed to some of the most crucial environmental conditions of simultaneous radiation and corrosion in the system. The most severe design being considered is that of liquid lead. In previous investigations of lead compatibility with materials, the chemistry of the system was derived solely from the corrosion products; however, in an ATW system, the chemistry of the lead changes not only with the derived corrosion products of the material being tested but also with the buildup of the daughter production with time. Daughter production builds up and introduces elements that may have a great effect on the corrosion activity of the liquid lead. Consequently, data on liquid lead compatibility can be regarded only as a guide and must be reevaluated when particular daughter products are added. This report is intended to be a response to specific materials issues and concerns expressed by the ATW design working group and addresses the compatibility/corrosion concerns

  1. Compatibility of Pretreated Coir Fibres (Cocos nucifera L.) with Portland Cement to Produce Mineral Composites

    Ferraz, Joana M.; Cláudio H. S. Del Menezzi; Mario R. Souza; Okino, Esmeralda Y. A.; Martins, Sabrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to evaluate the chemical compatibility between coir (Cocos nucifera L.) and cement and to study treatment methods to improve this compatibility. In the inhibition test, cement hydration temperature evolution was measured in the absence and presence of untreated and treated coir fibres (cold water, hot water and NaOH), besides the addition of 4% of CaCl2. The chemical characterization of untreated and treated coir fibres was done by determining the conte...

  2. Compatability of dispersion-strengthened platinum with resistojet propellants

    Whalen, Margaret V.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets for the Space Station require long life and multipropellant capability. The choice of available materials to meet these requirements is limited. Dispersion-strengthened platinum was selected. Past results indicated that it should be suffieiently inert in candidate propellant environments and should be capable of operating at moderate temperatures for extended periods. A series of propellant compatibility tests was done with platinum strengthened with either yttria or zirconia. Data presented included the results of 1000-hr tests in CO2, H2, ammonia (NH3), N2, steam, hydrazine (N2H4), and methane (CH4); and 2000-hr tests in H2 and NH3. The platinum samples were tested at 1400 C in CO2, H2, NH3, N2, steam, and N2H4; at 500 C in CH4; and at 800 C in N2H4. The mass-loss results indicated material life, exptrapolated from experimental mass-loss data, in excess of 100 000 hr in all environments except steam and N2H4, where it was greater than or =45000 hr. Generally, on the basis of mass loss, there were no compatibility concerns in any of the environments considered. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the effect of propellants on the material surface and to evaluate material stability.

  3. Compatibility of polymers and chemical oxidants for enhanced groundwater remediation.

    Smith, Megan M; Silva, Jeff A K; Munakata-Marr, Junko; McCray, John E

    2008-12-15

    Polymer floods provide a promising method to more effectively deliver conventional groundwater treatment agents to organic contaminants distributed within heterogeneous aquifer systems. Combinations of nontoxic polymers (xanthan and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) and common chemical oxidants (potassium permanganate and sodium persulfate) were investigated to determine the suitability of these mixtures for polymer-enhanced in situ chemical oxidation applications. Oxidant demand and solution viscosity were utilized as initial measures of chemical compatibility. After 72 h of reaction with both test oxidants, solution viscosities in mixtures containing hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were decreased by more than 90% (final viscosities approximately 2 cP), similar to the 95% viscosity loss (final viscosities approximately 1 cP, near that of water) observed in xanthan/persulfate experiments. In contrast, xanthan solutions exposed to potassium permanganate preserved 60-95% of initial viscosity after 72 h. Permanganate depletion in xanthan-containing experiments ranged from 2% to 24% over the same test period. Although oxidant consumption in xanthan/permanganate solutions appeared to be correlated with increasing xanthan concentrations, solutions of up to 2000 mg/L xanthan did not inhibit permanganate from oxidizing a dissolved-phase test contaminant (tetrachloroethene, PCE) in xanthan solution. These advantageous characteristics (high viscosity retention, moderate oxidant demand, and lack of competitive effects on PCE oxidation rate) render xanthan/permanganate the most compatible polymer/oxidant combination of those tested for remediation by polymer-enhanced chemical oxidation. PMID:19174907

  4. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can be...

  5. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol

  6. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 1193.51 Section 1193.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... functionality shall provide a standard non-acoustic connection point for TTYs. It shall also be possible for...

  7. Choosing mates: complementary versus compatible genes

    Piálek, Jaroslav; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2005), s. 63. ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : genetic compatibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 14.864, year: 2005

  8. BASIS FOR DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL STABILITY and COMPATIBILITY OF SOLID WASTE CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY TECHNICAL BASIS

    Solid wastes must be managed to prevent inadvertent reactions, explosion and degradation of waste containers per the ''Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303). An understanding of chemical compatibility principles and a consistent approach for implementing compatibility requirements is essential for complying with the regulations. This document explains the technical basis for ensuring chemical compatibility for solid wastes that are stored on site at on-site TSD facilities and for solid waste that will go to off-site TSD facilities. The document applies directly to the following aspects of chemical compatibility: (1) Ensuring that hazardous waste is not chemically reactive or unstable such that it cannot be safely transported or stored; (2) Ensuring that lab packs (i.e., drums containing multiple inner containers of differing types of hazardous waste) are packaged such that incompatible chemicals are not placed into the same drum; (3) Selecting containers and liners that are compatible with the waste they contain. This document does not cover individual TSD requirements, or specific offsite TSD requirements. This document does not cover chemical compatibility and segregation requirements for shipping wastes on-site or off-site. This document does not cover radiological hazards associated with radioactive waste or mixed wastes. Evaluation of compatibility for comingling and treating solid waste is beyond the scope of this document. In addition, heat generation and gas generation as they apply to the Hanford waste acceptance criteria are not covered in this document

  9. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  10. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida with insecticides used in the tomato crop

    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the potential to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Among the products tested, Certero (triflumuron, Decis (deltamethrin, Previcur (dimethylamino-propyl, Ampligo (lambdacyhalothrin + chlorantranilprole, Premio (clorantranilprole, Engeo Pleno (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin were compatible (IOBC class 1 with both nematode species.

  11. Compatibility of AlN ceramics with molten lithium

    AlN ceramics were a candidate for electrically insulating materials and facing materials against molten breeder in a nuclear fusion reactor. In the nuclear fusion reactor, interactions of various structural materials with solid and liquid breeder materials as well as coolant materials are important. Therefore, corrosion tests of AlN ceramics with molten lithium were performed. AlN specimens of six kinds, different in sintering additives and manufacturing method, were used. AlN specimens were immersed into molten lithium at 823 K. Duration for the compatibility tests was about 2.8 Ms (32 days). Specimens with sintering additive of Y2O3 by about 5 mass% formed the network structure of oxide in the crystals of AlN. It was considered that the corrosion proceeded by reduction of the oxide network and the penetration of molten lithium through the reduced pass of this network. For specimens without sintering additive, Al2O3 containing by about 1.3% in raw material was converted to fine oxynitride particles on grain boundary or dissolved in AlN crystals. After immersion into lithium, these specimens were found to be sound in shape but reduced in electrical resistivity. These degradation of the two types specimens were considered to be caused by the reduction of oxygen components. On the other hand, a specimen sintered using CaO as sintering additive was finally became appreciably high purity. This specimen showed good compatibility for molten lithium at least up to 823 K. It was concluded that the reduction of oxygen concentration in AlN materials was essential in order to improve the compatibility for molten lithium. (author)

  12. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  13. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Edmundo Guerra; Rodrigo Munguia; Yolanda Bolea; Antoni Grau

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesi...

  14. Compatibility of dielectric and heat shield material combinations during ablations

    The surface recession and mass-transfer rates of materials suitable for reentry thermal protection of microwave antennas have been examined. Experiments were performed with subsonic-turbulent flow of air in a confined channel. In supporting experiments, selected material combinations were subjected to ablative splash tests in the Sandia High Enthalpy Arc Tunnel. Microwave window materials were tested adjacent to ablative heat shield materials in combinations and configurations under consideration for reentry vehicle applications. Test results indicated that fused silica was compatible with quartz-phenolic and carbon-phenolic heat shield materials while the ablative characteristics of hot-pressed boron nitride were very similar to those of the STC-7 carbon composite developed by Sandia Laboratories. (U.S.)

  15. Fabric compatibility and cleaning effectiveness of drycleaning with carbon dioxide

    Williams, S.B.; Laintz, K.E.; Spall, W.D.; bustos, L.; Taylor, C.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers an environmentally sound replacement solvent to the currently used drycleaning solvent, perchloroethylene (PERC). In addition to the health and safety benefits of a CO{sub 2} based cleaning system, large savings in solvent costs provide an incentive for conversion to the new system. Lower operating costs for the new technology provide further incentive. Experimental studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} in both small scale and pilot scale test systems in order to address fabric compatibility with this alternative cleaning method. Results from these tests show that fabric shrinkage using CO{sub 2} is controlled to the same level as current drycleaning methods. In addition, tests to evaluate the cleaning performance of liquid CO{sub 2} drycleaning were also conducted. These results show the prototype liquid CO{sub 2} cleaning system to be better than PERC at soil removal, and worse than PERC at inorganic salt removal.

  16. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    Baikie, I.D.; Werf, van der, M.J.; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; Silfhout, van, A.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe geometry, flexibility of probe geometry, amplitude of oscillation, and pure parallel vibration. Automatic setup and constant spacing features are achieved using a digital‐to‐analog converter (DAC) steered ...

  17. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  18. Compatibility of DLC coatings with formulated oils

    Sedlaček, Marko; PODGORNIK, Bojan; Vižintin, Jože

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the tribological performance and compatibility of hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating (a-C:H) and metal-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating (Me-C:H) with formulated oils under the boundary lubrication regime was investigated. The investigation employed ball-on-flat contact geometry in reciprocating sliding motion and six formulated oils (manual gearbox oil, automatic gearbox oil, hydraulic oil, compressor oil, andnormal and high performance motor oil), with pure po...

  19. Is Sharia Compatible with Contemporary Russian Law?

    Leonid Sykiainen

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the interaction between Sharia and legislation in action along with the compatibility of Sharia with contemporary Russian law is important from both a scientific and a practical point of view. There are several reasons for the increasing interest in this issue: the renaissance of Islam, the activity of Muslim communities outside the regions where Islam has traditionally spread, the threat of Islamic extremism, and the increasing influence of Sharia upon the political and legal...

  20. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  1. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing

  2. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  3. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  4. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING COMPATIBLE ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR FULLY AUTOMATED BRACHYTHERAPY SEED PLACEMENT

    Muntener, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Bagga, Herman; Kavoussi, Louis; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To introduce the development of the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible robotic system capable of automated brachytherapy seed placement. Methods An MRI-compatible robotic system was conceptualized and manufactured. The entire robot was built of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials. The key technology of the system is a unique pneumatic motor that was specifically developed for this application. Various preclinical experiments were performed to test the robot for precision and imager compatibility. Results The robot was fully operational within all closed-bore MRI scanners. Compatibility tests in scanners of up to 7 Tesla field intensity showed no interference of the robot with the imager. Precision tests in tissue mockups yielded a mean seed placement error of 0.72 ± 0.36 mm. Conclusions The robotic system is fully MRI compatible. The new technology allows for automated and highly accurate operation within MRI scanners and does not deteriorate the MRI quality. We believe that this robot may become a useful instrument for image-guided prostate interventions. PMID:17169653

  5. RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.

  6. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing

  7. Is wave-particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions. PMID:25256419

  8. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    2012-09-28

    ... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility.... We also invite you to share your concrete ideas on how greater compatibility could be achieved in a... (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf). If the submission is in an application other than those two,...

  11. Blood compatibility assessment of graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes

    Razzak, Mirzan T.; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Tabata, Yoneho; Ohashi, Fumio; Takeuchi, Atsuki

    Graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes have been prepared by using simultaneous radiation-induced grafting of N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide, CH 2CHCON(CH 3) 2, (DMAA) onto natural rubber (NR) tubes. The blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tubes was assessed with three methods, namely in vitro test, ex vivo once through test and ex vivo loops test. In the case of the in vitro test, a simple whole blood contacting procedure has been employed. The ex vivo once through test involves the exposing of NR-g-DMAA tubes with once through flow of fresh canine blood and then it was inspected for any evidence of clot. In the case of ex vivo loops test, the NR-g-DMAA tube was implanted at external jugular vein of a mongrel canine and the blood flow in the NR-g-DMAA tube was detected with an ultrasonic flow meter. It was found that the blood compatibility of NR-g-DMAA tubes is improved significantly with the increasing degree of grafting. All the NR-g-DMAA tubes having a degree of grafting of about 30 wt % or more exhibit good blood compatibility. It was also found that the blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tube is better than that of a medical grade silicon rubber (SiR) tube.

  12. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang;

    2011-01-01

    This research examines how consumers with a creative mind-set are persuaded by advertising claims construed at different levels (i.e., abstract vs. concrete ad claims). Across four experiments, we show that consumers with a creative mindset are more persuaded by ad claims construed at a level...... incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  13. Algebraic properties of compatible Poisson brackets

    Zhang, Pumei

    2014-05-01

    We discuss algebraic properties of a pencil generated by two compatible Poisson tensors A( x) and B( x). From the algebraic viewpoint this amounts to studying the properties of a pair of skew-symmetric bilinear forms A and B defined on a finite-dimensional vector space. We describe the Lie group G P of linear automorphisms of the pencil P = { A + λB}. In particular, we obtain an explicit formula for the dimension of G P and discuss some other algebraic properties such as solvability and Levi-Malcev decomposition.

  14. Liquid-Oxygen-Compatible Cement for Gaskets

    Elmore, N. L.; Neale, B. C.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorelastomer and metal bonded reliably by new procedure. To cure fluoroelastomer cement, metal plate/gasket assembly placed in vacuum bag evacuated to minimum vacuum of 27 inches (69 cm) of mercury. Vacuum maintained throughout heating process and until assembly returns to ambient room temperature. Used to seal gaskets and O-rings or used to splice layers of elastomer to form non-standard sized O-rings. Another possible use is to apply protective, liquid-oxygen-compatible coating to metal parts.

  15. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation is...... obtained by varying the ca rrier concentration of th e transparent conducting oxide layer and exciting plasmonic resonance in the structure. The analysis shows that an extinction ratio of 46 dB/μm can be achieved at the telecommunication wavelength. Proposed structure is particularly convenient for...

  16. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    process scheme allows for post processing of feedthroughs in any kind of fully processed CMOS wafer. The fabrication of the electrical feedthroughs is based on wet etching of through-holes, low temperature deposition of dielectric material, and electrodeposition of photoresist and feedthrough metal. The...... feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  17. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  18. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.; Ferrera, Marcello; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation is...... obtained by varying the ca rrier concentration of th e transparent conducting oxide layer and exciting plasmonic resonance in the structure. The analysis shows that an extinction ratio of 46 dB/μm can be achieved at the telecommunication wavelength. Proposed structure is particularly convenient for...... integration with existing insulator-metal-insu lator plasmonic waveguides as well as novel photonic/electronic hybrid circuits...

  19. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    2001-01-01

    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  1. The Evaluation Technology of Web Compatibility%Web兼容性评测技术

    刘宇

    2015-01-01

    针对Web技术在浏览器中出现的兼容性问题,文章描述在主流浏览器中测试HTML5、CSS3、Javascript兼容性的方法和工具,通过测试工具分析主流浏览器使用HTML5、CSS3、Javascript的兼容程度,为制定Web相关标准提供参考依据.%Aiming at the compatibility problem of Web technology emerging in the browser, this paper describes some methods and tools for testing HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript compatibility in the mainstream browsers, and the compatible level of HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript which are used by mainstream browsers and analyzed with testing tools. It wil provide references for developing relevant Web standards.

  2. Pathogenicity and diversity of vegetative compatibility of Fusarium verticillioides

    Krnjaja Vesna S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of 10 Fusarium verticillioides isolates, originated from grain of wheat (five isolates and maize (five isolates, were studied under greenhouse conditions. Based on different parameters of the pathogenicity estimate (a scale for % of nonemerged plants, % of survived plants, plant vigour - the growth and dry weight of roots and epicotyls and disease severity it was determined that all F. verticillioides isolates expressed a different degree of pathogenicity. According to % of nonemerged plants six three and one F. verticillioides isolates expressed low, moderate and high degree of pathogenicity, respectively. All F. verticillioides isolates reduced the plant survival rate and vigour, while the disease severity ranged from 2.0 to 3.54. Two types of nit mutants, nit1 and NitM, were obtained by the use of the method of vegetative compatibility. The frequency of nit1 mutants was greater (58.79% than the frequency of NitM mutants (5.77%. A total of 10 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. verticillioides were established in the complementation tests. These results point out to a high genetic diversity of F. verticillioides population.

  3. Material Compatibility of Medical Sterilizer Using Oxygen Plasma

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Hanada, Yasushi; Noda, Minoru; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Material compatibility of oxygen plasma sterilizer is investigated comparing with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sterilizers and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer. Organic materials such as ABS, PE, PP, and PET are used as sample materials, and are irradiated by active oxygen species produced in oxygen plasma. After plasma irradiation, surface of the sample materials is observed using a scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. Strengths of the organic materials are evaluated by the tension test. Also, H2O2 plasma sterilizer and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer those are commercially available are utilized to compare the material compatibility, especially organic compounds. The ABS resin becomes slightly soft after irradiation by both plasmas and gaseous H2O2. Also, PET material becomes soften by each sterilization treatment. Decrease of peak heights of CH around 1200 and 1730 cm-1 and increase of that of OH at 3300 cm-1 in FTIR spectra indicates the oxidation of ABS resin by both plasma and gaseous H2O2. In the case of PET material, treatment by the plasma has not modified chemical composition but changed the crystal structure. The gaseous H2O2 is completely friendly for the PET material.

  4. Magnetic field compatibility of components for ITER electrical distribution systems

    The electrical distribution boards and control cubicles, installed inside the ITER Tokamak building, can be subject to a constant or slowly variable magnetic field up to 70 mT, 10 mT/s induced by ITER coils. This is a very unusual environmental condition and there are almost no data available on static magnetic field compatibility for the standard industrial electrical and electronic components that might be used inside standard low voltage distribution boards and standard control boards. CEA has especially taken in charge the test of electronic, control and signal conditioning units. For this purpose a test bed composed of a solenoid and a 30 V, 800 A power supply, has been developed at CEA Cadarache. Its characteristics are the following: - Magnetic field capability: 40 mT; - Variation of field: up to 10 mT/s. Useful dimensions for equipment under test: 500 x 500 x 500 mm. The list of the components to be tested has been identified trying to find common and recent components of different manufacturers. Test procedures have been written following the most relevant IEC standards and manufacturing recommendations and procedures. Magnetic compatibility tests on the basic components of standard low voltage control boards has been performed. All components tested are more or less sensitive to magnetic fields and the effect varies from the simple perturbation of the output signals to the partial destruction of some electronic card. The most sensitive are the ferromagnetic components like small power supplies transformers, relays, on inductors. For power supplies the most important consequence is the increase of the consumption (primary current). For most of the conditioning units the operational limits were found in the range of 30 mT (destruction of materials and overload of the supply) For PLC (Programme Logic Control) central units tested, the limit is in the order of 40 mT (components permanently out of service) Relays are limited to 15 mT (outputs oscillations, no

  5. Backwards compatible high dynamic range video compression

    Dolzhenko, Vladimir; Chesnokov, Vyacheslav; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a two layer CODEC architecture for high dynamic range video compression. The base layer contains the tone mapped video stream encoded with 8 bits per component which can be decoded using conventional equipment. The base layer content is optimized for rendering on low dynamic range displays. The enhancement layer contains the image difference, in perceptually uniform color space, between the result of inverse tone mapped base layer content and the original video stream. Prediction of the high dynamic range content reduces the redundancy in the transmitted data while still preserves highlights and out-of-gamut colors. Perceptually uniform colorspace enables using standard ratedistortion optimization algorithms. We present techniques for efficient implementation and encoding of non-uniform tone mapping operators with low overhead in terms of bitstream size and number of operations. The transform representation is based on human vision system model and suitable for global and local tone mapping operators. The compression techniques include predicting the transform parameters from previously decoded frames and from already decoded data for current frame. Different video compression techniques are compared: backwards compatible and non-backwards compatible using AVC and HEVC codecs.

  6. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  7. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  8. Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends

    Jia-Horng Lin; Yi-Jun Pan; Chi-Fan Liu; Chien-Lin Huang; Chien-Teng Hsieh; Chih-Kuang Chen; Zheng-Ian Lin; Ching-Wen Lou

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) that have a similar melt flow index (MFI) to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction...

  9. The compatibility of steel and aluminium with calcium chloride/ammonia, magnesium chloride/methylamine and magnesium chloride/methylamine/decane

    The use of pairs of substances such as calcium chloride/ammonia or magnesium chloride/methylamine for distant heating or heat storage requires compatibility between these substances and the structural materials of the reactor vessels, transport-containers, and/or heat exchangers. Readily weldable mild steel or aluminium are considered likely candidates for the structural materials for transport containers or heat exchangers. In these compatibility investigations the metal samples have been held in contact with the chemical substances under different conditions (temperature, pressure, time) and after the compatibility treatments, the samples were tested. When there is no detectable change in the properties of the samples after the compatibility treatments (in comparison with the as received status) the compatibility is deemed good. Weight changes, surface investigations, fatigue strength tests and metallographical investigations were performed for determining this compatibility. (Auth.)

  10. Magma/metal compatibility study: compatibility of metals in molten degassed tholeiitic basalt

    The compatibility of ten commercially available alloys with molten (13000C) degassed tholeiitic basalt was studied. Results can be explained on the basis of (1) the relative free energies of formation of pertinent oxides and (2) shifts in the chemical equilibrium among iron species. (auth)

  11. Statistical analysis in dBASE-compatible databases.

    Hauer-Jensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Database management in clinical and experimental research often requires statistical analysis of the data in addition to the usual functions for storing, organizing, manipulating and reporting. With most database systems, transfer of data to a dedicated statistics package is a relatively simple task. However, many statistics programs lack the powerful features found in database management software. dBASE IV and compatible programs are currently among the most widely used database management programs. d4STAT is a utility program for dBASE, containing a collection of statistical functions and tests for data stored in the dBASE file format. By using d4STAT, statistical calculations may be performed directly on the data stored in the database without having to exit dBASE IV or export data. Record selection and variable transformations are performed in memory, thus obviating the need for creating new variables or data files. The current version of the program contains routines for descriptive statistics, paired and unpaired t-tests, correlation, linear regression, frequency tables, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, a time-saving procedure for counting observations according to user specified selection criteria, survival analysis (product limit estimate analysis, log-rank test, and graphics), and normal t and chi-squared distribution functions. PMID:2004275

  12. Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors

    Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

    In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

  13. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup;

    2013-01-01

    Laser welding of polymers is today a commonly used industrial technology. It has shown obvious advantages compared to e.g. adhesive bonding in terms of higher productivity, better quality and easiness for automation. The ongoing development of lasers tailored for polymer welding in coordination...... with the development of related absorbers added to the polymer materials provide the possibility of joining transparent and non-transparent materials. The automotive industry, the medical device industry and the electronic industry are just some of the areas where the technology is widely implemented...... for research and development. This paper presents some research results related to laser welding of various polymer materials, including weld compatibility investigations related to the joining of different polymers. Theory for bonding mechanisms, strength development, mechanical properties testing and other...

  14. Catalytic nanoarchitectonics for environmentally compatible energy generation

    Hideki Abe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally compatible energy management is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Low-temperature conversion of chemical to electrical energy is of particular importance to minimize the impact to the environment while sustaining the consumptive economy. In this review, we shed light on one of the most versatile energy-conversion technologies: heterogeneous catalysts. We establish the integrity of structural tailoring in heterogeneous catalysts at different scales in the context of an emerging paradigm in materials science: catalytic nanoarchitectonics. Fundamental backgrounds of energy-conversion catalysis are first provided together with a perspective through state-of-the-art energy-conversion catalysis including catalytic exhaust remediation, fuel-cell electrocatalysis and photosynthesis of solar fuels. Finally, the future evolution of catalytic nanoarchitectonics is overviewed: possible combinations of heterogeneous catalysts, organic molecules and even enzymes to realize reaction-selective, highly efficient and long-life energy conversion technologies which will meet the challenge we face.

  15. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  16. Compatibility results of some diagnostic ionization chambers

    The most important task of the National Laboratory for Metrology of the Ionizing Radiations at the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - LNMRI/IRD-CNEN/MCT is to realize and maintain the legal units in compliance with the International System of Units - Si and disseminate them, above all within the framework of legal and scientific metrology. The LNMRI/IRD thus is on top of the metrological hierarchy in Brazil. Calibration certificates issued is the document that was result of the calibrations, that is, the instrument was calibrated and now it is traceable to national standards. Groups of a similar model of the ion chambers design specific for using at conventional diagnostic dosimetric, attenuated and no attenuated and dental applications, are placed under similar calibration condition at the LNMRI/IRD. The main objective is to observe how is the compatibilities' measurements obtained through 10 equipment set dedicated for clinical dosimetry, and how are the dispersion conclusion for these. (author)

  17. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  18. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  19. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility in high-voltage engineering

    Vanhouten, Marinus Albertus

    1990-09-01

    Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) concepts for an efficient and consistant approach to practical interference problems are described. A critical analysis of 'grounding' is given. The design of a 'differentiated/integrated' system to measure fast voltage transients is described. Measurements of steep transient voltages across interruptions in a Gas Insulated Switchear (GIS) installation, due to switching actions, are presented. Available means to reduce the influence of this interference source on the measuring are discussed. General conclusions are that general, linear and basic design methods for the protection of electronics and (large) interconnected electrical systems against interference can be developed which can save production costs and research time. The design methods described concentrate on the reduction of dangerous voltages between critical points which can be achieved by correct layout choice.

  1. Incentive Compatible Privacy-Preserving Data Analysis

    Shweta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, competing parties who have private data may collaboratively conduct privacy-preserving distributed data analysis (PPDA tasks to learn beneficial data models or analysis results. Most often, the competing parties have different incentives. Although certain PPDA techniques guarantee that nothing other than the final analysis result is revealed, it is impossible to verify whether participating parties are truthful about their private input data. Unless proper incentives are set, current PPDA techniques cannot prevent participating parties from modifying their private inputs. This raises the question of how to design incentive compatible privacy-preserving data analysis techniques that motivate participating parties to provide truthful inputs. In this paper, we first develop key theorems, and then base on these theorems, we analyze certain important privacy-preserving data analysis tasks that could be conducted in a way that telling the truth is the best choice for any participating party.

  2. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    Baikie, I. D.; van der Werf, K. O.; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, A.

    1989-05-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh-vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice-coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed-through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe geometry, flexibility of probe geometry, amplitude of oscillation, and pure parallel vibration. Automatic setup and constant spacing features are achieved using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) steered offset potential. The combination of very low driver noise pick-up and data-acquisition system (DAS) signal processing techniques results in a work function (wf ) resolution, under optimal conditions, of analysis techniques this design has numerous applications in surface studies, e.g., adsorption kinetics, sample topography and homogeneity, sputter profiles, etc. For semiconductor specimens the high wf resolution makes it eminently suitable for surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy.

  3. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  4. Is Christian Education Compatible With Science Education?

    Martin, Michael

    Science education and Christian education are not compatible if by Christian education one means teaching someone to be a Christian. One goal of science education is to give students factual knowledge. Even when there is no actual conflict of this knowledge with the dogmas of Christianity, there exists the potential for conflict. Another goal of science education is to teach students to have the propensity to be sensitive to evidence: to hold beliefs tentatively in light of evidence and to reject these beliefs in the light of new evidence if rejection is warranted by this evidence. This propensity conflicts with one way in which beliefs are often taught in Christian education: namely as fundamental dogmas, rather than as subject to revision in the light of the evidence.

  5. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  6. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  7. Development of ITER CODAC compatible gyrotron local control system and its operation

    JAEA has developed a prototype of the gyrotron local control system required in the ITER ECH and CD system. This system is compatible with the ITER plant control design handbook. The code is based on the ITER CODAC Core System and implements functions of the state transition management and monitoring in the gyrotron operating system and the power supply control and data acquisition. We have succeeded in the demonstration test of high power operation of an ITER 170 GHz gyrotron using the present system and the ITER compatible setup and protocol. (J.P.N.)

  8. Cellular compatibility of RGD-modified chitosan nanofibers with aligned or random orientation

    Wang Yanyan; Lue Lanxin; Feng Zhangqi; Xiao Zhongdang; Huang Ningping, E-mail: nphuang@seu.edu.c, E-mail: zdxiao@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aligned and randomly oriented chitosan nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The fibers were modified with the RGD cell-adhesive peptide through a heterobifunctional crosslinker containing a segment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG rendered the surface hydrophilic and provided flexible spacers, allowing the preservation of the bioactivity of further captured RGD peptides. NIH 3T3 cells were used to test the cellular compatibility of these chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds. Cell morphology and viability were investigated by SEM, fluorescent staining and cell counting. The results indicate that RGD-modified surfaces significantly improve the cellular compatibility of chitosan nanofibers and suggest a good candidate as a scaffold employed in tissue engineering.

  9. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Technical progress report, 1 April 1995--30 June 1995

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The AirConditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  10. Compatibility of copper-electroplated cells with Metal Wrap Through module materials

    Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    As part of the European FP7 RandD project 'Cu-PV', the compatibility of copper-electroplated metal wrapthrough (MWT) cells with conductive adhesives has been investigated. The objectives of this project include to reduce, by the use of copper plating, the amount of silver utilized in cell manufacturing, and to demonstrate the compatibility of high-power n-type back-contact module technology with copper-plated cells. The overall goal is to reduce the impact on the environment of cell and module manufacture. MWT module technology as developed by ECN uses conductive adhesive to make the interconnection between cells and a conductive backsheet foil. These adhesives have been proved to result in very reliable modules in the case of cells with fired silver metallization. To determine the compatibility of conductive adhesive with copper-plated cells, component tests were performed, followed by the manufacture of modules with copperplated cells and conductive adhesive interconnections. Climate chamber testing of these modules showed that the adhesive is compatible with the copper-plated cells. The next steps include further optimization of the plating process and additional testing at the module level.

  11. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Wireless Sensor Network Node

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper is concerned with the sensor nodes’ hardware design of the wireless sensor network.We focus on the electromagnetic compatibility design of the printed circuit board.In this paper,we will give a schematic diagram first,and then,according to the layout,wiring rules and the knowledge of electromagnetic compatibility, we will present the design of the printed circuit board which has a good characteristic of electromagnetic compatibility.

  12. Compatibility Determination [Public Use on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determinations for wildlife observation and photography, interpretation and environmental education, hunting, fishing, forest management (timber sales...

  13. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  14. Laundry detergent compatibility of the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus.

    Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Prakash, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous protease activity in various commercially available laundry detergents of international companies was studied. The maximum protease activity was found at 50 degrees C in pH range 10.5-11.0 in all the tested laundry detergents. The endogenous protease activity in the tested detergents retained up to 70% on incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h, whereas less than 30% activity was only found on incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. The alkaline protease from an alkalophilic strain of Bacillus cereus was studied for its compatibility in commercial detergents. The cell free fermented broth from shake flask culture of the organism showed maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. The protease from B. cereus showed much higher residual activity (more than 80%) on incubation with laundry detergents at 50 degrees C for 1 h or longer. The protease enzyme from B. cereus was found to be superior over the endogenous proteases present in the tested commercial laundry detergents in comparison to the enzyme stability during the washing at higher temperature, e.g., 40-50 degrees C. PMID:15293947

  15. CRT compatibility evaluation of LX-16 and Halthane 73-18

    A preliminary compatibility study was carried out between the plastic-bonded PETN-based high explosive LX-16 and the adhesive Halthane 73-18. The work, based on the Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT), used non-standard times and temperatures to find conditions corresponding to accelerated decomposition. This study is a prequel to a more comprehensive isothermal and thermal cycling study that will include both material evaluation and test fire

  16. Are stewardship and valuation usefulness compatible or alternative objectives of financial accounting?

    Gassen, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    In their joint framework project, the FASB and the IASB recently proposed dropping stewardship as a separate objective of financial accounting, because the Boards view stewardship and valuation usefulness as compatible sub-objectives ranking under an overall objective of decision usefulness. This paper puts this conjecture to an empirical test. As it is widely agreed that asymmetric timely earnings increase the contractual efficiency of accounting information, I first test whether firms with ...

  17. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I ampersand C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I ampersand C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper

  18. For a socially compatible power supply system

    The definition of social compatibility is an outcome of continuous analysis and assessment of impact on the society, also covering probable effects in future. In a democracy, this leads to political decisions of the government based on consideration of all relevant criteria. This is why in modern, highly industrialized societies with their complex structures, basis-democracy procedures which involve strong emotionalisation have been replaced by a system of decision-making powers given to authorities for a defined period of time. Applying these principles to the power industry, the author's analysis of the role of nuclear power in the electricity market, and later on in the heat market, is said to remain significant for many decades to come, at least for a time horizon not to be defined as yet. Nuclear power generation will increase. Should there be realistic chances in the power market one day for alternative energy sources, the process of nuclear power substitution will take many years, and will proceed in a way justifiable by responsible energy policy. (orig./HSCH)

  19. A social compatibility analysis for technology policies

    The project reported on aimed at adding concrete helps in energy policy and energy economy decision making to the knowledge and information provided about the social aspects of energy supply. The KFA study proved to show that the two extreme energy paths 1 and 4 (Enquete commission) postulating drastic nuclear energy extensions or a radical nuclear phaseout, respectively, are not compatible with the given social conditions. While path 2 suggests a moderate but continuous extension of nuclear energy supplies and relies on the fast breeder at long date path 3 recommends the total resignation to nuclear energy to be starting in 2000. The scientific committee does not intend the book to be a 'vote' but rather aims at inciting the responsible decision makers to drawing conclusions on their own. The different contributions reveal different aspects of the research program. The program itself includes the following three central elements: tree analysis, impact analysis of energy systems and scenarios, planning cell-type evaluation. (orig./HSCH)

  20. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    A flexible membrane liner has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation should be different than those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  1. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception...

  2. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a). The request for waiver states (a brief summary of the... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or...

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Guag Joshua W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

  5. Characterization of an Auto-Compatible Default Theory

    XU DaoYun(许道云); DING DeCheng(丁德成); ZHANG MingYi(张明义)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an equivalence condition for deciding whether a default theory isan auto-compatible default one is presented. Under the condition, the existence of extension of anauto-compatible default theory is a natural result. By introducing a well-ordering over the set D ofdefault rules, the extensions of an auto-compatible default theory (D, W) can be computed directly.The condition represents clearly the characterization of an auto-compatible default theory, andsome properties about auto-compatible default theory, such as semi-monotonicity, become naturalcorollaries. Based on the characterization, the revision of default beliefs is discussed to ensure theexistence of extension of the default theory, and the method is applied to investigate stable modelsof a general logic program.

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center Electromagnetic Compatibility Design and Interference Control (MEDIC) handbook

    Clark, T. L.; McCollum, M. B.; Trout, D. H.; Javor, K.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the MEDIC Handbook is to provide practical and helpful information in the design of electrical equipment for electromagnetic compatibility (EMS). Included is the definition of electromagnetic interference (EMI) terms and units as well as an explanation of the basic EMI interactions. An overview of typical NASA EMI test requirements and associated test setups is given. General design techniques to minimize the risk of EMI and EMI suppression techniques at the board and equipment interface levels are presented. The Handbook contains specific EMI test compliance design techniques and retrofit fixes for noncompliant equipment. Also presented are special tests that are useful in the design process or in instances of specification noncompliance.

  7. Materials compatibility studies for the Spallation Neutron Source

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. Type 316 SS has been selected as the container material for the mercury and consequences of exposure of 316 SS to radiation, thermal shock, thermal stress, cavitation and hot, flowing mercury are all being addressed by R and D programs. In addition, corrosion studies also include evaluation of Inconel 718 because it has been successfully used in previous spallation neutron systems as a window material. Two types of compatibility issues relative to 316 SS/mercury and Inconel 718/mercury are being examined: (1) liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and (2) temperature gradient mass transfer. Studies have shown that mercury does not easily wet type 316 SS below 275 C. In the LME experiments, attempts were made to promote wetting of the steel by mercury either by adding gallium to the mercury or coating the specimen with a tin-silver solder that the mercury easily wets. The latter proved more reliable in establishing wetting, but there was no evidence of LME in any of the constant extension rate tensile tests either at 23 or 100 C. Inconel 718 also showed no change in room temperature properties when tested in mercury or mercury-gallium. However, there was evidence that the fracture was less ductile. Preliminary evaluation of mass transfer of either type 316 SS or Inconel 718 in mercury or mercury-gallium at 350 C (maximum temperature) did not reveal significant effects. Two 5,000 h thermal convection loop tests of type 316 SS are in progress, with specimens in both hot and cold test regions, at 300 and 240 C, respectively

  8. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  9. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  10. Compatibility of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels with liquid breeders

    The compatibility of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel (RAFM) with liquid Li and molten-salt Flibe have been characterized and accessed. Static compatibility tests were carried out in which the specimens were immersed into liquid Li or Flibe in isothermal autoclaves. Also carried out were compatibility tests in flowing liquid Li by thermal convection loops. In the case of liquid Li, the corrosion rate increased with temperature significantly. The corrosion was almost one order larger for the loop tests than for the static tests. Chemical analysis showed that the corrosion was enhanced when the level of N in Li is increased. Transformation from martensitic to ferritic phase and the resulting softening were observed in near-surface area of Li-exposed specimens, which were shown to be induced by decarburization. In the case of Flibe, the corrosion loss was much larger in a Ni crucible than in a RAFM crucible. Both fluorides and oxides were observed on the surfaces. Thus, the key corrosion process of Flibe is the competing process of fluoridation and oxidation. Possible mechanism of the enhanced corrosion in Ni crucible is electrochemical circuit effect. It was suggested that the corrosion loss rate of RAFM by liquid Li and Flibe can be reduced by reducing the level of impurity N in Li and avoiding the use of dissimilar materials in Flibe, respectively. (author)