WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4eme age observation

  1. Fracture num\\'erique chez les seniors du 4eme age. Observation d'une acculturation technique

    Michel, Christine; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Very old people accumulate the "handicaps": social, physical, psychological or cognitive. Various research thus developed to determine there waiting and needs and also to see the benefit possibly produced by technologies (called ?gerontechnology?) on their living conditions. The object of this article is to present the numerical service offer to very old perople and to see how it takes part in a social justice according to the definition of Rawls (principle of equal freedom, principle of equal opportunity in the access). The adoption, the use and the benefit of technology are analyzed in a theoretical way through a state of the art and in an experimental way through a qualitative and quantitative investigation carried out with a population of very old people. We propose to identify dynamic technological acceptance of old people according to the TAM'S (Technology Acceptance Model) of Davis adapted by (Hamner and Qazi, 2008).

  2. Observational Search for Cometary Aging Processes

    Meech, Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific objectives of this study were (i) to search for physical differences in the behavior of the dynamically new comets (those which are entering the solar system for the first time from the Oort cloud) and the periodic comets, and (ii) to interpret these differences, if any, in terms of the physical and chemical nature of the comets and the evolutionary histories of the two comet groups. Because outer solar system comets may be direct remnants of the planetary formation processes, it is clear that the understanding of both the physical characteristics of these bodies at the edge of the planet forming zone and of their activity at large heliocentric distances, r, will ultimately provide constraints on the planetary formation process both in our Solar System and in extra-solar planetary systems. A combination of new solar system models which suggest that the protoplanetary disk was relatively massive and as a consequence comets could form at large distances from the sun (e.g. from the Uranus-Neptune region to the vicinity of the Kuiper belt), observations of activity in comets at large r, and laboratory experiments on low temperature volatile condensation, are dramatically changing our understanding of the chemical'and physical conditions in the early solar nebula. In order to understand the physical processes driving the apparent large r activity, and to address the question of possible physical and chemical differences between periodic, non-periodic and Oort comets, the PI has been undertaking a long-term study of the behavior of a significant sample of these comets (approximately 50) over a wide range of r to watch the development, disappearance and changing morphology of the dust coma. The ultimate goal is to search for systematic physical differences between the comet classes by modelling the coma growth in terms of volatile-driven activity. The systematic observations for this have been ongoing since 1986, and have been obtained over the course of

  3. Observable cosmological vector mode in the dark ages

    Saga, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    The second-order vector mode is inevitably induced from the coupling of first-order scalar modes in the cosmological perturbation theory, and might hinder a possible detection of primordial gravitational waves from inflation through 21cm lensing observations. Here, we investigate the weak lensing signal in 21cm photons emitted by neutral hydrogen atoms in the dark ages induced by the second-order vector mode, by decomposing the deflection angle of the 21cm lensing signal into the gradient and curl modes. The curl mode is a good tracer of the cosmological vector and tensor modes since the scalar mode does not induce the curl one. By comparing the angular power spectra of the 21cm lensing curl mode induced by the second-order vector mode and the primordial gravitational waves whose amplitude is parameterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$, we find that the 21cm curl mode from the second-order vector mode dominates over that from the primordial gravitational waves on almost all scales if $r \\lesssim 10^{-5}$....

  4. Aging worlds in contradiction: gerontological observations in the Mediterranean region

    Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing and developing aging regimes in the Northern and Southern rim countries of the whole Mediterranean region which are all undergoing considerable social and political transformation processes. It is argued that several eye-opening theoretical interventions for such a gerontological project may lead to some methodological problems and pitfalls, which have to be dealt with productively. Central collective concepts of such an analysis (as the change-oriented "modernization effects" of societal aging and the continuity-oriented gaze at the "unity of the region" have to be reconsidered and ought to be more differentiated in order to allow smaller social entities (such as kinship and community systems and their connectivity to be central orientations for analyzing poverty and care management in old age in the Mediterranean region. How to reconnect such a rather micro-political agenda with large processes and big structures of aging policies in the region however still remains an open question.

  5. The age dependence of the Vega phenomenon: Observations

    Decin, G.; C. Dominik; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Waelkens, C.

    2003-01-01

    We study the time dependency of Vega-like excesses using infrared studies obtained with the imaging photopolarimeter ISOPHOT on board of ISO. We review the different studies published on this issue, and critically check and revise ages and fractional luminosities in the different samples. The conclusions of our study differ significantly from those obtained by other authors (e.g. Holland et al. 1998; Spangler et al. 2001) who suggested that there is a global power-law governing the amount of ...

  6. The age dependence of the Vega phenomenon: Observations

    Decin, G; Waters, L B F M; Waelkens, C

    2003-01-01

    We study the time dependency of Vega-like excesses using infrared studies obtained with the imaging photopolarimeter ISOPHOT on board of ISO. We review the different studies published on this issue, and critically check and revise ages and fractional luminosities in the different samples. The conclusions of our study differ significantly from those obtained by other authors (e.g. Holland et al. 1998; Spangler et al. 2001) who suggested that there is a global power-law governing the amount of dust seen in debris disks as a function of time. Our investigations lead us to conclude that (i) for stars at most ages, a large spread in fractional luminosity occurs, but (ii) there are few very young stars with intermediate or small excesses; (iii) the maximum excess seen in stars of a given age is about a fractional luminosity of approximately 10^{-3}, independent of time; and (iv) Vega-like excess is more common in young stars than in old stars.

  7. Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE): Deficiency of observed dwarf novae in globular clusters

    Pietrukowicz, P; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Thompson, I B; Pych, W; Krzeminski, W; Mazur, B

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a search for dwarf novae (DNe) in globular clusters (GCs). It is based on the largest available homogeneous sample of observations, in terms of the time span, number of observations and number of clusters. It includes 16 Galactic GCs and yielded two new certain DNe: M55-CV1 and M22-CV2. All previously known systems located in our fields were recovered, too. We surveyed M4, M5, M10, M12, M22, M30, M55, NGC 288, NGC 362, NGC 2808, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6362, NGC 6752, omega Cen (NGC 5139) and 47 Tuc (NGC 104). The discovery of two DNe, namely M55-CV1 and M22-CV2, was already reported by Kaluzny et al. (2005) and Pietrukowicz et al. (2005), respectively. In the remaining 14 GCs we found no certain new DNe. Our result raises the total number of known DNe in the Galactic globular clusters to 12 DNe, distributed among 7 clusters. Our survey recovered all three already known erupting cataclysmic variables (CVs) located in our fields, namely M5-V101, M22-CV1, and V4 in the foreground of M3...

  8. Mapping forest stand age in China using remotely sensed forest height and observation data

    Zhang, Chunhua; Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.; Li, Dengqiu; Wang, Xiqun; Fan, Wenyi; Li, Mingshi; Zan, Mei

    2014-06-01

    Forest stand age plays a crucial role in determining the terrestrial carbon source or sink strength and reflects major disturbance information. Forests in China have changed drastically in recent decades, but quantification of spatially explicit forest age at national level has been lacking to date. This study generated a national map of forest age at 1 km spatial resolution using the remotely sensed forest height and forest type data in 2005, as well as relationships between age and height retrieved from field observations. These relationships include biomass as an intermediate parameter for major forest types in different regions of China. Biomass-height and age-biomass relationships were well fitted using field observations, with respective R2 values greater than 0.60 and 0.71 (P old in southwestern, northwestern, and northeastern areas, and young in southern and eastern regions.

  9. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  10. HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)

    Han, N; Wright, ST; O'Connor, CC; Hoy, J; Ponnampalavanar, S; Grotowski, M; Zhao, HX; Kamarulzaman, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS in the ageing population (>50 years) is increasing. We aim to explore the relationship between older age and treatment outcomes in HIV-positive persons from the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) were included in the analysis. We used survival methods to assess the association between older age and all-cause mortality, as well as time-to treatment modification. We used regression analyses to evaluate changes in CD4 counts after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and determined the odds of detectable viral load, up to 24 months of treatment. Results A total of 7142 patients were included in these analyses (60% TAHOD, 40% AHOD), of which, 25% were >50 years old. In multivariable analyses those aged >50 were at least twice as likely to die as those aged 30-39 years [HR (50-59 years): 2.27, 95% CI: 1.34-3.83; HR (>60years) 4.28, 95% CI: 2.42-7.55]. The effect of older age on CD4 count changes was insignificant (p-trend=0.06). The odds of detectable viral load after cART initiation decreased with age (p-trend=age on time-to first treatment modification was insignificant (p-trend=0.21). We found no statistically significant differences in outcomes between AHOD and TAHOD participants for all endpoints examined. Conclusion The associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV-positive patients from the Asia-Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ‘age-effects’ traverse the resource-rich and resource-limited divide and indicate that future ageing-related findings might be applicable to each setting. PMID:25407085

  11. Reverse extraction of early-age hydration kinetic equation from observed data of Portland cement

    2010-01-01

    The early-age hydration of Portland cement paste has an important impact on the formation of microstructure and development of strength.However,manual derivation of hydration kinetic equation is very difficult because there are multi-phased,multi-sized and interrelated complex chemical and physical reactions during cement hydration.In this paper,early-age hydration kinetic equation is reversely extracted automatically from the observed time series of hydration degree of Portland cement using evolutionary computation method that combines gene expression programming and particle swarm optimization algorithms.In order to reduce the computing time,GPUs are used for acceleration in parallel.Studies have shown that according to the extracted kinetic equation,simulation curve of early-age hydration is in good accordance with the observed experimental data.Furthermore,this equation still has a good generalization ability even changing chemical composition,particle size and curing conditions.

  12. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:26527056

  13. Ultrasound observation of GAG content of human hip joint cartilage in different old age groups.

    Pengling Ren; Xiaofei Li; Fan Fan; Xiran Cai; He Gong; Yubo Fan; Haijun Niu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we observed the age-related changes of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of human hip joint cartilage based on ultrasound (US). Seventy human hip cartilage-bone samples were collected from hip-fracture patients (ages 51 to 96) and divided into 5 groups (10 years in an age group). They were firstly measured by ultrasound to obtain quantitative acoustic parameters, including the speed of sound (SOS), US amplitude attenuation coefficient (UAA) and normalized broadband US attenuation coefficient (nBUA). Then the samples were stained for GAG with toluidine blue. Results showed SOS, UAA, nBUA decreased by 5.49%, 36.67%, 25.57% from 50-80 age group (plinear correlations between SOS and GAG optical density (r=0.825, plinear correlation to GAG optical density (r=0.688, p <; 0.07). In summary, GAG content of hip joint cartilage varied with aging in elderly people and conventional ultrasound can potentially be used to detect the age-related changes of acoustic parameters of human hip joint cartilage. PMID:26736848

  14. The Ages of A-Stars I: Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    Jones, Jeremy; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E; Ireland, M; Patience, J; Brummelaar, T ten; McAlister, H; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Goldfinger, P J

    2015-01-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the CHARA Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities ($v \\sin i$ $\\gtrsim$ 170 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars' observed photometric energy distributions, and $v \\sin i$ values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models (Paxton et al. 2011, 2013) to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as oppose...

  15. Observational Constraints on Interacting Model of New Agegraphic Dark Energy and Alleviation of Cosmic Age Problem

    Li, Yun-He; Cui, Jing-Lei; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Many dark energy models fail to pass the cosmic age test via the old quasar APM 08279+5255 at redshift $z=3.91$, even the $\\Lambda$CDM model and the holographic dark energy model are not exception. In this paper, we focus on the topic of age problem in the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model. We determine the age of the universe in the NADE model by using the fitting result of observational data including type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is shown that the NADE model also faces the challenge of the age problem caused by the old quasar APM 08279+5255. In order to overcome such a difficulty, we consider the possible interaction between dark energy and matter. We show that the old quasar APM 08279+5255 at redshift $z=3.91$ can be successfully accommodated in the interacting new agegraphic dark energy (INADE) model at $2\\sigma$ level under the current observational constraints.

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study

    Moamena El-Matbouly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92% with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.. TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34% and middle age group (21%. The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%, subarachnoid (25%, subdural (24%, and epidural hemorrhage (18%. The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%. Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.

  17. How old is that child? Validating the accuracy of age assignments in observational surveys of vehicle restraint use

    Moeller, S; Berger, L.; J. Salvador; Helitzer, D

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Many large scale observational studies of child restraint usage require observers to estimate the ages of the vehicle occupants. The accuracy of age assignments were assessed and possible methods to improve observational accuracy in research and field studies of child restraint use were identified.

  18. Atomic scale observation of phase transformation in long term thermally aged duplex stainless steels

    Embrittlement study of duplex stainless steels is a very important in order to predict the lifetime of primary circuits of nuclear power plant. Ferrite steels aged over 20 years, on-site, in laboratory and at different temperatures was analyzed by tomographic probe atom to assess the trend of aging of these materials with very long times. A more prospective work was also carried out, the aim was to model the decomposition of ferrite from austenitic-ferritic steels. The simulation of the decomposition of these steels are very complex, we initiated preliminary work in modelling the Fe-Cr alloys, because the decomposition of Fe and Cr in these steels is the main cause of their fragility. To validate the parameters used in simulation, an experimental study of the decomposition of an alloy Fe-20% at. Cr aged at 500 C was performed. This experimental study has shown that a non-classical germination (NCG) is involved in this alloy. The performed simulations on the same alloy at the same temperature, did not reproduce the progressive enrichment of precipitated phase a' (characteristic of NCG). The study of steels, aged over 20 years, has confirmed that the steel aged in laboratory are representative to steel aged in site ( T ≤350 C). Moreover, it has been shown that the G-phase (intermetallic precipitation at the interface a/a' phases) does not influence the embrittlement of the ferrite and the difference of thermo-mechanical treatment is not determinant of the variance decomposition observed in these steels. (author)

  19. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  20. Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in East Asia

    Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in East Asia reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.

  1. [GENDER AND AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AT HOSPITAL OBSERVATIONS STAGE].

    Dadashova, G M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of literature shows that very little data are available on gender differences and age-specific drug use in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). In this work, the character of drug therapy was studied as dependent on the age and sex of patients with CHF under in-hospital observation conditions. Among hospitalized patients with CHF, an important role is played by modern drug therapy. Gender differences were found in respect of therapy with ACE inhibitors, which was used in men more frequently than in women (89 and 78%, respectively, p ACE inhibitors/ARBs (from 79.1 to 95.3%p < 0.01) and aldosterone antagonists (from 29.3 to 38.2% p < 0.001). PMID:27416677

  2. The Ages of Globular Clusters in NGC 4365 Revisited with Deep HST Observations

    Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E.; Hempel, Maren; Morton, David; Ashman, Keith M.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Puzia, Thomas H.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2005-11-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NIC3, near-infrared H-band photometry of globular clusters (GCs) around NGC 4365 and NGC 1399 in combination with archival HST WFPC2 and ACS optical data. We find that NGC 4365 has a number of globular clusters with bluer optical colors than expected for their red optical-to-near-infrared colors and an old age. The only known way to explain these colors is with a significant population of intermediate-age (2-8 Gyr) clusters in this elliptical galaxy. On the other hand, our result for NGC 1399 is in agreement with previous spectroscopic work that suggests that its clusters have a large metallicity spread and are nearly all old. In the literature, there are various results from spectroscopic studies of modest samples of NGC 4365 globular clusters. The spectroscopic data allow for either the presence or absence of a significant population of intermediate-age clusters, given the index uncertainties indicated by comparing objects in common between these studies and the few spectroscopic candidates with optical-to-near-IR colors indicative of intermediate ages. Our new near-IR data of the NGC 4365 GC system with a much higher signal-to-noise ratio agree well with earlier published photometry, and both give strong evidence of a significant intermediate-age component. The agreement between the photometric and spectroscopic results for NGC 1399 and other systems lends further confidence to this conclusion and to the effectiveness of the near-IR technique. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on the step phenomenon observed in rat skin.

    Vogel, H G; Hilgner, W

    1979-03-31

    Comprehensive analysis of the mechanical properties of rat skin revealed the "step phenomenon". This particular observation was made after constant strain rate (analysis of stress strain curves) as well as after constant load (creep experiments). Relative low extensions or low loads were necessary to provoke the steps. In most cases two, sometimes three steps were observed. The step phenomenon was found mainly in skin strips punched out perpendicularly to the body axis. Probably some bonds in the fibrous network are broken giving way to additional elongation whereafter stronger links take over the stress. Since earlier studies demonstrated a pronounced influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on mechanical properties at ultimate load, e.g., tensile strength, ultimate modulus of elasticity, and ultimate strain, also the step phenomenon was studied under these conditions. In stress-strain experiments most of the steps were found at the ages of 2 and 4 months. Total stress loss and total work loss due to the steps were the highest at the age of 4 months. If, however, these values were calculated as percentage of ultimate values, the highest figures were found in young animals. Elongation gain due to the steps also showed a maximum at time of maturation, e.g., 4 months. Similar findings were achieved in creep experiments at medium load (200 g). After treatment with prednisolone acetate more steps and after treatment with D-penicillamine fewer steps were observed. In stress-strain experiments total stress loss and total work loss due to steps were more than twice as high than controls after prednisolone treatment and only one half after D-penicillamine. If calculated as percentage of ultimate stress or percentage of work input, these changes disappeared because of similar changes at ultimate load. However, elongation gain due to steps, which was not significantly influenced by prednisolone acetate but significantly decreased by D-penicillamine, showed the same changes

  4. The Age of the Directly Imaged Planet Host Star κ Andromedae Determined from Interferometric Observations

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Quinn, S.; Ireland, M.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    κ Andromedae, an early-type star that hosts a directly imaged low-mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity (v sin i = ˜162 km s-1). We observed the star with the CHARA Array’s optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this v sin i value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is ˜85% of the critical rate and a low inclination of ˜30°. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of {47}-40+27 Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion’s temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of {22}-9+8 M J.

  5. The Age of the Directly-Imaged Planet Host Star $\\kappa$ Andromedae Determined From Interferometric Observations

    Jones, Jeremy; Quinn, S; Ireland, M; Boyajian, T; Schaefer, G; Baines, E K

    2016-01-01

    $\\kappa$ Andromedae, an early type star that hosts a directly imaged low mass companion, is expected to be oblate due to its rapid rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$ = $\\sim$162 $\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$). We observed the star with the CHARA Array's optical beam combiner, PAVO, measuring its size at multiple orientations and determining its oblateness. The interferometric measurements, combined with photometry and this $v\\sin i$ value are used to constrain an oblate star model that yields the fundamental properties of the star and finds a rotation speed that is $\\sim$85\\% of the critical rate and a low inclination of $\\sim$30$^\\circ$. Three modeled properties (the average radius, bolometric luminosity, and equatorial velocity) are compared to MESA evolution models to determine an age and mass for the star. In doing so, we determine an age for the system of 47$^{+27}_{-40}$ Myr. Based on this age and previous measurements of the companion's temperature, the BHAC15 evolution models imply a mass for the companion of 22$^...

  6. AGE AND MASS SEGREGATION OF MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THEIR OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    Nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes in galactic nuclei. They are thought to have formed through in situ star formation following gas inflow to the nucleus of the galaxy and/or through the infall of multiple stellar clusters. Here we study the latter, and explore the composite structure of the NSC and its relation to the various stellar populations originating from its progenitor infalling clusters. We use N-body simulations of cluster infalls and show that this scenario may produce observational signatures in the form of age segregation: the distribution of the stellar properties (e.g., stellar age and/or metallicity) in the NSCs reflects the infall history of the different clusters. The stellar populations of clusters, infalling at different times (dynamical ages), are differentially segregated in the NSC and are not fully mixed even after a few gigayears of evolution. Moreover, the radial properties of stellar populations in the progenitor cluster are mapped to their radial distribution in the final NSC, potentially leading to efficient mass segregation in NSCs, even those where relaxation times are longer than a Hubble time. Finally, the overall structures of the stellar populations present non-spherical configurations and show significant cluster to cluster population differences

  7. Proportionate increase in incidence of colorectal cancer at an age below 40 years: An observation

    Pal Madhumay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Colorectal cancer is particularly a disease affecting individuals above 40 years of age and 90% of cases occur in persons over the age of 50. Genetic and familial factors, viz, HNPCC and FAP, contribute to less than 20% and environmental or acquired factors are the cause of the rest. The aim of this study is to find out the relative proportion of patients Materials and Methods: Colorectal cancers registered in the calendar years of 2003 and 2004 in our institute were analyzed in this study. Data from Population Based Cancer Registry (P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai for the year 1988 were taken for comparison. Results: The results show that our institute′s figures exceed the generally accepted figure for ′incidence of the disease below the age of 40 years′ by less than 10% of both the total incidence of the disease and those of P.B.C.R. for Bangalore, Mumbai and Chennai. The corresponding figure for females in Delhi P.B.C.R. shows a little similarity to our institute′s figure. Conclusion: This observation indicates a changing pattern of colorectal cancer occurrence. This change may be a regional one or may be a result of genetic or environmental changes.

  8. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes

  9. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  10. Manipulateurs paralleles, 4eme partie : mode d'assemblage et cinematique directe sous forme polynomiale

    Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    1990-01-01

    Dans cette quatrieme partie, nous allons nous interesser aux developpements recents du probleme de la cinematique directe, exprimee sous forme polynomiale- , ainsi qu'a son corollaire qui est a l'etude des modes d'assemblages, a variables articulaires fixees, des robots paralleles. Dans une premiere partie, on considere les manipulateurs paralleles plans. On y montre que la cinematique directe peut toujours s'exprimer sous la forme d'un polynome mono-variable. Pour les robots planaires classi...

  11. Aging.

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Rotation periods and seismic ages of KOIs - comparison with stars without detected planets from Kepler observations

    Ceillier, T; Garcia, R A; Metcalfe, T S; Creevey, O; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Pinsonneault, M H; Salabert, D; Tayar, J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most difficult properties to derive for stars is their age. For cool main-sequence stars, gyrochronology relations can be used to infer stellar ages from measured rotation pe- riods and HR Diagram positions. These relations have few calibrators with known ages for old, long rotation period stars. There is a significant sample of old Kepler objects of inter- est, or KOIs, which have both measurable surface rotation periods and precise asteroseismic measurements from which ages can be accurately derived. In this work we determine the age and the rotation period of solar-like pulsating KOIs to both compare the rotation properties of stars with and without known planets and enlarge the gyrochronology calibration sample for old stars. We use Kepler photometric light curves to derive the stellar surface rotation peri- ods while ages are obtained with asteroseismology using the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal in which individual mode frequencies are combined with high-resolution spectroscopic pa- rameters. ...

  13. Sickle cell disease and age at menarche in Jamaican girls: observations from a cohort study

    Serjeant, G; A Singhal; Hambleton, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To investigate the distribution of age at menarche in a representative sample of 99 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, 69 with sickle cell haemoglobin C (SC) disease, and 100 controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype followed in a cohort study from birth. (2) To explore the determinants of the age at menarche.
METHODS—Children ascertained in a newborn screening programme were followed prospectively from birth to age 18-26.5 years with regular ...

  14. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations)

    Adam Halbina; Ewa Trznadel-Grodzka; Helena Rotsztejn

    2014-01-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to micro...

  15. Maternal age at birth and childhood type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 30 observational studies

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Jané, Mireia; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely G A; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma J K; Chetwynd, Amanda; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Patterson, Chris C

    2009-01-01

    -9) increase in childhood type 1 diabetes odds per 5-year increase in maternal age (P = 0.006), but there was heterogeneity among studies (heterogeneity I(2) = 70%). In studies with a low risk of bias, there was a more marked increase in diabetes odds of 10% per 5-year increase in maternal age. Adjustments for...... incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in recent years could be explained by increases in maternal age....

  16. Age-Related Frontal Hyperactivation Observed across Different Working Memory Tasks: An fMRI Study

    Mohammad Fakhri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate patterns of activation, convergence and divergence of three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI Working Memory (WM tasks in two different age groups. We want to understand potential impact of task and subjects’ age on WM activations as well as most important areas with regard to WM functions.

  17. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations

    Adam Halbina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to microscopic column skin zones in order to achieve skin photo-remodeling.

  18. Whole lifespan microscopic observation of budding yeast aging through a microfluidic dissection platform

    Lee, Sung Sik; Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; Lee, Luke P; Heinemann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Important insights into aging have been generated with the genetically tractable and short-lived budding yeast. However, it is still impossible today to continuously track cells by high-resolution microscopic imaging (e.g., fluorescent imaging) throughout their entire lifespan. Instead, the field still needs to rely on a 50-y-old laborious and time-consuming method to assess the lifespan of yeast cells and to isolate differentially aged cells for microscopic snapshots via manual dissection of...

  19. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    Massari, Davide; McConnachie, A; Bono, G; Dall'Ora, M; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Stetson, P B; Turri, P; Tolstoy, E

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way and probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I bands with HST, allowed us the detection of the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn off is a good age estimator and provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. We found that NGC 2808 has an age of t=10.9\\pm0.7 (intrinsic) \\pm0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agr...

  20. Observations on morphologic changes in the aging and degenerating human disc: Secondary collagen alterations

    Hanley Edward N

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the annulus, collagen fibers that make up the lamellae have a wavy, planar crimped pattern. This crimping plays a role in disc biomechanical function by allowing collagen fibers to stretch during compression. The relationship between morphologic changes in the aging/degenerating disc and collagen crimping have not been explored. Methods Ultrastructural studies were performed on annulus tissue from 29 control (normal donors (aged newborn to 79 years and surgical specimens from 49 patients (aged 16 to 77 years. Light microscopy and specialized image analysis to visualize crimping was performed on additional control and surgical specimens. Human intervertebral disc tissue from the annulus was obtained in a prospective morphologic study of the annulus. Studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Results Three types of morphologic changes were found to alter the crimping morphology of collagen: 1 encircling layers of unusual matrix disrupted the lamellar collagen architecture; 2 collagen fibers were reduced in amount, and 3 collagen was absent in regions with focal matrix loss. Conclusions Although proteoglycan loss is well recognized as playing a role in the decreased shock absorber function of the aging/degenerating disc, collagen changes have received little attention. This study suggests that important stretch responses of collagen made possible by collagen crimping may be markedly altered by morphologic changes during aging/degeneration and may contribute to the early tissue changes involved in annular tears.

  1. The observed human sperm mutation frequency cannot explain the achondroplasia paternal age effect

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Navidi, William; Grewal, Raji; Cohn, Dan; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Arnheim, Norman

    2002-01-01

    The lifelong spermatogonial stem cell divisions unique to male germ cell production are thought to contribute to a higher mutation frequency in males. The fact that certain de novo human genetic conditions (e.g., achondroplasia) increase in incidence with the age of the father is consistent with this idea. Although it is assumed that the paternal age effect is the result of an increasing frequency of mutant sperm as a man grows older, no direct molecular measurement of the germ-line mutation ...

  2. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Boering, K.A.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Schneider, H.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  3. Whole lifespan microscopic observation of budding yeast aging through a microfluidic dissection platform

    Lee, Sung Sik; Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Huberts, Daphne H E W; Lee, Luke P; Heinemann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Important insights into aging have been generated with the genetically tractable and short-lived budding yeast. However, it is still impossible today to continuously track cells by high-resolution microscopic imaging (e.g., fluorescent imaging) throughout their entire lifespan. Instead, the field st

  4. Relinquishing the Practices of a Lifetime: Observations on ageing, caring and literacies

    Mary Hamilton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on ethnographic and case study data from a variety of sources to explore the changing social practices of literacy across the lifespan. It explores the new literacy demands that people encounter with age when dealing with life events in a range of social domains. These include increased leisure; travel; changing family and peer relationships as a result of death and loss; issues of health and disability and accessing new technologies. It reveals how literacy is implicated in peoples' changing sense of time, place and history; how the older person’s identity as a literate actor may be interrupted by both institutional and informal processes of caring and their disengagement from spheres of activity that were previously central markers of their identity. Ageing thus involves both expansion and retreat from familiar literacy practices.

  5. Acetaminophen administration in pediatric age: an observational prospective cross-sectional study

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Paoli, Sara; Bonci, Marco; Di Ruzza, Luigi; Cecchetti, Corrado; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Vitaliti, Giovanna; Gentile, Isotta

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy. Results In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the clinical records of 1397 children aged ...

  6. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations...

  7. The Ages of Globular Clusters in NGC 4365 Revisited with Deep HST Observations

    Kundu, A; Hempel, M; Morton, D; Ashman, K M; Maccarone, T J; Kissler-Patig, M; Puzia, T; Vesperini, E; Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E.; Hempel, Maren; Morton, David; Ashman, Keith M.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Puzia, Thomas H.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-NIC3, near-infrared H-band photometry of globular clusters (GC) around NGC 4365 and NGC 1399 in combination with archival HST-WCPC2 and ACS optical data. We find that NGC 4365 has a number of globular clusters with bluer optical colors than expected for their red optical to near-infrared colors and an old age. The only known way to explain these colors is with a significant population of intermediate-age (2-8 Gyr) clusters in this elliptical galaxy. In contrast, NGC 1399 reveals no such population. Our result for NGC 1399 is in agreement with previous spectroscopic work that suggests that its clusters have a large metallicity spread and are nearly all old. In the literature, there are various results from spectroscopic studies of modest samples of NGC 4365 globular clusters. The spectroscopic data allow for either the presence or absence of a significant population of intermediate-age clusters, given the index uncertainties indicated by comparing objects in common b...

  8. 1-6 Years Aged Childrens Mothers First Aid for Burns Observation in Mardin City Center

    Betul Battaloglu Inanc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available        Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the mothers’ knowledge levels about burns and first aid. When they encounter burns, what will they do in the first instance and emergency application. At the end of this research correct information given to mothers. Aimed to supply the deficiency information. Material and Method: 25-49 age group of mothers who have 1-6 years aged childrens’ in the study were choisen ramdomly. After being informed about the study, only volunteries for questionnaires were used. There were a thousand mothers. Results: Children’ 21.6 % have burns. 81.4% burns were in their house , 18.6 % burns were out of their house. Often burns case were 2-4 years aged group children. 89.6 % mothers found themselves have no true knowledge about first aid for burns. Discussion: Mothers’ knowledge more deficient about the first aid for the burns. In this regard mothers’ lack of knowledge must be correct with the training activities to be applied. Prime necessity of the mothers were informed about the right applications.

  9. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy.

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F; Roos, Kenneth P; Jordan, Maria C; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3(ΔE2)) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3(ΔE2) mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1. PMID:27484195

  10. Drying effect on cement paste porosity at early age observed by NMR methods

    FAURE, Paméla; CARE, Sabine; Magat, Julie; Chaussadent, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods (imaging and relaxation time) allow studying water content and porous network in cementitious materials. Hydration of cement pastes with two water to cement ratios (W/C of 0.4 and 0.45) has been studied under two conditions (with drying or without drying) at early age. The objectives of this study were, firstly to determine the water content and the drying mechanisms with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to validate this result with oven-drying met...

  11. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  12. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK : observations and modelling

    I. Crawford

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In-situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of Radar and Lidar as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than ~−8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed near cloud top temperatures (~−7 °C. The role of biological particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as potential efficient high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L−1 could be produced by powerful secondary ice particle production emphasising the importance of understanding primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds.

    Aircraft penetrations at −3.5 °C, showed peak ice crystal concentrations of up to 100 L−1 which together with the characteristic ice crystal habits observed (generally rimed ice particles and columns suggested secondary ice production had occurred. To investigate whether the Hallett-Mossop (HM secondary ice production process could account for these observations, ice splinter production rates were calculated. These calculated rates and observations could only be reconciled provided the constraint that only droplets >24 μm in diameter could lead to splinter production, was relaxed slightly by 2 μm.

    Model simulations of the case study were also performed with the WRF

  13. In situ observation of reversible domain switching in aged Mn-doped BaTiO3 single crystals

    Zhang, L. X.; Ren, X.

    2005-05-01

    Very recently, a giant recoverable electrostrain effect has been found in aged Fe-doped BaTiO3 single crystals; this effect is based on a defect-mediated reversible domain-switching mechanism. However, the reversible domain-switching process itself is yet to be directly verified. In the present study, we performed in situ domain observation during electric field cycling for an aged Mn-doped BaTiO3 single crystal and simultaneously measured its polarization (P) -field (E) hysteresis loop. In addition, the electrostrain behavior of the sample was also characterized. Such experimentation made it possible to correlate the mesoscopic domain-switching behavior with the macroscopic properties. It was found that the aged sample shows a remarkable reversible domain switching during electric field cycling; it corresponds very well to a “double” hysteresis loop and a giant recoverable electrostrain effect (with a maximum strain of 0.4%). This provides direct mesoscopic evidence for our reversible domain-switching mechanism. By contrast, an unaged sample shows irreversible domain-switching behavior during electric field cycling; it corresponds to a normal hysteresis loop and a butterfly-type irrecoverable electrostrain behavior. This indicates that the reversible domain switching in the aged sample is related to point-defect migration during aging. We further found that the large recoverable strain is available over a wide frequency range. This is important for the application of this electrostrain effect.

  14. Exploring Tree Age & Diameter to Illustrate Sample Design & Inference in Observational Ecology

    Casady, Grant M.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biology labs often explore the techniques of data collection but neglect the statistical framework necessary to express findings. Students can be confused about how to use their statistical knowledge to address specific biological questions. Growth in the area of observational ecology requires that students gain experience in…

  15. Direct observation of aerosol particles in aged agricultural biomass burning plumes impacting urban atmospheres

    W. Y. Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agricultural biomass burning (ABB in northern China have a significant impact on the regional and the global climate. According to the Giovanni's Aerosol optical depth (AOD map, the monthly average AOD at 550 nm in northern China in 2007 shows a maximum value of 0.7 in June, suggesting that episodes of severe aerosol pollution occurred in this region. Aerosol particles were collected in urban Beijing during regional brown hazes from 12 to 30 June, 2007. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry characterized the morphology, composition, and mixing state of aerosol particles. Potassium salts (K2SO4 and KNO3, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles predominated in fine particles (diameter <1 μm collected from 12 to 20 June, 2007. In contrast, from 21 to 30 June, 2007, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles were dominant. Potassium-dominant particles as a tracer of biomass burning, together with wildfire maps, show that intensive regional ABB in northern China from 10 to 20 June, 2007 contributed significantly to the regional haze. After long-range transport, ABB particles exhibited marked changes in their morphology, elemental composition, and mixing state. Heterogeneous reactions completely converted KCl particles from ABB into K2SO4 and KNO3. Soot particles were generally mixed with potassium salts, ammonium salts, and organic particles. In addition, the abundant aged organic particles and soluble salts emitted by ABB become more hygroscopic and increase their size during long-range transport, becoming in effect additional cloud condensation nuclei. The high AOD (average value at 2.2 during 12 to 20 June, 2007, in Beijing is partly explained by the hygroscopic growth of aged fine aerosol particles and by the strong absorption of internally mixed soot particles, both coming from regional ABB emissions.

  16. An observation study on the effects of queen age on some characteristics of honey bee colonies

    Ibrahim Çakmak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of the queen’s age on performance of the honeybee (A. mellifera anatoliaca colonies at nomad beekeeping conditions. Performances of the colonies, which had 0, 1, 2 and 3 year-old queens, were compared. The number of combs, brood areas, wintering ability survival rate and honey yield were determined as performance criteria. The average number of combs with bees throughout the experiment in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV was 10.92±0.78, 14.68±0.55, 10.10±0.60, 7.88±0.45 number combs/colony; the average of brood areas was 3078±372.5 cm2, 3668±460.3 cm2, 2215±294.0 cm2, 1665.38±241.8 cm2; the average of wintering ability was 84.3±2.9%, 88.0±3.7%, 46.6±19.0%, 26.8±16.5%; the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 60%, 40%; and the average of honey yields was 31.4±1.89 kg, 41.5±1.05 kg, 20.4±2.62 kg and 12.0±1.41 kg per colony, respectively. A significant and negative correlation between queen age and brood production (r=-80.2, colony strength (r=-62.5, wintering ability (r=-66 and honey yield (r=-75.6 were calculated (P<0.01. The colonies headed by young queens had more brood areas, longer worker colony population, better wintering ability and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  17. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  18. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients. PMID:26068965

  19. Intra- and inter-observer variation in histological criteria used in age at death determination based on femoral cortical bone

    Lynnerup, N; Thomsen, J L; Frohlich, B

    1998-01-01

    been carried out dealing with the intra- and inter-observer error. Furthermore, when such studies have been completed, the statistical tools for assessing variability have not been adequate. This study presents the results of applying simple quantitative statistics on several counts of microscopic......, precluding the use of osteon fragments and Haversian canals. The observers in this study included experienced and inexperienced users of the microscopic method, yet the variability was uniformly large for all observers, suggesting fundamental problems in definition and identification of the structural......The microscopic method of age at death determination was introduced by Kerley in 1965. The method, which relies on the quantification of selected elements in cortical bone tissue, has been widely used, and several other researchers have modified or added to the method. Yet, very few studies have...

  20. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant-observation

  1. Probing the dark ages: Observations of the high-redshift universe

    Stevens, Daniel Keith

    This thesis attempts to describe some of the earliest phases in the collapse of galaxies from an observational standpoint. The work is composed of an assortment of projects which sample objects at very high redshift, probing the Universe 1-3 Gyr after the Big Bang. The first section of the thesis concerns high-redshift galaxies. Search techniques for identifying distant galaxies are extensively reviewed. Radio selection was once the primary vehicle to targeting the early Universe. Keck spectroscopy of high-redshift radio galaxies from the MIT-Greenbank radio catalog (S5GHz >~ 50 mJy) are discussed. We synthesize a composite radio galaxy spectrum, which we compare with other composite active galaxy spectra. Our data suggests a correlation between radio power and ionization state in high-redshift radio galaxies. The following three chapters detail individual galaxies confirmed at z > 5. These galaxies are among the half-dozen most distant sources known at the close of the 20th Century. Two of the galaxies were photometrically-selected from the Hubble Deep Field (HDF 4-473.0 at z = 5.60 and HDF 3-951.0 at z = 5.34 +/- 0.01). The third is TN J0924-2201, a radio galaxy at z = 5.19 selected on the basis of steep radio spectral index and faint K-band brightness. This source contains the most distant active galactic nucleus currently known, requiring early formation of supermassive blackholes within a Gyr after the Big Bang. The second section of the thesis concerns searches for high-redshift Lyα emission, identified either from deep, narrow-band imaging surveys or deep slit spectra. We discuss in detail one faint, high equivalent width line-emitter. Conventional wisdom would suggest identifying the 9185 Å line with Lyα at z = 6.55. We argue [O II] λ3727 at z = 1.46 is the more likely identification and discuss observational tests to distinguish Lyα-emitters at high redshift from foreground (active) sources. The final section of the thesis concerns high

  2. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves. PMID:1914629

  3. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  4. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  5. First Observational Signature of Rotational Deceleration in a Massive, Intermediate-age Star Cluster in the Magellanic Clouds

    Wu, Xiaohan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    While the extended main-sequence turn-offs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1--2 Gyr-old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star-formation histories, the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color--magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the star-formation histories of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a `converging' SGB cou...

  6. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  7. Amputations and foot ulcers in patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and observed for 19 years. The role of age, gender and co-morbidity

    Bruun, C; Siersma, V.; Guassora, A.D.;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities.......To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities....

  8. Hydrological evidence for a North Atlantic oscillation during the Little Ice Age outside its range observed since 1850

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual-resolved precipitation reconstruction for the last 800 yr in Southern Spain has been performed using stable carbon isotope (δ13C of Pinus nigra tree rings. The reconstruction exhibits high- to low-frequency variability and distinguishes a Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1350–1850 characterized by lower averaged rainfall than both in the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the LIA and in the 20th century. The driest conditions are recorded during the Maunder solar Minimum (mid 17th–early 18th centuries, in good agreement with the Spanish documentary archive. Similar linkage between solar activity (maximum/minimum and precipitation (increase/decrease is observed throughout the entire LIA. Additionally, the relationship between the hydrological pattern in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco during the LIA suggests different spatial distribution of precipitation in the south-eastern sector of the North Atlantic region such as it is known currently. Whereas in the instrumental record the precipitation evolves similarly in both regions and opposite to the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO index, the coldest periods of the LIA shows a contrasting pattern with drier conditions in the South of Spain and wetter in Northern Africa. We suggest an extreme negative NAO conditions, accompanied by a southward excursion of the winter rainfall band beyond that observed in the last century, can explain this contrast. The sustained NAO conditions could have been triggered by solar minima and higher volcanic activity during the LIA.

  9. Slow aging in Secondary Organic Aerosol observed by Liquid Chromatography coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Bones, D. L.; Bateman, A. P.; Nguyen, T. B.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.; Nizkorodov, S.

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated long term changes in the chemical composition of model biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) prepared via ozonolysis of the terpene limonene. This SOA has been observed to turn brown when exposed to NH4+. Our hypothesis is that the chromophoric compounds responsible for this color change are suspected to be imidazole-like or pyridinium-like compounds. These compounds are only present in small relative amounts, hence standard mass spectrometry is insufficient to unambiguously detect these compounds. However, a combination of HPLC and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allows assignments of chemical formulae to individual peaks. These and other experiments confirm the presence of N-containing compounds in treated SOA. We are in the process of determining the exact identity of these species by MS/MS methods. LC-MS can also provide information about the polarity of the compounds in SOA. Most compounds in limonene-O3 SOA are polar and are detected at short retention times; peaks suggesting trimeric species appear at longer retention times in the case of fresh SOA, but at shorter times with the bulk of the components for aged SOA. Limonene SOA has been shown to be composed of monomers, dimers, trimers and larger oligomers. The appearance of trimers in specific regions of the chromatogram suggests these species are genuine SOA components and not an artifact of electrospray ionization. Changes in biogenic SOA over time are important because of the propensity of SOA to affect direct and indirect radiative forcing.

  10. The Luminosity, Mass, and Age Distributions of Compact Star Clusters in M83 Based on HST/WFC3 Observations

    Chandar, Rupali; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Mutchler, Max; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe; Trauger, John; Walker, Alistair R; Windhorst, Rogier A; Young, Erick

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL \\propto L^{alpha}, with alpha = -2.04 +/- 0.08, down to M_V ~ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the luminosity function to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in alpha. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI,Halpha colors with predictions from single stellar population models....

  11. Age dependency of central and peripheral systolic blood pressures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in European populations

    Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Richart, Tom; Seidlerová, Jitka; Cwynar, Marcin; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Filipovský, Jan; Casiglia, Edoardo; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; O'Rourke, Michael; Staessen, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. As arteries become stiffer with ageing, reflected waves move faster and augment late systolic pressure. We investigated the age dependency of peripheral and central systolic pressure, pressure amplification (peripheral systolic blood pressure - central systolic blood pressure), and peripheral and central systolic augmentation (maximal systolic pressure minus the first peak of the pressure wave). Methods. We randomly recruited 1420 White Europeans (mean age, 41.7 years). p...

  12. Observational study of the effects of age, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease on sublingual microvascular flow

    Reynolds, Toby; Vivian-Smith, Amanda; Jhanji, Shaman; Pearse, Rupert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging has been used to demonstrate microcirculatory abnormalities in a variety of critical illnesses. The microcirculation is also affected by advancing age and chronic comorbidities. However, the effect of these conditions on SDF microcirculatory parameters has not been well described. Methods SDF images were obtained from five groups of 20 participants: healthy volunteers under the age of 25, healthy volunteers over the age of 55, and clinic patients...

  13. Trends in Outcomes for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest by Age in Japan: An Observational Study.

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Population aging has rapidly advanced throughout the world and the elderly accounting for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has increased yearly.We identified all adults who experienced an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the All-Japan Utstein Registry of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, a prospective, population-based clinical registry, between 2005 and 2010. Using multivariable regression, we examined temporal trends in outcomes for OHCA patients by age, as well as the influence of advanced age on outcomes. The primary outcome was a favorable neurological outcome at 1 month after OHCA.Among 605,505 patients, 454,755 (75.1%) were the elderly (≥65 years), and 154,785 (25.6%) were the oldest old (≥85 years). Although neurological outcomes were worse as the age group was older (P < 0.0001 for trend), there was a significant trend toward improved neurological outcomes during the study period by any age group (P < 0.005 for trend). After adjustment for temporal trends in various confounding variables, neurological outcomes improved yearly in all age groups (18-64 years: adjusted OR per year 1.15 [95% CI 1.13-1.18]; 65-84 years: adjusted OR per year 1.12 [95% CI 1.10-1.15]; and ≥85 years: adjusted OR per year 1.08 [95% CI 1.04-1.13]). Similar trends were found in the secondary outcomes.Although neurological outcomes from OHCA ware worse as the age group was older, the rates of favorable neurological outcomes have substantially improved since 2005 even in the elderly, including the oldest old. Careful consideration may be necessary in limiting treatment on OHCA solely for the reason of advanced age. PMID:26656330

  14. Photochemical age of air pollutants, ozone, and secondary organic aerosol in transboundary air observed on Fukue Island, Nagasaki, Japan

    Irei, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Nozoe, Susumu; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Bandow, Hiroshi; Yokouchi, Yoko

    2016-04-01

    To better understand the secondary air pollution in transboundary air over westernmost Japan, ground-based field measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter ( ≤ 1 µm), mixing ratios of trace gas species (CO, O3, NOx, NOy, i-pentane, toluene, and ethyne), and meteorological elements were conducted with a suite of instrumentation. The CO mixing ratio dependence on wind direction showed that there was no significant influence from primary emission sources near the monitoring site, indicating long- and/or mid-range transport of the measured chemical species. Despite the considerably different atmospheric lifetimes of NOy and CO, these mixing ratios were correlated (r2 = 0.67). The photochemical age of the pollutants, t[OH] (the reaction time × the mean concentration of OH radical during the atmospheric transport), was calculated from both the NOx / NOy concentration ratio (NOx / NOy clock) and the toluene / ethyne concentration ratio (hydrocarbon clock). It was found that the toluene / ethyne concentration ratio was significantly influenced by dilution with background air containing 0.16 ppbv of ethyne, causing significant bias in the estimation of t[OH]. In contrast, the influence of the reaction of NOx with O3, a potentially biasing reaction channel on [NOx] / [NOy], was small. The t[OH] values obtained with the NOx / NOy clock ranged from 2.9 × 105 to 1.3 × 108 h molecule cm-3 and were compared with the fractional contribution of the m/z 44 signal to the total signal in the organic aerosol mass spectra (f44, a quantitative oxidation indicator of carboxylic acids) and O3 mixing ratio. The comparison of t[OH] with f44 showed evidence for a systematic increase of f44 as t[OH] increased, an indication of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To a first approximation, the f44 increase rate was (1.05 ± 0.03) × 10-9 × [OH] h-1, which is comparable to the background-corrected increase rate observed during the New England Air Quality

  15. Microphysics-based black carbon aging in a global CTM: constraints from HIPPO observations and implications for global black carbon budget

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Qi, Ling; Tao, Shu; Schwarz, Joshua P.

    2016-03-01

    We develop and examine a microphysics-based black carbon (BC) aerosol aging scheme that accounts for condensation, coagulation, and heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) by interpreting the BC measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO, 2009-2011) using the model. We convert aerosol mass in the model to number concentration by assuming lognormal aerosol size distributions and compute the microphysical BC aging rate (excluding chemical oxidation aging) explicitly from the condensation of soluble materials onto hydrophobic BC and the coagulation between hydrophobic BC and preexisting soluble particles. The chemical oxidation aging is tested in the sensitivity simulation. The microphysical aging rate is ˜ 4 times higher in the lower troposphere over source regions than that from a fixed aging scheme with an e-folding time of 1.2 days. The higher aging rate reflects the large emissions of sulfate-nitrate and secondary organic aerosol precursors hence faster BC aging through condensation and coagulation. In contrast, the microphysical aging is more than 5-fold slower than the fixed aging in remote regions, where condensation and coagulation are weak. Globally, BC microphysical aging is dominated by condensation, while coagulation contribution is largest over eastern China, India, and central Africa. The fixed aging scheme results in an overestimate of HIPPO BC throughout the troposphere by a factor of 6 on average. The microphysical scheme reduces this discrepancy by a factor of ˜ 3, particularly in the middle and upper troposphere. It also leads to a 3-fold reduction in model bias in the latitudinal BC column burden averaged along the HIPPO flight tracks, with largest improvements in the tropics. The resulting global annual mean BC lifetime is 4.2 days and BC burden is 0.25 mg m-2, with 7.3 % of the burden at high altitudes (above 5 km). Wet scavenging accounts for 80.3 % of global BC

  16. Observation of granulations in the basal body of ovarioles and follicular dilatations for the determination of physiological age ofAnopheles gambiaes.s.

    Rodrigue Anagonou; Virgile Gnanguenon; Fiacre Agossa; Bruno Akinro; Armand Akpo; Martial Gbegbo; Albert Salako; Martin Akogbto

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore ovariole basal body granulations and follicular dilatations for determining physiological age inAnopheles gambiaes.s.(An. gambiaes.s.). Methods: Mosquitoes were collected by using window trap catch and identified morphologically. For the first lot ofmosquitoes, they were dissected, and ovary was left in distilled water for reading ovarian tracheoles and the second was cut and transferred to another blade in a physiological liquid for verification of ovariole basal body granulations. The same approach was followed with the second lot of mosquitoes where follicular dilatations were found after classic dilaceration of ovaries were transferred into physiological liquid. The other body parts of mosquitoes were used to identify the species of theAn. gambiaes.s. complex by PCR. Results:Among the 123An. gambiae s.s. of the first lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 89 mosquitoes versus 114 for the observation of granulations (P > 0.05). Among the 112An. gambiae s.s. of the second lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 84 mosquitoes versus 93 for the observation of follicular dilatations (P > 0.05). Unlike the method of Detinova, observation of follicular dilatations and basal body granulations of ovarioles were possible beyond the stage II Christophers. Conclusions: Overall, the observation of follicular dilatations and ovariole basal body granulations are reliable for the determination of the physiological age inAn. gambiaes.s. Furthermore, these two methods can be used beyond the stage II.

  17. Observable Indicators of Flow Experience: A Developmental Perspective on Musical Engagement in Young Children from Infancy to School Age

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2005-01-01

    Flow experience is an optimal state determined by an individual's perception of high skill and high challenge for a given task. In this study, young children's flow experience is examined in four naturally occurring music learning environments: infants and two-year-olds in childcare settings, and school-age children in Suzuki violin and Dalcroze…

  18. Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Gypsyamber D'Souza; Kevin Cullen; Janice Bowie; Roland Thorpe; Carole Fakhry

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors ...

  19. Hydrological evidence for a North Atlantic oscillation during the Little Ice Age outside its range observed since 1850

    Martín-Puertas, C.; Dorado-Liñán, I.; A. Brauer; E. Zorita; B. L. Valero-Garcés; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-01-01

    An annual-resolved precipitation reconstruction for the last 800 yr in Southern Spain has been performed using stable carbon isotope (δ13C) of Pinus nigra tree rings. The reconstruction exhibits high- to low-frequency variability and distinguishes a Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1350–1850) characterized by lower averaged rainfall than both in the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the LIA and in the 20th century. The ...

  20. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility study of gestational age estimation using three common foetal biometric parameters: Experienced versus inexperienced sonographer

    Aim: To assess reproducibility of estimating gestational age (GA) of foetus using femur length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC) within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two. Patients and methods: Two sets of GA estimates each were obtained for FL, BPD and AC by the two observers in 20 normal singleton foetuses. The first estimates for the three biometric parameters were made by the experienced sonographer. Subsequently, the inexperienced sonographer, blind to the estimates of the first observer obtained his own estimates for the same biometric parameters. After a time interval of ten minutes the process was repeated for the second set of GA estimates. All the gestational age estimates were made following standard protocol. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson's and intraclass correlations, coefficient of variation and Bland–Altman plots. Statistical inferences were drawn at p < 0.05. Results: The Pearson's and intraclass correlations of between GA estimates within and between both observers from measurement of FL, BPD and AC were very high and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation for duplicate measurements for GA estimates within observers and between observers were quite negligible. Between observers, the first and second GA estimates from FL measurements showed the least variation. Estimates from BPD and AC measurements showed greater degree of variation between the observers. Conclusion: Reproducibility of GA estimation using FL, BPD and AC within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two was excellent. Therefore, a fresh Nigerian radiography graduate with adequate exposure in obstetric ultrasound can correctly determine the gestational age of foetus in routine obstetric ultrasound without supervision

  1. Star Cluster Mass and Age Distributions of Two Fields in M83 Based on HST/WFC3 Observations

    Chandar, Rupali; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We study star clusters in two fields in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 using broad and narrow band optical imaging taken with the WFC3 on-board HST. We present results based on several different catalogs of star clusters in an inner and outer field, and conclude that different methods of selection do not strongly impact the results, particularly for clusters older than $\\approx$10 Myr. The age distributions can be described by a power law, $dN/d\\tau \\propto\\tau^{\\gamma}$, with $\\gamma\\approx -$0.84$\\pm$0.12 in the inner field, and $\\gamma\\approx -$0.48$\\pm$0.12 in the outer field for $\\tau\\gtrsim$10 Myr. We bracket the difference, $\\Delta \\gamma$, between the two fields to be in the range 0.18$-$0.36, based on estimates of the relative star formation histories. The mass functions can also be described by a power law, $dN/dM\\propto M^{\\beta}$, with $\\beta\\approx -$1.98$\\pm$0.14 and $\\beta\\approx $2.34$\\pm$0.26 in the inner and outer fields, respectively. We conclude that the shapes of the mass and age distributi...

  2. Ejecta detection in the middle-aged Galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 observed with Suzaku

    Gok, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report the detection of ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Suzaku satellite. The spectra of three lobes, north, southeast and southwest and inter-lobe regions, consist of soft (0.3-2.0 keV) emission originated from non-equilibrium ionization plasma. In north, southeast and inter-lobe regions, the thermal emission can be represented by a one-component, in southwest region it can be represented by two- component non-equilibrium ionization (VNEI) model. The spectra of studied regions have lines of N, O, Ne, Mg and Si elements. Si emission from this remnant is shown for the first time in this work. Enhanced abundances of Ne, Mg and Si elements obtained show the ejecta contribution in all regions. Assuming that the remnant is in Sedov phase, we obtained ambient density n0 ~ 0.45 cm-3, age t ~ 2.8 x 104 yr, shock velocity Vs ~ 320 km s-1, shock temperature Ts ~ 1.2 x 106 K, and swept-up mass Msw ~ 340 M at an adopted dist...

  3. Observation of granulations in the basal body of ovarioles and follicular dilatations for the determination of physiological age of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Rodrigue Anagonou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore ovariole basal body granulations and follicular dilatations for determining physiological age in Anopheles gambiae s.s. (An. gambiae s.s.. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected by using window trap catch and identified morphologically. For the first lot of mosquitoes, they were dissected, and ovary was left in distilled water for reading ovarian tracheoles and the second was cut and transferred to another blade in a physiological liquid for verification of ovariole basal body granulations. The same approach was followed with the second lot of mosquitoes where follicular dilatations were found after classic dilaceration of ovaries were transferred into physiological liquid. The other body parts of mosquitoes were used to identify the species of the An. gambiae s.s. complex by PCR. Results: Among the 123 An. gambiae s.s. of the first lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 89 mosquitoes versus 114 for the observation of granulations (P > 0.05. Among the 112 An. gambiae s.s. of the second lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 84 mosquitoes versus 93 for the observation of follicular dilatations (P > 0.05. Unlike the method of Detinova, observation of follicular dilatations and basal body granulations of ovarioles were possible beyond the stage II Christophers. Conclusions: Overall, the observation of follicular dilatations and ovariole basal body granulations are reliable for the determination of the physiological age in An. gambiae s.s. Furthermore, these two methods can be used beyond the stage II.

  4. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. PMID:26817493

  5. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  6. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th, 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery

  7. Arrival directions of large air showers, low-mu showers and old-age low-mu air showers observed at St. Chacaltaya

    Arrival directions of air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 16.5 power eV to 10 to the 18th power eV show the first harmonic in right ascension (RA) with amplitude of 2.7 + or - 1.0% and phase of 13-16h. However, the second harmonic in RA slightly seen for showers in the range 10 to the 18th power eV to 10 to the 19th power eV disappeared by accumulation of observed showers. The distribution of arrival directions of low-mu air showers with primary energies around 10 to the 15th power eV observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967 is referred to, relating to the above-mentioned first harmonic. Also presented in this paper are arrival directions of old-age low-mu air showers observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967, for recent interest in gamma-ray air showers

  8. Arrival directions of large air showers, low-mu showers and old-age low-mu air showers observed at St. Chacaltaya

    Hagiwara, K.; Yoshii, H.; Martinic, N.; Siles, L.; Miranda, P.; Kakimoto, F.; Obara, T.; Suga, K.; Kaneko, T.; Inoue, N.

    1985-01-01

    Arrival directions of air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 16.5 power eV to 10 to the 18th power eV show the first harmonic in right ascension (RA) with amplitude of 2.7 + or - 1.0% and phase of 13-16h. However, the second harmonic in RA slightly seen for showers in the range 10 to the 18th power eV to 10 to the 19th power eV disappeared by accumulation of observed showers. The distribution of arrival directions of low-mu air showers with primary energies around 10 to the 15th power eV observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967 is referred to, relating to the above-mentioned first harmonic. Also presented in this paper are arrival directions of old-age low-mu air showers observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967, for recent interest in gamma-ray air showers.

  9. Hospital Based Prospective Observational Study to Audit the Prescription Practices and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients (6 months to 5 years age group) Presenting with Acute Diarrhea

    Kondekar, Santosh; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9% of all deaths among under-five children worldwide. WHO protocol deviation in management of diarrheas in children is likely due to various reasons. Aim To study the prescription practices, regarding adherence to WHO protocol and deviations, in the management of acute diarrhea in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and its impact on the outcome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational hospital based study at a tertiary care carried out over a 12-month period including all cases of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more loose stools in last 24 hours) in children belonging to the age group of 6 months to 5 years. Patients were followed up on day 3,7,14 and 28 from the day of presentation. Software SPSS Version 17.0 was used for analysis. Correlation regression analysis was used to study predictiveness of different variables affecting outcome. Results In this study, 447 children aged between 6 months and 5 years were enrolled, of which 45 cases were lost in follow-up and excluded. The median age was 14 months. Some deviation from WHO protocol was noted in 78.4% of the cases. Most common deviations from WHO protocol were addition of probiotics (78.1% of cases) and addition of race cadotril (15.9% of cases). Inadvertent use of antibiotics in diarrhea was noted in 12.2% of cases. Presence of fever was strong predictor for use of antibiotics. Cases of early recovery within 3 days of presentation were higher in WHO protocol deviation group. Use of probiotics had statistically significant association with early recovery. Conclusion In diarrhea management, WHO protocol deviation is common. Probiotics are likely to help in early recovery. PMID:27437317

  10. Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies.

    Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison L; Lipkind, Heather; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; McCarthy, Natalie L; Omer, Saad B; Qian, Lei; Xu, Stanley; Jackson, Michael L; Vijayadev, Vinutha; Klein, Nicola P; Nordin, James D

    2016-08-01

    Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus, postmarketing vaccine safety assessments are necessary. However, analysis of observational data requires detailed assessment of potential biases. Using data from 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites in the United States, we analyzed the association of monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine (MIV) during pregnancy with preterm birth (variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases. PMID:27449414

  11. The effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary observational analysis.

    Symons, Frank J; Tervo, Raymond C; Kim, Ockjean; Hoch, John

    2007-01-01

    High- and low-dose methylphenidate administration was evaluated prospectively for 3 elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using single-case, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. An observational time sampling protocol was used to directly measure and quantify classroom behavior. Summary level analysis showed that (1) low-dose (0.3 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with clinically significant (>50%) reductions in stereotyped and disruptive behavior relative to baseline and placebo conditions, (2) high-dose (0.5 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with exacerbated amounts of stereotyped and disruptive behavior, and (3) no changes were directly observed for task-related behavior at either dose. Results are discussed with respect to previous research with methylphenidate administration and cerebral palsy, and the suggestion is made that further work using larger, randomly selected study samples with complementary measures of behavior and performance appears warranted. PMID:17608314

  12. THE LUMINOSITY, MASS, AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPACT STAR CLUSTERS IN M83 BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 OBSERVATIONS

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near-ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function (LF) for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL ∝ L α, with α = -2.04 ± 0.08, down to MV ∼ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the LF to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in α. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI, Hα colors with predictions from single stellar population models. The age distribution of the clusters can be approximated by a power law, dN/dτ ∝ τγ, with γ = -0.9 ± 0.2, for M ∼> few x 103 M sun and τ ∼8 yr. This indicates that clusters are disrupted quickly, with ∼80%-90% disrupted each decade in age over this time. The mass function of clusters over the same M-τ range is a power law, dN/dM ∝ M β, with β = -1.94 ± 0.16, and does not have bends or show curvature at either high or low masses. Therefore, we do not find evidence for a physical upper mass limit, MC , or for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters when compared with higher mass clusters, i.e., mass-dependent disruption. We briefly discuss these implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters.

  13. Estimation of aerosol radiative forcing over an aged-background aerosol feature during advection and non-advection events using a ground-based data obtained from a Prede Skyradiometer observation

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Bagare, S. P.; Khatri, P.; Sohn, B. J.; Song, H.-J.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was performed using a radiative transfer model (Rstar6b) along with physical and optical parameters of aerosols obtained from sky radiometer observation over Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO), Hanle, Ladakh, during 2008-2010 from dust, anthropogenic, and aged background observing conditions. ARF was estimated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), in the atmosphere, and at the surface during the three observing conditions. During dust and anthropogenic events, average aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm) went up to 0.24 from the aged background observing condition 0.04. Such enhancement of AOD is associated by the combination of desert-dust and anthropogenic aerosols transported from distant sources as noticed from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). Such three types of aerosols are also identified from the observed properties of single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol asymmetry (AS) parameter, and aerosol size distribution. The estimated ARFs at TOA, at the surface, and in atmosphere are - 3.73, - 6.82, and 3.40 Wm- 2, respectively during the dust advection period. On the contrary, the respective ARFs during the aged background observing condition are - 1.50, - 2.22, and 0.70 Wm- 2, respectively. A significant difference of spectral AOD is observed during dust, anthropogenic, and aged background observing conditions. Ångström exponent (AE) decreases from 1.05 in the aged background observing condition to 0.40 in the dust event. A significant difference of coarse-fine mode volume distribution is also observed between the dust and the anthropogenic cases. Further, the study reveals high aerosols induced during the dust and the anthropogenic episodes caused warming at atmosphere and cooling at surface which collectively may affect the local atmospheric circulation.

  14. Suzaku Observations of Thermal and Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission from the Middle-Aged Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We present results from X-ray analysis of a Galactic middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) G156.2+5.7 which is bright and largely extended in X-ray wavelengths, showing a clear circular shape (radius approx.50'). Using the Suzaku satellite, we observed this SNR in three pointings; partially covering the northwestern (NW) rim, the eastern (E) rim, and the central portion of this SNR. In the NW rim and the central portion, we confirm that the X-ray spectra consist of soft and hard-tail emission, while in the E rim we find no significant hard-tail emission. The soft emission is well fitted by either a one-component or two-component non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) model. In the NW and E rims, a one-component (the swept-up interstellar medium) NEI model well represents the soft emission. On the other hand, in the central portion, a two-component (the interstellar medium and the metal-rich ejecta) NEI model fits the soft emission better than the one-component NEI model from a statistical point of view. The relative abundances in the ejecta component suggest that G156.2+5.7 is a remnant from a core-collapse SN explosion whose progenitor mass is less than 15 Solar Mass. The origin of the hard-tail emission detected in the NW rim and the central portion of the SNR is highly likely non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. In the NW rim, the relativistic electrons seems to be accelerated by a forward shock with a slow velocity of APPROX.500 km/sec.

  15. Monthly Record Tables, December 1998, with Supplement for the 4. quarter 1998; Tableaux mensuels des mesures, Decembre 1998, avec supplement relatif au 4-eme trimestre 1998

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report, issued under the aegis of O.P.R.I. (Office of protection against ionizing radiations), contains the activity level measurements of the radiation monitoring units throughout the country recorded in December 1998. A supplement contains the data relative to the 4. quarter is also added. Data relative toatmospheric sampling refer to surface and high altitude air as well as to atmospheric tritium concentration at Valduc. For rain water, dry fallout and deposition at soil level weekly sampling were carried out and monthly surveillance is reported. The drinking, surface and ground water measurements are reported for nuclear and non-nuclear sites. Measurement on food chains refer to cow milk, thyroids of horned cattle and fishes in the national market. Activity levels of given radioisotopes are given for vegetables and coastal sea waters as well as for waste and rain waters. Surveillance of wastes from facilities other than basic nuclear units (hospitals, research units, etc) was measured downstream to large cities in waste waters, rivers, sediments and aquatic flora. Sanitary controls on food and environment are reported as well as those carried out on workers and on operators implied in 6 nuclear incidents without consequences which occurred in December 1998 in French NPPs. The quarterly results refer to the following 16 items: 1. Radioactivity inventory in feedwater (Calvados); 2.Drinking waters; 3.Hydro-mineral sources; 4.Sea medium at Nord-Cotentin; 5.Surveillance of major National Navy facilities; 6.Surveillance of CNPE at Gravelines; 7. Surveillance of CNPE at Civaux; 8.Surveillance of COGEMA site at Marcoule; 9.Marine fauna and flora; 10.Surveillance of rice fields at Camargue; 11.Surveillance of sea sediments in Seine mouth; 12.Controlled releases; 13.Food chains; 14.Animal bones; 15.Soils; 16.Integrating dosemeters.

  16. Sex, Race, and Age Differences in Observed Years of Life, Healthy Life, and Able Life among Older Adults in The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Thielke, Stephen M.; Diehr, Paula H.; Yee, Laura M.; Arnold, Alice M.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Whitson, Heather E.; Mini E. Jacob; Newman, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Longevity fails to account for health and functional status during aging. We sought to quantify differences in years of total life, years of healthy life, and years of able life among groups defined by age, sex, and race. Design: Primary analysis of a cohort study. Setting: 18 years of annual evaluations in four U.S. communities. Participants: 5888 men and women aged 65 and older. Measurements: Years of life were calculated as the time from enrollment to death or 18 years. Years of...

  17. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: Prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    Hart, C. L.; M. D. Taylor; Davey Smith, G; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J M; Hole, D; Wilson, V.; Deary, I J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. DESIGN: The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. METHODS: The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ f...

  18. The effect of clustering on the mobility of dislocations during aging in Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels: In situ heating TEM observations

    Cluster-strengthened Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels are of interest as clustering during aging leads to an enhancement in strength without compromising ductility, resulting in desirable mechanical properties. However, the precise strengthening mechanism is not well understood. Using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy, clustering was found to impede the movement of dislocations during aging. The attractive combination of ductility and strength was attributed to the effects of recovery and the restricted movement of dislocations through clustering

  19. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  20. The Star-forming Region NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud with Hubble Space Telescope ACS Observations. II. Photometric Study of the Intermediate-Age Star Cluster BS 90

    Rochau, Boyke; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Brandner, Wolfgang; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Henning, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the intermediate-age star cluster BS 90, located in the vicinity of the HII region N 66 in the SMC, observed with HST/ACS. The high-resolution data provide a unique opportunity for a very detailed photometric study performed on one of the rare intermediate-age rich SMC clusters. The complete set of observations is centered on the association NGC 346 and contains almost 100,000 stars down to V ~28 mag. In this study we focus on the northern part o...

  1. Exploratory Investigation of Communication Management in Residential-Aged Care: A Comparison of Staff Knowledge, Documentation and Observed Resident-Staff Communication

    Bennett, Michelle K.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Scarinci, Nerina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high prevalence of communication difficulty among older people living in residential-aged care. Such functional deficits can have a negative impact on resident quality of life, staff workplace satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Systematic research investigating the nature of communication management in…

  2. OBSERVATION ON THE INCIDENCE OF NON TYPHOID SALMONELLA (SEEOTYPEHAVANA, DRUG RESISTANCE AND PATHOGENIC STRENGTH TO THE CHILDREN OF less than ONE EYAR OLD AGE IRAN (1976-1986

    S. Mehrabian

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred and five strains of Salmonella havana were studied from the patients of pediatric hospital of Tehran and Tabriz during 1976-86. The sources of the strains in order to their frequency were from-stool, blood, spinal, fluid, wound and urine. From the epidemiological point of view Salmonella Havana is serotype of most non-typhoid Salmonella. All of the strains had drug resistancy and most of them were resistant to many drugs. Salmonella havana had been considered in the past as a serotype of nonpathogenic agent, but this work resulted that strain has Pathogenic strength to the children of under one year old age Symptoms of diseases caused by this strain were gastroenteritis, diarrhea, Vomiting fever, Focal infection, general infection and meningitis. This strain in about 20% of the cases, particularly in the children fewer than one year old age has caused death.

  3. Aging Skin

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  4. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  5. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, ...

  6. Young and middle age pulsar light-curve morphology: Comparison of Fermi observations with gamma-ray and radio emission geometries

    Pierbattista, M; Gonthier, P L; Grenier, I A

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the huge amount of gamma-ray pulsar photons collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope since June 2008, it is now possible to constrain gamma-ray geometrical models by comparing simulated and observed light-curve morphological characteristics. We assumed vacuum-retarded dipole pulsar magnetic field and tested simulated and observed morphological light-curve characteristics in the framework of two pole emission geometries, Polar Cap (PC), radio, and Slot Gap (SG), and Outer Gap (OG)/One Pole Caustic (OPC) emission geometries. We compared simulated and observed/estimated light-curve morphological parameters as a function of observable and non-observable pulsar parameters. The PC model gives the poorest description of the LAT pulsar light-curve morphology. The OPC best explains both the observed gamma-ray peak multiplicity and shape classes. The OPC and SG models describe the observed gamma-ray peak-separation distribution for low- and high-peak separations, respectively. This suggests that the OPC ge...

  7. uvby(-$\\beta$) photometry of high-velocity and metal-poor stars X. Stars of very low metal abundance: observations, reddenings, metallicities, classifications, distances, and relative ages

    Schuster, W J; Michel, R; Nissen, P E; García, G

    2004-01-01

    uvby(--$\\beta$) photometry has been obtained for an additional 411 very metal-poor stars selected from the HK survey, and used to derive basic parameters such as interstellar reddenings, metallicities, photometric classifications, distances, and relative ages... These very metal-poor stars are compared to M92 in the c_0,(b-y)_0 diagram, and evidence is seen for field stars 1-3 Gyrs younger than this globular cluster. The significance of these younger very metal-poor stars is discussed in the context of Galactic evolution, mentioning such possibilities as hierarchical star-formation/mass-infall of very metal-poor material and/or accretion events whereby this material has been acquired from other (dwarf) galaxies with different formation and chemical-enrichment histories

  8. Ageing Studies on the Drift Tubes of the Muon Spectrometer and Observability of MSSM Heavy Higgses via a Sparticle decay Mode

    Adorisio, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarized the work performed in INFN Cosenza group within the ATLAS Muon Collaboration. This work is a representative cross section of the different aspects to the preparation of a modern day high energy physics experiment. An important part is dedicated to the testing of specialized detector elements. And the experiment's discovery potential for signatures of new theoretical proposal is evaluated. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part, made up of the first three chapters, is an introduction about the theoretical and the experimental background of the two main work I have performed during the doctoral period. The second part, the fourth chapter, is about the main work I have dealt with, the ageing problem of the Monitored Drift Tube detectors, which make up the Muon Spectrometer. And the last third part, the fifth chapter, is about the study of an MSSM Higgs bosons decay mode into sparticles.

  9. Constraints on the Surface Magnetic Fields and Age of a Cool Hypergiant: XMM-Newton X-ray Observations of VY CMa

    Montez, R; Humphreys, R M; Turok, R L; Davidson, K

    2014-01-01

    The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven by surface magnetic activity, we have observed the archetypical cool hypergiant VY CMa with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatory. The hypergiant itself is not detected in these observations. From the upper limit on the X-ray flux from VY CMa at the time of our observations ($F_{X,UL}~\\approx~8\\times10^{-14} {\\rm~erg~cm}^{-2} {\\rm~s}^{-1}$, corresponding to $\\log~L_X/L_{bol}\\leq-8$), we estimate an average surface magnetic field strength $fB \\leq 2\\times10^{-3}$~G (where $f$ is the filling factor of magnetically active surface regions). These X-ray results for VY CMa represent the most stringent constraints to date on the magnetic field strength near the surface of a hypergiant. VY CMa's mass loss is episodic and may have been in a state of low surface magnetic activity during the XMM observations. The XMM obs...

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AGE OF A COOL HYPERGIANT: XMM-NEWTON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF VY CMa

    The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass-loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven by surface magnetic activity, we have observed the archetypical cool hypergiant VY CMa with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatory. The hypergiant itself is not detected in these observations. From the upper limit on the X-ray flux from VY CMa at the time of our observations (F X, UL ≈ 8 × 10–14 erg cm–2 s–1, corresponding to log LX /L bol ≤ –8), we estimate an average surface magnetic field strength fB ≤ 2 × 10–3 G (where f is the filling factor of magnetically active surface regions). These X-ray results for VY CMa represent the most stringent constraints to date on the magnetic field strength near the surface of a hypergiant. VY CMa's mass loss is episodic, however, and the hypergiant may have been in a state of low surface magnetic activity during the XMM observations. The XMM observations also yield detections of more than 100 X-ray sources within ∼15' of VY CMa, roughly 50 of which have near-infrared counterparts. Analysis of X-ray hardness ratios and IR colors indicates that some of these field sources may be young, late-type stars associated with VY CMa, its adjacent molecular cloud complex, and the young cluster NGC 2362. Further study of the VY CMa field is warranted, given the potential to ascertain the evolutionary timescale of this enigmatic, massive star

  11. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    Louise F Wilson

    Full Text Available Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy.Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression.Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%; summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%. Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%, summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90% and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85% per each level lower of education. Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant.The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance

  12. Objective method to determine the contribution of the great toe to standing balance and preliminary observations of age-related effects.

    Tanaka, T; Noriyasu, S; Ino, S; Ifukube, T; Nakata, M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between toe pressure and tactile sensitivity in the great toe and to describe two newly developed measurements of postural stability. The subjects of the study were 21 healthy volunteers. The subjects were divided into two age groups, the young group (mean 21.0 +/- 1.6 years, 7 males and 6 females), and the elderly group (mean 71.4 +/- 2.8 years, 4 males and 4 females). The methods and materials used for the first experiment (balance test): The instrument for measuring standing balance was a force plate. Data were analyzed to provide two main variables: 1) body sway index (SI: mm) and 2) toe pressure (%BW/cm2). The subjects were asked to stand in a relaxed posture for 20 s. The variables of body sway were measured in four conditions: normal surface with eyes open or closed, and soft surface with eyes open or closed. Second experiment (tactile sense test): This experiment utilized a new system which was developed for measuring the tactile sensation. The tactile threshold value was measured with the subject seated in a chair, the back supported, and the hips and knees flexed at 90 degrees. The contactor pulled and pushed the toe longitudinally along its axis at a constant velocity of 1 mm/s. There were significant differences between the young and elderly groups in the tactile sense of the great toe (p < .001). No significant difference between age groups was found for postural sway while the subjects stood on the normal surface with eyes open; however, when they stood on the soft surface with their eyes open and closed, the elderly showed significantly more sway (p < 0.01) than the young. Moreover, the maximal great toe pressure in the elderly group was significantly greater than that in the young group. The results suggest that the reduced tactile sense, deprivation of visual information, and toe pressure weakness are all important factors associated with postural instability. PMID:8798075

  13. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  14. The Star-forming Region NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud with Hubble Space Telescope ACS Observations. II. Photometric Study of the Intermediate-Age Star Cluster BS 90

    Rochau, Boyke; Brandner, Wolfgang; Dolphin, Andrew E; Henning, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the intermediate-age star cluster BS 90, located in the vicinity of the HII region N 66 in the SMC, observed with HST/ACS. The high-resolution data provide a unique opportunity for a very detailed photometric study performed on one of the rare intermediate-age rich SMC clusters. The complete set of observations is centered on the association NGC 346 and contains almost 100,000 stars down to V ~28 mag. In this study we focus on the northern part of the region, which covers almost the whole stellar content of BS 90. We construct its stellar surface density profile and derive structural parameters. Isochrone fits on the CMD of the cluster results in an age of about 4.5 Gyr. The luminosity function is constructed and the present-day mass function of BS 90 has been obtained using the mass-luminosity relation, derived from the isochrone models. We found a slope between -1.30 and -0.95, comparable or somewhat shallower than a typical Salpeter IMF. Examination of the rad...

  15. Observing participating observation

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  16. Observing participating observation

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  17. Hyperextension in the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica: new observations and U-Pb ages from the Samnanger Complex, Major Bergen Arc, western Norway.

    Jakob, Johannes; Alsaif, Manar; Andersen, Torgeir; Corfu, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The Samnanger Complex (SC) of the Major Bergen Arc in western Norway (Færseth et al., 1977) comprises a thick succession of original fine-grained marine sediments, now mica- and graphitic schists, some fine-grained impure marbles as well as local quartzite, meta-sandstones and meta-fanglomerates of continental affinity. There are also minor meta-igneous rocks including amphibolite, metagabbro as well as felsic and mafic gneisses. The most characteristic rocks in this heterogeneous unit, however, are numerous solitary mantle-peridotites now present as variably altered serpentinites and soapstones with commonly developed ophicarbonate alteration. Detrital serpentinite and soapstone deposits have also been identified in one locality, now mostly removed by quarrying for building and ornamental stones. The SC is continuous with a regional mélange unit, which can be traced across southern Norway towards Røros (Andersen et al., 2012). The mélange is structurally positioned below large crystalline nappes such as the Jotun Nappe and the SC is structurally positioned in-between the underlying Lower Bergsdalen and the overlying Lindås nappes (Færseth et al., 1977). The lithological association of the mélange with its common presence of solitary and detrital meta-peridotites suggests that it was formed by hyperextension in a magma poor margin. After early-Caledonian metamorphism and deformation associated with emplacement of gabbro and granitoids in the early Ordovician it was finally emplaced in the Caledonian nappe stack after the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. Late granitoid dikes cutting most of the deformation fabric are ~420 Ma. New ID-TIMS U-Pb ages of a pegmatitic meta-gabbro (~486 Ma) and a mylonitic granitoid (~476 Ma) indicate magma emplacement, probably related to subduction within distal parts of the hyperextended margin. We suggest that the exhumation and hydration of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in hyperextended basins may lead to a long

  18. Age and structure parameters of a remote M31 globular cluster B514 based on HST, 2MASS, GALEX and BATC observations

    Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Fan, Zhou; Zhang, Tianmeng; Wu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    B514 is a remote M31 globular cluster which locating at a projected distance of R_p~55 kpc. Deep observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are used to provide the accurate integrated light and star counts of B514. By coupling analysis of the distribution of the integrated light with star counts, we are able to reliably follow the profile of the cluster out to ~40". Based on the combined profile, we study in detail its surface brightness distribution in F606W and F814W filters, and determine its structural parameters by fitting a single-mass isotropic King model. The results showed that, the surface brightness distribution departs from the best-fit King model for r>10". B514 is quite flatted in the inner region, and has a larger half-light radius than majority of normal globular clusters of the same luminosity. It is interesting that, in the M_V versus log R_h plane, B514 lies nearly on the threshold for ordinary globular clusters as defined by Mackey & van...

  19. A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗面部老化临床疗效观察%Botulinum toxin A joint hyaluronic acid injection Facial aging treatment clinical curative effect observation

    王芳芳; 张东晓; 熊玮; 王艳; 徐丽红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect and safety of botulinum toxin type A and Hyaluronic Acid injection appliedin the treatmernt of facial skin aging.Methods:45 patients of different skin aging problem, according to botulinum toxin type A,and hyaluronic acid injection therapy. All patients were followed up and observed treatment effect and prognosis.Results:45 patients with skin aging problem has been improved to varying degrees of, treatment effective rate was 83.11%. Postoperative adverse reactions and are temporary, recovering well.Conclusion:Combined botulinum toxin A and hyaluronic acid injection treatment of facial skin aging good curative effect, patient satisfaction is high, safe and effective.%目的:探讨A型肉毒毒素、透明质酸注射联合治疗面部皮肤老化疗效及安全性。方法:对45例患者面部老化问题,采用A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:患者面部老化问题得到不同程度的改善,治疗有效率83.11%,术后不良反应轻且都是暂时性,恢复良好。结论:A型肉毒毒素联合透明质酸注射治疗面部皮肤老化疗效好,患者满意度高,安全有效。

  20. Rural Aging

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  1. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete info...

  2. Age -- Metallicity relation in the MCs clusters (Based on observations made with the Danish 1.54 m and ESO 3.6m Telescopes at La Silla Observatory, Chile)

    Livanou, E; Kontizas, M; Nordström, B; Kontizas, E; Andersen, J; Dirsch, B; Karampelas, A

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate a possible dependence between age and metallicity in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) from a study of small open star clusters, using Str\\"{o}mgren photometry. Our goal is to trace evidence of an age metallicity relation (AMR) and correlate it with the mutual interactions of the two MCs. Our aim is also to correlate the AMR with the spatial distribution of the clusters. In the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the majority of the selected clusters are young (up to 1 Gyr) and our aim is to search for an AMR at this epoch which has not been much studied. Methods: We report on results for 15 LMC and 8 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, scattered all over the area of these galaxies, to cover a wide spatial distribution and metallicity range. The selected LMC clusters were observed with the 1.54m Danish Telescope in Chile, using the Danish Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (DFOSC) with a single 2kx2k CCD, whereas the SMC clusters were observed with the ESO 3.6m Telescope also in Chile with the E...

  3. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  4. Arterial Ageing

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  5. 舒适护理在高龄梗阻性黄疸患者中的效果观察%Comfortable nursing in advanced age obstruction jaundice patlents effect observation

    金宁雀; 申莹

    2011-01-01

    Goal: Discussion introduction comfortable nursing and responsibility system nursing in advanced age obstruction jaundice patient's effect.Method:Review liver disease branch obstruction jaundice patient material.Will implement the responsibility system nursing advanced age obstruction jaundice patient 80 examples to take the control group, will introduce the comfortable nursing pattern the advanced age obstruction jaundice patient 80 examples to take the observation group, to nurses the work degree of satisfaction and the healthy knowledge knowing rate difference compared with two group of patients.Finally: The comfortable nurse service in the advanced age obstruction jaundice patient nurses, the fanily member and the patient to nurses the work degree of satisfaction and healthy knowledge knowing rate nurses the hospital ward distinct enhancement compared to the conventional whole.Conclusion: Comfortable nursing in the advanced age obstruction jaundice patient nurses can enhance the degree of satisfaction obviously, reduces the complication the occurrence, reduces the patient to be hospitalized the time, was the construction harmonious protects the trouble relations to provide the safeguard.%目的:探讨引进舒适护理与责任制护理在高龄梗阻性黄疸患者中的效果.方法:回顾性的肝病科梗阻性黄疸病员资料.将实施责任制护理高龄梗阻性黄疸患者80例作为对照组,将引进舒适护理模式的高龄梗阻性黄疸患者80例作为观察组,比较二组患者对护理工作满意度与健康知识知晓率的差异.结果:舒适护理服务在高龄梗阻性黄疸患者护理中,家属与患者对护理工作满意度与健康知识知晓率比常规整体护理病房明显提高.结论:舒适护理在高龄梗阻性黄疸患者护理中能明显提高满意度,减少并发症的发生,缩短患者住院时间,为构建和谐的护患关系提供了保障.

  6. Active ageing technologies

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices and...... elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities in their...... socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  7. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  8. Skin Aging

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  9. Aging mechanisms

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Kuro-o, Makoto; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aging (senescence) has long been a difficult issue to be experimentally analyzed because of stochastic processes, which contrast with the programmed events during early development. However, we have recently started to learn the molecular mechanisms that control aging. Studies of the mutant mouse, klotho, showing premature aging, raise a possibility that mammals have an “anti-aging hormone.” A decrease of cell proliferation ability caused by the telomeres is also t...

  10. Happy Aging

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  11. Population Aging

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  12. Creative Aging.

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  13. Ageing Polulations

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  14. Skin Aging

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  15. Interpreting spotted dolphin age distributions

    Barlow, Jay; Hohn, Aleta A.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work has determined the age distribution from a sample of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) killed in the eastern Pacific tuna purse-seine fishery. In this paper we examine the usefulness of this age distribution for estimating natural mortality rates. The observed age distribution has a deficiency of individuals from 5-15 years and cannot represent a stable age distribution. Sampling bias and errors in age interpretation are examined as possible causes of the "dip" in the obs...

  16. Successful ageing

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. OBJECTIVE: To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success....... METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The......BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a...

  17. Skin aging:

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  18. Clinical observation of suanzaoren granules on insomnia of the middle age and elderly patients%酸枣仁颗粒治疗中老年失眠症临床疗效观察

    高声传; 王沈歌; 陈卫东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of suanzaoren granules on insomnia of the middle age and elder patients. Methods 140 middle age and elderly patients ( 45 ~75 year-old )with insomnia were divided into two groups according to random number table. Treatment group( n =70 )were treated with suanzaoren granules,8 g for each time, tid;control group( n =70 )were treated with diazepam tablets,5 mg per time,qn. The course of treatment was 15 d,and the patients were treated for two courses. The clinical syndromes of insomnia were observed. Results The effective rate was 91. 5% in treatment group and 72. 9% in control group, there were significant differences between the two groups( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Suanzaoren granules on insomnia of the middle age and elderly patients is better than diazepam tablets.%目的 观察酸枣仁颗粒剂治疗中老年失眠症的临床疗效.方法 将140例45~75岁中老年失眠症患者按随机数字表法随机分为2组.治疗组70例,给予酸枣仁颗粒剂,8 g/次,3次/d;对照组70例,给予地西泮片,5 mg/次,每晚1次.15 d为1个疗程,共治疗2个疗程.观察患者临床疗效.结果 治疗组有效率为91.5%,对照组有效率为72.9%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 酸枣仁颗粒治疗中老年失眠症效果优于地西洋.

  19. Ageing management

    Ageing management is generally defined in a broad sense covering not only ageing management of hardware (structures, systems and components), but also management issues such as keeping up with developments in state-of-the-art technology and the latest management practices. The importance assigned to traditional ageing management, in terms of issues related to hardware degradation problems, is clearly very high. The other aspects, for example developments in engineering or management, are considered important as well, but are less emphasized. Plant ageing management is composed of the following necessary elements, which are all linked together: understanding and knowledge of ageing-related damage mechanisms, including benchmarking of the consequences of damage mechanisms into macroscopic behaviour of materials and structures under applicable conditions; predictive models to extrapolate behaviour of systems, structures or components up to a defined time; qualified methods for detection and surveillance of ageing degradation; qualified mitigation, repair and replacements measures; reliable plant documentation, including optimisation of the ageing management programme based on current understanding and knowledge and periodic self-assessment; availability of a technical service and knowledge base. The subject of plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the past years, notably as more nuclear power plants across the world are being considered for lifetime extension. In this context, the NEA has conducted numerous technical studies to assess the impact of ageing mechanisms on safe and reliable plant operation. International research activities have also been initiated or are under way to provide the technical basis for decision making. This article provides an overview of some of the activities and accomplishments of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures

  20. Perceived age as a biomarker of ageing: a clinical methodology

    Gunn, David A; Murray, Peter G; Tomlin, Cyrena C;

    2008-01-01

    facial ageing is detailed. The methodology utilises facial photographs of subjects to present images to large numbers of age assessors who are primarily nationals of the country of study origin. In five observational studies in five different countries involving 874 female subjects it was found that...... measure when large numbers of adult age assessors are used and can be utilised globally in studies to investigate facial ageing....

  1. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  2. Healthy Ageing

    Schans, Cees van der

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  3. Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children under five years of age in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Michela Sonego

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014. RISK OF BIAS ASSESSMENT: Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Out of 10,655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198,359 children met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92; age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03; diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67‒8.61, chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒6.93; HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90; and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25. Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31; low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82; low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00; second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93; indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31. Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58 and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81 were associated with decreased odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to

  4. 中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染48例临床观察%Clinical observation of 48 middle and aged women with diabetes mellitus complicating urinary tract infection

    冯琴琴; 王宏钊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical differences between the patients with diabetes mellitus ( DM ) complicating urinary tract infection and those with simple urinary tract infection among middle and aged women. Methods The clinical manifestations and treatment between 48 cases with DM complicating urinary tract infection and 24 cases with simple urinary tract infection were analyzed and compared. Results The clinical symptoms of DM complicating urinary tract infection among females were manifold and clinical manifestations were concealed. The incidence rate of irritation sign of bladder was significantly lower than that among patients with simple urinary tract infection ( 58. 3% vs 100. 0% , χ2= 13. 846, P < 0. 01 ). The mean course of treatment in the group of DM complicating urinary tract infection was 15. 0 ± 8. 0 days, which was significantly longer than that in the group of simple urinary tract infection ( 6. 0 ± 3.2 days, t=5.289, P<0. 01 ). Conclusion Exploring the symptoms and clinical course of DM complicating urinary tract infection in middle and aged women is helpful to improve clinical efficacy and prognosis.%目的 观察分析中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染患者与单纯泌尿道感染患者的临床差异.方法 对比分析48例女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染者与24例单纯泌尿道感染患者的临床表现及治疗效果.结果 女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染患者的临床症状多样,表现隐匿,其膀胱刺激症状的出现率明显低于单纯性泌尿道感染患者(58.3% vs 100.0%,χ2=13.846,P<0.05).糖尿病合并泌尿道感染组平均疗程为15.0±8.0天,明显长于单纯泌尿道感染组的6.0±3.2天(t=5.289,P<0.01).结论 探索中老年女性糖尿病合并泌尿道感染者的症状及临床疗程特点,将有利于提高临床疗效和改善预后.

  5. Age-related oral changes.

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  6. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p

  7. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  8. Martian ages

    The subjects of this paper are a discussion of the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, a comparison of currently proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, a report on our work of dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of our crater frequency data and those published by other authors. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data: model 1, with nearly equal Martian and lunar cratering rates around (ca.) 4- to 10-km crater sizes, and model II. equivalent to model I for ages >3.5 x 109 years but with a factor of 2 higher Martian cratering rate at ages 9 years. Those model cratering chronologies are applied to the data. The interpretation of all crater frequency data available and tractable by our methodology leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized essentially by two epochs of activity. The division between the two epochs is measured at a cumulative crater frequency value for 1-km craters (crater retention age) of N(1) = 8 x 10-4 (km-2) corresponding to an absolute age of ca. 3 x 109 years (applying model I cratering chronology) and of ca. 1.5 x 109 years (applying model II cratering chronology). In the ancient epoch all major events like emplacement of the plains lavas, the piling up of most volcanic constructs, and large-scale erosion of channels and mensae (highland/northern lowland boundary) have taken place. During the younger epoch, only the big Tharsis shield volcanoes were active, and some minor erosion took place. This means that Mars is not a youthful planet but an ancient one with respect to most of its surface features

  9. Premature aging

    The hypothesis that radiation may accelerate aging phenomenon has been studied extensively, using the population of A-bomb survivors. In this paper, non-specific radiation-induced premature aging is discussed with a review of the literature. Cardiac lipofuscin, papillary fibrosis, aortic extensibility, hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta, testicular changes, giant hepatic cell nucleus, and neurofibril changes have so far been studied pathologically in the context of A-bomb radiation. Only testicular sclerosis has been found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter. Suggestive correlation was found to exist between the hexamine/collagen ratio in the skin and aorta and A-bomb radiation. Grip strength and hearing ability were decreased in the group of 100 rad and the group of 50-99 rad, respectively. The other physiological data did not definitely correlate with A-bomb radiation. Laboratory data, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, α and β globulin levels, phytohemagglutinin reaction, T cell counts, erythrocyte glycophorin-A, the incidence of cerebral stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cataract were age-dependent and correlated with A-bomb radiation. These findings indicated that the occurrence of arteriosclerosis-related diseases, changes in immunological competence, and some pathological and physiological findings altered with advancing age, suggesting the correlation with A-bomb radiation. In general, it cannot be concluded that there is a positive correlation between A-bomb radiation and the premature aging. (N.K.) 51 refs

  10. Successful ageing

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful......Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...

  11. Aging Differently

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando;

    2014-01-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high...... statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets...

  12. Age management

    Kratochvilová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor‘s thesis focuses on Age Management and its areas of influence. This term is most often discussed in connection with a problem which is currently common for all European Union countries – the ageing of society. In the near future, the structure of society is very likely to be altered drastically as a consequence of this phenomenon and due to the severity of the effects, it is necessary to begin addressing this problem. The first part of the thesis concerns itself with processing d...

  13. Observe Your Shadow

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental…

  14. Ageing and skills

    Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas

    The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship between...... ageing and foundation skills. In particular, the fact that data from the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003-2007 Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) will be linked with PIAAC offers a unique opportunity to examine trends over time at the cohort level for a wide range...... of countries. Specifically, repeated measures will enable an analysis of whether there is skill gain and skill loss over the lifespan of cohorts and overtime between cohorts. This is especially important because age-skill profiles observed on the basis of a single cross-section are difficult to...

  15. Aging Random Walks

    Böttcher, S

    1997-01-01

    Aging refers to the property of two-time correlation functions to decay very slowly on (at least) two time scales. This phenomenon has gained recent attention due to experimental observations of the history dependent relaxation behavior in amorphous materials (``Glasses'') which pose a challenge to theorist. Aging signals the breaking of time-translational invariance and the violation of the fluctuation dissipation theorem during the relaxation process. But while the origin of aging in disordered media is profound, and the discussion is clad in the language of a well-developed theory, systems as simple as a random walk near a wall can exhibit aging. Such a simple walk serves well to illustrate the phenomenon and some of the physics behind it.

  16. Age Spots

    ... for treating age spots include: Improved appearance. Enhanced self-esteem. Promotion of better skin health. What you need ... 480px View Render 320px View Connect with ASDS: Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Twitter Quick Links About ASDS Advocacy ...

  17. Fuel cycle: the transition between the third and the fourth generation of reactors; Cycle du combustible: faire la transition vers les 3eme et 4eme generations de reacteurs

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Many challenges arrive today for the french research and development on the fuel cycle: promote the industrial technologies, improve the world increase of the nuclear and adapt the fuel cycle technologies to the future reactors. In this framework the report presents after a recall on the fuel cycle, the researches on the fuel, the optimization of the recycling, the wastes management, the simulation and Phenix an experimentation tool for the fuel. (A.L.B.)

  18. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 4: Sizing the new spiral casing; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 4eme partie: dimensionnement et construction de la bache spirale

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This fourth and final part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This fourth part of a four-part article deals with the selection of a pump and describes the general lay-out of the new spiral casing to be adapted for use in the PAT-Francis turbine. The parameters to be taken into account are looked at and calculation examples are presented. Proposals for a simplified construction are examined.

  19. Aging Perspectives

    Cosco, Theodore D; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  20. Healthy ageing

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie;

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  1. Golden Age

    2013-01-01

      Sometimes, a moment can announce the end of an age. The gold market is like that. Within two transaction days, the gold slumped by 13%and saw a 25%tumble from the high point in August 2011. According to the classic investment theory, a 20%-above decline means the shift from“a bull”to“a bear”market.   The super bear market of gold has lasted a dozen years. But the bull-to-bear shift was completed within only 20 minutes. Wall Street’s analysts and ordinary Chinese people had different understandings to the golden age.   Expecting a bear market, Wall Street continuously dumped gold, resulting in a diving of gold price. Seeing the benefits, leisure Chinese madams made a gold rush, causing a slight bounce of gold price. On April 23, renowned investment bank Goldman Sachs suspended the short sale. So,“Chinese aunts”beating back Wall Street’s analysts became the hottest topic online for the time being.   What are the decisive factors for the crash of gold price? Will the gold market complete a real bull-to-bear shift? Will the golden age of gold be farther or nearer?

  2. The aging male project

    Farid Saad

    2001-01-01

    With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from th...

  3. Ice ages

    The Earth's climate undergoes great changes in cycles of 104 to 105 years. Deep sea sediments contain proof of these changes. The critical parameter is the O18/O16 isotope ratio. The astronomical theory is discussed of ice ages based on the changes in the shape of the Earth's orbit around the sun. Forecasts for the future are given - in the coming years the climate is expected to get warmer owing to increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and then a long cooler period is expected to follow. (M.D.)

  4. Aging Perspectives

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  5. Aging Blepharoplasty

    Inchang Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelidsharmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most importantgoal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and inthis process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons haveto be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a doublefold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing furtherdrooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the droopingeyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to preparefor these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amountof skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with adecreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases,excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions ofsoft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skinflap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive lookingappearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a naturallook. In this article, the author’s own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty aredescribed specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.

  6. Aging blepharoplasty.

    Cho, Inchang

    2013-09-01

    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  7. Skin Care and Aging

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  8. Dominant perceptions on the age

    Komatina Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary developed society, despite the fact that it is constantly and intensively ageing, is characterized by deeply rooted numerous negative stereotypes on old people and old age as a life period. The study of dominant perceptions on the age of Belgrade population takes not only the universal character of negative connotation of old age into consideration, but also the concrete unfavorable social context. The delicate problematic of stereotypes on old age and old people has been analyzed mostly indirectly, through questions on the beginning of old age, advantages and difficulties which we experience during ageing, the first subjective conscious encounter with one’s own ageing, the concept of ideal old age, changes in the persons traits and directly through questions on dominant negative perceptions which prevail on old people in our surrounding. Ageing in the Belgrade milieu is most commonly identified with illness and with the decline of physical potentials, and at the same time a number of other negative qualifications of old age as well. Research results indicate to a pronounced ambivalent standpoint towards ageing, to different observation of one’s own to old age of other people, to different consideration of old age among the sexes and to obvious aversion towards old people. This is expected, taking into consideration that living and ageing are developing nowadays under aggressive influence of contemporary mass culture which affirms youth, beauty, physical strength, health as dominant values, namely everything that is contrary to ageing and old age. On the other hand, our society is today confronted with, as well as in the near past, exceptional political, economic and cultural difficulties which cause specific problems with various age groups, as well as the lowering of the level of mutual endurance and tolerance. The atmosphere of straining the old people and emergence of new antagonisms causes the intensification of

  9. Population aging and legal retirement age

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect ???macro??? effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly c...

  10. Observation of the effect of Hongyangfuzheng oral liquid on exercise capacity and aging mechanism%红阳扶正口服液增强运动能力和抗衰老机理的实验观察

    董彩霞; 张彩云; 滕宝霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究红阳扶正口服液对增强运动能力和抗衰老作用的机理.方法 小鼠口服红阳扶正口服液10 d,每鼠尾部负重为体重的5%,力竭后,摘取眼球取血,3000 r/min离心10 min,检测血清乳酸、乳酸脱氢酶、肝糖原、尿素氮、丙二醛和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),测定红阳扶正口服液对衰老模型小鼠脑中SOD和丙二醛含量的影响.结果 红阳扶正口服液能明显降低血清中乳酸、尿素氮、丙二醛的含量,增加小鼠血清中乳酸脱氢酶、SOD和肝糖原的含量(P<0.05);红阳扶正口服液降低衰老模型小鼠大脑中丙二醛的含量,增加大脑SOD活性.结论 红阳扶正口服液具有增加运动能力和抗衰老的作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of Hongyangfuzheng oral liquid (HOL) on exercise capacity and aging mechanism. Methods Through oral administration with HOL 10 days, each rat tail weight for weight 5%, after exhaustive, removal of eye blood, centrifugal 10 min (3000 r/min). The content of serum lactic acid (LA), lactate dehydrogenase (LAD), hepatic glycogen, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected. MDA and SOD in the brain of mice was detected too. Results HOL obviously decrease the content of serum LA, BUN, MDA. LAD, SOD and hepatic glycogen increased in mice serum (P<0.05). HOL reduced the aging model mice brain MDA content, increased SOD activity in brain. Conclusion HOL can increase of exercise capacity and the anti aging effect.

  11. Aging and the intestine

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  12. The Observation on Development of Thickness of Cortical Bone in Children of Different Age%不同年龄组小儿骨皮质发育状况观察

    宁刚; 吴康敏; 伍家农; 张光鹏; 杨定焯

    2000-01-01

    【 Objective】 In order to find out the pattern of development in cortical bone, a study of cortical bone in normal in-fants、 children、adolescence and adults were carried out. 【Methods】 The authors measured the transverse and inner diameter inmidpoint of the second metacarpal bone from 1 017 X- ray films of right wrist of normal infants、children、 adolescence and adults inthe urban and of infants in the suburban. The thickness and index of cortical bone in midpoint of the second metacarpal were calculat-ed by Microsoft Excel 97. 【 Results】 The increase of thickness of cortical bone was respectively 3.06 mm、2.89 mm for boys andgirls from 1.0 to 15.0 vr of age ,the average amplitude was respectively 4.0% 、4.3%, the latter was 8.2% 、6.9% for male and fe-male infants , 2.3 %、 2.0 % for infancy and preschool children, 10.7 % for girls at 11~13yr of age ,7.8 % for boys of 13~15yr ofage. Between urban areas and a rural area there were not significant differences between the transverse diameters in the secondmetacarpal of boys and girls at 1.0yr of age, but the average thickness of cortical bone were decreased of 0.39 mm in rural area ( P< 0.001 ). 【Conclusions】 The thickness of cortical bone increased significantly with age in children and adolescence , the in-creased velocity was more rapid during infncy nd puberty , with the pek thickness of corticl bone round puberty.%【目的】通过对正常婴幼儿、青少年及部分成年人骨皮质发育的横向观察,了解小儿骨皮质发育的规律。【方法】市郊农村健康婴儿,城区婴幼儿、青少年及部分成年人,共1 017例摄右手腕正位X光片,测量第二掌骨中点横径及内径,用Microsoft Excel97软件计算出骨皮质厚度、皮质指数并作统计学处理。【结果】从1岁组到15岁组男、女童骨皮质厚度分别增加了3.06mm及2.89mm,平均年增幅分别为4.0%及4.3%;婴儿期平均年增幅分别为8.2

  13. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  14. Oral Health and Aging

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  16. The Biology of Aging.

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  17. Aging in language dynamics.

    Animesh Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Human languages evolve continuously, and a puzzling problem is how to reconcile the apparent robustness of most of the deep linguistic structures we use with the evidence that they undergo possibly slow, yet ceaseless, changes. Is the state in which we observe languages today closer to what would be a dynamical attractor with statistically stationary properties or rather closer to a non-steady state slowly evolving in time? Here we address this question in the framework of the emergence of shared linguistic categories in a population of individuals interacting through language games. The observed emerging asymptotic categorization, which has been previously tested--with success--against experimental data from human languages, corresponds to a metastable state where global shifts are always possible but progressively more unlikely and the response properties depend on the age of the system. This aging mechanism exhibits striking quantitative analogies to what is observed in the statistical mechanics of glassy systems. We argue that this can be a general scenario in language dynamics where shared linguistic conventions would not emerge as attractors, but rather as metastable states.

  18. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Ageing in Communal Place

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying ‘real’ senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i...... how these findings apply to designers of social media technologies. .......e. in their homes, housing communities seem a natural place to begin this enquiry. We conducted observations and informal interviews in six different senior dwellings. In this paper we present the key findings from these visits related to social interaction and the formation of communities and explicate...

  20. Satellite observations

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  1. Observational $\\Delta\

    Hernández, Antonio García; Monteiro, Mário J P F G; Suárez, Juan Carlos; Reese, Daniel R; Pascual-Granado, Javier; Garrido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Delta Scuti ($\\delta$ Sct) stars are intermediate-mass pulsators, whose intrinsic oscillations have been studied for decades. However, modelling their pulsations remains a real theoretical challenge, thereby even hampering the precise determination of global stellar parameters. In this work, we used space photometry observations of eclipsing binaries with a $\\delta$ Sct component to obtain reliable physical parameters and oscillation frequencies. Using that information, we derived an observational scaling relation between the stellar mean density and a frequency pattern in the oscillation spectrum. This pattern is analogous to the solar-like large separation but in the low order regime. We also show that this relation is independent of the rotation rate. These findings open the possibility of accurately characterizing this type of pulsator and validate the frequency pattern as a new observable for $\\delta$ Sct stars.

  2. 微创种植技术在老年人牙种植术中应用的临床观察%The clinical observation of flapless technology in dental implantation for the aged

    杨懿; 郭家平; 马毅慧; 邱建勇; 何非

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To retrospectively study the clinical effect of minimally invasive implant technology in the el-derly patients was. Method:Retrospectively study the elderly patients who received 79 implant surgery,49 men,30 women, the average age of 67 years,and 97 implants total. Flapless group:35 people,including 23 men,12 female,47 implants. Con-ventional surgery group:44 people,28 male,16 female,50 implants. To evaluate the clinical effect of Operation time,Postop-erative pain,Postoperative bleeding,Postoperative swelling and implant success after comparison. Result:Compared with the results of the groups,the flapless group was significantly better than that of the conventional flap group,and the success rate of the implants was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion:The flapless technique is suitable for the elderly patients,and the clinical effect is definitive.%目的:回顾性研究微创种植技术在老年患者中应用的临床效果。方法:回访2009~2014年接受种植手术的老年患者79人,男49人,女30人,平均年龄67岁,植入种植体97颗,分为微创组和常规组。微创组35例,男23例,女12例,植入种植体47颗。常规组44例,男28例,女16例,植入种植体50颗。对比手术时间、术后疼痛反应,术后出血、肿胀及种植手术成功率,评价临床效果。结果:对比术后反应发生率,微创组明显少于常规组,种植手术成功率基本接近,两组间比较,差异无统计学意义。结论:在条件允许情况下,微创种植手术更适合老年患者应用,临床效果确定。

  3. Macroscopic observables

    We study macroscopic observables defined as the total value of a physical quantity over a collection of quantum systems. We show that previous results obtained for an infinite ensemble of identically prepared systems lead to incorrect conclusions for finite ensembles. In particular, exact measurement of a macroscopic observable significantly disturbs the state of any finite ensemble. However, we show how this disturbance can be made arbitrarily small when the measurements are of finite accuracy. We demonstrate a general trade-off between state disturbance and measurement coarseness as a function of the size of the ensemble. Using this trade-off, we show that the histories generated by any sequence of finite accuracy macroscopic measurements always generate a consistent family in the absence of large-scale entanglement for sufficiently large ensembles. Hence, macroscopic observables behave 'classically' provided that their accuracy is coarser than the quantum correlation length scale of the system. The role of these observable is also discussed in the context of NMR quantum information processing and bulk ensemble quantum state tomography

  4. Babylonian observations

    Brown, D.

    Very few cuneiform records survive from Mesopotamia of datable astronomical observations made prior to the mid-eighth century BC. Those that do record occasional eclipses, and in one isolated case the dates of the heliacal rising and setting of Venus over a few years sometime in the first half of the second millennium BC. After the mid-eighth century BC the situation changes dramatically. Incomplete records of daily observations of astronomical and meteorological events are preserved from c. 747 BC until the Christian Period. These records are without accompanying ominous interpretation, although it is highly probable that they were compiled by diviners for astrological purposes. They include numerous observations of use to historical astronomers, such as the times of eclipses and occultations, and the dates of comet appearances and meteor showers. The question arises as to why such records do not survive from earlier times; celestial divination was employed as far back as the third millenium BC. It is surely not without importance that the earliest known accurate astronomical predictions accompany the later records, and that the mid-eighth century BC ushered in a period of centralised Assyrian control of Mesopotamia and the concomitant employment by the Assyrian ruler of large numbers of professional celestial diviners. The programme of daily observations evidently began when a high premium was first set on the accurate astronomical prediction of ominous events. It is in this light that we must approach this valuable source material for historical astronomy.

  5. Utilization of dental services in old age

    Nitschke, Ina; Stillhart, Angela; Kunze, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Regular utilization of dental services helps to improve and maintain oral and general health, even in old age. However, utilization behavior for dental services changes with age: preventive utilization behavior is often replaced by a symptom-driven one. With age, a decrease in the utilization of dental services can be observed, whilst the frequency of contact with physicians increases. The present review describes the current knowledge regarding the utilization of dental services in old age (...

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related cognitive decline

    Sorwell, Krystina G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.

    2009-01-01

    In humans the circulating concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) decrease markedly during aging, and have been implicated in age-associated cognitive decline. This has led to the hypothesis that DHEA supplementation during aging may improve memory. In rodents, a cognitive anti-aging effect of DHEA and DHEAS has been observed but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated indirectly through conversion of these steroids to estradiol. Moreover, despite the de...

  7. Flare Observations

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  8. Parental age, genetic mutation, and cerebral palsy.

    Fletcher, N A; Foley, J

    1993-01-01

    Parental age and birth order were studied in 251 patients with cerebral palsy. No parental age or birth order effects were observed in spastic quadriplegia or diplegia, but a paternal age effect was detected in those with athetoid/dystonic cerebral palsy and congenital hemiplegia. These observations indicate that some cases of athetoid/dystonic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy might arise by fresh dominant genetic mutation.

  9. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  10. The aging mouth: differentiating normal aging from disease.

    Lamster, Ira B; Asadourian, Lynda; Del Carmen, Tessa; Friedman, Paula K

    2016-10-01

    Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth. Severe periodontitis occurs in 10.5-12% of the population, with the peak incidence being observed at 35-40 years of age. Changes to the mucosal tissue that occur with age include reduced wound-healing capacity. However, environmental factors, such as smoking, dramatically increase the risk of mucosal pathology. Reduced salivary gland function is often seen in association with medication usage, as well as with disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Both medication use and chronic disorders are more common in older adults. Masticatory function is of particular importance for older adults. Maintenance of a nutritionally complete diet is important for avoiding sarcopenia and the frailty syndrome. Successful oral aging is associated with adequate function and comfort. A reduced, but functional, dentition of 20 teeth in occlusion has been proposed as a measure of successful oral aging. Healthy oral aging is important to healthy aging from both biological and social perspectives. PMID:27501493

  11. Observing environments

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    Context: Society is faced with “wicked” problems of environmental sustainability, which are inherently multiperspectival, and there is a need for explicitly constructivist and perspectivist theories to address them. Problem: However, different constructivist theories construe the environment in...... different ways. The aim of this paper is to clarify the conceptions of environment in constructivist approaches, and thereby to assist the sciences of complex systems and complex environmental problems. Method: We describe the terms used for “the environment” in von Uexküll, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann......, and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of...

  12. [Ageing society and laboratory medicine].

    Okabe, H

    2000-09-01

    An interest in the ageing process has increased greatly with increasing the population of the aged. The goal of this interest is to improve the quality of life(QOL) in the aged. In this paper, the presidential address "Ageing Society and Laboratory Medicine" at the 46th annual meeting of JSCP in Kumamoto'99 was summarized on the important research for ageing in the past decades. The paper presented was age- and gene-related changes, the latent variation of serum constituents and lipids abnormality in the ageing process. Concerning to the definition of reference value of healthy populations and the subjects who had no combined ailments, the reference interval of individuals(intra-personal), followed 5 years categorized by age, sex, and social conditions, gave a narrow range of variation than did a larger mixed populations(inter-personal). The reference intervals set would be a more sensitive reference than is the customary "normal range" for values occurring in inter-personal. Concerning to the study of the relationship between laboratory test and activity of daily living(ADL), the higher serum levels for TP, Alb, Hb, Glu, TC were observed in the higher ADL. The basic research techniques were also evaluated in the paper. The serum lipoperoxides were correlated with serum lipoprotein free radicals which caused atherosclerosis. The higher frequency of cerebral- and myocardial-infarction in the aged were observed in the higher serum LDL-C and lower serum level of arachidonic acid(AA), eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), and AA/EPA ratio were observed in AMI patients with lower HDL-C groups than the healthy aged. Although Alzheimer(AD)'s disease had a progressive memory loss and immobile dementia and was reported the decrease of acetyltransferase activity in the brain, decrease of serum level of free choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine(PC) and sphingomyelin(SM)/PC ratio were observed in spite of keeping normal serum level of SM. The decreased serum levels of

  13. Early Pulsar Observations with LOFAR

    Hessels, Jason; Alexov, Anastasia; Coenen, Thijs; Hassall, Tom; Karastergiou, Aris; Kondratiev, Vlad; Kramer, Michael; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Mol, Jan David; Noutsos, Aris; Weltevrede, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This contribution to the proceedings of "A New Golden Age for Radio Astronomy" is simply intended to give some of the highlights from pulsar observations with LOFAR at the time of its official opening: June 12th, 2010. These observations illustrate that, though LOFAR is still under construction and astronomical commissioning, it is already starting to deliver on its promise to revolutionize radio astronomy in the low-frequency regime. These observations also demonstrate how LOFAR has many "next-generation" capabilities, such as wide-field multi-beaming, that will be vital to open a new Golden Age in radio astronomy through the Square Kilometer Array and its precursors.

  14. Les observables

    Bergounioux Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    jacents ? Au cours de cette table ronde, la question des observables sera interrogée en partant d’une réflexion concernant les études qui se fondent sur l’inventaire empirique des données pour construire leurs analyses (statistique lexicale, Labphon, corpus-guided linguistics, sociolinguistique variationniste, linguistique cognitive… et en allant jusqu’aux théories qui postulent l’existence de formalismes préalables dont les discours et les textes ratifieraient, par l’actualisation et la distribution de leurs occurrences, la pertinence épistémologique.

  15. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    ... address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health ... to discuss with your doctor. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive (Copyright © Mayo Foundation) - This ...

  16. Administration on Aging

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  17. Aging changes in sleep

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  18. The aging male project

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from the external and intemal environment mediated by neurotransmitters constantly affect the highly sensitive hormonal balance. Therefore, aging has also been defined as "the gradual dysfunction of homeostatic processes". Declining testosterone (T levels are involved in 'andropausal' symptoms in men: loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, insulin receptor resistance, obesity, osteoporosis, disturbances of lipid metabolism, myocardial and circulatory disturbances, impaired well-being and mood. Data are derived from studies in hypogonadal men treated by T replacement. In such parients under T treatment libido increases, fat mass decreases, muscle strenth, bone mineral density and erythropoesis increase. Whether the symptoms of andropause in aging men could successfully be treated by T substitution remains to be investigated. Negative effects of T, especially on the prostate and the cardiovascular system, are under discussion. There is increasing evidence that low T levels seem to be a risk factor for both the prostate and the cardiovascular system. Jenapharm's new testosterone undecanoate formulation for intramuscular injection can be administered every three months. T levels remain within the physiologic range. No supraphysiologic peaks occur. In women, estrogens have beneficial non-genital effects. Studies concentrate on synthetic estrogens for men without feminizing properties such as gynecomastia and reduced testicular size. Several derivatives of 17-

  19. Photoplethysmogram reflection index and aging

    Qawqzeh, Yousef K.; Reaz, M. B. I.; Maskon, O.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Ali, M. A. M.

    2011-10-01

    This study conducted to investigate and study the effect of aging on Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal and the effects of aging on the calculations of reflection index (RI). The results showed that PPG is highly affected by aging which noteworthy to be observed by the variations of PPG contour. Since we advance in age, PPG becomes more rounded which in turn make PPG inflection point and dicrotic notch less pronounced. As a conclusion, RI may provide a window to small and medium arteries compliance and it can be a measure of small and medium arteries stiffness. When small and medium arteries start stiffening, early detection of atherosclerosis in sub-clinical settings can be investigated and detected.

  20. Observe Your Shadow

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental methods, particularly among elementary school students. Elementary school teachers are not generally specialists in science, but rather have (and should have) extremely wide scopes of interests and competencies. By providing them with ideas and instructions for science experiments, we aim to enrich regular school lessons. In the first year alone, the competition took place in over half of Slovene elementary schools, with a total of 9000 participating students. In this paper we shall report about pupils' responses to tasks related to one of the experiments, namely, observation of their shadows on a sunny day.

  1. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  2. Age-related skin changes

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  3. Mitochondria and the aging heart

    Ketul R Chaudhary; Haitham El-Sikhry; John M Seubert

    2011-01-01

    The average human life span has markedly increased in modern society largely attributed to advances in medical and therapeutic sciences that have successfully reduced important health risks.However,advanced age results in numerous alterations to cellular and subcellular components that can impact the overall health and function of an individual.Not surprisingly,advanced age is a major risk factor for the development of heart disease in which elderly populations observe increased morbidity and mortality.Even healthy individuals that appear to have normal heart fimction under resting conditions,actually have an increased susceptibility and vulnerability to stress.This is confounded by the impact that stress and disease can have over time to both the heart and vessels. Although, there is a rapidly growing body of literature investigating the effects of aging on the heart and how age-related alterations affect cardiac fimction, the biology of aging and underlying mechanisms remain unclear .In this review,we summarize effects of aging on the heart and discuss potential theories of cellular aging with special emphasis on mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Spectral ageing a new age perspective

    Rawlings, S; Rawlings, Katherine M Blundell & Steve

    2002-01-01

    We present an up-to-date critique of the physical basis for the spectral ageing method. We find that the number of cases where this method may be meaningfully applied to deduce the ages of classical double radio sources is small indeed. This critique is much more than merely a re-expression of anxieties about the calibration of spectral ageing (which have been articulated by others in the past).

  5. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  6. Observational exobiology

    Tarter, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere absorbs partially or completely many ultraviolet, infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Atmospheric seeing distorts small images, imposing a limit on the achievable angular resolution at optical and infrared wavelengths that is much poorer than the intrinsic capability of telescope optics. The atomic and molecular species of the atmosphere confuse or prevent the spectral studies of similar compounds outside of the terrestrial environment. Telescopes placed in orbit above the atmosphere avoid these problems and enjoy a unique view of the universe. There are many complex questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of the biogenic elements and compounds and the existence of terrestrial types of planets elsewhere that can be only tackled from orbiting facilities. The detailed nature of the spacecraft, platforms and instrumentation most likely to be launched by the United States and Europe in the near future in an attempt to determine what observational programs would be tractable and which areas of interest to exobiology required hardware capabilities beyond those currently envisioned are considered.

  7. Observing the stars. Love in the age of systems

    Kjetil Ansgar Jakobsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of scholars have demonstrated how the cultural industry involves people in a participatory culture in which users actively construct personal identities. However, the link between a public of mass-mediated entertainment and the private sphere of intimacy and personal identity is a paradox. A consistent theory to clarify that paradox is lacking in the cultural studies literature. I suggest that social systems theory in the Luhmannian tradition may explain in economical terms why the continuous performance and intensification of the paradox of mass-mediated intimacy is a major trait of contemporary culture. Nevertheless, the article does not address normative issues. It is neither an apology for the culture industry, nor a condemnation. The aim is simply to bring one of the most powerful tools of analysis in social theory today to bear on an aspect of modern society which is as important as it is baffling.

  8. Careveillance of Aging Bodies As Proxemic Diffraction

    Lutz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New healthcare technologies are increasingly used for augmenting old age homecare. These are often designed to improve risk awareness and render healthcare data more visible and mobile. At the same time this situation raises questions about how human-technological relationalities effect old age h...... aging bodies are observed and treated as cared entities. On a final note the article also suggests that the concept ‘proxemic diffraction' provides polycentric vantage points for considering the relational effects of ethnographic inquiry....

  9. Aging of gaseous detectors

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire ''nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can ''prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the ''SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Radiation and aging

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) specimens were obtained from 3 women aged in their 6th decade and 5 men in their 8th decade, who were exposed to A-bomb at ≤ 3,000 m from the hypocenter in Nagasaki, and were analyzed for the frequency of DRG neurons with lipofuscin (LP), neuromelanin (NM), and eosinophilic granule (EG). The neurons for the men in the A-bomb group showed an increase of LP and a decrease of NM compared with those in age- and sex-matched control group, with significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). The frequency of neurons with EG tended to be slightly higher for the men in the A-bomb group than in the control group; however, this was not statistically significant. For the women, there was a tendency toward a higher frequency of neurons with LP in the A-bomb group than in the control group, although no statistically significant difference emerged from this limited material. Regarding NM and EG for the women, DRG neurons showed no significant difference between the groups. Both men and women showed similar trends for the frequency of DRG neurons without pigments; no significant difference was observed between the groups. Regarding the sum of DRG neurons with large amounts of LP and with mixed LP and EG, the frequency of neurons was significantly higher for the men in the A-bomb group than in the control group, although this was not significant for the women. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Aging changes in immunity

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  12. National Institute on Aging

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  13. Aging changes in immunity

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  14. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  15. Corrected Age for Preemies

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  16. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  17. Memory and Aging

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  18. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  19. Components of aging

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to a reduction in attentional resources that are assumed to result from alterations in the aging brain. A core ability that is subject to age-related decline is visual attention, which enables individuals to select the most important information for conscious processing and action. However, visual attention is considered a conglomerate of various functions and the specific components underlying age differences in performance remain little understo...

  20. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune;

    2016-01-01

    a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards...... processes I fit a three component mortality model against the observed force of mortality. The model describes the data with high accuracy, suggesting that the phenomenon of ontogenescense in humans is fully explained by the three hypotheses....

  1. Viewing Our Aged Selves: Age Progression Simulations Increase Young Adults' Aging Anxiety and Negative Stereotypes of Older Adults.

    Rittenour, Christine E; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2016-04-01

    This experiment tests the effect of an old-age progression simulation on young adults' (N = 139) reported aging anxiety and perceptions about older adults as a social group. College students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: self-aged simulation, stranger-aged simulation, or a control group. Compared with the control group, groups exposed to an age progression experienced more negative affect, and individuals in the self-aged condition reported greater aging anxiety. In accordance with stereotype activation theorizing, the self-age simulation group also perceived older adults as less competent and expressed more pity and less envy for older adults. Compared to the stranger-aged group, participants who observed their own age progression were also the more likely to deny the authenticity of their transformed image.These findings highlight potential negative social and psychological consequences of using age simulations to affect positive health outcomes, and they shed light on how virtual experiences can affect stereotyping of older adults. PMID:27076488

  2. Hodgkin's disease and age

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  3. Peroxisomes in yeast ageing

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by the progressive decline in cellular functions that eventually leads to death. In human, ageing is associated with several age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, research performed in several simpler sho

  4. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed to...

  5. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  6. Age and Farmer Productivity

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1994-01-01

    Farmer productivity by age was estimated, allowing for differences because of efficiency and returns to scale. Using Census of Agriculture data, estimates vary by state, but returns to scale average 1.07. Efficiency increases average 4.5 percent every ten years of age, to the age interval 35 to 44, and then decreases at that same rate.

  7. PerformAge

    Fristrup, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ), I do not want to paint a uniformly rosy picture of aging and old age, but unfold an opening up of life taking the heroines and heroes of aging life to the open road in search of themselves and new roles in life as a quest of self-knowledge, self-development – a role for the future. Different...

  8. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  9. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period

  10. Aging fingerprints in combustion particles

    V. Zelenay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles can significantly influence the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation as well as by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, despite their environmental (as well as economic and political importance, the way these properties are affected by atmospheric processing is still a subject of discussion. In this work, soot particles emitted from two different cars, a EURO 2 transporter, a EURO 3 passenger vehicle, and a wood stove were investigated on a single-particle basis. The emitted exhaust, including the particulate and the gas phase, was processed in a smog chamber with artificial solar radiation. Single particle specimens of both unprocessed and aged soot were characterized using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Comparison of the spectra from the unprocessed and aged soot particles revealed changes in the carbon functional group content, such as that of carboxylic carbon, which can be ascribed to both the condensation of secondary organic compounds on the soot particles and oxidation of primary soot particles upon photochemical aging. Changes in the morphology and size of the single soot particles were also observed upon aging. Furthermore, we show that the soot particles take up water in humid environments and that their water uptake capacity increases with photochemical aging.

  11. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  12. Wages, productivity and aging

    Dostie, Benoît

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we estimate age based wage and productivity differentials using linked employer-employee Canadian data from the Workplace and Employee Survey 1999-2003. Data on the firm side is used to estimate production functions taking into account the age profile of the firm's work-force. Data on the workers' side is used to estimate wage equations that also depend on age. Results show concave age-wage and age-productivity profiles. Wage-productivity comparisons show that the productivit...

  13. Ageing Management of CARR

    The paper introduced the ageing management of CARR, including the ageing management system, instances of ageing components, difficulties we met and follow up plan, and put forward some suggestions on strengthening and promoting ageing management. We hope to enhance international exchange and collaboration. It is a great challenge to do research on how to manage ageing effectively in the beginning of life, but it will enhance the safety of reactor operation, extend the life of the reactor and improve the quality of operation, making this work very meaningful

  14. Carcinogenesis and aging

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis

  15. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  16. UV, stress and aging.

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  17. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  18. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  19. Aging male syndrome

    Valer Donca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  20. CEO age and gender: Subsequent market performance

    Marcelo Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of CEO age and gender vs. concurrent performance is extensively examined, but the association with subsequent performance has limited treatment in the financial literature, and with conflicting findings. In the current study, we examine the association between CEO age and gender, and subsequent company market performance using a more recent set of observations and the standard four-factor model to estimate future cumulative abnormal shareholder returns. We find that subsequent abnormal shareholder returns are marginally significantly higher for female CEOs than for their male counterparts, but no material pattern is observed between CEO age and subsequent abnormal shareholder return performance.

  1. VERITAS Observations under Bright Moonlight

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The presence of moonlight is usually a limiting factor for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes due to the high sensitivity of the camera photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In their standard configuration, the extra noise limits the sensitivity of the experiment to gamma-ray signals and the higher PMT currents also accelerates PMT aging. Since fall 2012, observations have been carried out with VERITAS under bright moonlight (Moon illumination $> 35\\%$), in two observing modes, by reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs and with UV bandpass filters, which allow observations up to $\\sim80\\%$ Moon illumination resulting in $29\\%$ more observing time over the course of the year. In this presentation, we provide details of these new observing modes and their performance relative to the standard VERITAS observations.

  2. Like milk or wine : does firm performance improve with age?

    Coad, Alex; Segarra Blasco, Agustí; Teruel Carrizosa, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Our empirical literature review shows that little is known about how firm performance changes with age, presumably because of the paucity of data on firm age. For Spanish manufacturing firms, we analyse the firm performance related to firm age between 1998 and 2006. We find evidence that firms improve with age, because ageing firms are observed to have steadily increasing levels of productivity, higher profits, larger size, lower debt ratios, and higher equity ratios. Furthermore, older firms...

  3. Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) - Algorithm and Applications

    Asa'd, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) is a new package that can easily predict the age and reddening of stellar clusters from their observed optical integrated spectra by comparing them to synthesis model spectra. The ages obtained with ASAD are consistent with ages obtained from previous cluster age methods requiring a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. This package not only provides fast results, but also allows the user to comprehend the accuracy of these results by prov...

  4. Galactic Globular Cluster Relative Ages. II

    De Angeli, F; Cassisi, S; Busso, G; Recio-Blanco, A; Salaris, M; Aparicio, A; Rosenberg, A L

    2005-01-01

    We present accurate relative ages for a sample of 55 Galactic globular clusters. The ages have been obtained by measuring the difference between the horizontal branch and the turnoff in two, internally photometrically homogeneous databases. The mutual consistency of the two data sets has been assessed by comparing the ages of 16 globular clusters in common between the two databases. We have also investigated the consistency of our relative age determination within the recent stellar model framework. All clusters with [Fe/H]-0.8 are ~1 Gyr younger than the most metal poor ones, with a relatively small age dispersion, though the metal rich sample is still too small to allow firmer conclusions. There is no correlation of the cluster age with the Galactocentric distance. We briefly discuss the implication of these observational results for the formation history of the Galaxy.

  5. Autophagy in ageing and ageing-associated diseases

    Li-qiang HE; Jia-hong LU; Zhen-yu YUE

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell self-digestion process via lysosomes that clears "cellular waste",including aberrantly modified proteins or protein aggregates and damaged organelles.Therefore,autophagy is considered a protein and organelle quality control mechanism that maintains normal cellular homeostasis.Dysfunctional autophagy has been observed in ageing tissues and several ageing-associated diseases.Lifespan of model organisms such as yeast,worms,flies,and mice can be extended through promoting autophagy,either by genetic manipulations such as over-expression of Sirtuin 1,or by administrations of rapamycin,resveratrol or spermidine.The evidence supports that autophagy may play an important role in delaying ageing or extending lifespan.In this review,we summarize the current knowledge about autophagy and its regulation,outline recent developments ie the genetic and pharmacological manipulations of autophagy that affects the lifespan,and discuss the role of autophagy in the ageing-related diseases.ow in Center for Neurodegenerative and Neuroimmunologic Diseases,Department of Neurology,University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School,Piscataway,NJ 08854,USA

  6. Healthy Aging in China

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist.

  7. The aging lung

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  8. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    Honigman, Roberta; David J. Castle

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome.

  9. We Are Ageing

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and ...

  10. Optimal Aging and Death

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity and...