Magnetic Mass in 4D AdS Gravity
Araneda, Rene; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2016-01-01
We provide a fully-covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in 4D anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action, and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti) self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.
Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry
Winkler, Franz-Guenter
2007-01-01
The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity provides an intuitive way to understand and derive the Lorentz transformations in the framework of a "natural" 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. In this article the conceptual basis for a purely metric generalization of the Euclidean view is laid. It consists of i) the assumption of spatial and directional variations of the speed of light (VSL), ii) a formulation of the principle of general covariance in 4D Euclidean geometry, and iii) a generally covariant motion law for point particles. For the gravitation model, which is developed on this basis, three out of four effects of the Schwarzschild solution are derived (shift of spectral lines, deflection of light, precession of perihelia of planetary orbits). The explanation of the Shapiro radar echo delay requires modifications of the space-time geometry of the sun's environment. The additional effects brought forth by the respective model entail a possible account of the coronal heating problem and thus make t...
Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity
Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2016-04-01
We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.
Small black holes in global AdS spacetime
Jokela, Niko; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2015-01-01
We study finite temperature correlation functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled conformal field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global Anti-de Sitter spacetime. Upon variation of the black hole radius, our results smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, implying that a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem gets continuously transitioned into a Hermitian one. This provides justification for the use of small black holes as regulators in studies of black hole formation in global AdS spacetime.
Positivity of energy for asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes
Cheng, M C N; Cheng, Miranda C.N.; Skenderis, Kostas
2005-01-01
We derive necessary conditions for the spinorial Witten-Nester energy to be well-defined for asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. We find that the conformal boundary should admit a spinor satisfying certain differential conditions and in odd dimensions the boundary metric should be conformally Einstein. We show that these conditions are satisfied by asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The gravitational energy (obtained using the holographic stress energy tensor) and the spinorial energy are equal in even dimensions and differ by a bounded quantity related to the conformal anomaly in odd dimensions.
Thermodynamics of Asymptotically Locally AdS Spacetimes
Papadimitriou, I; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Skenderis, Kostas
2005-01-01
We formulate the variational problem for AdS gravity with Dirichlet boundary conditions and demonstrate that the covariant counterterms are necessary to make the variational problem well-posed. The holographic charges associated with asymptotic symmetries are then rederived via Noether's theorem and `covariant phase space' techniques. This allows us to prove the first law of black hole mechanics for general asymptotically locally AdS black hole spacetimes. We illustrate our discussion by computing the conserved charges and verifying the first law for the four dimensional Kerr-Newman-AdS and the five dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes.
Small black holes in global AdS spacetime
Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-04-01
We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.
Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: renormalization
Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra
2015-01-01
We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. ...
Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization
Mishra, Rohit
2015-01-01
We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.
Bi-Local Fields in AdS${}_5$ Spacetime
Aouda, Kenichi; Toyoda, Haruki
2016-01-01
Recently, the bi-local fields attracts the interest in studying the duality between $O(N)$ vector model and a higher-spin gauge theory in $AdS$ spacetime. In those theories, the bi-local fields are realized as collective one's of the $O(N)$ vector fields, which are the source of higher spin bulk fields. Historically, the bi-local fields are introduced as a candidate of non-local fields by Yukawa. Today, Yukawa's bi-local fields are understood from a viewpoint of relativistic two-particle bound systems, the bi-local systems. We study the relation between the collective bi-local fields out of HS bulk fields and the fields out of bi-local systems embedded in AdS${}_5$ spacetime with warped metric. It is shown that the effective spring tension of the bi-local system depends on the brane, on which the bi-local system is located. In paticular, a tensionless bi-local sytem, being similar to the collective bi-local fields, can be realized on a low-energy visible brane.
A Proposal On Culling & Filtering A Coxeter Group For 4D, N = 1 Spacetime SUSY Representations
Gates, D E A
2016-01-01
We review the mathematical tools required to cull and filter representations of the Coxeter Group $BC_4$ into providing bases for the construction of minimal off-shell representations of the 4D, $ {\\cal N}$ = 1 spacetime supersymmetry algebra. Of necessity this includes a description of the mathematical mechanism by which four dimensional Lorentz symmetry appears as an emergent symmetry in the context of one dimensional adinkras with four colors described by the Coxeter Group $BC_4$.
Holographic Renormalization for z=2 Lifshitz Space-Times from AdS
Chemissany, Wissam; Hartong, Jelle; Rollier, Blaise
2012-01-01
Lifshitz space-times with critical exponent z=2 can be obtained by dimensional reduction of Schroedinger space-times with critical exponent z=0. The latter space-times are asymptotically AdS solutions of AdS gravity coupled to an axion-dilaton system and can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity. This basic observation is used to perform holographic renormalization for 4-dimensional asymptotically z=2 locally Lifshitz space-times by Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction of the corresponding problem of holographic renormalization for 5-dimensional asymptotically locally AdS space-times coupled to an axion-dilaton system. We can thus define and characterize a 4-dimensional asymptotically locally z=2 Lifshitz space-time in terms of 5-dimensional AdS boundary data. In this setup the 4-dimensional structure of the Fefferman-Graham expansion and the structure of the counterterm action, including the scale anomaly, will be discussed. We find that for asymptotically locally z=2 Lifshitz space-times obtaine...
Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity
Ren, Jie
2016-07-01
Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.
Branes in AdS and pp-wave spacetimes
Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika
2002-01-01
We find half supersymmetric AdS-embeddings in AdS_5 x S^5 corresponding to all quarter BPS orthogonal intersections of D3-branes with Dp-branes. A particular case is the Karch-Randall embedding AdS_4 x S^2. We explicitly prove that these embeddings are supersymmetric by showing that the kappa symmetry projections are compatible with half of the target space Killing spinors and argue that all these cases lead to AdS/dCFT dualities involving a CFT with a defect. We also find an asymptotically AdS_4 x S^2 embedding that corresponds to a holographic RG-flow on the defect. We then consider the pp-wave limit of the supersymmetric AdS-embeddings and show how it leads to half supersymmetric D-brane embeddings in the pp-wave background. We systematically analyze D-brane embeddings in the pp-wave background along with their supersymmetry. We construct all supersymmetric D-branes wrapped along the light-cone using operators in the dual gauge theory: the open string states are constructed using defect fields. We also fin...
In κ-Minkowski spacetime, the coordinates are Lie algebraic elements such that time and space coordinates do not commute, whereas space coordinates commute with each other. The noncommutativity is proportional to a Planck-length-scale constant κ−1, which is a universal constant other than the velocity of light, under the κ-Poincaré transformation. In this sense, the spacetime has a structure called “doubly special relativity.” Such a noncommutative structure is known to be realized by SO(1,4) generators in 4-dimensional de Sitter space. In this paper, we try to construct a noncommutative spacetime having a commutative n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime based on AdSn+1 space with SO(2,n) symmetry. We also study an invariant wave equation corresponding to the first Casimir invariant of this symmetry as a nonlocal field equation expected to yield finite loop amplitudes
Stability of Charged Global AdS$_4$ Spacetimes
Arias, Raúl; Serantes, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS$_4$ solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of t...
Interpolating from Bianchi attractors to Lifshitz and AdS spacetimes
We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or AdS2×S3 geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or AdS2×S3 geometries can in turn be connected to AdS5 spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to AdS5 spacetime. The asymptotic AdS5 spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either spontaneous or due to sources for other fields. Finally, we show that for a large class of flows which connect two Bianchi attractors, a C-function can be defined which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR as long as the null energy condition is satisfied. However, except for special examples of Bianchi attractors (including AdS space), this function does not attain a finite and non-vanishing constant value at the end points
Global properties of causal wedges in asymptotically AdS spacetimes
Hubeny, Veronika E; Tonni, Erik
2013-01-01
We examine general features of causal wedges in asymptotically AdS spacetimes and show that in a wide variety of cases they have non-trivial topology. We also prove some general results regarding minimal area surfaces on the causal wedge boundary and thereby derive constraints on the causal holographic information. We go on to demonstrate that certain properties of the causal wedge impact significantly on features of extremal surfaces which are relevant for computation of holographic entanglement entropy.
Flowing along the edge: spinning up black holes in AdS spacetimes with test particles
Rocha, Jorge V
2014-01-01
We investigate the consequences of throwing point particles into odd-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds. We restrict our attention to the case in which the angular momenta of the background geometry are all equal. This process allows us to test the generalization of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture to asymptotically AdS spacetimes in higher dimensions. We find no evidence for overspinning in D = 5, 7, 9 and 11 dimensions. Instead, test particles carrying the maximum possible angular momentum that still fall into an extremal rotating black hole generate a flow along the curve of extremal solutions.
A Topological-like Model for Gravity in 4D Space-time
Morales, Ivan; Oporto, Zui; Piguet, Olivier
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider a model for gravity in 4-dimensional space-time originally proposed by Chamseddine, which may be derived by dimensional reduction and truncation from a 5-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Its topological origin makes it an interesting candidate for an easier quantization, e.g., in the Loop Quantization framework. The present paper is dedicated to a classical analysis of the model's properties. Cosmological solutions as well as wave solutions are found and compared with the corresponding solutions of Einstein's General Relativity with cosmological constant.
A topological-like model for gravity in 4D space-time
Morales, Ivan; Neves, Bruno; Oporto, Zui; Piguet, Olivier
2016-04-01
In this paper we consider a model for gravity in four-dimensional space-time originally proposed by Chamseddine, which may be derived by dimensional reduction and truncation from a five-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Its topological origin makes it an interesting candidate for an easier quantization, e.g., in the loop quantization framework. The present paper is dedicated to a classical analysis of the model's properties. Cosmological solutions as well as wave solutions are found and compared with the corresponding solutions of Einstein's general relativity with cosmological constant.
A topological-like model for gravity in 4D space-time
Morales, Ivan; Neves, Bruno; Oporto, Zui; Piguet, Olivier [Universidade Federal de Vicosa-UFV, Departamento de Fisica, Vicosa, MG (Brazil)
2016-04-15
In this paper we consider a model for gravity in four-dimensional space-time originally proposed by Chamseddine, which may be derived by dimensional reduction and truncation from a five-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Its topological origin makes it an interesting candidate for an easier quantization, e.g., in the loop quantization framework. The present paper is dedicated to a classical analysis of the model's properties. Cosmological solutions as well as wave solutions are found and compared with the corresponding solutions of Einstein's general relativity with cosmological constant. (orig.)
First order semiclassical thermal string in the AdS spacetime
Belich, Humberto; da Graça, Edison Luiz; dos Santos, Marco Antonio; Vasile Vancea, Ion
2007-02-01
We formulate the finite temperature theory for the free thermal excitations of the bosonic string in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime in the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) approach. The spacetime metric is treated exactly while the string and the thermal reservoir are semiclassically quantized at the first order perturbation theory with respect to the dimensionless parameter epsilon = α'H-2. In the conformal D = 2+1 black-hole AdS background the quantization is exact. The method can be extended to the arbitrary AdS spacetime only in the first order perturbation. This approximation is taken in the center of mass reference frame and it is justified by the fact that at the first order the string dynamics is determined only by the interaction between the free string oscillation modes and the exact background. The first order thermal string is obtained by thermalization of the T = 0 system carried on by the TFD Bogoliubov operator. We determine the free thermal string states and compute the local entropy and free energy in the center of mass reference frame.
First order semiclassical thermal string in the AdS spacetime
We formulate the finite temperature theory for the free thermal excitations of the bosonic string in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime in the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) approach. The spacetime metric is treated exactly while the string and the thermal reservoir are semiclassically quantized at the first order perturbation theory with respect to the dimensionless parameter ε = α'H-2. In the conformal D = 2+1 black-hole AdS background the quantization is exact. The method can be extended to the arbitrary AdS spacetime only in the first order perturbation. This approximation is taken in the center of mass reference frame and it is justified by the fact that at the first order the string dynamics is determined only by the interaction between the free string oscillation modes and the exact background. The first order thermal string is obtained by thermalization of the T = 0 system carried on by the TFD Bogoliubov operator. We determine the free thermal string states and compute the local entropy and free energy in the center of mass reference frame
Geodesic Motions in AdS Soliton Background Space-time
Shi, Han-qing
2016-01-01
We study both massive and massless particle's geodesic motion in the background of general dimensional AdS-Sol space-time. We find that the massive particles oscillate along the radial direction, while massless particles experience one-time bouncing as they approach the "horizon" line of the soliton. Our results provide a direct way to understand the negative energy/masses leading to the AdS-Sol geometry. As a potential application, we extend the point particle to a 3-brane and fix the background as a 5+1 dimension AdS-Sol, thus obtain a very natural bouncing/cyclic cosmological model.
First order semiclassical thermal string in the AdS spacetime
Belich, H; Santos, M A; Vancea, I V
2007-01-01
We formulate the finite temperature theory for the bosonic string in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime in the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) approach. The spacetime metric is treated exactly while the string and the thermal reservoir are semiclassically quantized at the first order perturbation theory with respect to the dimensionless parameter $\\epsilon = \\a ' H^{-2}$. This approximation is taken in a free falling reference frame and it is justified by the fact that at the first order the string dynamics is determined only by the interaction between the {\\em free} string oscillation modes and the {\\em exact} background. The thermal string is obtained by thermalization of the $T = 0$ system carried on by the TFD Bogoliubov operator. We determine the thermal string states and compute the local entropy and free energy in the free falling reference frame.
Classical Klein-Gordon solutions, symplectic structures and isometry actions on AdS spacetimes
Dohse, Max
2012-01-01
We study classical, real Klein-Gordon theory on Lorentzian Anti de Sitter ($\\AdS d$) spacetimes with spatial dimension $d$. We give a complete list of well defined and bounded Klein-Gordon solutions for three types of regions on AdS: slice (time interval times all of space), rod hypercylinder (all of time times solid ball in space), and tube hypercylinder (all of time times solid shell in space). Hypercylinder regions are of natural interest for AdS since the neighborhood of the AdS-boundary is a tube. For the solution spaces of our regions we find the actions induced by the AdS isometry group $\\SOgroup{2,d}$. For all three regions we find one-to-one correspondences between initial data and solutions on the regions. For rod and tube regions this initial data can also be given on the AdS boundary. We calculate symplectic structures associated to the solution spaces, and show their invariance under the isometry actions. We compare our results to the corresponding expressions for $(3\\pn1)$-dimensional Minkowski ...
Simple counterterms for asymptotically AdS spacetimes in Lovelock gravity
Although gravitational actions diverge in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes, boundary counterterms can be added in order to cancel out those divergences; such counterterms are known in general to third-order in the Riemann tensor for the Einstein-Hilbert action. Considering foliations of anti-de Sitter with an SmxHd-m boundary, we discuss a simple algorithm which we use to generate counterterms up to sixth order in the Riemann tensor, for the Einstein-Hilbert, Gauss-Bonnet and third-order-Lovelock Lagrangians. We also comment on other theories such as F(R) gravity.
Exact black hole formation in asymptotically (AdS and flat spacetimes
Xuefeng Zhang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We consider four-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a dilaton scalar field with a supergravity-inspired scalar potential. We obtain an exact time-dependent spherically symmetric solution describing gravitational collapse to a static scalar-hairy black hole. The solution can be asymptotically AdS, flat or dS depending on the value of the cosmological constant parameter Λ in the potential. As the advanced time u increases, the metric approaches the static limit in an exponential fashion, i.e., e−u/u0 with u0∼1/(α4M01/3, where M0 is the mass of the final black hole and α is the second parameter in the potential. Similarly to the Vaidya solution, at u=0, the spacetime can be matched to an (AdS or flat vacuum except that at the origin a naked singularity may occur. Moreover, a limiting case of our solution with α=0 gives rise to an (AdS generalization of the Roberts solution. Our results provide a new model for investigating formation of real life black holes with Λ≥0. For Λ<0, it can be instead used to study non-equilibrium thermalization of certain strongly-coupled field theory.
Galloway, G J; Woolgar, E
2003-01-01
We prove two theorems, announced in hep-th/0801170, for static spacetimes that solve Einstein's equation with negative cosmological constant. The first is a general structure theorem for spacetimes obeying a certain convexity condition near infinity, analogous to the structure theorems of Cheeger and Gromoll for manifolds of non-negative Ricci curvature. For spacetimes with Ricci-flat conformal boundary, the convexity condition is associated with negative mass. The second theorem is a uniqueness theorem for the negative mass AdS soliton spacetime. This result lends support to the new positive mass conjecture due to Horowitz and Myers which states that the unique lowest mass solution which asymptotes to the AdS soliton is the soliton itself. This conjecture was motivated by a nonsupersymmetric version of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results add to the growing body of rigorous mathematical results inspired by the AdS/CFT correspondence conjecture. Our techniques exploit a special geometric feature which the ...
Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei
2014-01-01
We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS 5 × S 5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curva...
Weak field black hole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetimes
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the thermalization of a strongly coupled conformal field theory that is forced out of its vacuum by a source that couples to a marginal operator. The source is taken to be of small amplitude and finite duration, but is otherwise an arbitrary function of time. When the field theory lives on Rd-1,1, the source sets up a translationally invariant wave in the dual gravitational description. This wave propagates radially inwards in AdSd+1 space and collapses to form a black brane. Outside its horizon the bulk spacetime for this collapse process may systematically be constructed in an expansion in the amplitude of the source function, and takes the Vaidya form at leading order in the source amplitude. This solution is dual to a remarkably rapid and intriguingly scale dependent thermalization process in the field theory. When the field theory lives on a sphere the resultant wave either slowly scatters into a thermal gas (dual to a glueball type phase in the boundary theory) or rapidly collapses into a black hole (dual to a plasma type phase in the field theory) depending on the time scale and amplitude of the source function. The transition between these two behaviors is sharp and can be tuned to the Choptuik scaling solution in Rd,1.
String theory in the Penrose limit of AdS2xS2 spacetime
The string theory in the Penrose limit of AdS2xS2 is investigated. The specific Penrose limit is the background known as the Nappi-Witten spacetime, which is a plane-wave background with an axion field. The string theory on it is given as the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model on nonsemi-simple group H4. It is found that, in the past literature, an important type of irreducible representations of the corresponding algebra, h4, were missed. We present these 'new' representations, which have the type of continuous series representations. All three types of representations of the previous literature can be obtained from the new representations by setting the momenta in the theory to special values. Then we realized the affine currents of the WZNW model in terms of four bosonic free fields and constructed the spectrum of the theory by acting the negative frequency modes of free fields on the ground level states in the h4 continuous series representation. The spectrum is shown to be free of ghosts, after the Virasoro constraints are satisfied. In particular we argued that there is no need for constraining one of the longitudinal momenta to have unitarity. The tachyon vertex operator, that correspond to a particular state in the ground level of the string spectrum, is constructed. The operator products of the vertex operator with the currents and the energy-momentum tensor are shown to have the correct forms, with the correct conformal weight of the vertex operator
Complex structures for an S-matrix of Klein-Gordon theory on AdS spacetimes
Dohse, Max
2015-01-01
While the standard construction of the S-matrix fails on Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, a generalized S-matrix makes sense, based on the hypercylinder geometry induced by the boundary of AdS. In contrast to quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime, there is not yet a standard way to resolve the quantization ambiguities arising in its construction. These ambiguities are conveniently encoded in the choice of a complex structure. We explore in this paper the space of complex structures for real scalar Klein-Gordon theory based on a number of criteria. These are: invariance under AdS isometries, induction of a positive definite inner product, compatibility with the standard S-matrix picture and recovery of standard structures in Minkowski spacetime under a limit of vanishing curvature. While there is no complex structure that satisfies all demands, we emphasize two interesting candidates that satisfy most: In one case we have to give up part of the isometry invariance, in the other case the induced inner prod...
Zhang, Jia-Lin; Yu, Hongwei
2014-01-01
We study thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed chemical potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, while in the Quevedo metric the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed number of colors and the vanishing of the specific heat with fixed chemical potential.
Geodesic motion in equal angular momenta Myers-Perry-AdS spacetimes
Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael
2015-10-01
We study the geodesic motion of massive and massless test particles in the background of equally spinning Myers-Perry-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in five dimensions. By adopting a coordinate system that makes manifest the cohomogeneity-1 property of these spacetimes, the equations of motion simplify considerably. This allows us to easily separate the radial motion from the angular part and to obtain solutions for angular trajectories in a compact closed form. For the radial motion, we focus our attention on spherical orbits. In particular, we determine the timelike innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) for these asymptotically AdS spacetimes, as well as the location of null circular orbits. We find that the ISCO dives below the ergosurface for black holes rotating close to extremality and merges with the event horizon exactly at extremality, in analogy with the four-dimensional Kerr case. For sufficiently massive black holes in AdS, there exists a spin parameter range in which the background spacetime is stable against super-radiance and the ISCO lies inside the ergoregion. Our results for massless geodesics show that there are no stable circular null orbits outside the horizon, but there exist such orbits inside the horizon, as well as around overextremal spacetimes, i.e., naked singularities. We also discuss how these orbits deform from the static to the rotating case.
Yaqin, Ainol
2016-01-01
We study static spacetime solutions of four dimensional gravitational model with nonminimal derivative coupling and a scalar potential turned on. By taking an ansatz, namely, the first derivative of the scalar field is proportional to square root of a metric function, we reduce the Einstein field equation and the scalar field equation of motions into a single highly nonlinear differential equation. We prove that there is no black hole solution in this setup. Finally, we give a simple model where the scalar potential is taken to be a hyperbolic function and then, obtain several analytic solutions of the model.
On the Central Charge of Spacetime Current Algebras and Correlators in String Theory on AdS3
Kim, Jihun; Porrati, Massimo
2015-01-01
Spacetime Virasoro and affine Lie algebras for strings propagating in AdS3 are known to all orders in $\\alpha'$. The central extension of such algebras is a string vertex, whose expectation value can depend on the number of long strings present in the background but should be otherwise state-independent. In hep-th/0106004, on the other hand, a state-dependent expectation value was found. Another puzzling feature of the theory is lack of cluster decomposition property in certain connected corr...
Geodesic motion in equal angular momenta Myers-Perry-AdS spacetimes
Delsate, Térence; Santarelli, Raphael
2015-01-01
We study the geodesic motion of massive and massless test particles in the background of equally spinning Myers-Perry-AdS black holes in five dimensions. By adopting a coordinate system that makes manifest the cohomogeneity-1 property of these spacetimes, the equations of motion simplify considerably. This allows us to easily separate the radial motion from the angular part and to obtain solutions for angular trajectories in a compact closed form. For the radial motion we focus our attention on spherical orbits. In particular, we determine the timelike innermost stable spherical orbits (ISSOs) for these asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes, as well as the location of null spherical orbits. We find that the ISSO dives below the ergosurface for black holes rotating close to extremality and merges with the event horizon exactly at extremality, in analogy with the four-dimensional Kerr case. For sufficiently massive black holes in AdS there exists a spin parameter range in which the background spacetime...
Two worlds collide: Interacting shells in AdS spacetime and chaos
Brito, Richard; Rocha, Jorge V
2016-01-01
We study the simplest two-body problem in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime: two, infinitely-thin, concentric spherical shells of matter. We include only gravitational interaction between the two shells, but we show that the dynamics of this system is highly nontrivial. We observe prompt collapse to a black hole, delayed collapse and even perpetual oscillatory motion, depending on the initial location of the shells (or their energy content). The system exhibits critical behavior, and we show strong hints that it is also chaotic.
Thermal String Vacuum in Black-Hole AdS Spacetime
Graça, E L
2005-01-01
In this letter we propose a new ansatz for the thermal string in the TFD formulation. From it, we derive the thermal vacuum for the closed bosonic string and calculate the thermal partition function in the blackhole $AdS$ background in the first order of the perturbative quantization.
The hidden symmetry of higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes
It is well known that four-dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetime possesses the hidden symmetry associated with the Killing-Yano tensor. This tensor is 'universal' in the sense that there exist coordinates where it does not depend on any of the free parameters of the metric. Recently, the general higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS solutions of the Einstein equations were obtained. We demonstrate that all these metrics with arbitrary rotation and NUT parameters admit a universal Killing-Yano tensor. We give an explicit presentation of the Killing-Yano tensor and associated second rank Killing tensor and briefly discuss their properties. (fast track communication)
Exact Black Hole Formation in Asymptotically (A)dS and Flat Spacetimes
Zhang, Xuefeng
2014-01-01
We consider four-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a dilaton scalar field with a supegravity-inspired scalar potential. We obtain an exact time-dependent spherically symmetric solution describing gravitational collapse to a scalar-hairy black hole. The solution can be asymptotically AdS, flat or dS depending on values of the cosmological constant parameter $\\Lambda$ in the potential. As the advanced time $u$ increases, the spacetime reaches equilibrium in an exponential fashion, i.e., $e^{-u/u_0}$ with $u_0\\sim1/(\\alpha^4 M_0)^{1/3}$, where $M_0$ is the mass of the final black hole and $\\alpha$ is the second parameter in the potential. Similar to Vaidya solution, at $u=0$, the spacetime can be matched to an (A)dS or flat vacuum except that at the origin a naked singularity may occur. Moreover, a limiting case of our solution gives rise to an (A)dS generalization of Roberts solution, thereby making it relevant to cosmic censorship. Our results provide a new model for studying the formation of r...
Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime
Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao
2015-10-01
In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
Comparison between various notions of conserved charges in asymptotically AdS spacetimes
We derive Hamiltonian generators of asymptotic symmetries for general relativity with asymptotic AdS boundary conditions using the 'covariant phase space' method of Wald et al. We then compare our results with other definitions that have been proposed in the literature. We find that our definition agrees with that proposed by Ashtekar et al, with the spinor definition, and with the background-dependent definition of Henneaux and Teitelboim. Our definition disagrees with that obtained from the 'counterterm subtraction method', but the difference is found to consist only of a 'constant offset' that is determined entirely in terms of the boundary metric. We finally discuss and justify our boundary conditions by a linear perturbation analysis, and we comment on generalizations of our boundary conditions, as well as inclusion of matter fields
Holographic p-Wave Superconductors in Quintessence AdS Black Hole Spacetime
We construct a holographic p-wave superconductor model in the background of quintessence AdS black hole with an SU(2) Yang—Mills gauge field and then probe the effects of quintessence on the holographic p-wave superconductor. We investigate the relation between the critical temperature and the state parameter of quintessence, and present the numerical results for electric conductivity. It is shown that the condensation of the vector field becomes harder as the absolute value of the state parameter increases. Unlike the scalar condensate in the s-wave model, the condensation of the vector field in p-wave model can occur in the total value range of the state parameter wq of quintessence. These results could help us know more about holographic superconductor and dark energy. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
Beyond AdS Space-times, New Holographic Correspondences and Applications
Ghodrati, Mahdis
2016-01-01
To describe Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating (HSV) phenomena in CM one uses gauge fields on the gravity side which naturally realize the breaking of Lorentz invariance. These gravity constructions often contain naked singularities. In this thesis, we construct a resolution of the infra-red (IR) singularity of the HSV background. The idea is to add squared curvature terms to the Einstein-Maxwell dilaton action to build a flow from $\\text{AdS}_4$ in the ultra violate (UV) to an intermediating HSV region and then to an $\\text{AdS}_2 \\times {\\text{R}}^2$ region in the IR. This general solution is free from the naked singularities and would be more appropriate for applications of HSV in physical systems. We also study the Schwinger effect by using the AdS/CFT duality. We present the phase diagrams of the Schwinger effect and also the "butterfly shaped-phase diagrams" of the entanglement entropy for four different confining supergravity backgrounds. Comparing different features of all of these diagrams could poi...
Holographic description of Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS Spacetimes
Chen, B; Kamali, V; Setare, M R
2010-01-01
We show that there exists a holographic 2D CFT description of a Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetime. We first consider the wave equation of a massless scalar field propagating in extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetimes and find in the "near region", the wave equation in extremal limit could be written in terms of the $SL(2,R)$ quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual CFT descriptions of these black holes. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction. Furthermore we study the holographic description of the generic four dimensional non-extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS black holes. We find that if focusing on the near-horizon region, for the massless scalar scattering in the low-frequency limit, the radial equation could still be rewritten as the $SL(2,R)$ quadratic Casimir, suggesting the existence of dual 2D description. We read the temperatures of the dual CFT from the conformal coordinates and obtain the cent...
Holographic description of Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetimes
Chen, B., E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.c [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ghezelbash, A.M., E-mail: masoud.ghezelbash@usask.c [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Kamali, V., E-mail: vkamali1362@gmail.co [Department of Campus of Bijar, Kurdistan University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.i [Department of Campus of Bijar, Kurdistan University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-07-01
We show that there exists a holographic 2D CFT description of a Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetime. We first consider the wave equation of a massless scalar field propagating in extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetimes and find in the 'near region', the wave equation in extremal limit could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual CFT descriptions of these black holes. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction. Furthermore we study the holographic description of the generic four-dimensional non-extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS black holes. We find that if focusing on the near-horizon region, for the massless scalar scattering in the low-frequency limit, the radial equation could still be rewritten as the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir, suggesting the existence of dual 2D description. We read the temperatures of the dual CFT from the conformal coordinates and obtain the central charges by studying the near-horizon geometry of near-extremal black holes. We recover the macroscopic entropy from the microscopic counting. We also show that for the super-radiant scattering, the retarded Green's functions and the corresponding absorption cross sections are in perfect match with CFT prediction.
Static black holes with axial symmetry in asymptotically AdS$_4$ spacetime
Kichakova, Olga; Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha
2015-01-01
The known static electro-vacuum black holes in a globally AdS$_4$ background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle $\\varphi$, which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Explicit examples of such static black holes are constructed in Einstein--(complex) scalar field and Einstein--Yang-Mills theories. The basic properties of these solutions are discussed, looking for generic features. For example, we notice that the horizon has an oblate spheroidal shape for solutions with a scalar field and a prolate one for black holes with Yang-Mills fields. The deviation from sphericity of the horizon geometry manifests itself in the holographic stress-tensor. Finally, based on the results obtained in the probe limit, ...
Static black holes with axial symmetry in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime
Kichakova, Olga; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha
2016-02-01
The known static electrovacuum black holes in a globally AdS4 background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle φ , which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Explicit examples of such static black holes are constructed in Einstein-(complex) scalar field and Einstein-Yang-Mills theories. The basic properties of these solutions are discussed, looking for generic features. For example, we notice that the horizon has an oblate spheroidal shape for solutions with a scalar field and a prolate one for black holes with Yang-Mills fields. The deviation from sphericity of the horizon geometry manifests itself in the holographic stress tensor. Finally, based on the results obtained in the probe limit, we conjecture the existence in Einstein-Maxwell theory of static black holes with axial symmetry only.
Exact black hole formation in asymptotically (A)dS and flat spacetimes
We consider four-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a dilaton scalar field with a supergravity-inspired scalar potential. We obtain an exact time-dependent spherically symmetric solution describing gravitational collapse to a static scalar-hairy black hole. The solution can be asymptotically AdS, flat or dS depending on the value of the cosmological constant parameter Λ in the potential. As the advanced time u increases, the metric approaches the static limit in an exponential fashion, i.e., e−u/u0 with u0∼1/(α4M0)1/3, where M0 is the mass of the final black hole and α is the second parameter in the potential. Similarly to the Vaidya solution, at u=0, the spacetime can be matched to an (A)dS or flat vacuum except that at the origin a naked singularity may occur. Moreover, a limiting case of our solution with α=0 gives rise to an (A)dS generalization of the Roberts solution. Our results provide a new model for investigating formation of real life black holes with Λ≥0. For Λ<0, it can be instead used to study non-equilibrium thermalization of certain strongly-coupled field theory
Holographic Reconstruction of Spacetime and Renormalization in the AdS/CFT Correspondence
De Haro, S; Solodukhin, S N; Haro, Sebastian de; Skenderis, Kostas; Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2001-01-01
We develop a systematic method for renormalizing the AdS/CFT prescription forcomputing correlation functions. This entails in regularizing the bulk on-shellsupergravity action in a covariant way, computing all divergences, addingcounterterms to cancel them and then removing the regulator. We explicitly workout the case of pure gravity up to six dimensions and of gravity coupled toscalars. The method can also be viewed as providing a holographicreconstruction of the bulk spacetime metric and of bulk fields on thisspacetime, out of conformal field theory data. Knowing which sources are turnedon is sufficient in order to obtain an asymptotic expansion of the bulk metricand of bulk fields near the boundary to high enough order so that all infrareddivergences of the on-shell action are obtained. To continue the holographicreconstruction of the bulk fields one needs new CFT data: the expectation valueof the dual operator. In particular, in order to obtain the bulk metric oneneeds to know the expectation value of st...
Wang, Yaohua
2016-01-01
In non-extreme Kerr-Newman-AdS spacetime, we prove that there is no nontrivial Dirac particle which is $L^p$ for $0|Q|+q \\kappa $, outside and away from the event horizon. By taking $q=\\frac{1}{2}$, we show that there is no normalizable massive Dirac particle with mass greater than $|Q|+\\frac{\\kappa}{2} $ outside and away from the event horizon in non-extreme Kerr-Newman-AdS spacetime, and they must either disappear into the black hole or escape to infinity, and this recovers the same result of Belgiorno and Cacciatori in the case of $Q=0$ obtained by using spectral methods. Furthermore, we prove that any Dirac particle with eigenvalue $|\\lambda|<\\frac{\\kappa}{2} $ must be $L^2$ outside and away from the event horizon.
Geodesic Motion in the Spacetime Of a SU(2)-Colored (A)dS Black Hole in Conformal Gravity
Hoseini, Bahareh; Soroushfar, Saheb
2016-01-01
In this paper we are interested to study the geodesic motion in the spacetime of a SU(2)-colored (A)dS black hole solving in conformal gravity. Using Weierstrass elliptic and Kleinian {\\sigma} hyperelliptic functions, we derive the analytical solutions for the equation of motion of test particles and light rays. Also, we classify the possible orbits according to the particle's energy and angular momentum.
We analyze the gravitational perturbations induced by particles falling into a three dimensional, asymptotically AdS black hole geometry. More specifically, we solve the linearized perturbation equations obtained from the geodesic motion of a ringlike distribution of test particles in the BTZ background. This setup ensures that the U(1) symmetry of the background is preserved. The nonasymptotic flatness of the background raises difficulties in attributing the significance of energy and angular momentum to the conserved quantities of the test particles. This issue is well known but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been addressed in the literature. We confirm that the naive expressions for energy and angular momentum are the correct definitions. Finally, we put an asymptotically AdS version of the weak cosmic censorship to a test: by attempting to overspin the BTZ black hole with test particles it is found that the black hole cannot be spun-up past its extremal limit.
Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5×S5 spacetime
In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric substraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero
Definition of Mass for Asymptotically AdS space-times for Gravities Coupled to Matter Fields
Wen, Qiang
2015-01-01
We give a general definition of mass for gravities coupled to matter fields. We study the gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with weakened boundary conditions, with the masses calculated by the Hamiltonian formula and Wald's formula. We show that the masses calculated by these two formulas are equivalent to each other in this case, but are non-integrable. We then discuss the illness of this non-integrable mass and its failure to give interpretation to the entropy of some special solutions. We also show that Wald's formula cannot give the right mass for RN-AdS black holes. To solve these problems we introduce a not conserved scalar charge and develop a new definition for mass based on Wald's formula. The new definition is similar in spirit to both Wald's formula and the Hamiltonian formula, with the difference that we require the variation of the mass to have no contribution from the variation of the matter charges. This new definition is also valid for gravities coupled to matter fields with other ch...
Brane Space-Time and Cosmology
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
I reconsider the cosmology of a 3-brane universe imbedded in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS5 with a cosmological constant and show that the resulting Friedmann equations for this system are identical to those standard obtained in 4D FRW space-time in the presence of an additional density, playing two roles: the tension of the brane and the gravitino density We discuss some important concequences on hot big bang cosmology.
Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime
Jun-ichi, Sakamoto
2016-01-01
We discuss Yang-Baxter sigma deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime proposed recently. To avoid the degeneracy of the standard bilinear form associated with the familiar coset ISO(1,3)/SO(1,3), we consider a slice of AdS5 in Poincaré coordinates by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2,4). With this procedure we present the metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known backgrounds such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field.
Massive charged BTZ black holes in asymptotically (a)dS spacetimes
Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
Motivated by recent developments of BTZ black holes and interesting results of massive gravity, we investigate massive BTZ black holes in the presence of Maxwell and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics. We study geometrical properties such as type of singularity and asymptotical behavior as well as thermodynamic structure of the solutions through canonical ensemble. We show that despite the existence of massive term, obtained solutions are asymptotically (a)dS and have a curvature singularity at the origin. Then, we regard varying cosmological constant and examine the Van der Waals like behavior of the solutions in extended phase space. In addition, we employ geometrical thermodynamic approaches and show that using Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics leads to existence of ensemble dependency while HPEM metric yields consistent picture. For neutral solutions, it will be shown that generalization to massive gravity leads to the presence of non-zero temperature and heat capacity for vanishing horizon radius. Such behavior is not observed for linearly charged solutions while generalization to nonlinearly one recovers this property.
Singularities in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes
Ishibashi, Akihiro; Maeda, Kengo
2012-01-01
We consider singularity theorems in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. In the first part, we discuss the global methods used to show geodesic incompleteness and see that when the conditions imposed in Hawking and Penrose's singularity theorem are satisfied, a singularity must appear in asymptotically AdS spacetime. The recent observations of turbulent instability of asymptotically AdS spacetimes indicate that AdS spacetimes are generically singular even if a closed trapped surfac...
Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei
2013-01-01
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.
Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime
Matsumoto, Takuya; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2015-01-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime. The Yang-Baxter sigma model description was originally developed for principal chiral models based on a modified classical Yang-Baxter equation. It has been extended to coset curved spaces and models based on the usual classical Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, for flat space, there is the obvious problem that the standard bilinear form degenerates if we employ the familiar coset Poincar\\'e group/Lorentz group. Instead we consider a slice of AdS$_5$ by embedding the 4D Poincar\\'e group into the 4D conformal group $SO(2,4)$. With this procedure we obtain metrics and $B$-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known configurations such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, the T-dual of Grant space, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS$_4$ and AdS$_4$. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical $r$-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated met...
Yang-Baxter deformations of Minkowski spacetime
Matsumoto, Takuya; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2015-10-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime. The Yang-Baxter sigma model description was originally developed for principal chiral models based on a modified classical Yang-Baxter equation. It has been extended to coset curved spaces and models based on the usual classical Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, for flat space, there is the obvious problem that the standard bilinear form degenerates if we employ the familiar coset Poincaré group/Lorentz group. Instead we consider a slice of AdS5 by embedding the 4D Poincaré group into the 4D conformal group SO(2, 4) . With this procedure we obtain metrics and B-fields as Yang-Baxter deformations which correspond to well-known configurations such as T-duals of Melvin backgrounds, Hashimoto-Sethi and Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich backgrounds, the T-dual of Grant space, pp-waves, and T-duals of dS4 and AdS4. Finally we consider a deformation with a classical r-matrix of Drinfeld-Jimbo type and explicitly derive the associated metric and B-field which we conjecture to correspond to a new integrable system.
Banks, Tom
2012-10-01
The theory of holographic spacetime (HST) generalizes both string theory and quantum field theory (QFT). It provides a geometric rationale for supersymmetry (SUSY) and a formalism in which super-Poincare invariance follows from Poincare invariance. HST unifies particles and black holes, realizing both as excitations of noncommutative geometrical variables on a holographic screen. Compact extra dimensions are interpreted as finite-dimensional unitary representations of super-algebras, and have no moduli. Full field theoretic Fock spaces, and continuous moduli are both emergent phenomena of super-Poincare invariant limits in which the number of holographic degrees of freedom goes to infinity. Finite radius de Sitter (dS) spaces have no moduli, and break SUSY with a gravitino mass scaling like Λ1/4. In regimes where the Covariant Entropy Bound is saturated, QFT is not a good description in HST, and inflation is such a regime. Following ideas of Jacobson, the gravitational and inflaton fields are emergent classical variables, describing the geometry of an underlying HST model, rather than "fields associated with a microscopic string theory". The phrase in quotes is meaningless in the HST formalism, except in asymptotically flat and AdS spacetimes, and some relatives of these.
Coelho, Taiane Ritta
2014-01-01
Resumo: Este estudo se situa no campo de ICT4D (Information and Communication Technologies for Development), termo internacionalmente conhecido para discutir o uso das Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TIC) para o desenvolvimento. O que motivou o pesquisador a estudar este tema foi a existência de um paradoxo: TIC são amplamente consideradas, por uns, como invenções que mudam a maneira como milhões de pessoas conduzem suas vidas e, por outros, como alargamento das relações de poder. E ...
Maldacena, Juan M.
2001-01-01
We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.
Ad Hoc 网络中基于联系时空的预测转发模型%A PREDICTION FORWARDING MODEL BASED ON CONTACT SPACETIME IN AD HOC NETWORKS
刘迪; 杨凤; 卫东
2015-01-01
In ad hoc networks,the routing table needs frequent reconstruction due to quick-changed topology caused by node’s movements and computation limits.The reliability and efficiency of packet forwarding will be affected since it is quite difficult to execute data forwarding algorithm directly on the original topology.With the knowledge of social networks and behaviour rules,we first construct a connectivity subgraph,and then build up a prediction forwarding model of contact spacetime by analysing and forecasting the node’s contact time,contact time interval and spatial location as well.Verification of the model is done through stimulation experiment,results show that this model can effectively forecast and establish forwarding route,and has greater improvement,compared with the existing model,in packet forwarding success rate,end-to-end performance on the average delay and average routing overhead.%Ad Hoc 网络中由于节点移动、计算限制等因素导致其拓扑结构多变，需要频繁重建路由，直接在原始拓扑上执行数据转发算法显得极其困难，影响分组转发可靠性和效率。利用社会网络和行为规律的知识，在构建连通子图的基础上，通过分析、预测节点联系的时间、联系时间间隔和空间位置等方法，构建了一个联系时空的预测转发模型。通过仿真实验对该模型进行验证，结果表明：该模型能有效地预测并建立转发路由，在分组转发成功率、端到端平均时延以及平均路由开销等性能上较现有模型有较大的提升。
Hamilton-Jacobi renormalization for Lifshitz spacetime
M. Baggio; J. de Boer; K. Holsheimer
2012-01-01
Just like AdS spacetimes, Lifshitz spacetimes require counterterms in order to make the on-shell value of the bulk action finite. We study these counterterms using the Hamilton-Jacobi method. Rather than imposing boundary conditions from the start, we will derive suitable boundary conditions by requ
Joshi, Pankaj S
2013-01-01
We present here an overview of our basic understanding and recent developments on spacetime singularities in the Einstein theory of gravity. Several issues related to physical significance and implications of singularities are discussed. The nature and existence of singularities are considered which indicate the formation of super ultra-dense regions in the universe as predicted by the general theory of relativity. Such singularities develop during the gravitational collapse of massive stars and in cosmology at the origin of the universe. Possible astrophysical implications of the occurrence of singularities in the spacetime universe are indicated. We discuss in some detail the profound and key fundamental issues that the singularities give rise to, such as the cosmic censorship and predictability in the universe, naked singularities in gravitational collapse and their relevance in black hole physics today, and their astrophysical implications in modern relativistic astrophysics and cosmology.
Kaminar, Aaron
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This book is written in a friendly, practical style with lots of screenshots and help that will ensure you grow in confidence chapter by chapter.This book is recommended for artists that have experience in other 3D software packages, and who want to learn Cinema 4D. That being said, dedicated readers without experience in other 3D software should not be discouraged from reading this book to learn the basics of Cinema 4D as their first 3D package.
Power counting renormalizability of scalar theory in Lifshitz spacetime
Hirayama, Takayuki
2012-01-01
We analyse the power counting renormalizability of scalar theory in Lifshitz spacetime in D+2 dimensions. We show the spectral dimension becomes 2+(D/z) (z is the critical exponent) after integrating out the radion field. We comment on the AdS/CFT correspondence, and on how to avoid the Lifshitz singularity by flowing into AdS spacetime in the infrared. We also comment on the quantum gravity in Lifshitz spacetime.
Telles, Eduardo
2014-01-01
HII galaxies are clumpy and their gas kinematics can be mapped to show the global turbulent motions and the effect of massive star evolution. The distribution of their physical conditions is homogeneous and oxygen abundance is uniform. The presence of nebular HeII 4868 line seems to be higher in a low abundance galaxy, implying a harder ionization power probably due to stars in low metallicity. Innovative methods of data cube analysis, namely PCA tomography (nicknamed 4D), seem promising in revealing additional information not detected with the standard methods. I review some of our own recent work on the 3D spectroscopy of HII galaxies.
Quantization in Spacetime from Null Paths in Higher Dimensions
Wesson, Paul S
2008-01-01
Massive particles in spacetime can be viewed as moving on null paths in a higher-dimensional manifold. Using a novel gauge, we show that geometric structure in 5D can lead to the standard rule for quantization in 4D. Particle mass can be wavelike, as suggested originally by Dirac, and other 5D/4D consequences are outlined.
Geodesics in the (anti-)de Sitter spacetime
Tho, Nguyen Phuc Ky
2016-01-01
A class of exact solutions of the geodesic equations in (anti-)de Sitter spacetimes is presented. The geodesics for test particles in $AdS_4$ and $dS_4$ spacetimes are respectively sinusoidal and hyperbolic sine world lines. The world line for light rays is straight lines as known. The world lines of test particles are not dependent on their energy as noted. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of $AdS_4$ spacetime provides a physical explanation for arising of the virtual particle and antiparticle pairs in the vacuum. Interestingly, the energy of a pair and the time its particles moving along their geodesics can be related by a relation similar to Heisenberg uncertainty one pertaining quantum vacuum fluctuations. The sinusoidal geodesics of $AdS_4$ spacetime can describe the world lines of the virtual particles and antiparticles. The hyperbolic sine geodesics of $dS_4$ spacetime can explain why galaxies move apart with positive accelerations.
On electric field in anti-de Sitter spacetime
In this paper we calculate the electromagnetic field produced using retarded Green's function in Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS). Since this spacetime is non-globally hyperbolic and has no Cauchy surface, we only consider the field originated from a charge moving along its geodesic in the region consists of points covered by future null geodesic of the charge
Establishing a framework to implement 4D XCAT Phantom for 4D radiotherapy research
Raj K Panta
2012-01-01
Conclusions: An integrated computer program has been developed to generate, review, analyse, process, and export the 4D XCAT images. A framework has been established to implement the 4D XCAT phantom for 4D RT research.
Advances in 4D Radiation Therapy for Managing Respiration: Part I – 4D Imaging
Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Rosu, Mihaela
2012-01-01
Techniques for managing respiration during imaging and planning of radiation therapy are reviewed, concentrating on free-breathing (4D) approaches. First, we focus on detailing the historical development and basic operational principles of currently-available “first generation” 4D imaging modalities: 4D computed tomography, 4D cone beam computed tomography, 4D magnetic resonance imaging, and 4D positron emission tomography. Features and limitations of these first generation systems are descri...
Establishing a framework to implement 4D XCAT Phantom for 4D radiotherapy research
Panta, Raj K.; Paul Segars; Fang-Fang Yin; Jing Cai
2012-01-01
Aims: To establish a framework to implement the 4D integrated extended cardiac torso (XCAT) digital phantom for 4D radiotherapy (RT) research. Materials and Methods: A computer program was developed to facilitate the characterization and implementation of the 4D XCAT phantom. The program can (1) generate 4D XCAT images with customized parameter files; (2) review 4D XCAT images; (3) generate composite images from 4D XCAT images; (4) track motion of selected region-of-interested (ROI); (5) c...
Singularities in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes
Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-01-01
We consider singularity theorems in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. In the first part, we discuss the global methods used to show geodesic incompleteness and see that when the conditions imposed in Hawking and Penrose's singularity theorem are satisfied, a singularity must appear in asymptotically AdS spacetime. The recent observations of turbulent instability of asymptotically AdS spacetimes indicate that AdS spacetimes are generically singular even if a closed trapped surface, which is one of the main conditions of the Hawking and Penrose theorem, does not exist in the initial hypersurface. This may lead one to expect to obtain a singularity theorem without imposing the existence of a trapped set in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. This, however, does not appear to be the case. We consider, within the use of global methods, two such attempts and discuss difficulties in eliminating conditions concerning a trapped set from singularity theorems in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. Then in the second...
Jatkar, Dileep P; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
We show that the Ashtekar-Magnon-Das (AMD) mass and other conserved quantities are equivalent to the Kounterterm charges in the asymptotically AdS spacetimes that satisfy the Einstein equations, if we assume the same asymptotic fall-off behavior of the Weyl tensor as considered by AMD. This therefore implies that, in all dimensions, the conformal mass can be directly derived from the bulk action and the boundary terms, which are written in terms of the extrinsic curvature.
4-D OCT in Developmental Cardiology
Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.
Although strong evidence exists to suggest that altered cardiac function can lead to CHDs, few studies have investigated the influential role of cardiac function and biophysical forces on the development of the cardiovascular system due to a lack of proper in vivo imaging tools. 4-D imaging is needed to decipher the complex spatial and temporal patterns of biomechanical forces acting upon the heart. Numerous solutions over the past several years have demonstrated 4-D OCT imaging of the developing cardiovascular system. This chapter will focus on these solutions and explain their context in the evolution of 4-D OCT imaging. The first sections describe the relevant techniques (prospective gating, direct 4-D imaging, retrospective gating), while later sections focus on 4-D Doppler imaging and measurements of force implementing 4-D OCT Doppler. Finally, the techniques are summarized, and some possible future directions are discussed.
Casimir energy and variational methods in AdS spacetime
Garattini, R
2000-01-01
Following the subtraction procedure for manifolds with boundaries, we calculate by variational methods, the Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter and the Anti-de Sitter space energy difference. By computing the one loop approximation for TT tensors we discover the existence of an unstable mode at zero temperature, which can be stabilized by the boundary reduction method. Implications on a foam-like space are discussed.
Casimir energy and variational methods in AdS spacetime
Garattini, Remo
2000-08-01
Following the subtraction procedure for manifolds with boundaries, we calculate by variational methods, the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter and the anti-de Sitter space energy difference. By computing the one-loop approximation for TT (traceless and transverseless) tensors we discover the existence of an unstable mode at zero temperature, which can be stabilized by the boundary reduction method. Implications for a foam-like space are discussed.
CINEMA 4D The Artist's Project Sourcebook
McQuilkin, Kent
2011-01-01
Cinema 4D is a fully integrated 3D modeling, animation, and rendering package used extensively in the film, television, science, architecture, engineering and other industries. Generally ranked as the 3rd most widely-used 3Dapplication Cinema 4D is widely praised for its stability, speed and ease of use. Recent film and broadcast productions that have used Cinema 4D include Open Season, Monster House, Superman Returns, Polar Express, Monday Night Football. This third edition of Cinema 4D is updated to address the latest release of the application as well as its critically acclaimed MoGr
Vertex Operators in 4D Quantum Gravity formulated as CFT
Hamada, Ken-ji
2010-01-01
We study vertex operators in 4D conformal field theory derived from quantized gravity, whose dynamics is governed by the Weyl action and the Wess-Zumino action by Riegert. Conformal symmetry is equal to gauge symmetry of diffeomorphism, which mixes positive-metric and negative-metric modes of the gravitational field and thus these modes cannot be treated separately in physical operators. We explicitly construct gravitational vertex operators of the cosmological constant and the Ricci scalar, which are defined as space-time volume integrals of them are invariant under conformal transformations. Short distance singularities of these operator products are computed and it is shown that their coefficients have physically correct sign. Furthermore, we show that conformal algebra holds even in the system perturbed by the cosmological constant vertex operator, as in the case of the Liouville theory shown by Curtright and Thorn.
Space--Time from Topos Quantum Theory
Flori, Cecilia
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics in the past 50 years has been to define a theory of quantum gravity, i.e. a theory which consistently combines general relativity and quantum theory in order to define a theory of space-time itself seen as a fluctuating field. As such, a definition of space-time is of paramount importance, but it is precisely the attainment of such a definition which is one of the main stumbling blocks in quantum gravity. One of the striking features of quantum gravity is that although both general relativity and quantum theory treat space-time as a four-dimensional (4D) manifold equipped with a metric, quantum gravity would suggest that, at the microscopic scale, space-time is somewhat discrete. Therefore the continuum structure of space-time suggested by the two main ingredients of quantum gravity seems to be thrown into discussion by quantum gravity itself. This seems quite an odd predicament, but it might suggest that perhaps a different mathematical structure other than a smooth manifold should model space-time. These considerations seem to shed doubts on the use of the continuum in general in a possible theory of quantum gravity. An alternative would be to develop a mathematical formalism for quantum gravity in which no fundamental role is played by the continuum and where a new concept of space-time, not modeled on a differentiable manifold, will emerge. This is precisely one of the aims of the topos theory approach to quantum theory and quantum gravity put forward by Isham, Butterfield, and Doering and subsequently developed by other authors. The aim of this article is to precisely elucidate how such an approach gives rise to a new definition of space-time which might be more appropriate for quantum gravity.
Vector potentials in gauge theories in flat spacetime
Wong, C W
2015-01-01
A recent suggestion that vector potentials in electrodynamics (ED) are nontensorial objects under 4D frame rotations is found to be both unnecessary and confusing. As traditionally used in ED, a vector potential $A$ always transforms homogeneously under 4D rotations in spacetime, but if the gauge is changed by the rotation, one can restore the gauge back to the original gauge by adding an inhomogeneous term. It is then "not a 4-vector", but two: one for rotation and one for translation. For such a gauge, it is much more important to preserve {\\it explicit} homogeneous Lorentz covariance by simply skipping the troublesome gauge-restoration step. A gauge-independent separation of $A$ into a dynamical term and a non-dynamical term in Abelian gauge theories is re-defined more generally as the terms caused by the presence and absence respectively of the 4-current term in the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations for $A$. Such a separation {\\it cannot} in general be extended to non-Abelian theories where $A$ satisfies no...
High-temperature asymptotics of the 4d superconformal index
Ardehali, Arash Arabi
2016-01-01
The superconformal index of a typical Lagrangian 4d SCFT is given by a special function known as an elliptic hypergeometric integral (EHI). The high-temperature limit of the index corresponds to the hyperbolic limit of the EHI. The hyperbolic limit of certain special EHIs has been analyzed by Eric Rains around 2006; extending Rains's techniques, we discover a surprisingly rich structure in the high-temperature limit of a (rather large) class of EHIs that arise as the superconformal index of unitary Lagrangian 4d SCFTs with non-chiral matter content. Our result has implications for $\\mathcal{N}=1$ dualities, the AdS/CFT correspondence, and supersymmetric gauge dynamics on $R^3\\times S^1$. We also investigate the high-temperature asymptotics of the large-N limit of the superconformal index of a class of holographic 4d SCFTs (described by toric quiver gauge theories with SU(N) nodes). We show that from this study a rather general solution to the problem of holographic Weyl anomaly in AdS$_5$/CFT$_4$ at the suble...
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2016-01-01
We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.
Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory
Farnsworth, Kara; Prilepina, Valentina
2015-01-01
We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality $\\langle T^{00} \\rangle \\ge -C/L^4$, where $L$ is the size of the smearing region, and $C$ is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarka...
Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory
Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus; Prilepina, Valentina
2016-03-01
We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality avgT00 >= - C /L4 , where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the ``conformal collider'' constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.
BPS black holes in gauged N = 4, D = 4 supergravity
We find solutions of the bosonic sector of gauged N = 4, D = 4 SU(2) x SU(2) supergravity, which represent dilaton black holes with toroidal or spherical event horizons. The axion is consistently truncated, and the gauge group is broken to U(1) x U(1). The spherical black holes carry two electric and two magnetic abelian charges, whereas the toroidal holes have vanishing magnetic charges. The space-time metrics are warped products, and the manifolds turn out to be globally hyperbolic, in contrast to standard gauged supergravity ground states. It is shown that in the toroidal case, there are solutions preserving one quarter or one half of the supersymmetries, while for spherical topologies all supersymmetries are broken. In general, the toroidal BPS states represent naked singularities, but there is also a supersymmetric black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The ((1)/(2)) supersymmetric case arises for vanishing charges and mass, and represents the known domain wall solution of the Freedman-Schwarz model. It provides the background in which the black holes live. Finally, we use Chamseddine's and Volkov's Kaluza-Klein interpretation of gauged N = 4, D = 4 SU(2) x SU(2) supergravity to lift our solutions to ten and eleven dimensions and to consider them as solutions to the leading order equations of motion of the string/M-theory effective action
We present a comprehensive analysis of the AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence, a map between a class of asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes and a class of Ricci-flat spacetimes. We provide a detailed derivation of the map, discuss a number of extensions and apply it to a number of important examples, such as AdS on a torus, AdS black branes and fluids/gravity metrics. In particular, the correspondence links the hydrodynamic regime of asymptotically flat black p-branes or the Rindler fluid with that of AdS. It implies that this class of Ricci-flat spacetimes inherits from AdS a generalized conformal symmetry and has a holographic structure. We initiate the discussion of holography by analyzing how the map acts on boundary conditions and holographic 2-point functions
Caldarelli, M M; Goutéraux, B; Skenderis, K
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence, a map between a class of asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes and a class of Ricci-flat spacetimes. We provide a detailed derivation of the map, discuss a number of extensions and apply the map to a number of important examples, such as AdS on a torus, AdS black branes and fluids/gravity metrics. In particular, the map links the hydrodynamic regime of asymptotically flat black $p$-branes or the Rindler fluid with that of AdS. The map implies that this class of Ricci-flat spacetimes inherits from AdS a generalized conformal symmetry and has a holographic structure. We initiate the discussion of holography by analyzing how the map acts on boundary conditions and holographic 2-point functions.
Global properties of the black cigar spacetime
In this work, we use parallel transport of vectors to study global characteristics of the Schwarzschild spacetime, in the context of the five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum braneworld, in the spacetime known as black cigar. We examine constant time circular orbits, where the parallel transport matrix indicates the existence of the analogue gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect, except for some particular radii, where this matrix is trivial. Parallel transport along radial and time displacements are also obtained, reducing, in all cases to the usual results of ordinary Schwarzschild spacetime. On the other hand, the parallel transport matrix for a circular orbit in the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, an alternative solution for the black hole on the brane, keeps a 'memory' of the higher dimension. (author)
Superradiant instability in AdS
Ganchev, Bogdan
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K
2012-01-01
We construct a four-dimensional (4D) gauge theory that propagates, unitarily, the five polarization modes of a massive spin-2 particle. These modes are described by a "dual" graviton gauge potential and the Lagrangian is 4th-order in derivatives. As the construction mimics that of 3D "new massive gravity", we call this 4D model (linearized) "new massive dual gravity". We analyse its massless limit, and discuss similarities to the Eddington-Schroedinger model.
Newton Law on the Generalized Singular Brane with and without 4d Induced Gravity
Jung, Eylee; Kim, Sunghoon; Park, D. K.
2003-01-01
Newton law arising due to the gravity localized on the general singular brane embedded in $AdS_5$ bulk is examined in the absence or presence of the 4d induced Einstein term. For the RS brane, apart from the subleading correction, Newton potential obeys 4d-type and $5d$-type gravitational law at long- and short-ranges if it were not for the induced Einstein term. The 4d induced Einstein term generates an intermediate range at short distance, in which the $5d$ Newton potential $1/r^2$ emerges....
Covariant non-commutative space-time
Heckman, Jonathan J.; Verlinde, Herman
2015-05-01
We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3 + 1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space-time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space-times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so (5, 1), while for AdS4 it assembles into so (4, 2). The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.
4D flow mri post-processing strategies for neuropathologies
Schrauben, Eric Mathew
4D flow MRI allows for the measurement of a dynamic 3D velocity vector field. Blood flow velocities in large vascular territories can be qualitatively visualized with the added benefit of quantitative probing. Within cranial pathologies theorized to have vascular-based contributions or effects, 4D flow MRI provides a unique platform for comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic parameters. Targeted blood flow derived measurements, such as flow rate, pulsatility, retrograde flow, or wall shear stress may provide insight into the onset or characterization of more complex neuropathologies. Therefore, the thorough assessment of each parameter within the context of a given disease has important medical implications. Not surprisingly, the last decade has seen rapid growth in the use of 4D flow MRI. Data acquisition sequences are available to researchers on all major scanner platforms. However, the use has been limited mostly to small research trials. One major reason that has hindered the more widespread use and application in larger clinical trials is the complexity of the post-processing tasks and the lack of adequate tools for these tasks. Post-processing of 4D flow MRI must be semi-automated, fast, user-independent, robust, and reliably consistent for use in a clinical setting, within large patient studies, or across a multicenter trial. Development of proper post-processing methods coupled with systematic investigation in normal and patient populations pushes 4D flow MRI closer to clinical realization while elucidating potential underlying neuropathological origins. Within this framework, the work in this thesis assesses venous flow reproducibility and internal consistency in a healthy population. A preliminary analysis of venous flow parameters in healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients is performed in a large study employing 4D flow MRI. These studies are performed in the context of the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis. Additionally, a
Quantization in Spacetime from Null Paths in Higher Dimensions
Wesson, Paul S.
2008-01-01
Massive particles on timelike paths in spacetime can be viewed as moving on null paths in a higher-dimensional manifold. This and other consequences follow from the use of Campbell's theorem to embed 4D general relativity in non-compactified 5D Kaluza-Klein theory. We now show that it is possible in principle to obtain the standard rule for quantization in 4D from the canonical metric with null paths in 5D. Particle mass can be wavelike, as suggested originally by Dirac, and other 4D/5D conse...
On electric field in anti-de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my; Yan, Chew Xiao, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)
2014-10-24
In this paper we calculate the electromagnetic field produced using retarded Green's function in Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS). Since this spacetime is non-globally hyperbolic and has no Cauchy surface, we only consider the field originated from a charge moving along its geodesic in the region consists of points covered by future null geodesic of the charge.
Representing Participation in ICT4D Projects
Singh, J. P.; Flyverbom, Mikkel
2016-01-01
How do the discourses of participation inform deployment of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D)? Discourses here mean narratives that assign roles to actors, and specify causes and outcomes for events. Based on the theory and practice of international development we...... identify two dimensions to participation and ICT4D: whether participation 1) is hierarchical/top-down or agent-driven/bottom-up, and 2) involves conflict or cooperation. Based on these dimensions we articulate four ideal types of discourse that permeate ICT and development efforts: stakeholder......-based discourses that emphasize consensus, networked efforts among actors collaborating in network arrangements, mobilization discourses that account for contestation over meanings of participation, and oppositional discourses from ׳grassroots׳ actors that also include conflict. We conclude that ICT4D efforts...
Hervik, S.; Málek, Tomáš; Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena
2015-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 24 (2015), s. 245012. ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10042S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : einstein spacetimes * generalized gravities * universal spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.168, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0264-9381/32/24/245012
Szabo, Michael
2012-01-01
This book contains short recipes designed to effectively teach tools in the minimum amount of time. Each recipe hits on a topic that can be combined or incorporated with other recipes to give you the building blocks you need to start making great designs with Cinema 4D. Rather than demonstrating how to make a few specific and extensive projects, the recipes create a solid base of knowledge to help the reader understand the tools available to foster their own creativity. This book is for anyone who wants to quickly get up to speed with Cinema 4D to create 3D projects that run laps around simple
4D, N = 1 Supersymmetry Genomics (I)
Gates, S J; MacGregor, B; Parker, J; Polo-Sherk, R; Rodgers, V G J; Wassink, L
2009-01-01
Presented in this paper the nature of the supersymmetrical representation theory behind 4D, N = 1 theories, as described by component fields, is investigated using the tools of Adinkras and Garden Algebras. A survey of familiar matter multiplets using these techniques reveals they are described by two fundamental valise Adinkras that are given the names of the cis-Valise (c-V) and the trans-Valise (t-V). A conjecture is made that all off-shell 4D, N = 1 component descriptions of supermultiplets are associated with two integers - the numbers of c-V and t-V Adinkras that occur in the representation.
Space-times of boosted p-branes, and CFT in infinite-momentum frame
We study the space-times of the near-horizon regions in D3-brane, M2-brane and M5-brane configurations, in cases where there is a pp-wave propagating along a direction in the world-volume. While non-extremal configurations of this kind locally have the same Carter-Novotny-Horsky-type metrics as those without the wave, taking the BPS limit results instead in Kaigorodov-type metrics, which are homogeneous, but preserve ((1)/(4)) of the supersymmetry, and have global and local structures that are quite different from the corresponding anti-de Sitter space-times associated with solutions where there is no pp-wave. We show that the momentum density of the system is non-vanishing and held fixed under the gravity decoupling limit. In view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, M-theory and type IIB theory in the near-horizon region of these boosted BPS-configurations specifies the corresponding CFT on the boundary in an infinitely boosted frame with constant momentum density. We model the microstates of such boosted configurations (which account for the microscopic counting of near-extremal black holes in D = 7, D = 9 and D 6 by those of a boosted dilute massless gas in a d = 4, d = 3 and d = 6 space-time respectively. Thus we obtain a simple description for the entropy of 2-charge black holes in D = 7, 9 and 6 dimensions. The paper includes constructions of generalisations of the Kaigorodov and Carter-Novotny-Horsky metrics in arbitrary space-time dimensions, and an investigation of their properties
Type D Einstein spacetimes in higher dimensions
We show that all static spacetimes in higher dimensions n > 4 are necessarily of Weyl types G, Ii, D or O. This also applies to stationary spacetimes provided additional conditions are fulfilled, as for most known black hole/ring solutions. (The conclusions change when the Killing generator becomes null, such as at Killing horizons, on which we briefly comment.) Next we demonstrate that the same Weyl types characterize warped product spacetimes with a one-dimensional Lorentzian (timelike) factor, whereas warped spacetimes with a two-dimensional Lorentzian factor are restricted to the types D or O. By exploring algebraic consequences of the Bianchi identities, we then analyze the simplest non-trivial case from the above classes-type D vacuum spacetimes, possibly with a cosmological constant, dropping, however, the assumptions that the spacetime is static, stationary or warped. It is shown that for 'generic' type D vacuum spacetimes (as defined in the text) the corresponding principal null directions are geodetic in arbitrary dimension (this in fact also applies to type II spacetimes). For n ≥ 5, however, there may exist particular cases of type D vacuum spacetimes which admit non-geodetic multiple principal null directions and we explicitly present such examples in any n ≥ 7. Further studies are restricted to five dimensions, where the type D Weyl tensor is fully described by a 3 x 3 real matrix Φij. In the case with 'twistfree' (Aij = 0) principal null geodesics we show that in a 'generic' case Φij is symmetric and eigenvectors of Φij coincide with eigenvectors of the expansion matrix Sij providing us thus in general with three preferred spacelike directions of the spacetime. Similar results are also obtained when relaxing the twistfree condition and assuming instead that Φij is symmetric. The five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole and Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics in arbitrary dimension are also briefly studied as specific illustrative examples of type D vacuum
On the architecture of spacetime geometry
We propose entanglement entropy as a probe of the architecture of spacetime in quantum gravity. We argue that the leading contribution to this entropy satisfies an area law for any sufficiently large region in a smooth spacetime, which, in fact, is given by the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This conjecture is supported by various lines of evidence from perturbative quantum gravity, simplified models of induced gravity, the AdS/CFT correspondence and loop quantum gravity, as well as Jacobson's ‘thermodynamic’ perspective of gravity. (paper)
Constrained reconstructions for 4D intervention guidance
Kuntz, J.; Flach, B.; Kueres, R.; Semmler, W.; Kachelrieß, M.; Bartling, S.
2013-05-01
Image-guided interventions are an increasingly important part of clinical minimally invasive procedures. However, up to now they cannot be performed under 4D (3D + time) guidance due to the exceedingly high x-ray dose. In this work we investigate the applicability of compressed sensing reconstructions for highly undersampled CT datasets combined with the incorporation of prior images in order to yield low dose 4D intervention guidance. We present a new reconstruction scheme prior image dynamic interventional CT (PrIDICT) that accounts for specific image features in intervention guidance and compare it to PICCS and ASD-POCS. The optimal parameters for the dose per projection and the numbers of projections per reconstruction are determined in phantom simulations and measurements. In vivo experiments in six pigs are performed in a cone-beam CT; measured doses are compared to current gold-standard intervention guidance represented by a clinical fluoroscopy system. Phantom studies show maximum image quality for identical overall doses in the range of 14 to 21 projections per reconstruction. In vivo studies reveal that interventional materials can be followed in 4D visualization and that PrIDICT, compared to PICCS and ASD-POCS, shows superior reconstruction results and fewer artifacts in the periphery with dose in the order of biplane fluoroscopy. These results suggest that 4D intervention guidance can be realized with today’s flat detector and gantry systems using the herein presented reconstruction scheme.
Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis
2013-01-01
We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...
4D remote sensing image coding with JPEG2000
Muñoz-Gómez, Juan; Bartrina-Rapesta, Joan; Blanes, Ian; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Leandro; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan
2010-08-01
Multicomponent data have become popular in several scientific fields such as forest monitoring, environmental studies, or sea water temperature detection. Nowadays, this multicomponent data can be collected more than one time per year for the same region. This generates different instances in time of multicomponent data, also called 4D-Data (1D Temporal + 1D Spectral + 2D Spatial). For multicomponent data, it is important to take into account inter-band redundancy to produce a more compact representation of the image by packing the energy into fewer number of bands, thus enabling a higher compression performance. The principal decorrelators used to compact the inter-band correlation redundancy are the Karhunen Loeve Transform (KLT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Because of the Temporal Dimension added, the inter-band redundancy among different multicomponent images is increased. In this paper we analyze the influence of the Temporal Dimension (TD) and the Spectral Dimension (SD) in 4D-Data in terms of coding performance for JPEG2000, because it has support to apply different decorrelation stages and transforms to the components through the different dimensions. We evaluate the influence to perform different decorrelators techniques to the different dimensions. Also we will assess the performance of the two main decorrelation techniques, KLT and DWT. Experimental results are provided, showing rate-distortion performances encoding 4D-Data using KLT and WT techniques to the different dimensions TD and SD.
Gryb, Sean
2015-01-01
Is there a number for every bit of spacetime, or is spacetime smooth like the real line? The ultimate fate of a quantum theory of gravity might depend on it. The troublesome infinities of quantum gravity can be cured by assuming that spacetime comes in countable, discrete pieces which one could simulate on a computer. But, perhaps there is another way? In this essay, we propose a picture where scale is meaningless so that there can be no minimum length and, hence, no fundamental discreteness. In this picture, Einstein's Special Relativity, suitably modified to accommodate an expanding Universe, can be reinterpreted as a theory where only the instantaneous shapes of configurations count.
We investigate spacetimes in which the speed of light along flat 4D sections varies over the extra dimensions due to different warp factors for the space and the time coordinates ('asymmetrically warped' spacetimes). The main property of such spaces is that while the induced metric is flat, implying Lorentz invariant particle physics on a brane, bulk gravitational effects will cause apparent violations of Lorentz invariance and of causality from the brane observer's point of view. An important experimentally verifiable consequence of this is that gravitational waves may travel with a speed different from the speed of light on the brane, and possibly even faster. We find the most general spacetimes of this sort, which are given by AdS-Schwarzschild or AdS-Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, assuming the simplest possible sources in the bulk. Due to the gravitational Lorentz violations these models do not have an ordinary Lorentz invariant effective description, and thus provide a possible way around Weinberg's no-go theorem for the adjustment of the cosmological constant. Indeed we show that the cosmological constant may relax in such theories by the adjustment of the mass and the charge of the black hole. The black hole singularity in these solutions can be protected by a horizon, but the existence of a horizon requires some exotic energy densities on the brane. We investigate the cosmological expansion of these models and speculate that it may provide an explanation for the accelerating Universe, provided that the timescale for the adjustment is shorter than the Hubble time. In this case the accelerating Universe would be a manifestation of gravitational Lorentz violations in extra dimensions
Lax pairs for deformed Minkowski spacetimes
Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2015-01-01
We proceed to study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime based on a conformal embedding. We first revisit a Melvin background and argue a Lax pair by adopting a simple replacement law invented in 1509.00173. This argument enables us to deduce a general expression of Lax pair. Then the anticipated Lax pair is shown to work for arbitrary classical $r$-matrices with Poinca\\'e generators. As other examples, we present Lax pairs for pp-wave backgrounds, the Hashimoto-Sethi background, the Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich background.
Lax pairs for deformed Minkowski spacetimes
Kyono, Hideki; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-01-01
We proceed to study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime based on a conformal embedding. We first revisit a Melvin background and argue a Lax pair by adopting a simple replacement law invented in 1509.00173. This argument enables us to deduce a general expression of Lax pair. Then the anticipated Lax pair is shown to work for arbitrary classical r-matrices with Poincaré generators. As other examples, we present Lax pairs for pp-wave backgrounds, the Hashimoto-Sethi background, the Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich background.
Clear evidence of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity
Egawa, H. S.; Horata, S.; Yukawa, T.
2002-03-01
Four-dimensional (4D) simplicial quantum gravity coupled to both scalar fields ( NX) and gauge fields ( NA) has been studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The matter dependence of the string susceptibility exponent γ (4) is estimated. Furthermore, we compare our numerical results with Background-Metric-Indepenent (BMI) formulation conjectured to describe the quantum field theory of gravity in 4D. The numerical results suggest that the 4D simplicial quantum gravity is related to the conformal gravity in 4D. Therefore, we propose a phase structure in detail with adding both scalar and gauge fields and discuss the possibility and the property of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity.
Clear Evidence of a Continuum Theory of 4D Euclidean Simplicial Quantum Gravity
Egawa, H S; Yukawa, T
2002-01-01
Four-dimensional (4D) simplicial quantum gravity coupled to both scalar fields (N_X) and gauge fields (N_A) has been studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The matter dependence of the string susceptibility exponent gamma^{(4)} is estimated. Furthermore, we compare our numerical results with Background-Metric-Independent (BMI) formulation conjectured to describe the quantum field theory of gravity in 4D. The numerical results suggest that the 4D simplicial quantum gravity is related to the conformal gravity in 4D. Therefore, we propose a phase structure in detail with adding both scalar and gauge fields and discuss the possibility and the property of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity.
The AdS3 central charge in string theory
We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.
4D Scattering Amplitudes and Asymptotic Symmetries from 2D CFT
Cheung, Clifford; Sundrum, Raman
2016-01-01
We reformulate the scattering amplitudes of 4D flat space gauge theory and gravity in the language of a 2D CFT on the celestial sphere. The resulting CFT structure exhibits an OPE constructed from 4D collinear singularities, as well as infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras encoding the asymptotic symmetries of 4D flat space. We derive these results by recasting 4D dynamics in terms of a convenient foliation of flat space into 3D Euclidean AdS and Lorentzian dS geometries. Tree-level scattering amplitudes take the form of Witten diagrams for a continuum of (A)dS modes, which are in turn equivalent to CFT correlators via the (A)dS/CFT dictionary. The Ward identities for the 2D conserved currents are dual to 4D soft theorems, while the bulk-boundary propagators of massless (A)dS modes are superpositions of the leading and subleading Weinberg soft factors of gauge theory and gravity. In general, the massless (A)dS modes are 3D Chern-Simons gauge fields describing the soft, single helicity sectors o...
Chappell, Isaac; Linch, William D; Parker, James; Randall, Stephen; Ridgway, Alexander; Stiffler, Kory
2012-01-01
The off-shell representation theory of 4D, $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supermultiplets can be categorized in terms of distinct irreducible graphical representations called adinkras. Recent evidence has emerged pointing to the existence of three such fundamental adinkras associated with distinct equivalence classes of a Coxeter group. A partial description of these adinkras is given in terms of two types, termed cis-and trans-adinkras (the latter being a degenerate doublet) in analogy to enantiomers in chemistry. Through a new and simple procedure that uses adinkras, we find the irreducible off-shell adinkra representations of 4D, $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity, in the old-minimal, non-minimal, and conformal formulations. We categorize these representations in terms of their supersymmetry `enantiomer' numbers: the number of cis-($n_c$) and trans-($n_t$) adinkras in the representation.
On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3
Fonda, Piermarco; Tonni, Erik
2015-01-01
We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.
Chappell, Isaac; Gates, Jr., S. James; Linch III, William D; Parker, James; Randall, Stephen; Ridgway, Alexander; Stiffler, Kory
2012-01-01
The off-shell representation theory of 4D, $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supermultiplets can be categorized in terms of distinct irreducible graphical representations called adinkras as part of a larger effort we call supersymmetry `genomics.' Recent evidence has emerged pointing to the existence of three such fundamental adinkras associated with distinct equivalence classes of a Coxeter group. A partial description of these adinkras is given in terms of two types, termed cis-and trans-adinkras (the latter...
4D image reconstruction for emission tomography
An overview of the theory of 4D image reconstruction for emission tomography is given along with a review of the current state of the art, covering both positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). By viewing 4D image reconstruction as a matter of either linear or non-linear parameter estimation for a set of spatiotemporal functions chosen to approximately represent the radiotracer distribution, the areas of so-called ‘fully 4D’ image reconstruction and ‘direct kinetic parameter estimation’ are unified within a common framework. Many choices of linear and non-linear parameterization of these functions are considered (including the important case where the parameters have direct biological meaning), along with a review of the algorithms which are able to estimate these often non-linear parameters from emission tomography data. The other crucial components to image reconstruction (the objective function, the system model and the raw data format) are also covered, but in less detail due to the relatively straightforward extension from their corresponding components in conventional 3D image reconstruction. The key unifying concept is that maximum likelihood or maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of either linear or non-linear model parameters can be achieved in image space after carrying out a conventional expectation maximization (EM) update of the dynamic image series, using a Kullback-Leibler distance metric (comparing the modeled image values with the EM image values), to optimize the desired parameters. For MAP, an image-space penalty for regularization purposes is required. The benefits of 4D and direct reconstruction reported in the literature are reviewed, and furthermore demonstrated with simple simulation examples. It is clear that the future of reconstructing dynamic or functional emission tomography images, which often exhibit high levels of spatially correlated noise, should ideally exploit these 4D
4D Lung Reconstruction with Phase Optimization
Lyksborg, Mark; Paulsen, Rasmus; Brink, Carsten;
2009-01-01
This paper investigates and demonstrates a 4D lung CT reconstruction/registration method which results in a complete volumetric model of the lung that deforms according to a respiratory motion field. The motion field is estimated iteratively between all available slice samples and a reference...... than using an optimization which does not correct for phase errors. Knowing how the lung and any tumors located within the lung deforms is relevant in planning the treatment of lung cancer....
Holonomy groups and spacetimes
Hall, G. S.; Lonie, D. P.
2003-01-01
A study is made of the possible holonomy group types of a space-time for which the energy-momentum tensor corresponds to a null or non-null electromagnetic field, a perfect fluid or a massive scalar field. The case of an Einstein space is also included. The techniques developed are also applied to vacuum and conformally flat space-times and contrasted with already known results in these two cases. Examples are given.
Holonomy groups and spacetimes
Hall, G S
2000-01-01
A study is made of the possible holonomy group types of a space-time for which the energy-momentum tensor corresponds to a null or non-null electromagnetic field, a perfect fluid or a massive scalar field. The case of an Einstein space is also included. The techniques developed are also applied to vacuum and conformally flat space-times and contrasted with already known results in these two cases. Examples are given.
Lee, Taek-Soo; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.
2015-04-01
This paper presents two 4D mathematical observer models for the detection of motion defects in 4D gated medical images. Their performance was compared with results from human observers in detecting a regional motion abnormality in simulated 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT images. The first 4D mathematical observer model extends the conventional channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based on a set of 2D spatial channels and the second is a proposed model that uses a set of 4D space-time channels. Simulated projection data were generated using the 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom with 16 gates/cardiac cycle. The activity distribution modelled uptake of 99mTc MIBI with normal perfusion and a regional wall motion defect. An analytical projector was used in the simulation and the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm was used in image reconstruction followed by spatial and temporal low-pass filtering with various cut-off frequencies. Then, we extracted 2D image slices from each time frame and reorganized them into a set of cine images. For the first model, we applied 2D spatial channels to the cine images and generated a set of feature vectors that were stacked for the images from different slices of the heart. The process was repeated for each of the 1,024 noise realizations, and CHO and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis methodologies were applied to the ensemble of the feature vectors to compute areas under the ROC curves (AUCs). For the second model, a set of 4D space-time channels was developed and applied to the sets of cine images to produce space-time feature vectors to which the CHO methodology was applied. The AUC values of the second model showed better agreement (Spearman’s rank correlation (SRC) coefficient = 0.8) to human observer results than those from the first model (SRC coefficient = 0.4). The agreement with human observers indicates the proposed 4D mathematical observer model provides a good predictor of the
Orbifold Physics and de Sitter Spacetime
McInnes, B
2003-01-01
It now seems probable that the version of de Sitter spacetime which may ultimately emerge from string theory will not be the familiar, maximally symmetric version, since it is likely to be truncated in some way by metastability or otherwise reduced in symmetry so that its isometry group has finite-dimensional representations. We argue that the best way to gain some control over this situation is to embed a suitably modified version of de Sitter spacetime in an anti-de Sitter orbifold bulk, as a braneworld. By requiring them to fit together in this way, we attempt to understand the precise structures of both. We find that tachyonic instabilities of non-supersymmetric AdS orbifolds allow us to constrain the global geometries of these fundamental spacetimes. In the course of doing so, we gain some insights into de Sitter holography and into the way in which de Sitter physics breaks conformal symmetry in the dS and AdS duals. Our results indicate that string theory may rule out the more complex spatial topologies...
Clark, T E
2016-01-01
Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.
Does The Force From an Extra Dimension Contradict Physics in 4D?
De Leon, J P
2001-01-01
We examine the question of whether violation of 4D physics is an inevitable consequence of existence of an extra non-compactified dimension. Recent investigations in membrane and Kaluza-Klein theory indicate that when the metric of the spacetime is allowed to depend on the extra coordinate, i.e., the cilindricity condition is dropped, the equation describing the trajectory of a particle in one lower dimension has an extra force with some abnormal properties. Among them, a force term parallel to the four-velocity of the particle and, what is perhaps more surprising, $u_{\\mu}f^{\\mu} \
Russell, Simon
2013-01-01
This book is written in a Cookbook style with short recipes designed to effectively teach tools in the minimum amount of time. Each recipe hits on a topic that can be combined or incorporated with other recipes to give you the building blocks you need to start making great designs with Cinema 4D. Rather than demonstrating how to make a few specific and extensive projects, the recipes create a solid base of knowledge to help the reader understand the tools available to foster their own creativity.This book is for professional artists working in architecture, design, production, or games and wan
4D, N = 1 Supersymmetry Genomics (II)
Gates, S James; Hallett, Jared; Parker, James; Rodgers, Vincent G J; Stiffler, Kory
2011-01-01
We continue the development of a theory of off-shell supersymmetric representations analogous to that of compact Lie algebras such as SU(3). For off-shell 4D, N = 1 systems, quark-like representations have been identified [1] in terms of cis-Adinkras and trans-Adinkras and it has been conjectured that arbitrary representations are composites of $n_c$-cis and $n_t$-trans representations. Analyzing the real scalar and complex linear superfield multiplets, these "chemical enantiomer" numbers are found to be $n_c$ = $n_t$ = 1 and $n_c$ = 1, $n_t$ = 2, respectively.
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)
2016-04-15
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)
An introduction to AdS/CFT correspondence
Di Vecchia, Paolo
1999-01-01
This is an introduction to the Maldacena conjecture on the equivalence between ${\\cal{N}}=4$ super Yang-Mills in Minkowski space-time and type IIB string theory compactified on $AdS_5 \\otimes S_5 $.
Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand. (paper)
Ge, Qi; Dunn, Conner K.; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.
2014-09-01
Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand.
Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2015-04-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T
2015-01-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Regular spherical dust spacetimes
Humphreys, N; Matravers, D R; Humphreys, Neil; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David
1998-01-01
Physical (and weak) regularity conditions are used to determine and classify all the possible types of spherically symmetric dust spacetimes in general relativity. This work unifies and completes various earlier results. The junction conditions are described for general non-comoving (and non-null) surfaces, and the limits of kinematical quantities are given on all comoving surfaces where there is Darmois matching. We show that an inhomogeneous generalisation of the Kantowski-Sachs metric may be joined to the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. All the possible spacetimes are explicitly divided into four groups according to topology, including a group in which the spatial sections have the topology of a 3-torus. The recollapse conjecture (for these spacetimes) follows naturally in this approach.
Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes
Lam, Huibert het
2016-01-01
We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only considers test particles that do not have this breakdown of their trajectory, it turns out that the only singular FLRW spacetimes are the ones that have a scale parameter that vanishes at some initial time.
Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes
Lam, Huibert het; Prokopec, Tomislav
2016-01-01
We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only...
Symmetry, structure, and spacetime
Rickles, Dean
2007-01-01
In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational
Extended Superconformal Algebras on AdS_{3}
Ito, Katsushi
1998-01-01
We study a supersymmetric extension of the Virasoro algebra on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space-time AdS_{3}. Using the free field realization of the currents, we show that the world-sheet affine Lie superalgebras osp(1|2)^{(1)}, sl(1|2)^{(1)} and sl(2|2)^{(1)} provide the boundary N=1,2 and 4 extended superconformal algebras, respectively.
ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective
Sutinen, Erkki; Tedre, Matti
The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Research in that field is often focused on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Far East Asian origin, in the context of developing regions. A computer science perspective is complementary to that agenda. The computer science perspective focuses on exploring the resources, or inputs, of a particular context and on basing the design of a technical intervention on the available resources, so that the output makes a difference in the development context. The modus operandi of computer science, construction, interacts with evaluation and exploration practices. An analysis of a contextualized information technology curriculum of Tumaini University in southern Tanzania shows the potential of the computer science perspective for designing meaningful information and communication technology for a developing region.
Taillandier-Thomas, Thibault; Roux, Stéphane; Hild, François
2016-07-01
Based on the assumption that the time evolution of a sample observed by computed tomography requires many less parameters than the definition of the microstructure itself, it is proposed to reconstruct these changes based on the initial state (using computed tomography) and very few radiographs acquired at fixed intervals of time. This Letter presents a proof of concept that for a fatigue cracked sample its kinematics can be tracked from no more than two radiographs in situations where a complete 3D view would require several hundreds of radiographs. This 2 order of magnitude gain opens the way to a "computed" 4D tomography, which complements the recent progress achieved in fast or ultrafast computed tomography, which is based on beam brightness, detector sensitivity, and signal acquisition technologies.
Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco
2016-02-01
We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0, | ℓ - overline{7ell;} |) and one (| ℓ - overline{ℓ} |, 0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p = | ℓ - overline{ℓ} | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.
Seed Conformal Blocks in 4D CFT
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco
2016-01-01
We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (l,\\bar l) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|l-\\bar l|) and one (|l-\\bar l|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (l,\\bar l), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|l-\\bar l | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal f...
Phases of Global AdS Black Holes
Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala
2016-01-01
We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ($AdS_4$) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.
Phases of global AdS black holes
Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala
2016-06-01
We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.
Shaikh, Absos Ali; Yoon, Dae Won; Hui, Shyamal Kumar
2009-01-01
The notion of quasi-Einstein manifolds arose during the study of exact solutions of the Einstein field equations as well as during considerations of quasi-umbilical hypersurfaces. For instance, the Robertson-Walker spacetimes are quasi-Einstein manifolds. The object of the present paper is to study quasi-Einstein spacetimes. Some basic geometric properties of such a spacetime are obtained. The applications of quasi-Einstein spacetimes in general relativity and cosmology are inv...
Spacetime structure and Quantum physics
Ho, Vu B
1993-01-01
A description of electromagnetism as four-dimensional spacetime structure leads to the dynamics of a charged particle being determined only by the four-vector potential and the existence of an electromagnetic field depending on the topological structure of the background spacetime. When the spacetime structure of electromagnetism is complex it is possible to connect spacetime structure and quantum physics via the method of path integration. (This paper is a consequence of an attempt to incorp...
Emergent Gravity from Noncommutative Spacetime
Yang, Hyun Seok
2006-01-01
We showed before that self-dual electromagnetism in noncommutative (NC) spacetime is equivalent to self-dual Einstein gravity. This result implies a striking picture about gravity: Gravity can emerge from electromagnetism in NC spacetime. Gravity is then a collective phenomenon emerging from gauge fields living in fuzzy spacetime. We elucidate in some detail why electromagnetism in NC spacetime should be a theory of gravity. In particular, we show that NC electromagnetism is realized through ...
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
Kumar, S Prem
2015-01-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...
Topics in spacetime structure. 7
Some of the mathematical concepts underlying global techniques in the study of spacetime structure are elucidated. The idea of a differentiable manifold, diffeomorphisms of spacetime, Lie derivatives and Killing symmetries are introduced. Finally a treatment of the conformal compactification, which facilitates the study of null boundaries of spacetime, is presented. (author). 11 refs
Holographic Space-time Models of Anti-deSitter Space-times
Banks, Tom
2016-01-01
We study the constraints on HST models of AdS space-time. The causal diamonds of HST along time-like geodesics of AdS space-time, fit nicely into the FRW patch of AdS space. The coordinate singularity of the FRW patch is identified with the proper time at which the Hilbert space of the causal diamond becomes infinite dimensional. For diamonds much smaller than the AdS radius, RAdS, the time dependent Hamiltonians of HST are the same as those used to describe similar diamonds in Minkowski space. In particular, they are invariant under the fuzzy analog of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of the holographic screen, which leads to fast scrambling of perturbations on the horizon of a black hole of size smaller than RAdS. We argue that, in order to take a limit of this system which converges to a CFT, one must choose Hamiltonians, in a range of proper times of order RAdS, which break this invariance, and become local in a particular choice of basis for the variables. We show that, beginning with flat, sub-RAdS, pa...
Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Grojean, Christophe
2000-01-01
We investigate spacetimes in which the speed of light along flat 4D sections varies over the extra dimensions due to different warp factors for the space and the time coordinates (``asymmetrically warped'' spacetimes). The main property of such spaces is that while the induced metric is flat, implying Lorentz invariant particle physics on a brane, bulk gravitational effects will cause apparent violations of Lorentz invariance and of causality from the brane observer's point of view. An import...
Schrödinger, Erwin
1985-01-01
In response to repeated requests this classic book on space-time structure by Professor Erwin Schrödinger is now available in the Cambridge Science Classics series. First published in 1950, and reprinted in 1954 and 1960, this lucid and profound exposition of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravitation still provides valuable reading for students and research workers in the field.
Opening the Black Box of ICT4D: Advancing Our Understanding of ICT4D Partnerships
Park, Sung Jin
2013-01-01
The term, Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), pertains to programs or projects that strategically use ICTs (e.g. mobile phones, computers, and the internet) as a means toward the socio-economic betterment for the poor in developing contexts. Gaining the political and financial support of the international community…
5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 4D superspace. Applications
McGarrie, Moritz
2013-03-15
We reformulate 5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 4D Superspace, for a manifold with boundaries. We emphasise certain features and conventions necessary to allow for supersymmetric model building applications. Finally we apply the holographic interpretation of a slice of AdS and show how to generate Dirac soft masses between external source fields, as well as kinetic mixing, as a boundary effective action.
Light-cone gauge quantization of string theories on AdS sub 3 space
Ming Yu
1999-01-01
Light-cone gauge quantization procedures are given, for superstring theory on AdS sub 3 space charged with NS-NS background, both in the NSR and GS formalisms. The space-time (super) conformal algebras are constructed in terms of the transversal physical degrees of freedom. The space-time conformal anomaly agrees with that of covariant formalism, provided that the world-sheet conformal anomaly c equals to 26 or 15 for bosonic string or superstring, respectively. The space-time (super) conformal field theory is found to correspond to the orbifold construction on the symmetric product space Sym sub p M/Z sub p.
Light-cone gauge quantization of string theories on AdS3 space
Light-cone gauge quantization procedures are given, for superstring theory on AdS3 space charged with NS-NS background, both in the NSR and GS formalisms. The space-time (super) conformal algebras are constructed in terms of the transversal physical degrees of freedom. The space-time conformal anomaly agrees with that of covariant formalism, provided that the world-sheet conformal anomaly c equals to 26 or 15 for bosonic string or superstring, respectively. The space-time (super) conformal field theory is found to correspond to the orbifold construction on the symmetric product space SympM/Zp
Entwinement and the emergence of spacetime
Balasubramanian, Vijay; Czech, Bartlomiej; de Boer, Jan
2014-01-01
It is conventional to study the entanglement between spatial regions of a quantum field theory. However, in some systems entanglement can be dominated by "internal", possibly gauged, degrees of freedom that are not spatially organized, and that can give rise to gaps smaller than the inverse size of the system. In a holographic context, such small gaps are associated to the appearance of horizons and singularities in the dual spacetime. Here, we propose a concept of entwinement, which is intended to capture this fine structure of the wavefunction. Holographically, entwinement probes the entanglement shadow -- the region of spacetime not probed by the minimal surfaces that compute spatial entanglement in the dual field theory. We consider the simplest example of this scenario -- a 2d conformal field theory (CFT) that is dual to a conical defect in AdS3 space. Following our previous work, we show that spatial entanglement in the CFT reproduces spacetime geometry up to a finite distance from the conical defect. W...
Quantum mechanical path integrals and thermal radiation in static curved spacetimes
Vendrell, F
2000-01-01
The propagator of a spinless particle is calculated from the quantum mechanical path integral formalism in static curved spacetimes endowed with event-horizons. A toy model, the Gui spacetime, and the 2D and 4D Schwarzschild black holes are considered. The role of the topology of the coordinates configuration space is emphasised in this framework. To cover entirely the above spacetimes with a single set of coordinates, tortoise coordinates are extended to complex values. It is shown that the homotopic properties of the complex tortoise configuration space imply the thermal behaviour of the propagator in these spacetimes. The propagator is calculated when end points are located in identical or distinct spacetime regions separated by one or several event-horizons. Quantum evolution through the event-horizons is shown to be unitary in the fifth variable.
Spinning scalar solitons in anti-de Sitter spacetime
We present spinning Q-balls and boson stars in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. These are smooth, horizonless solutions for gravity coupled to a massive complex scalar field with a harmonic dependence on time and the azimuthal angle. Similar to the flat spacetime configurations, the angular momentum is quantized. We find that a class of solutions with a self-interaction potential has a limit corresponding to static solitons with axial symmetry only. An exact solution describing spherically symmetric Q-balls in a fixed AdS background is also discussed.
Semiclassical bosonic D-brane boundary states in curved spacetime
Vancea, Ion V
2008-01-01
We give a simple method to calculate the semiclassical $D$-brane boundary states of the bosonic string propagating in an arbitrary curved spacetime in a perturbative approach in which the metric $g_{AB}$ and the constant antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field $b_{AB}$ form the general background which is treated exactly. As an important particular case, it is shown that at the first order perturbation theory there are $D$-brane coherent states in the $d$-dimensional {\\em AdS} spacetime if certain conditions are fulfilled by the boundary projectors.
Semiclassical bosonic D-brane boundary states in curved spacetime
Vancea, Ion V.
2008-01-01
We give a simple method to calculate the semiclassical $D$-brane boundary states of the bosonic string propagating in an arbitrary curved spacetime in a perturbative approach in which the metric $g_{AB}$ and the constant antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field $b_{AB}$ form the general background which is treated exactly. As an important particular case, it is shown that at the first order perturbation theory there are $D$-brane coherent states in the $d$-dimensional {\\em AdS} spacetime if certain co...
A Practical Foundation for Mapping Black Hole Spacetimes
Vigeland, Sarah; Hughes, Scott
2010-02-01
Observations have shown that the universe contains many compact and massive objects that are believed to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure predicted by general relativity. We propose to compare strong-field observations of compact objects with the spacetime of bumpy black holes: objects whose multipolar structure is almost, but not quite, equal to that of the Kerr spacetime. We build bumpy black hole spacetimes by adding a perturbation onto a Kerr black hole, and we show how to map the perturbation onto changes in the multipole moments. The perturbation results in changes to the orbital frequencies which we calculate using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. )
String theory in AdS3 background
In this thesis we study string theory in AdS3 background in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. We discuss unitarity, modular invariance and closure of operator product expansion (OPE) in the theory. A construction of spacetime conformal field theory from worldsheet affine symmetry due to Giveon, Kutasov and Seiberg is presented. The spacetime CFT has the meaning boundary CFT in AdS/CFT correspondence. The knowledge of two dimensional N extended superconformal algebras is used to construct superstrings on AdS3 x N with extended spacetime supersymmetry. A classification of vacua of superstrings on AdS3 is proposed from the knowledge of superconformal algebras in two dimensions. We present some exact solutions of Kniznik-Zamolodochikov (KZ) equation for SL(2, R) WZNW model for four point functions, which have logarithmic singularities of conformally invariant cross ratios, from a simple ansatz. Some asymptotic solutions with logarithmic behaviour are also presented. We analyze the logarithmic solutions and show that they can give rise to logarithmic operators in the theory. It has been shown by OPE analysis and otherwise that representation with SL(2, R) quantum number j = -1/2 play a very special role. The possibility of contribution oj logarithmic operators to the OPE is discussed. We find that OPE can not close or unitary representations if we include the logarithmic operators in the theory. We discuss the implications of logarithmic operators about the unitarity of the theory. The role of singleton representation is clarified in the context of logarithmic operators in AdS/CFT correspondence. (author)
Ohanian, Hans C
2013-01-01
The third edition of this classic textbook is a quantitative introduction for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It gently guides students from Newton's gravitational theory to special relativity, and then to the relativistic theory of gravitation. General relativity is approached from several perspectives: as a theory constructed by analogy with Maxwell's electrodynamics, as a relativistic generalization of Newton's theory, and as a theory of curved spacetime. The authors provide a concise overview of the important concepts and formulas, coupled with the experimental results underpinning the latest research in the field. Numerous exercises in Newtonian gravitational theory and Maxwell's equations help students master essential concepts for advanced work in general relativity, while detailed spacetime diagrams encourage them to think in terms of four-dimensional geometry. Featuring comprehensive reviews of recent experimental and observational data, the text concludes with chapters on cosmology an...
Pooley, O
2002-01-01
An anti-haecceitist version of spacetime substantivalism-- sup s ophisticated substantivalism sup - -is defended. Part I looks at classical mechanics. The historical origins of the substantivalist-relationalist debate are examined. I argue that Descartes' definition of motion has been widely misunderstood but that Newton's criticisms of Cartesian relationalism are nonetheless on target. I examine Leibniz's arguments against substantival space, as presented in his correspondence with Clarke. My conclusion is that their real target should have been haecceitism, not substantivalism. I outline an anti-haecceitist version of classical spacetime substantivalism as a response to the static and kinematic shift arguments. I then review Mach's and Poincare's criticisms of Newton's absolute space, and consider Barbour's approach to dynamics which they inspired. I conclude that Barbour and Bertotti's intrinsic particle dynamics offers a viable and superior alternative to substantivalist interpretations of classical mecha...
Computation and Spacetime Structure
Stannett, Mike
2011-01-01
We investigate the relationship between computation and spacetime structure, focussing on the role of closed timelike curves (CTCs) in promoting computational speedup. We note first that CTC traversal can be interpreted in two distinct ways, depending on ones understanding of spacetime. Focussing on one interpretation leads us to develop a toy universe in which no CTC can be traversed more than once, whence no computational speedup is possible. Focussing on the second (and more standard) interpretation leads to the surprising conclusion that CTCs act as perfect information repositories: just as black holes have entropy, so do CTCs. If we also assume that P is not equal to NP, we find that all observers agree that, even if unbounded time travel existed in their youth, this capability eventually vanishes as they grow older. Thus the computational assumption "P is not NP" is also an assumption concerning cosmological structure.
Rotating spacetimes with a cosmological constant
We develop solution-generating techniques for stationary metrics with one angular momentum and axial symmetry, in the presence of a cosmological constant and in arbitrary spacetime dimension. In parallel we study the related lower dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton static spacetimes with a Liouville potential. For vanishing cosmological constant, we show that the field equations in more than four dimensions decouple into a four dimensional Papapetrou system and a Weyl system. We also show that given any four dimensional 'seed' solution, one can construct an infinity of higher dimensional solutions parametrised by the Weyl potentials, associated to the extra dimensions. When the cosmological constant is non-zero, we discuss the symmetries of the field equations, and then extend the well known works of Papapetrou and Ernst (concerning the complex Ernst equation) in four-dimensional general relativity, to arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that the Papapetrou hypothesis generically reduces a stationary system to a static one even in the presence of a cosmological constant. We also give a particular class of solutions which are deformations of the (planar) adS soliton and the (planar) adS black hole. We give example solutions of these techniques and determine the four-dimensional seed solutions of the 5 dimensional black ring and the Myers-Perry black hole
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav
2016-02-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.
Comment on "Spacetime Information"
Kent, Adrian
1996-01-01
A recent paper by Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 51, 1800 (1995)] proposes a definition of "spacetime information" - the information available about a quantum system's boundary conditions in the various sets of decohering histories it may display - and investigates its properties. We note here that Hartle's analysis contains errors which invalidate several of the conclusions. In particular, the proof that the proposed definition agrees with the standard definition for ordinary quantum mechanics is inva...
Critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes
Arindam Lala
2012-01-01
In this paper we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged black holes in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. As an example we have considered the third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes in AdS space-time. We have analytically derived the thermodynamic quantities of the system. Our analysis revealed the onset of a higher order phase transition in the black hole leading to an infinite discontinuity in the specific heat at constant charge at the critical points. Our ...
Experimenting with the GMAO 4D Data Assimilation
Todling, R.; El Akkraoui, A.; Errico, R. M.; Guo, J.; Kim, J.; Kliest, D.; Parrish, D. F.; Suarez, M.; Trayanov, A.; Tremolet, Yannick; Whitaker, J.
2012-01-01
The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) has been working to promote its prototype four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) system to a version that can be exercised at operationally desirable configurations. Beyond a general circulation model (GeM) and an analysis system, traditional 4DV AR requires availability of tangent linear (TL) and adjoint (AD) models of the corresponding GeM. The GMAO prototype 4DVAR uses the finite-volume-based GEOS GeM and the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system for the first two, and TL and AD models derived ITom an early version of the finite-volume hydrodynamics that is scientifically equivalent to the present GEOS nonlinear GeM but computationally rather outdated. Specifically, the TL and AD models hydrodynamics uses a simple (I-dimensional) latitudinal MPI domain decomposition, which has consequent low scalability and prevents the prototype 4DV AR ITom being used in realistic applications. In the near future, GMAO will be upgrading its operational GEOS GCM (and assimilation system) to use a cubed-sphere-based hydrodynamics. This versions of the dynamics scales to thousands of processes and has led to a decision to re-derive the TL and AD models for this more modern dynamics, thus taking advantage of a two-dimensional MPI decomposition and improved scalability properties. With the aid of the Transformation of Algorithms in FORTRAN (l'AF) automatic adjoint generation tool and some hand-coding, a version of the cubed-sphere-based TL and AD models, with a simplified vertical diffusion scheme, is now available, enabling multiple configurations of standard implementations of 4DV AR in GEOS. Concurrent to this development, collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) has allowed GMAO to implement a hybrid-ensemble capability within the GEOS data assimilation system. Both 3Dand 4D-ensemble capabilities are presently available thus allowing
Development operators on 4D moving object databases
JUN Sung-woo; LEE Yang-koo; KIM Sang-ho; CHI Jeong-hee; RYU Keun-ho
2004-01-01
In this paper we propose four-dimensional (4D) operators, which can be used to deal with sequential changes of topological relationships between 4D moving objects and we call them 4D development operators. In contrast to the existing operators, we can apply the operators to real applications on 4D moving objects. We also propose a new approach to define them. The approach is based on a dimension-separated method, which considers x-y coordinates and z coordinates separately. In order to show the applicability of our operators, we show the algorithms for the proposed operators and development graph between 4D moving objects.
6d → 5d → 4d reduction of BPS attractors in flat gauged supergravities
Kiril Hristov
2015-08-01
This is achieved starting from the BPS black string in 6d with an AdS3×S3 attractor and taking two different routes to arrive at a 1/2 BPS AdS2×S2 attractor of a non-BPS black hole in 4d N=2 flat gauged supergravity. The two inequivalent routes interchange the order of KK reduction on AdS3 and SS reduction on S3. We also find the commutator between the two operations after performing a duality transformation: on the level of the theory the result is the exchange of electric with magnetic gaugings; on the level of the solution we find a flip of the quartic invariant I4 to −I4.
Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations
Evnin, Oleg
2016-01-01
We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.
Conical singularities in AdS space time
Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdSd+1/CFTd correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS5 x S5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS5/CFT4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS4/CFT3, like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS4 and AdS3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)
Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2013-01-01
We study Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCO) in extremal Kerr spacetime which lie close (in terms of the radial coordinate) to the event horizon and compare these with similar orbits in the near-extremal situation. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbits shows the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime, precisely {\\it on} the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate. This type of geodesics is unstable in the corresponding near-extremal spacetime as we show here, testifying to differences between the extremal limit of a generic Kerr spacetime and the exactly extremal geometry. Another aspect of the extremization of the effective potential for null circular orbits shows the existence of an unstable circular geodesic due to the axisymmetry of the spacetime in the extremal Kerr black hole. We attempt to relate this to the fact that the extremal Kerr black hole spacetime possesses no outer trapped surface.
Quantum Schwarzschild space-time
Duch, Paweł; Kostecki, Ryszard Paweł
2011-01-01
Using new approach to construction of space-times emerging from quantum information theory, we identify the space of quantum states that generates the Schwarzschild space-time. No quantisation procedure is used. The emergent space-time is obtained by the Poincar\\'{e}-Wick rotation and Fronsdal embedding of certain submanifold of the riemanian manifold of six-dimensional strictly positive matrices with the Bogolyubov-Kubo-Mori metric.
Sex-differential genetic effect of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D on carotid atherosclerosis
Guo Yuh-Cherng
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D gene was reported as a susceptibility gene to stroke. The genetic effect might be attributed to its role in modulating the atherogenic process in the carotid arteries. Using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and plaque index as phenotypes, the present study sought to determine the influence of this gene on subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Carotid ultrasonography was performed on 1013 stroke-free subjects who participated in the health screening programs (age 52.6 ± 12.2; 47.6% men. Genotype distribution was compared among the high-risk (plaque index ≥ 4, low-risk (index = 1-3, and reference (index = 0 groups. We analyzed continuous IMT data and further dichotomized IMT data using mean plus one standard deviation as the cutoff level. Because the plaque prevalence and IMT values displayed a notable difference between men and women, we carried out sex-specific analyses in addition to analyzing the overall data. Rs702553 at the PDE4D gene was selected because it conferred a risk for young stroke in our previous report. Previous young stroke data (190 cases and 211 controls with an additional 532 control subjects without ultrasonic data were shown as a cross-validation for the genetic effect. Results In the overall analyses, the rare homozygote of rs702553 led to an OR of 3.1 (p = 0.034 for a plaque index ≥ 4. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in men but not in women. Comparing male subjects with plaque index ≥ 4 and those with plaque index = 0, the TT genotype was over-represented (27.6% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.008. For dichotomized IMT data in men, the TT genotype had an OR of 2.1 (p = 0.032 for a thicker IMT at the common carotid artery compared with the (AA + AT genotypes. In women, neither IMT nor plaque index was associated with rs702553. Similarly, SNP rs702553 was only significant in young stroke men (OR = 1.8, p = 0.025 but not in women (p = 0
An anti-haecceitist version of spacetime substantivalism--sophisticated substantivalism--is defended. Part I looks at classical mechanics. The historical origins of the substantivalist-relationalist debate are examined. I argue that Descartes' definition of motion has been widely misunderstood but that Newton's criticisms of Cartesian relationalism are nonetheless on target. I examine Leibniz's arguments against substantival space, as presented in his correspondence with Clarke. My conclusion is that their real target should have been haecceitism, not substantivalism. I outline an anti-haecceitist version of classical spacetime substantivalism as a response to the static and kinematic shift arguments. I then review Mach's and Poincare's criticisms of Newton's absolute space, and consider Barbour's approach to dynamics which they inspired. I conclude that Barbour and Bertotti's intrinsic particle dynamics offers a viable and superior alternative to substantivalist interpretations of classical mechanics. In Part II I defend sophisticated substantivalism, against objections and alternatives, as a response to the hole argument. I argue that the metric field of general relativity should be viewed as representing spacetime structure, not as representing a material field. I then consider whether Barbour's Machian framework can again undermine substantivalism by providing a relational alternative to general relativity. I argue that it fails to do so because it yields a theory most naturally interpreted as concerning the evolution of substantival space, conceived along sophisticated substantivalist lines. Problems with treating such a theory as fundamental are also highlighted. In Part III I investigate whether or not the phenomena of handedness and parity violation support substantivalism. I argue that they do not, and offer a relational understanding of handedness and of parity-violating physics. In doing so, I consider the relevance of haecceitism and anti- haecceitism
Acausality in Gowdy spacetimes
Quevedo, H
2004-01-01
We present a parametrization of $T^3$ and $S^1\\times S^2$ Gowdy cosmological models which allows us to study both types of topologies simultaneously. We show that there exists a coordinate system in which the general solution of the linear polarized special case (with both topologies) has exactly the same functional dependence. This unified parametrization is used to investigate the existence of Cauchy horizons at the cosmological singularities, leading to a violation of the strong cosmic censorship conjecture. Our results indicate that the only acausal spacetimes are described by the Kantowski-Sachs and the Kerr-Gowdy metrics.
Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.
2015-12-01
We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.
Waves on Noncommutative Spacetimes
Balachandran, A. P.; Kumar S. Gupta; Kurkcuoglu, S.
2005-01-01
Waves on ``commutative'' spacetimes like R^d are elements of the commutative algebra C^0(R^d) of functions on R^d. When C^0(R^d) is deformed to a noncommutative algebra {\\cal A}_\\theta (R^d) with deformation parameter \\theta ({\\cal A}_0 (R^d) = C^0(R^d)), waves being its elements, are no longer complex-valued functions on R^d. Rules for their interpretation, such as measurement of their intensity, and energy, thus need to be stated. We address this task here. We then apply the rules to interf...
Holographic reconstruction and renormalization in asymptotically Ricci-flat spacetimes
R.N. Caldeira Costa
2012-01-01
In this work we elaborate on an extension of the AdS/CFT framework to a sub-class of gravitational theories with vanishing cosmological constant. By building on earlier ideas, we construct a correspondence between Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting asymptotically hyperbolic hypersurfaces and a family o
A Phenomenological Approach to 10-Dimension Space-Time
Bonneville, Richard
2009-01-01
A presentation of the fundamental interactions of physics based upon the assumption of extra dimensions of space-time is given. The usual space-time is a 4-d curved hyper surface, whose local symmetry is the Lorentz group, which can be immerged inside a larger flat 10-d space. The particles are not strictly confined on the surface and have some presence in an external domain, quite small with respect to their extension in the usual space-time. In every point of the 4-d orbital space, the orthogonal 6-d internal space is supposed to be invariant under a real symmetry group. Through simple assumptions about the geometry of that internal space, two possibilities appear for classifying the particle states, corresponding to two types of particles: (i) hadrons, which undergo a gauge field associated with a real group GH(6), subgroup of SO(6) and isomorphous to SU(3); that field is identified with the strong interaction, and (ii) leptons which undergo another gauge field associated with a real group GL(6) subgroup o...
Pros and cons for C4d as a biomarker
Cohen, Danielle; Colvin, Robert B.; Mohamed R. Daha; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Haas, Mark; Nickeleit, Volker; Salmon, Jane E.; Sis, Banu; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; Bruijn, Jan A.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.
2012-01-01
The introduction of C4d in daily clinical practice in the late nineties aroused an ever-increasing interest in the role of antibody-mediated mechanisms in allograft rejection. As a marker of classical complement activation, C4d made it possible to visualize the direct link between anti-donor antibodies and tissue injury at sites of antibody binding in a graft. With the expanding use of C4d worldwide several limitations of C4d were identified. For instance, in ABO-incompatible transplantations...
Pros and cons for C4d as a biomarker.
Cohen, Danielle; Colvin, Robert B; Daha, Mohamed R; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Haas, Mark; Nickeleit, Volker; Salmon, Jane E; Sis, Banu; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M
2012-04-01
The introduction of C4d in daily clinical practice in the late nineties aroused an ever-increasing interest in the role of antibody-mediated mechanisms in allograft rejection. As a marker of classical complement activation, C4d made it possible to visualize the direct link between anti-donor antibodies and tissue injury at sites of antibody binding in a graft. With the expanding use of C4d worldwide several limitations of C4d were identified. For instance, in ABO-incompatible transplantations C4d is present in the majority of grafts but this seems to point at 'graft accommodation' rather than antibody-mediated rejection. C4d is now increasingly recognized as a potential biomarker in other fields where antibodies can cause tissue damage, such as systemic autoimmune diseases and pregnancy. In all these fields, C4d holds promise to detect patients at risk for the consequences of antibody-mediated disease. Moreover, the emergence of new therapeutics that block complement activation makes C4d a marker with potential to identify patients who may possibly benefit from these drugs. This review provides an overview of the past, present, and future perspectives of C4d as a biomarker, focusing on its use in solid organ transplantation and discussing its possible new roles in autoimmunity and pregnancy. PMID:22297669
Standard 4D gravity on a brane in six-dimensional flux compactifications
We consider a six-dimensional space-time, in which two of the dimensions are compactified by a flux. Matter can be localized on a codimension one brane coupled to the bulk gauge field and wrapped around an axis of symmetry of the internal space. By studying the linear perturbations around this background, we show that the gravitational interaction between sources on the brane is described by Einstein 4D gravity at large distances. Our model provides a consistent setup for the study of gravity in the rugby (or football) compactification, without having to deal with the complications of a deltalike, codimension two brane. To our knowledge, this is the first complete study of gravity in a realistic brane model with two extra dimensions, in which the mechanism of stabilization of the extra space is fully taken into account
Geovisualization Approaches for Spatio-temporal Crime Scene Analysis - Towards 4D Crime Mapping
Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut
This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.
4d quantum geometry from 3d supersymmetric gauge theory and holomorphic block
Han, Muxin
2016-01-01
A class of 3d N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories are constructed and shown to encode the simplicial geometries in 4-dimensions. The gauge theories are defined by applying the Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov construction [1] in 3d-3d correspondence to certain graph complement 3-manifolds. Given a gauge theory in this class, the massive supersymmetric vacua of the theory contain the classical geometries on a 4d simplicial complex. The corresponding 4d simplicial geometries are locally constant curvature (either dS or AdS), in the sense that they are made by gluing geometrical 4-simplices of the same constant curvature. When the simplicial complex is sufficiently refined, the simplicial geometries can approximate all possible smooth geometries on 4-manifold. At the quantum level, we propose that a class of holomorphic blocks defined in [2] from the 3d N=2 gauge theories are wave functions of quantum 4d simplicial geometries. In the semiclassical limit, the asymptotic behavior of holomorphic block reproduces the classical action of 4d Einstein-Hilbert gravity in the simplicial context.
Causal Behaviour on Carter spacetime
Blanco, Oihane F
2015-01-01
In this work we will focus on the causal character of Carter Spacetime (see B. Carter, Causal structure in space-time, Gen. Rel. Grav. 1 4 337-406, 1971). The importance of this spacetime is the following: for the causally best well behaved spacetimes (the globally hyperbolic ones), there are several characterizations or alternative definitions. In some cases, it has been shown that some of the causal properties required in these characterizations can be weakened. But Carter spacetime provides a counterexample for an impossible relaxation in one of them. We studied the possibility of Carter spacetime to be a counterexample for impossible lessening in another characterization, based on the previous results. In particular, we will prove that the time-separation or Lorentzian distance between two chosen points in Carter spacetime is infinite. Although this spacetime turned out not to be the counterexample we were looking for, the found result is interesting per se and provides ideas for alternate approaches to t...
On the quantization of spacetime
A program of quantization of relativistic local field theories in terms of Hilbert modules over non-commutative Csup*-algebras is outlined. The spacetime of the considered systems should become a ''quantum'' represented by a Hilbert space. Two suggestions are given for the possible determination this quantum spacetime. (author)
Emergent space-time and the supersymmetric index
Benjamin, Nathan; Keller, Christoph; Paquette, Natalie M
2015-01-01
It is of interest to find criteria on a 2d CFT which indicate that it gives rise to emergent gravity in a macroscopic 3d AdS space via holography. Symmetric orbifolds in the large $N$ limit have partition functions which are consistent with an emergent space-time string theory with $L_{\\rm string} \\sim L_{\\rm AdS}$. For supersymmetric CFTs, the elliptic genus can serve as a sensitive probe of whether the SCFT admits a large radius gravity description with $L_{\\rm string} \\ll L_{\\rm AdS}$ after one deforms away from the symmetric orbifold point in moduli space. We discuss several classes of constructions whose elliptic genera strongly hint that gravity with $L_{\\rm Planck} \\ll L_{\\rm string} \\ll L_{\\rm AdS}$ can emerge at suitable points in moduli space.
Emergent space-time and the supersymmetric index
Benjamin, Nathan; Kachru, Shamit; Keller, Christoph A.; Paquette, Natalie M.
2016-05-01
It is of interest to find criteria on a 2d CFT which indicate that it gives rise to emergent gravity in a macroscopic 3d AdS space via holography. Symmetric orbifolds in the large N limit have partition functions which are consistent with an emergent space-time string theory with L string ˜ L AdS. For supersymmetric CFTs, the elliptic genus can serve as a sensitive probe of whether the SCFT admits a large radius gravity description with L string ≪ L AdS after one deforms away from the symmetric orbifold point in moduli space. We discuss several classes of constructions whose elliptic genera strongly hint that gravity with L Planck ≪ L string ≪ L AdS can emerge at suitable points in moduli space.
Geometric construction of Killing spinors and supersymmetry algebras in homogeneous spacetimes
We show how the Killing spinors of some maximally supersymmetric supergravity solutions whose metrics describe symmetric spacetimes (including AdS, AdSxS and Hpp-waves) can be easily constructed using purely geometrical and group-theoretical methods. The calculation of the supersymmetry algebras is extremely simple in this formalism
Spacetime structure and vacuum entanglement
Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Terno, Daniel R
2015-01-01
We study the role that both vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement of a scalar field play in identifying the spacetime topology, which is not prescribed from first principles---neither in general relativity or quantum gravity. We analyze how the entanglement and observable correlations acquired between two particle detectors are sensitive to the spatial topology of spacetime. We examine the detector's time evolution to all orders in perturbation theory and then study the phenomenon of vacuum entanglement harvesting in Minkowski spacetime and two flat topologically distinct spacetimes constructed from identifications of the Minkowski space. We show that, for instance, if the spatial topology induces a preferred direction, this direction may be inferred from the dependence of correlations between the two detectors on their orientation. We therefore show that vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement harvesting makes it, in principle, possible to distinguish spacetimes with identical local geometry that d...
Emergent universe from noncommutative spacetime
The Big Bang, which was the birth of our Universe, happened at the Planck epoch. It was not an event that developed in a pre-existing space-time. Rather, it was a cosmological event simultaneously generating space-time as well as all other matter fields. Therefore, in order to describe the origin of our Universe, it is necessary to have a background-independent theory for quantum gravity in which no space-time structure is a priori assumed, but is defined from the theory. The emergent gravity based on noncommutative gauge theory provides such a background-independent formulation of quantum gravity, and the emergent space-time leads to a novel picture of the dynamical origin of space-time. We address some issues about the origin of our Universe and discuss the implications to cosmology of the emergent gravity.
F-string Solution in AdS4 X CP3 PP-wave Background
Banerjee, Gourav
2016-01-01
We present supergravity solution for F-string in pp wave background obtained from AdS4 X CP3 with zero flat directions.The classical solution is shown to break all space-time supersymmetries. We explicitly write down the standard as well as supernumerary Killing spinors both for the background and F-string solution.
Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh
2016-01-01
When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.
2010-07-01
... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...
Gravity from Spacetime Thermodynamics
Padmanabhan, T
2002-01-01
The Einstein-Hilbert action (and thus the dynamics of gravity) can be obtained by combining the principle of equivalence, special relativity and quantum theory in the Rindler frame and postulating that the horizon area must be proportional to the entropy. This approach uses the local Rindler frame as a natural extension of the local inertial frame, and leads to the interpretation that the gravitational action represents the free energy of the spacetime geometry. As an aside, one obtains an insight into the peculiar structure of Einstein-Hilbert action and a natural explanation to the questions:(i) Why does the covariant action for gravity contain second derivatives of the metric tensor? (ii) Why is the gravitational coupling constant is positive ? Some geometrical features of gravitational action are clarified.
Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored
Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2010-05-01
A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.
Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored
A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.
Springer handbook of spacetime
Petkov, Vesselin
2014-01-01
The Springer Handbook of Spacetime is dedicated to the ground-breaking paradigm shifts embodied in the two relativity theories, and describes in detail the profound reshaping of physical sciences they ushered in. It includes in a single volume chapters on foundations, on the underlying mathematics, on physical and astrophysical implications, experimental evidence and cosmological predictions, as well as chapters on efforts to unify general relativity and quantum physics. The Handbook can be used as a desk reference by researchers in a wide variety of fields, not only by specialists in relativity but also by researchers in related areas that either grew out of, or are deeply influenced by, the two relativity theories: cosmology, astronomy and astrophysics, high energy physics, quantum field theory, mathematics, and philosophy of science. It should also serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and young researchers entering these areas, and for instructors who teach courses on these subjects. The Han...
Conformal symmetries of spacetimes
In this paper, we give a unified and global new approach to the study of the conformal structure of the three classical Riemannian spaces as well as of the six relativistic and non-relativistic spacetimes (Minkowskian, de Sitter, anti-de Sitter, and both Newton-Hooke and Galilean). We obtain general expressions within a Cayley-Klein framework, holding simultaneously for all these nine spaces, whose cycles (including geodesics and circles) are explicitly characterized in a new way. The corresponding cycle-preserving symmetries, which give rise to (Moebius-like) conformal Lie algebras, together with their differential realizations are then deduced without having to resort to solving the conformal Killing equations. We show that each set of three spaces with the same signature type and any curvature have isomorphic conformal algebras; these are related through an apparently new conformal duality. Laplace and wave-type differential equations with conformal algebra symmetry are finally constructed. (author)
Applications of holographic spacetime
Torres, Terrence J.
Here we present an overview of the theory of holographic spacetime (HST), originally devised and primarily developed by Tom Banks and Willy Fischler, as well as its various applications and predictions for cosmology and particle phenomenology. First we cover the basic theory and motivation for holographic spacetime and move on to present the latest developments therein as of the time of this writing. Then we indicate the origin of the quantum degrees of freedom in the theory and then present a correspondence with low energy effective field theory. Further, we proceed to show the general origins of inflation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) within the theory of HST as well as predict the functional forms of two and three point correlation functions for scalar and tensor curvature fluctuations in the early universe. Next, we constrain the theory parameters by insisting on agreement with observational bounds on the scalar spectral index of CMB fluctuations from the Planck experiment as well as theoretical bounds on the number of e-folds of inflation. Finally, we argue that HST predicts specific gauge structures for the low-energy effective field theory at the present era and proceed to construct a viable supersymmetric model extension. Constraints on model parameters and couplings are then calculated by numerically minimizing the theory's scalar potential and comparing the resultant model mass spectra to current observational limits from the LHC SUSY searches. In the end we find that the low-energy theory, while presenting a little hierarchy problem, is fully compatible with current observational limits. Additionally, the high-energy underlying theory is generically compatible with observational constraints stemming from inflation, and predictions on favored model parameters are given.
Strongly Coupled CFT in FRW Universe from AdS/CFT Correspondence
Koyama, K; Koyama, Kazuya; Soda, Jiro
2001-01-01
We develop a formalism to calculate the effective action of the strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) in curved spacetime. The effective action of the CFT is obtained from AdS/CFT correspondence. The anti de-Sitter (AdS) spacetime has various slicing which give various curved spacetime on its boundary. We show the de Sitter spacetime and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe can be embedded in the AdS spacetime and derive the scalar two-point function of the conformal fields in those spacetime. In curved spacetime, the two-point function depends on the vacuum state of the CFT. A method to specify the vacuum state in AdS/CFT calculations is shown. Because the classical action in AdS spacetime diverges near the boundary, we need the counter terms to regulate the result. The simple derivation of the counter terms using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also presented in the appendix.
Strongly coupled CFT in FRW universe from AdS/CFT correspondence
Koyama, Kazuya; Soda, Jiro
2001-05-01
We develop a formalism to calculate the effective action of the strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) in curved spacetime. The effective action of the CFT is obtained from AdS/CFT correspondence. The anti de-Sitter (AdS) spacetime has various slicing which give various curved spacetime on its boundary. We show the de Sitter spacetime and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe can be embedded in the AdS spacetime and derive the scalar two-point function of the conformal fields in those spacetime. In curved spacetime, the two-point function depends on the vacuum state of the CFT. A method to specify the vacuum state in AdS/CFT calculations is shown. Because the classical action in AdS spacetime diverges near the boundary, we need the counter terms to regulate the result. The simple derivation of the counter terms using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also presented in the appendix.
Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2015-01-01
We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.
Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities
We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)
Spacetime anisotropy affects cosmological entanglement
Pierini, Roberto; Mancini, Stefano
2016-01-01
Most existing cosmological entanglement studies are focused on the isotropic Robertson-Walker (RW) spacetime. Here we go beyond this limitation and study the influence of anisotropy on entanglement generated by dynamical spacetime. Since the isotropic spacetime is viewed as a background medium and the anisotropy is incorporated as perturbation, we decompose entanglement entropy into isotropic and anisotropic contributions. The latter is shown to be non-negligible by analyzing two cosmological models with weak and conformal coupling. We also show the possibility of using entanglement to infer about universe features.
Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities
Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)
2015-01-01
We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)
Entanglement in an expanding spacetime
We show that a dynamical spacetime generates entanglement between modes of a quantum field. Conversely, the entanglement encodes information concerning the underlying spacetime structure, which hints at the prospect of applications of this observation to cosmology. Here we illustrate this point by way of an analytically exactly soluble example, that of a scalar quantum field on a two-dimensional asymptotically flat Robertson-Walker expanding spacetime. We explicitly calculate the entanglement in the far future, for a quantum field residing in the vacuum state in the distant past. In this toy universe, it is possible to fully reconstruct the parameters of the cosmic history from the entanglement entropy
Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes
Bini, Donato
2016-01-01
The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.
Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David
2016-01-01
We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.
Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole
We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.
Solutions in Bosonic String Field Theory and Higher Spin Algebras in AdS
Polyakov, Dimitri
2015-01-01
We find a class of analytic solutions in open bosonic string field theory, parametrized by the chiral copy of higher spin algebra in $AdS_3$. The solutions are expressed in terms of the generating function for the products of Bell polynomials in derivatives of bosonic space-time coordinates $X^m(z)$ of the open string, which form is determined in this work. The products of these polynomials form a natural operator algebra realizations of $W_\\infty$ (area-preserving diffeomorphisms), enveloping algebra of SU(2) and higher spin algebra in $AdS_3$. The class of SFT solutions found can, in turn, be interpreted as the "enveloping of enveloping", or the enveloping of $AdS_3$ higher spin algebra. We also discuss the extensions of this class of solutions to superstring theory and their relations to higher spin algebras in higher space-time dimensions.
Space-Time Diffeomorphisms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories
L. Román Juarez
2008-07-01
Full Text Available In previous work [Rosenbaum M. et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007, 10367–10382] we have shown how for canonical parametrized field theories, where space-time is placed on the same footing as the other fields in the theory, the representation of space-time diffeomorphisms provides a very convenient scheme for analyzing the induced twisted deformation of these diffeomorphisms, as a result of the space-time noncommutativity. However, for gauge field theories (and of course also for canonical geometrodynamics where the Poisson brackets of the constraints explicitely depend on the embedding variables, this Poisson algebra cannot be connected directly with a representation of the complete Lie algebra of space-time diffeomorphisms, because not all the field variables turn out to have a dynamical character [Isham C.J., Kuchar K.V., Ann. Physics 164 (1985, 288–315, 316–333]. Nonetheless, such an homomorphic mapping can be recuperated by first modifying the original action and then adding additional constraints in the formalism in order to retrieve the original theory, as shown by Kuchar and Stone for the case of the parametrized Maxwell field in [Kuchar K.V., Stone S.L., Classical Quantum Gravity 4 (1987, 319–328]. Making use of a combination of all of these ideas, we are therefore able to apply our canonical reparametrization approach in order to derive the deformed Lie algebra of the noncommutative space-time diffeomorphisms as well as to consider how gauge transformations act on the twisted algebras of gauge and particle fields. Thus, hopefully, adding clarification on some outstanding issues in the literature concerning the symmetries for gauge theories in noncommutative space-times.
The origin of spacetime dimensionality
Sakellariadou, Mairi
2007-01-01
I address the issue of spacetime dimensionality within Kaluza-Klein theories and theories with large extra dimensions. I review the arguments explaining the dimensionality of the universe, within the framework of string gas cosmology and braneworld cosmology, respectively.
Sormani, Christina
2015-01-01
Given a time function $\\tau$ on a spacetime $M$, we define a `null distance function', $\\hat{d}_\\tau$, built from and closely related to the causal structure of $M$. In basic models with timelike $\
Romero, Gustavo E
2015-01-01
I present a discussion of some issues in the ontology of spacetime. After a characterisation of the controversies among relationists, substantivalists, eternalists, and presentists, I offer a new argument for rejecting presentism, the doctrine that only present objects exist. Then, I outline and defend a form of spacetime realism that I call event substantivalism. I propose an ontological theory for the emergence of spacetime from more basic entities (timeless and spaceless `events'). Finally, I argue that a relational theory of pre-geometric entities can give rise to substantival spacetime in such a way that relationism and substantivalism are not necessarily opposed positions, but rather complementary. In an appendix I give axiomatic formulations of my ontological views.
Einstein spacetimes with weak regularity
LeFloch, Philippe G.
2010-01-01
We review recent work on the Einstein equations of general relativity when the curvature is defined in a weak sense. Weakly regular spacetimes are constructed, in which impulsive gravitational waves, as well as shock waves, propagate.
Discrete spacetime and its applications
Bachmat, E
2007-01-01
We survey some results about the asymptotic behavior of discrete spacetime models, which appeared in diverse settings in the physics and math literature. We then discuss some recent applications, including scheduling in disk drives and analysis of airplane boarding strategies.
Spacetime geometry from graviton condensation
Zielinski, Sophia
2016-01-01
In this thesis we introduce a novel approach viewing spacetime geometry as an emergent phenomenon based on the condensation of a large number of quanta on a distinguished flat background. We advertise this idea with regard to investigations of spacetime singularities within a quantum field theoretical framework and semiclassical considerations of black holes. Given that in any physical theory apart from General Relativity the metric background is determined in advance, singu...
González-Díaz, Pedro F.
2000-01-01
In this paper the problem of the quantum stability of the two-dimensional warp drive spacetime moving with an apparent faster than light velocity is considered. We regard as a maximum extension beyond the event horizon of that spacetime its embedding in a three-dimensional Minkowskian space with the topology of the corresponding Misner space. It is obtained that the interior of the spaceship bubble becomes then a multiply connected nonchronal region with closed spacelike curves and that the m...
Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities
Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; O'Loughlin, Martin; Papadopoulos, George
2003-01-01
We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyer ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschil...
A paucity of bulk entangling surfaces: AdS wormholes with de Sitter interiors
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Wall, Aron C.
2014-01-01
We study and construct spacetimes, dubbed planar AdS-dS-wormholes, satisfying the null energy condition and having two asymptotically AdS boundaries connected through a (non-traversable) inflating wormhole. As for other wormholes, it is natural to expect dual descriptions in terms of two disconnected CFTs in appropriate entangled states. But for our cases certain expected bulk entangling surfaces used by the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) prescription to compute CFT entropy do not exist. I...
4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter
Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.
2007-05-01
We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.
Motion management with phase-adapted 4D-optimization
Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Bortfeld, Thomas
2010-01-01
Cancer treatment with ionizing radiation is often compromised by organ motion, in particular for lung cases. Motion uncertainties can significantly degrade an otherwise optimized treatment plan. We present a spatiotemporal optimization method, which takes into account all phases of breathing via the corresponding 4D-CTs and provides a 4D-optimal plan that can be delivered throughout all breathing phases. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed to warrant for highest dosimetric accuracy, as...
The Link between ICT4D and Modernization Theory
Marlene Kunst
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For some decades western institutions have shared an enormous enthusiasm for Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D. Nevertheless, despite the field’s ever-increasing importance, research on it remains fragmented and lacks a theoretical foundation. By establishing a link between ICT4D and Modernization theory as one of the major development models, this paper aims to add some theoretical reflections to the body of existing research. Initially, a literature review of the most significant authors of Modernization theory serves as a theoretical base. Subsequently, empirical findings are systematized and embedded in the theoretical framework. The leading question is, whether ICT4D is connected to Modernization theory’s main lines of thought, both in theory and in the field. Modernization theory was chosen as a reference point, as even though it has frequently been marked as outdated, some argue that ICT4D has brought about its revival: Led by a technocratic mindset, actors in the field have indeed assumed ICTs to be context-free tools, which is one of the reasons why ICT4D has so far not been an unmitigated success. As there is a lack of systematic research on ICT4D, this paper is explorative in nature. It is certainly beyond the author’s scope to make any definite statements on how development cooperation has hitherto handled ICT4D, as the field is too complex. Instead, light will be shed on some trends that can be identified in the field of ICT4D to date.
Play as Freedom : Implications for ICT4D
Ferreira, Pedro
2015-01-01
Information and Communication Tech nologies for Development (ICT4D) deals with understanding the relationship between modern technology use and social and economic development. While play may not appear as an immediate concern to the field, a recent body of work has emerged questioning the role of play in ICT4D and the reasons behind its apparent dismissal. Some have even argued that aspects of pleasure and enjoyment get only marginal treatment within academic studies of technology more gener...
The Link between ICT4D and Modernization Theory
Marlene Kunst
2015-01-01
For some decades western institutions have shared an enormous enthusiasm for Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D). Nevertheless, despite the field’s ever-increasing importance, research on it remains fragmented and lacks a theoretical foundation. By establishing a link between ICT4D and Modernization theory as one of the major development models, this paper aims to add some theoretical reflections to the body of existing research. Initially, a lite...
Reduced-order 4D-Var: a preconditioner for the Incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method
Robert, Céline; Verron, Jacques
2006-01-01
This study demonstrates how the incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method can be applied efficiently preconditione d in an application to an oceanographic problem. The approach consists in performing a few iterations of the reduced-order 4D-Var prior to the incremental 4D-Var in the full space in order to achieve faster convergence. An application performed in the tropical Pacific Ocean, with assimilation of TAO temperature data, shows the method to be both feasible and efficient. It allows the global cost of the assimilation to be reduced by a factor of 2 without affecting the quality of the solution.
Black holes in anti-de Sitter: quasinormal modes, tails and tales of flat spacetime
Cardoso, Vitor
2015-01-01
Black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes have been the subject of intense scrutiny, including detailed frequency-domain analysis and full nonlinear evolutions. Remarkably, studies of linearized perturbations in the time-domain are scarce or non-existing. We close this gap by evolving linearized scalar wavepackets in the background of rotating BHs in AdS spacetimes. Our results show a number of interesting features. Small BHs in AdS behave as asymptotically flat BHs for early/intermediate times, displaying the same ringdown modes and power-law tails. As the field bounces back and forth between the horizon and the timelike boundary it "thermalizes" and the modes of AdS settle in. Finally, we have indications that wavepackets in the vicinity of fastly spinning BHs grow exponentially in time, signalling a superradiant instability of the geometry previously reported through a frequency-domain analysis.
4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?
Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim
2007-10-01
We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.
Newton law on the generalized singular brane with and without 4d induced gravity
Newton law arising due to the gravity localized on the general singular brane embedded in AdS5 bulk is examined in the absence or presence of the 4d induced Einstein term. For the RS brane, apart from the subleading correction, Newton potential obeys 4d- and 5d-type gravitational law at long- and short-ranges if it were not for the induced Einstein term. The 4d induced Einstein term generates an intermediate range at short distance, in which the 5d Newton potential 1/r2 emerges. For Neumann brane the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed regardless of the existence of the induced Einstein term. For Dirichlet brane the expression of Newton potential is dependent on the renormalized coupling constant vren. At particular value of vren Newton potential on Dirichlet brane exhibits a similar behavior to that on RS brane. For other values the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed as that in Neumann brane
From accelerating and Poincare coordinates to black holes in spacelike warped AdS3, and back
We first review spacelike stretched warped AdS3 and we describe its black hole quotients by using accelerating and Poincare coordinates. We then describe the maximal analytic extension of the black holes and present their causal diagrams. Finally, we calculate spacetime limits of the black hole phase space (TR, TL). This is done by requiring that the identification vector ∂θ has a finite non-zero limit. The limits we obtain are the self-dual solution in accelerating or Poincare coordinates, depending respectively on whether the limiting spacetimes are non-extremal or extremal, and warped AdS3 with a periodic proper time identification.
Sutcliffe, Paul
2011-01-01
Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter spacetime. This paper is concerned with a study of these monopoles, using both analytic and numerical methods. An approximation is introduced in which the fields of a charge N monopole are explicitly given in terms of a degree N rational map. Within this approximation, it is shown that the minimal energy monopole of charge N has the same symmetry as the minimal energy Skyrmion with baryon number N in Minkowski spacetime. Beyond charge two the minimal energy monopole has only a discrete symmetry, which is often Platonic. The rational map approximation provides an upper bound on the monopole energy and may be viewed as a smooth non-abelian refinement of the magnetic bag approximation, to which it reverts under some additional approximations. The analytic results are supported by numerical solutions obtained from simulations of the non-abelian field theory. A similar analysis is performe...
ICT4D 2016: New Priorities for ICT4D Policy, Practice and WSIS in a Post-2015 World
Heeks, R.
2014-01-01
In 2016, the Millennium Development Goals will be replaced by the post-2015 development agenda (PTDA). The foundational content is in place for this new agenda, which will be the single most-important force shaping the future of international development and, hence, the single most-important force shaping the future of information-and-communication-technology-for-development (ICT4D). In planning prospective ICT4D priorities, we should therefore pay close attention to the PTDA.This paper und...
Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer
Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R.
2016-01-01
Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects. PMID:26910109
Black Hole Formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity
Deppe, Nils; Frey, Andrew R; Kunstatter, Gabor
2016-01-01
AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In arXiv:1410.1869, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.
Space-time geometry of topological phases
The 2 + 1 dimensional lattice models of Levin and Wen (2005) provide the most general known microscopic construction of topological phases of matter. Based heavily on the mathematical structure of category theory, many of the special properties of these models are not obvious. In the current paper, we present a geometrical space-time picture of the partition function of the Levin-Wen models which can be described as doubles (two copies with opposite chiralities) of underlying anyon theories. Our space-time picture describes the partition function as a knot invariant of a complicated link, where both the lattice variables of the microscopic Levin-Wen model and the terms of the Hamiltonian are represented as labeled strings of this link. This complicated link, previously studied in the mathematical literature, and known as Chain-Mail, can be related directly to known topological invariants of 3-manifolds such as the so-called Turaev-Viro invariant and the Witten-Reshitikhin-Turaev invariant. We further consider quasi-particle excitations of the Levin-Wen models and we see how they can be understood by adding additional strings to the Chain-Mail link representing quasi-particle world-lines. Our construction gives particularly important new insight into how a doubled theory arises from these microscopic models.
STATISTICAL ENTROPIES OF THE TAUB-NUT/BOLT AdS SPACES FROM THE HORIZON CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY
JING JI-LIANG; ZHOU SAN-QING; HUANG YI-BIN
2001-01-01
The covariant phase technique is used to compute the constraint algebra of the four-dimensional space-times which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS), such as the planar Taub-NUT AdS and Taub-bolt AdS spaces, and the hyperbolic Taub-bolt AdS space. The standard Virasoro subalgebrae with corresponding central charges for these objects are constructed and the resulting densities of states yield the expected Bekenstein-Hawking entropies.
Vacuum polarization induced by a cosmic string in anti-de Sitter spacetime
In this paper, we investigate the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the field squared and the energy–momentum tensor associated with a massive scalar quantum field induced by a generalized cosmic string in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In order to develop this analysis we evaluate the corresponding Wightman function. As we shall observe, this function is expressed as the sum of two terms: the first one corresponds to the Wightman function in pure AdS bulk and the second one is induced by the presence of the string. The second contribution is finite at the coincidence limit and is used to provide closed expressions for the parts in the VEVs of the field squared and the energy–momentum tensor induced by the presence of the string. Because the analysis of vacuum polarization effects in pure AdS spacetime has been developed in the literature, here we are mainly interested in the investigation of string-induced effects. We show that the curvature of the background spacetime has an essential influence on the VEVs at distances larger than the curvature radius. In particular, at large distances the decay of the string-induced VEVs is power law for both massless and massive fields. The string-induced parts vanish on the AdS boundary and they dominate the pure AdS part for points near the AdS horizon. (paper)
Exploring the holographic principle in asymptotically flat spacetimes via the BMS group
Arcioni, G; Arcioni, Giovanni; Dappiaggi, Claudio
2003-01-01
We explore the holographic principle in the context of asymptotically flat spacetimes. In analogy with the AdS/CFT scenario we analyse the asympotically symmetry group of this class of spacetimes, the so called Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group. We apply the covariant entropy bound to relate bulk entropy to boundary symmetries and find a quite different picture with respect to the asymptotically AdS case. We then derive the covariant wave equations for fields carrying BMS representations to investigate the nature of the boundary degrees of freedom. We find some similarities with 't Hooft S-matrix proposal and suggest a possible mechanism to encode bulk data.
Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion
Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen
2003-01-01
dangerous than expected in these cases. The general formalism can be straightforwardly used also to study the (bosonic part of the) fluctuations around the closed strings, recently considered in connection with the AdS/conformal field theory duality, on AdS ×S and AdS ×S ×T . © 2003 The American Physical......The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated in...
String in AdS Black Hole: A Thermo Field Dynamic Approach
Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dafni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz
2012-01-01
Based on Maldacena's description of an eternal AdS-black hole, we reassess the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (non-interacting) copies of the CFT associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary st...
Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT
Metsaev, R R
2014-01-01
Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...
On the stability of anti-de Sitter spacetime
Deppe, Nils
2016-01-01
We present results from a detailed study of spherically symmetric Einstein-massless-scalar field dynamics with a negative cosmological constant in four to nine spacetime dimensions. This study is the first to examine dynamics in AdS beyond five dimensions and the gauge dependence of recently proposed perturbative methods. Using these perturbative methods, we provide evidence that the oscillatory divergence used to argue for instability of anti-de Sitter space by Bizon et al. is a gauge-dependent effect in five spacetime dimensions. Interestingly, we find that this behavior appears to be gauge-independent in higher dimensions; however, understanding how this divergence depends on the initial data is more difficult. The results we present show that while much progress has been made in understanding the rich dynamics and stability of anti-de Sitter space, a clear route to the answer of whether or not it is stable still eludes us.
Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime
A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons
Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors
Sabín, Carlos
2016-01-01
We show how to transform a Dirac equation in curved spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1+1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1+1 dimensions.
Spacetimes with Semisymmetric Energy-Momentum Tensor
De, U. C.; Velimirović, Ljubica
2015-06-01
The object of the present paper is to introduce spacetimes with semisymmetric energy-momentum tensor. At first we consider the relation R( X, Y)ṡ T=0, that is, the energy-momentum tensor T of type (0,2) is semisymmetric. It is shown that in a general relativistic spacetime if the energy-momentum tensor is semisymmetric, then the spacetime is also Ricci semisymmetric and the converse is also true. Next we characterize the perfect fluid spacetime with semisymmetric energy-momentum tensor. Then, we consider conformally flat spacetime with semisymmetric energy-momentum tensor. Finally, we cited some examples of spacetimes admitting semisymmetric energy-momentum tensor.
... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...
Motion of a spinning particle in curved space-time
Kumar, S Satish
2015-01-01
The motion of spinning test-masses in curved space-time is described with a covariant hamiltonian formalism. A large class of hamiltonians can be used with the model- independent Poisson-Dirac brackets, to obtain equations of motion. Here we apply it to the minimal hamiltonian and also to a non-minimal hamiltonian, describing the gravi- tational Stern-Gerlach force. And a note on ISCO has been added.
Axisymmetric Stationary Spacetimes of Constant Scalar Curvature in Four Dimensions
Assafari, Rosikhuna F; Hasanuddin,; Wiliardy, Abednego
2016-01-01
In this paper we construct a special class of four dimensional axissymmetric stationary spacetimes whose Ricci scalar is constant in the Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. The first step is to construct Einstein metric by solving a modified Ernst equation for nonzero cosmological constant. Then, we modify the previous result by adding two additional functions to the metric to obtain a more general metric of constant scalar curvature which are not Einstein.
Differential modulation based on space-time block codes
李正权; 胡光锐
2004-01-01
A differential modulation scheme using space-time block codes is put forward. Compared with other schemes,our scheme has lower computational complexity and has a simpler decoder. In the case of three or four transmitter antennas, our scheme has a higher rate a higher coding gain and a lower bit error rate for a given rate. Then we made simulations for space-time block codes as well as group codes in the case of two, three, four and five transmit antennas. The simulations prove that using two transmit antennas, one receive antenna and code rate of 4 bits/s/Hz, the differential STBC method outperform the differential group codes method by 4 dB. Useing three, four and five transmit antennas,one receive antenna, and code rate of 3 bits/s/Hz are adopted, the differential STBC method outperform the differential group codes method by 5 dB, 6.5 dB and 7 dB, respectively. In other words, the differential modulation scheme based on space-time block code is better than the corresponding differential modulation scheme
Inelastic electron scattering investigation of the complete 4d shell
In order to test for collective behavior in the filled 4d shell of single atoms with Z approx. = 54, inelastic electron scattering experiments were performed on thin films of antimony, tellurium and barium fluoride using 300 keV electrons. The Te measurements at low momentum transfers are in absolute agreement with photoabsorption results. For Te, a high concentration of oscillator strength is found in the broad maximum which dominates the 4d excitation spectrum. With the aid of a background subtraction, the energy centroid of this feature is located. In a comparison with simple models, the measured energy shift in the 4d continuum as a function of momentum transfer favors a single particle rather than collective description
Various Facets of Spacetime Foam
Ng, Y Jack
2011-01-01
Spacetime foam manifests itself in a variety of ways. It has some attributes of a turbulent fluid. It is the source of the holographic principle. Cosmologically it may play a role in explaining why the energy density has the critical value, why dark energy/matter exists, and why the effective dynamical cosmological constant has the value as observed. Astrophysically the physics of spacetime foam helps to elucidate why the critical acceleration in modified Newtonian dynamics has the observed value; and it provides a possible connection between global physics and local galactic dynamics involving the phenomenon of flat rotation curves of galaxies and the observed Tully-Fisher relation. Spacetime foam physics also sheds light on nonlocal gravitational dynamics.
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Santos, Grasiele
2016-01-01
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of "dynamical dimensional reduction" which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based exclusively on analyses of the "spectral dimension", which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the "thermal dimension" which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, f...
Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda
Lovink, G.
2011-01-01
Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the developing world as passive receivers of Western technological development, towards Ugandans whose use and production of technologies entail innovations from the ground up. It is this ‘other’ everyday...
4-D XRD for strain in many grains using triangulation
Bale, Hrishikesh A.; Hanan, Jay C.; Tamura, Nobumichi
2006-01-01
Determination of the strains in a polycrystalline material using 4-D XRD reveals sub-grain and grain-to-grain behavior as a function of stress. Here 4-D XRD involves an experimental procedure using polychromatic micro-beam X-radiation (micro-Laue) to characterize polycrystalline materials in spatial location as well as with increasing stress. The in-situ tensile loading experiment measured strain in a model aluminum-sapphire metal matrix composite using the Advanced Light Source, Beam-li...
The 4-D approach to visual control of autonomous systems
Dickmanns, Ernst D.
1994-01-01
Development of a 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision is described. Core elements of this method are spatio-temporal models oriented towards objects and laws of perspective projection in a foward mode. Integration of multi-sensory measurement data was achieved through spatio-temporal models as invariants for object recognition. Situation assessment and long term predictions were allowed through maintenance of a symbolic 4-D image of processes involving objects. Behavioral capabilities were easily realized by state feedback and feed-foward control.
4D Multimodality Imaging of Citrobacter rodentium Infections in Mice
Collins, James William; Meganck, Jeffrey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Francis, Kevin P.; Frankel, Gad
2013-01-01
This protocol outlines the steps required to longitudinally monitor a bioluminescent bacterial infection using composite 3D diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated μCT (DLIT-μCT) and the subsequent use of this data to generate a four dimensional (4D) movie of the infection cycle. To develop the 4D infection movies and to validate the DLIT-μCT imaging for bacterial infection studies using an IVIS Spectrum CT, we used infection with bioluminescent C. rodentium, which causes self-limiti...
The Historical Origins of Spacetime
Walter, Scott
The idea of spacetime investigated in this chapter, with a view toward understanding its immediate sources and development, is the one formulated and proposed by Hermann Minkowski in 1908. Until recently, the principle source used to form historical narratives of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime has been Minkowski's own discovery account, outlined in the lecture he delivered in Cologne, entitled Space and time [1]. Minkowski's lecture is usually considered as a bona fide first-person narrative of lived events. According to this received view, spacetime was a natural outgrowth of Felix Klein's successful project to promote the study of geometries via their characteristic groups of transformations. Or as Minkowski expressed the same basic thought himself, the theory of relativity discovered by physicists in 1905 could just as well have been proposed by some late-nineteenth-century mathematician, by simply reflecting upon the groups of transformations that left invariant the form of the equation of a propagating light wave. Minkowski's publications and research notes provide a contrasting picture of the discovery of spacetime, in which group theory plays no direct part. In order to relate the steps of Minkowski's discovery, we begin with an account of Poincaré's theory of gravitation, where Minkowski found some of the germs of spacetime. Poincaré's geometric interpretation of the Lorentz transformation is examined, along with his reasons for not pursuing a four-dimensional vector calculus. In the second section, Minkowski's discovery and presentation of the notion of a world line in spacetime is presented. In the third and final section, Poincaré's and Minkowski's diagrammatic interpretations of the Lorentz transformation are compared.
Structure of random discrete spacetime
The usual picture of spacetime consists of a continuous manifold, together with a metric of Lorentzian signature which imposes a causal structure. We consider a model in which spacetime consists of a discrete set of points taken at random from a manifold, with only the causal structure remaining. Using only this structure, we show how to construct a metric, how to define the effective dimension, and how such quantities may depend on the scale of measurement. We discuss possible desirable features of the model
Structure of random discrete spacetime
Brightwell, G. (Department of Matematics, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom (GB)); Gregory, R. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (USA))
1991-01-21
The usual picture of spacetime consists of a continuous manifold, together with a metric of Lorentzian signature which imposes a causal structure. We consider a model in which spacetime consists of a discrete set of points taken at random from a manifold, with only the causal structure remaining. Using only this structure, we show how to construct a metric, how to define the effective dimension, and how such quantities may depend on the scale of measurement. We discuss possible desirable features of the model.
Black holes and warped spacetime
Black holes (BHs) and their warping effect on spacetime are described, beginning with a discussion on stellar evolution that includes white dwarfs, supernovas and neutron stars. The structure of static, rotating, and electrically charged BHs are considered, as well as the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Rosen bridge, and wormholes in spacetime. Attention is also given to gravitational lenses, various space geometries, quasars, Seyfert galaxies, supermassive black holes, the evaporation and particle emission of BHs, and primordial BHs, including their temperature and lifetime
AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence and the Gregory-Laflamme instability
Caldarelli, Marco M; Goutéraux, Blaise; Skenderis, Kostas
2012-01-01
We show that for every asymptotically AdS solution compactified on a torus there is a corresponding Ricci-flat solution obtained by replacing the torus by a sphere, performing a Weyl rescaling of the metric and appropriately analytically continuing the dimension of the torus/sphere (as in generalized dimensional reduction). This correspondence should allow us to develop a holographic dictionary for Ricci-flat spacetimes. In particular, it maps Minkowski spacetime to AdS on a torus, the holographic stress energy tensor of AdS to the stress energy tensor due to a brane localized in the interior of spacetime and AdS black branes to (asymptotically flat) Schwarzschild black branes. Applying it to the known solutions describing the hydrodynamic regime in AdS/CFT we compute the dispersion relation of the Gregory-Laflamme unstable modes through cubic order in the wavenumber finding remarkable agreement with numerical data.
What do CFTs tell us about anti-de Sitter spacetimes?
The AdS/CFT conjecture relates quantum gravity on Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to a conformal field theory (CFT) defined on the spacetime boundary. We interpret the CFT in terms of natural analogues of the bulk S-matrix. Our first approach finds the bulk S-matrix as a limit of scattering from an AdS bubble immersed in a space admitting asymptotic states. Next, we show how the periodicity of geodesics obstructs a standard LSZ prescription for scattering within global AdS. To avoid this subtlety we partition global AdS into patches within which CFT correlators reconstruct transition amplitudes of AdS states. Finally, we use the AdS/CFT duality to propose a large N collective field theory that describes local, perturbative supergravity. Failure of locality in quantum gravity should be related to the difference between the collective 1/N expansion and genuine finite N dynamics. (author)
Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat
2004-01-01
We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.
4d-polytopes described by Coxeter diagrams and quaternions
4D-polytopes and their dual polytopes can be described as the orbits of the rank-4 Coxeter-Weyl groups. Their symmetries follow from the quaternionic descriptions of the rank-4 Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams. There exists a one to one correspondence between the finite subgroups of quaternions and the rank-4 Coxeter-Weyl groups.
ARL4D - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [Gene Wiki
Full Text Available ARL4D - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaARL4DFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:naviga ... of disease to interested scientists.[13][14][15]Male an d female an imals underwent a standardized phenotyp ... had decreased bone mineral content, heart weight, lean ... body mass and CD8-positive, alpha-beta memory T ce ...
Medicoscapes: on mobile ubiquity effects and ICT4D
Michelsen, Anders Ib
2012-01-01
The Article presents theoretical comments on the theme of ‘media ubiquity’, as an introduction to the presentation of an information and communication technology ‘4’ development (ICT4D) project in the Republic of Somaliland: The Somaliland Telemedical System for Psychiatry. This project is based on...
Black Holes and Spacetime Physics in String/M Theory
Li, Miao
2000-01-01
In addition to briefly reviewing recent progress in studying black hole physics in string/M theory, we describe several robust features pertaining to spacetime physics that one can glean by studying quantum physics of black holes. In particular, we review 't Hooft's S-matrix ansatz which results in a noncommutative horizon. A recent construction of fuzzy AdS2 is emphasized, this is a nice toy model for fuzzy black hole horizon. We demonstrate that this model captures some nonperturbative feat...
Rise and fall of the 4d10→4d94f resonance in the Xe isoelectronic sequence
The extreme ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of a laser-produced lanthanum plasma has been recorded and found to contain a number of discrete features in the 130-eV region. These have been analyzed as 4d10→4d9nf,np transitions in La3+. We show that the 4f transition, which is expected to be the strongest, is not in evidence. The reason is that this resonance, after the collapse of the 4f wave function, has a large autoionization width. We conclude that the 4f orbital in Ba2+ is only partially collapsed, which settles a long-standing discussion of this point
Building tomorrow's nuclear power plants with 4+D VR technology
There continues to be an increasing demand of electricity around the globe to fuel the industrial growth and to promote the human welfare. The economic activities have brought about richness in our material and cultural lives, in which process the electric power has been at the heart of the versatile energy sources. In order to timely and competitively respond to rapidly changing energy environment in the twenty-first century there is a growing need to build the advanced nuclear power plants in the unlimited workspace of virtual reality (VR) prior to commissioning. One can then realistically evaluate their construction time and cost per varying methods and options available from the leading-edge technology. In particular a great deal of efforts have yet to be made for time- and cost-dependent plant simulation and dynamically coupled database construction in the VR space. The operator training and personnel education may also benefit from the VR technology. The present work is being proposed in the three-dimensional space and time plus cost coordinates, i. e. four plus dimensional (4+D) coordinates. The 4+D VR application will enable the nuclear industry to narrow the technological gap from the other leading industries that have long since been employing the VR engineering. The 4+D technology will help nurture public understanding of the special discipline of nuclear power plants. The technology will also facilitate public access to the knowledge on the nuclear science and engineering which has so far been monopolized by the academia, national laboratories and the heavy industry. The 4+D virtual design and construction will open up the new horizon for revitalization of the nuclear industry over the globe in the foreseeable future. Considering the long construction and operation time for the nuclear power plants, the preliminary VR simulation capability for the plants will supply the vital information not only for the actual design and construction of the engineered
Powers, Shelley
2007-01-01
Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica
A Concise and Comprehensive Description of Shoulder Pathology and Procedures: The 4D Code System
Laurent Lafosse
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background. We introduce a novel description system of shoulder pathoanatomy. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive three-dimensional picture, with an additional component of time; thus, we call it the 4D code. Methods. Each line of the code starts with right versus left and a time designation. The pillar components are recorded regardless of pathology; they include subscapularis, long head of biceps tendon, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor. Secondary elements can be added if there is observed pathology, including acromioclavicular joint, glenohumeral joint, labrum, tear configuration, location and extent of partial cuff tear, calcific tendonitis, fatty infiltration, and neuropathy. Results. We provide two illustrative examples of patients which show the ease and effectiveness of the 4D code. With a few simple lines, significant amount of information about patients’ pathology, surgery, and recovery can be easily conveyed. Discussion. We utilize existing validated classification systems for parts of the shoulder and provide a frame work to build a comprehensive picture. The alphanumeric code provides a simple language that is universally understood. The 4D code is concise yet complete. It seeks to improve efficiency and accuracy of the communication, documentation, and visualization of shoulder pathology within individual practices and between providers.
AdS sub 3 gravity and conformal field theories
Behrndt, K; Gaida, I
1999-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of AdS sub 3 gravity, the BTZ black hole and the associated conformal field theories (CFTs). In particular we focus on the non-extreme six-dimensional string solution with background metric AdS sub 3 x S sup 3 near the horizon. In addition we introduce momentum modes along the string, corresponding to a BTZ black hole, and a Taub-NUT soliton in the transverse Euclidean space. We show that the AdS sub 3 space-time of this configuration has the spatial geometry of an annulus with a Liouville model at the outer boundary and a two-dimensional black hole at the inner boundary. These CFTs provide the dynamical degrees of freedom of the three-dimensional effective model and, together with the CFT corresponding to S sup 3 , provide a statistical interpretation of the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We test the proposed exact black hole entropy, which should hold to all orders in alpha', by an independent field theoretical analysis including higher-order curvature corrections. ...
Riccion from higher-dimensional space-time and one-loop renormalization
Using higher-dimensional gravity in (4+D)-dimensional space-time, Lagrangian density of riccion is obtained with the quartic self-interacting potential. It is found that after compactification to 4-dimensional space-time the resulting theory is one-loop multiplicatively renormalizable. Renormalization group equations are solved and their solutions yield many interesting results such as (i) dependence of extra dimensions on the energy mass scale showing that these dimensions increase with the increasing energy mass scale such that D = 6 at extremely high energy; (ii) phase transition at 2.82 x 1016GeV; and (iii) dependence of gravitational as well as other coupling constants on energy scale. Results also suggest that space-time above 2.82 x 1016GeV should be fractal. (author)
4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal
Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam
2016-05-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.
Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from Kaluza–Klein AdS black holes
Chuan-Yi Bai
2013-02-01
In this paper, Hawking radiation is studied from four-dimensional (4D) Kaluza–Klein (KK) AdS black holes via the method of anomaly cancellation. The {|bf KK-AdS} black hole considered is a non-extremal charged rotating solution in the theory of 4D gauged supergravity. Its Hawking fluxes of electric charge, angular momentum and energy momentum tensor are derived here. Our results support the common view that Hawking radiation is the quantum effect arising at the event horizon.
On the Fock space realizations of nonlinear algebras describing the high spin fields in AdS spaces
The method of construction of Fock space realizations of Lie algebras is generalized for nonlinear algebras. We consider as an example the nonlinear algebra of constraints which describe the totally symmetric fields with higher spins in the AdS space-time
Quantum fields in curved spacetime
We review the theory of quantum fields propagating in an arbitrary, classical, globally hyperbolic spacetime. Our review emphasizes the conceptual issues arising in the formulation of the theory and presents known results in a mathematically precise way. Particular attention is paid to the distributional nature of quantum fields, to their local and covariant character, and to microlocal spectrum conditions satisfied by physically reasonable states. We review the Unruh and Hawking effects for free fields, as well as the behavior of free fields in deSitter spacetime and FLRW spacetimes with an exponential phase of expansion. We review how nonlinear observables of a free field, such as the stress–energy tensor, are defined, as well as time-ordered-products. The “renormalization ambiguities” involved in the definition of time-ordered products are fully characterized. Interacting fields are then perturbatively constructed. Our main focus is on the theory of a scalar field, but a brief discussion of gauge fields is included. We conclude with a brief discussion of a possible approach towards a nonperturbative formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and some remarks on the formulation of quantum gravity
Non-equilibrium scalar two point functions in AdS/CFT
Keranen, Ville
2014-01-01
In the first part of the paper, we discuss different versions of the AdS/CFT dictionary out of equilibrium. We show that the Skenderis - van Rees prescription and the "extrapolate" dictionary are equivalent at the level of "in-in" two point functions of free scalar fields in arbitrary asymptotically AdS spacetimes. In the second part of the paper, we calculate two point correlation functions in dynamical spacetimes using the "extrapolate" dictionary. These calculations are performed for conformally coupled scalar fields in examples of spacetimes undergoing gravitational collapse, the AdS$_2$-Vaidya spacetime and the AdS$_3$-Vaidya spacetime, which allow us to address the problem of thermalization following a quench in the boundary field theory. The computation of the correlators is formulated as an initial value problem in the bulk spacetime. Finally, we compare our results for AdS$_3$-Vaidya to results in the previous literature obtained using the geodesic approximation and we find qualitative agreement.
A (2+1) non-commutative Drinfel'd double spacetime with cosmological constant
Ballesteros, Angel, E-mail: angelb@ubu.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Burgos, E-09001 Burgos (Spain); Herranz, Francisco J., E-mail: fjherranz@ubu.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Burgos, E-09001 Burgos (Spain); Meusburger, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.meusburger@math.uni-erlangen.de [Department Mathematik, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstr. 11, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2014-05-01
We show that the Drinfel'd double associated to the standard quantum deformation sl{sub η}(2,R) is isomorphic to the (2+1)-dimensional AdS algebra with the initial deformation parameter η related to the cosmological constant Λ=−η{sup 2}. This gives rise to a generalisation of a non-commutative Minkowski spacetime that arises as a consequence of the quantum double symmetry of (2+1) gravity to non-vanishing cosmological constant. The properties of the AdS quantum double that generalises this symmetry to the case Λ≠0 are sketched, and it is shown that the new non-commutative AdS spacetime is a nonlinear Λ-deformation of the Minkowskian one.
Breban, Romulus
2015-01-01
In previous work we discussed the problem of how a 4D observer perceives a 5D space-time and postulated that 4D perception is greatly facilitated if the 5D space-time is symmetric. In particular, if the 5D geometry is independent of the fifth coordinate then the 5D physics can be interpreted as 4D quantum mechanics. In this work we address the case where symmetry is approximate, focusing on the case where the 5D geometry depends weakly on the fifth coordinate. We show that concepts developed for the case of exact symmetry approximatively hold when other concepts such as decaying quantum states, resonant quantum scattering and friction are adopted as well. We briefly comment on the optical model and Millikan's experiment.
Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization
Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore
Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization
Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
2013-04-15
Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve
Expression of Sema4D in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance
朱琳
2012-01-01
Objective To explore the expression and clinical significance of Semaphorin4D (Sema4D) mRNA in peripheral blood lymphocyte,Sema4D on platelet surface, soluble Sema4D (sSema4D) in plasma in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods Taking 299 patients with cerebral infarction
Impact of incorporating visual biofeedback in 4D MRI.
To, David T; Kim, Joshua P; Price, Ryan G; Chetty, Indrin J; Glide-Hurst, Carri K
2016-01-01
Precise radiation therapy (RT) for abdominal lesions is complicated by respiratory motion and suboptimal soft tissue contrast in 4D CT. 4D MRI offers improved con-trast although long scan times and irregular breathing patterns can be limiting. To address this, visual biofeedback (VBF) was introduced into 4D MRI. Ten volunteers were consented to an IRB-approved protocol. Prospective respiratory-triggered, T2-weighted, coronal 4D MRIs were acquired on an open 1.0T MR-SIM. VBF was integrated using an MR-compatible interactive breath-hold control system. Subjects visually monitored their breathing patterns to stay within predetermined tolerances. 4D MRIs were acquired with and without VBF for 2- and 8-phase acquisitions. Normalized respiratory waveforms were evaluated for scan time, duty cycle (programmed/acquisition time), breathing period, and breathing regularity (end-inhale coefficient of variation, EI-COV). Three reviewers performed image quality assessment to compare artifacts with and without VBF. Respiration-induced liver motion was calculated via centroid difference analysis of end-exhale (EE) and EI liver contours. Incorporating VBF reduced 2-phase acquisition time (4.7 ± 1.0 and 5.4 ± 1.5 min with and without VBF, respectively) while reducing EI-COV by 43.8% ± 16.6%. For 8-phase acquisitions, VBF reduced acquisition time by 1.9 ± 1.6 min and EI-COVs by 38.8% ± 25.7% despite breathing rate remaining similar (11.1 ± 3.8 breaths/min with vs. 10.5 ± 2.9 without). Using VBF yielded higher duty cycles than unguided free breathing (34.4% ± 5.8% vs. 28.1% ± 6.6%, respectively). Image grading showed that out of 40 paired evaluations, 20 cases had equivalent and 17 had improved image quality scores with VBF, particularly for mid-exhale and EI. Increased liver excursion was observed with VBF, where superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right EE-EI displacements were 14.1± 5.8, 4.9 ± 2.1, and 1.5 ± 1.0 mm, respectively, with VBF compared to 11.9
across all simulations and phase bins, respiratory-gating reduced overall thoracic MSE by 46% compared to conventional 4D CT (p ∼ 10−19). Gating leads to small but significant (p < 0.02) reductions in lung volume errors (1.8%–1.4%), false positives (4.0%–2.6%), and false negatives (2.7%–1.3%). These percentage reductions correspond to gating reducing image artifacts by 24–90 cm3 of lung tissue. Similar to earlier studies, gating reduced patient image dose by up to 22%, but with scan time increased by up to 135%. Beam paused 4D CT did not significantly impact normal lung tissue image quality, but did yield similar dose reductions as for respiratory-gating, without the added cost in scanning time. Conclusions: For a typical 6 L lung, respiratory-gated 4D CT can reduce image artifacts affecting up to 90 cm3 of normal lung tissue compared to conventional acquisition. This image improvement could have important implications for dose calculations based on 4D CT. Where image quality is less critical, beam paused 4D CT is a simple strategy to reduce imaging dose without sacrificing acquisition time
Bernatowicz, K., E-mail: kingab@student.ethz.ch; Knopf, A.; Lomax, A. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI 5232, Switzerland and Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8092 (Switzerland); Keall, P.; Kipritidis, J., E-mail: john.kipritidis@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mishra, P. [Brigham and Womens Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
2015-01-15
: Averaged across all simulations and phase bins, respiratory-gating reduced overall thoracic MSE by 46% compared to conventional 4D CT (p ∼ 10{sup −19}). Gating leads to small but significant (p < 0.02) reductions in lung volume errors (1.8%–1.4%), false positives (4.0%–2.6%), and false negatives (2.7%–1.3%). These percentage reductions correspond to gating reducing image artifacts by 24–90 cm{sup 3} of lung tissue. Similar to earlier studies, gating reduced patient image dose by up to 22%, but with scan time increased by up to 135%. Beam paused 4D CT did not significantly impact normal lung tissue image quality, but did yield similar dose reductions as for respiratory-gating, without the added cost in scanning time. Conclusions: For a typical 6 L lung, respiratory-gated 4D CT can reduce image artifacts affecting up to 90 cm{sup 3} of normal lung tissue compared to conventional acquisition. This image improvement could have important implications for dose calculations based on 4D CT. Where image quality is less critical, beam paused 4D CT is a simple strategy to reduce imaging dose without sacrificing acquisition time.
Spacetime Meshing for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods
Thite, Shripad Vidyadhar
2008-01-01
Spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) finite element methods are used to solve such PDEs involving space and time variables arising from wave propagation phenomena in important applications in science and engineering. To support an accurate and efficient solution procedure using SDG methods and to exploit the flexibility of these methods, we give a meshing algorithm to construct an unstructured simplicial spacetime mesh over an arbitrary simplicial space domain. Our algorithm is the first spacetime meshing algorithm suitable for efficient solution of nonlinear phenomena in anisotropic media using novel discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for implicit solutions directly in spacetime. Given a triangulated d-dimensional Euclidean space domain M (a simplicial complex) and initial conditions of the underlying hyperbolic spacetime PDE, we construct an unstructured simplicial mesh of the (d+1)-dimensional spacetime domain M x [0,infinity). Our algorithm uses a near-optimal number of spacetime elements, ea...
A brief review of the 2d/4d correspondences
Tachikawa, Yuji
2016-01-01
An elementary introduction to the 2d/4d correspondences is given. After quickly reviewing the 2d q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory, we will introduce 4d theories obtained by coupling trifundamentals to SU(2) gauge fields. We will then see concretely that the supersymmetric partition function of these theories on S^3 x S^1 and on S^4 is given respectively by the q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory. After giving a short discussion on how this correspondence may be understood from the viewpoint of the 6d N=(2,0) theory, we conclude the review by enumerating future directions. Most of the technical points will be referred to more detailed review articles.
Multireference Character for 4d Transition Metal-Containing Molecules.
Wang, Jiaqi; Manivasagam, Sivabalan; Wilson, Angela K
2015-12-01
Four diagnostic criteria have been examined to identify the suitability of single-reference wave function-based quantum chemistry methods for a set of 118 4d transition metal species. These diagnostics include the weight of the leading configuration of the CASSCF wave function, C0(2); the Frobenius norm of the coupled cluster amplitude vector related to single excitations, T1; the matrix 2-norm of the coupled cluster T1 amplitude vector arising from coupled cluster calculations, D1; and the percent total atomization energy, %TAE, corresponding to a relationship between energies determined with CCSD and CCSD(T) calculations. New criteria, namely, T1 ≥ 0.045, D1 ≥ 0.120, and %TAE ≥ 10%, are herein proposed as a gauge for 4d transition metal-containing molecules to predict the possible need to employ multireference (MR) wave function-based methods to describe energetic and spectroscopic properties. PMID:26642991
Construction Management Utilizing 4D CAD and Operations Simulation Methodologies
ZHANG Jianping; ZHANG Yang; HU Zhenzhong; LU Ming
2008-01-01
The paper presents applications of simplified discrete-event simulation (SDESA), and 4D-GCPSU,to the National Stadium of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Taking into account influential factors, e.g., resource, spatial condition, and the randomness of the construction process, the installation process of the steel- structure was simulated and optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology. The op- erations simulation shortened the installation duration by 39 days (about 16% of the original total duration),guided the manufacturers to plan the construction processes, and provided specific suggestions on the en-try time of the installation components, resulting in resource allocation optimization, resource saving, and construction efficiency improvement. Combining with the optimized schedule, the 4D visualization environ- ment can discover time-space conflicts timely, and may assist project managers to reschedule the construc-tion activities in tune with the site layout and resource allocation.
4D, Script N = 1 supersymmetry genomics (I)
Gates, S. James, Jr.; Gonzales, James; MacGregor, Boanne; Parker, James; Polo-Sherk, Ruben; Rodgers, Vincent G. J.; Wassink, Luke
2009-12-01
Presented in this paper the nature of the supersymmetrical representation theory behind 4D, Script N = 1 theories, as described by component fields, is investigated using the tools of Adinkras and Garden Algebras. A survey of familiar matter multiplets using these techniques reveals they are described by two fundamental valise Adinkras that are given the names of the cis-Valise (c-V) and the trans-Valise (t-V). A conjecture is made that all off-shell 4D, Script N = 1 component descriptions of supermultiplets are associated with two integers (nc, nt) — the numbers of c-V and t-V Adinkras that occur in the representation.
ROER4D Sub-project 1 - Malaysia OER review
Dhanarajan, Gajaraj; Arinto, Patricia
2014-01-01
The ROER4D project endeavours to cover at least three regions in the Global South, namely, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and South East Asia. However, background information on OER projects, policies and research and information on infrastructural, legal, socio-cultural and/or economic factors that might influence the adoption of OER in post-secondary education in these regions is incomplete despite the work of current projects. The project will provide background information o...
4d photoabsorption in Te V and Te VI
The 4d photoabsorption spectra of Cd I-like Te V and the Ag I-like Te VI have been recorded in the 70-102 eV region using the dual-laser plasma technique. Discrete structure due to 4d→6p,nf (4≤n≤8) transitions have been observed in both ion stages. These have been identified with the aid of Hartree-Fock calculations. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
Phosphodiesterase 4D gene polymorphisms in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wang, Hsun-Mo; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao
2016-09-01
The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene has been reported as a risk gene for ischemic stroke. The vascular factors are between the hypothesized etiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), and this genetic effect might be attributed for its role in SSNHL. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the PDE4D gene are associated with susceptibility to SSNHL. We conducted a case-control study with 362 SSNHL cases and 209 controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected. The genotypes were determined using TaqMan technology. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. We carried out sex-specific analysis to analyze the overall data. All three SNPs were in HWE. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in females but not in males. The TT genotype of rs702553 exhibited an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.83 (95 % confidence interval = 1.46-11.18) (p = 0.006) in female SSNHL. The TT genotype of SNP rs702553 was associated with female SSNHL under the recessive model (p = 0.004, OR 3.70). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of rs702553 was significantly associated with female SSNHL (p = 0.0043, OR 3.70). These results suggest that PDE4D gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility for the development of SSNHL in the southern Taiwanese female population. PMID:26521189
APPLICAZIONI 3D/4D GLOBALI: OLTRE TUTTE LE BARRIERE
Deiana, Andrea
2011-01-01
Le soluzioni SkylineGlobe by Skyline Software Systems, Inc. si propongono come un ambiente utile all’integrazione di dati e sistemi provenienti da diverse piattaforme di ambito territoriale per l’acquisizione, la creazione, l’annotazione, la pubblicazione, l’erogazione, la visualizzazione, l’interrogazione e l’analisi di geodatasets in un ambiente 3D/4D di facile utilizzo, distribuzione e condivisione.
ROER4D Sub-project 1 - India OER review
Dhanarajan, Gajaraj; Arinto, Patricia
2014-01-01
The ROER4D project endeavours to cover at least three regions in the Global South, namely, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and South East Asia. However, background information on OER projects, policies and research and information on infrastructural, legal, socio-cultural and/or economic factors that might influence the adoption of OER in post-secondary education in these regions is incomplete despite the work of current projects. The project will provide background information o...
Multivariable analysis of 2,4-d herbicide photocatalytic degradation
LÓPEZ-VÁSQUEZ, ANDRÉS F.; JOSÉ A. COLINA-MÁRQUEZ; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman
2011-01-01
The 2,4-D herbicide degradation of TiO2 suspensions in tap water was evaluated under artificial irradiation conditions. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of variables such as: catalyst concentration, herbicide concentration, pH, and the volumetric flow on the photocatalytic reaction in two kinds of photoreactors: flat plate and tubular reactor. The response variable was the pesticide mineralization expressed as the total organic carbon (TOC) removal per...
Biomechanics of DNA structures visualized by 4D electron microscopy
Lorenz, Ulrich J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.
2013-01-01
We present a technique for in situ visualization of the biomechanics of DNA structural networks using 4D electron microscopy. Vibrational oscillations of the DNA structure are excited mechanically through a short burst of substrate vibrations triggered by a laser pulse. Subsequently, the motion is probed with electron pulses to observe the impulse response of the specimen in space and time. From the frequency and amplitude of the observed oscillations, we determine the normal modes and eig...
Immersive 4D Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Simulations
Teuben, Peter; Hut, Piet; Levy, Stuart; Makino, Jun; McMillan, Steve; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Shara, Mike; Emmart, Carter
2001-01-01
In dense clusters a bewildering variety of interactions between stars can be observed, ranging from simple encounters to collisions and other mass-transfer encounters. With faster and special-purpose computers like GRAPE, the amount of data per simulation is now exceeding 1TB. Visualization of such data has now become a complex 4D data-mining problem, combining space and time, and finding interesting events in these large datasets. We have recently starting using the virtual reality simulator...
Can Pions ``Smell'' 4D, N = 1 Supersymmetry?
Gates, Jr., S. James
1997-01-01
We show how the usual chiral perturbation theory description of phenomenological pion physics admits an interpretation as a low-energy string-like model associated with QCD. By naive and straightforward generalization within the context of a new class of supersymmetrical models, it is shown that this string-like structure admits a 4D, N = 1 supersymmetrical extension. The presence of a WZNW term in the model implies modifications of certain higher order processes involving the ordinary SU(3) ...
Autoadaptive phase-correlated (AAPC) reconstruction for 4D CBCT
Bergner, Frank; Berkus, Timo; Oelhafen, Markus; Kunz, Patrik; Pan, Tinsu; Kachelrieß, Marc
2009-01-01
Purpose: Kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used in image-guided radiation therapy for exact patient positioning prior to the treatment. However, producing time series of volumetric images (4D CBCT) of moving anatomical structures remains challenging. The presented work introduces a novel method, combining high temporal resolution inside anatomical regions with strong motion and image quality improvement in regions with little motion.
Holzegel, Gustav
2016-01-01
We generalize our unique continuation results recently established for a class of linear and nonlinear wave equations $\\Box_g \\phi + \\sigma \\phi = \\mathcal{G} ( \\phi, \\partial \\phi )$ on asymptotically anti-de Sitter (aAdS) spacetimes to aAdS spacetimes admitting non-static boundary metrics. The new Carleman estimates established in this setting constitute an essential ingredient in proving unique continuation results for the full nonlinear Einstein equations, which will be addressed in forthcoming papers. Key to the proof is a new geometrically adapted construction of foliations of pseudoconvex hypersurfaces near the conformal boundary.
De Leon, J P
2003-01-01
In the Randall-Sundrum brane-world scenario and other non-compact Kaluza-Klein theories, the motion of test particles is higher-dimensional in nature. In other words, all test particles travel on five-dimensional geodesics but observers, who are bounded to spacetime, have access only to the 4D part of the trajectory. Conventionally, the dynamics of test particles as observed in 4D is discussed on the basis of the splitting of the geodesic equation in 5D. However, this procedure is {\\em not} unique and therefore leads to some problems. The most serious one is the ambiguity in the definition of rest mass in 4D, which is crucial for the discussion of the dynamics. We propose the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, instead of the geodesic one, to study the dynamics in 4D. On the basis of this formalism we provide an unambiguous expression for the rest mass and its variation along the motion as observed in 4D. It is independent of the coordinates and any parameterization used along the motion. Also, we are able to show a c...
Quantum Mechanics on Spacetime I: Spacetime State Realism
Wallace, David
2009-01-01
What ontology does realism about the quantum state suggest? The main extant view in contemporary philosophy of physics is wave-function realism. We elaborate the sense in which wave-function realism does provide an ontological picture; and defend it from certain objections that have been raised against it. However, there are good reasons to be dissatisfied with wave-function realism, as we go on to elaborate. This motivates the development of an opposing picture: what we call spacetime state realism; a view which takes the states associated to spacetime regions as fundamental. This approach enjoys a number of beneficial features, although, unlike wave-function realism, it involves non-separability at the level of fundamental ontology. We investigate the pros and cons of this non-separability, arguing that it is a quite acceptable feature; even one which proves fruitful in the context of relativistic covariance. A companion paper discusses the prospects for combining a spacetime-based ontology with separabilit...
4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework
Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun
2015-11-01
This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.
Analytical methods for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) determination
The 2,4-D herbicide is one of the main pesticides for controlling the bad grass in crops such as the water undergrowth. In Mexico the allowed bound of this pesticide is 0.05 mg/l in water of 2,4-D so it is required to have methods trusts and exacts, which can used in order to detected low concentration of it. In this work we show some for the conventional techniques and for establishing the 2,4-D concentrations. The UV-Vis spectrometer and liquids chromatography due that they are the most common used nowadays. Beside, we introduce a now developed technique, which is based on the neutronic activation analysis. Though use of the UV-Vis spectrometer technique it was possible target the concentrations interval between 1 and 200 mg/l. In the liquids chromatography interval was between 0.1 and 0.9, and by the neutronic activation analysis the interval was between 0.01 and 200 mg/l. (Author)
Non-vacuum AdS cosmology and comments on gauge theory correlator
Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Mukherji, Sudipta; Srivastava, Yogesh K
2016-01-01
Several time dependent backgrounds, with perfect fluid matter, can be used to construct solutions of Einstein equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant along with some matter sources. In this work we focus on the non-vacuum Kasner-AdS geometry and its solitonic generalization. To characterize these space-times, we provide ways to embed them in higher dimensional flat space-times. General space-like geodesics are then studied and used to compute the two point boundary correlators within the geodesic approximation.
Roy, Shibaji
2015-01-01
It is known from the work in \\cite{Lu:2007bu} of Lu et. al. that the non-supersymmetric charged D3-brane (with anisotropies in time as well as one of the spatial directions of D3-brane) of type IIB string theory is characterized by five independent parameters. By fixing one of the parameters and zooming into a particular region of space-time we construct a four parameter family of solution in AdS$_5$, which interpolates between AdS$_5$ black hole and AdS$_5$ soliton (when one of spatial direc...
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)
2015-12-15
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelikeWilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2015-12-01
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space
Ouyang, Hao, E-mail: ouyangh@ihep.ac.cn; Wu, Jun-Bao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn; Zhang, Jia-ju, E-mail: jjzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China)
2015-12-21
We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d=4N=4 super Yang–Mills theory, d=3N=2 super Chern–Simons-matter theory, and d=3N=6 Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Dark energy from discrete spacetime.
Trout, Aaron D
2013-01-01
Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502
Quantum walking in curved spacetime
Arrighi, Pablo; Facchini, Stefano; Forets, Marcelo
2016-08-01
A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs admit a continuum limit, leading to familiar PDEs (e.g., the Dirac equation). In this paper, we study the continuum limit of a wide class of QWs and show that it leads to an entire class of PDEs, encompassing the Hamiltonian form of the massive Dirac equation in (1+1) curved spacetime. Therefore, a certain QW, which we make explicit, provides us with a unitary discrete toy model of a test particle in curved spacetime, in spite of the fixed background lattice. Mathematically, we have introduced two novel ingredients for taking the continuum limit of a QW, but which apply to any quantum cellular automata: encoding and grouping.
Penrose limits and spacetime singularities
Blau, M [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Borunda, M [SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); O' Loughlin, M [SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Papadopoulos, G [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2004-04-07
We give a covariant characterization of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix A(u) is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyer 'power-law type'), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschild metrics, the result is a singular homogeneous plane wave with profile A(u) {approx} u{sup -2}, the scale invariance of the latter reflecting the power-law behaviour of the singularities. (letter to the editor)
From Horismos to Relativistic Spacetimes
Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel
2015-01-01
A set endowed with a reflexive relation has surprisingly many features in common with the causal structure of a spacetime in General Relativity. If we identify this relation as the relation between lightlike separated events (the horismos relation), we can construct in a natural way the entire causal structure: causal and chronological relations, causal curves, and a topology. By imposing a simple additional condition, the structure gains a definite number of dimensions. This construction works both with continuous and discrete spacetimes. The dimensionality is obtained with ease also in the discrete case, in contrast with the causal set approach, which starts with a discrete set of events endowed with partial order relation representing the causal relation, but has severe difficulties in recovering the number of dimensions. Other simple conditions make it into a differentiable manifold with a conformal structure (the metric up to a scaling factor) just like in General Relativity. This structure provides a si...
Antigravity from a spacetime defect
Klinkhamer, F R
2013-01-01
A nonsingular localized static classical solution is constructed for standard Einstein gravity coupled to an SO(3)\\times SO(3) chiral model of scalars [Skyrme model]. The construction proceeds in three steps. First, an Ansatz is presented for a solution with nontrivial topology of the spacetime manifold. Second, an exact vacuum solution of the reduced field equations is obtained. Third, matter fields are included and a numerical solution is found. This numerical solution has a negative effective mass, meaning that the gravitational force on a distant point mass is repulsive. The origin of the negative effective mass must lie in the surgery needed to create the "defect" from Minkowski spacetime, but this process involves topology change and lies outside the realm of classical Einstein gravity.
Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, M; Papadopoulos, G; Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; Loughlin, Martin O'; Papadopoulos, George
2003-01-01
We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyers ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschild metrics, the result is a singular homogeneous plane wave with profile $A(u)\\sim u^{-2}$, the scale invariance of the latter reflecting the power-law behaviour of the singularities.
Spinning bodies in curved spacetime
d'Ambrosi, G.; Satish Kumar, S.; van de Vis, J.; van Holten, J. W.
2016-02-01
We study the motion of neutral and charged spinning bodies in curved spacetime in the test-particle limit. We construct equations of motion using a closed covariant Poisson-Dirac bracket formulation that allows for different choices of the Hamiltonian. We derive conditions for the existence of constants of motion and apply the formalism to the case of spherically symmetric spacetimes. We show that the periastron of a spinning body in a stable orbit in a Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrøm background not only precesses but also varies radially. By analyzing the stability conditions for circular motion we find the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) as a function of spin. It turns out that there is an absolute lower limit on the ISCOs for increasing prograde spin. Finally we establish that the equations of motion can also be derived from the Einstein equations using an appropriate energy-momentum tensor for spinning particles.
Fermionic Casimir densities in anti-de Sitter spacetime
Elizalde, E; Saharian, A A
2013-01-01
The fermionic condensate and vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor, for a massive fermionic field on the background of anti-de Sitter spacetime, in the geometry of two parallel boundaries with bag boundary conditions, are investigated. Vacuum expectation values, expressed as series involving the eigenvalues of the radial quantum number, are neatly decomposed into boundary-free, single-boundary-induced, and second-boundary-induced parts, with the help of the generalized Abel-Plana summation formula. In this way, the renormalization procedure is very conveniently reduced to the one corresponding to boundary-free AdS spacetime. The boundary-induced contributions to the fermionic condensate and to the vacuum expectation value of the energy density are proven to be everywhere negative. The vacuum expectation values are exponentially suppressed at distances from the boundaries much larger than the curvature radius of the AdS space. Near the boundaries, effects related with the curvature of the back...
Gonod, Laure Vieublé; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Chenu, Claire
2006-12-01
The key role of telluric microorganisms in pesticide degradation is well recognized but the possible relationships between the biodiversity of soil microbial communities and their functions still remain poorly documented. If microorganisms influence the fate of pesticides, pesticide application may reciprocally affect soil microorganisms. The objective of our work was to estimate the impact of 2,4-D application on the genetic structure of bacterial communities and the 2,4-D-degrading genetic potential in relation to 2,4-D mineralization. Experiments combined isotope measurements with molecular analyses. The impact of 2,4-D on soil bacterial populations was followed with ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential was estimated by real-time PCR targeted on tfdA sequences coding an enzyme specifically involved in 2,4-D mineralization. The genetic structure of bacterial communities was significantly modified in response to 2,4-D application, but only during the intense phase of 2,4-D biodegradation. This effect disappeared 7 days after the treatment. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential increased rapidly following 2,4-D application. There was a concomitant increase between the tfdA copy number and the 14C microbial biomass. The maximum of tfdA sequences corresponded to the maximum rate of 2,4-D mineralization. In this soil, 2,4-D degrading microbial communities seem preferentially to use the tfd pathway to degrade 2,4-D. PMID:17117994
Modeling the decoherence of spacetime
Whelan, John T.
1996-01-01
The question of whether unobserved short-wavelength modes of the gravitational field can induce decoherence in the long-wavelength modes (``the decoherence of spacetime'') is addressed using a simplified model of perturbative general relativity, related to the Nordstrom-Einstein-Fokker theory, where the metric is assumed to be conformally flat. For some long-wavelength coarse grainings, the Feynman-Vernon influence phase is found to be effective at suppressing the off-diagonal elements of the...
Multiscale spacetimes from first principles
Calcagni, Gianluca
2016-01-01
We formulate a theorem for the general profile of the Hausdorff and the spectral dimension of multiscale geometries, assuming a smooth and slow change of spacetime dimensionality at large scales. Agreement with various scenarios of quantum gravity is found. In particular, we derive uniquely the multiscale measure with log oscillations of theories of multifractional geometry. Predictivity of this class of models and falsifiability of their abundant phenomenology are thus established.
Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime
Ong, Yen Chin
2016-01-01
The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.
Conformal Gravity on Noncommutative Spacetime
Kober, Martin
2011-01-01
Conformal gravity on noncommutative spacetime is considered in this paper. The presupposed gravity action consists of the Brans-Dicke gravity action with a special prefactor of the term, where the Ricci scalar couples to the scalar field, to maintain local conformal invariance and the Weyl gravity action. The commutation relations between the coordinates defining the noncommutative geometry are assumed to be of canonical shape. Based on the moyal star product, products of fields depending on ...
Dual geometries and spacetime singularities
Quiros, Israel
1999-01-01
The notion of geometrical duality is discussed in the context of both Brans-Dicke theory and general relativity. It is shown that, in some particular solutions, the spacetime singularities that arise in usual Riemannian general relativity may be avoided in its dual representation (Weyl-type general relativity). This dual representation provides a singularity-free picture of the World that is physicaly equivalent to the canonical general relativistic one.
Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes
Calcagni, Gianluca
2016-01-01
Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would manifest an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with $q$-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is $E_*>10^{14}\\,\\text{GeV}$ (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value $1/2$. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not...
Ronald E. Meyers
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum imaging where the images are stored in both space and time. Ghost images of remote objects are produced with either one or two beams of chaotic laser light generated by a rotating ground glass and two sensors measuring the reference field and bucket field at different space-time points. We further observe that the ghost images translate depending on the time delay between the sensor measurements. The ghost imaging experiments are performed both with and without turbulence. A discussion of the physics of the space-time imaging is presented in terms of quantum nonlocal two-photon analysis to support the experimental results. The theoretical model includes certain phase factors of the rotating ground glass. These experiments demonstrated a means to investigate the time and space aspects of ghost imaging and showed that ghost imaging contains more information per measured photon than was previously recognized where multiple ghost images are stored within the same ghost imaging data sets. This suggests new pathways to explore quantum information stored not only in multi-photon coincidence information but also in time delayed multi-photon interference. The research is applicable to making enhanced space-time quantum images and videos of moving objects where the images are stored in both space and time.
Fermionic vacuum polarization by a cosmic string in anti-de Sitter spacetime
de Mello, E R Bezerra; Saharian, A A
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate the fermionic condensate (FC) and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the energy-momentum tensor, associated with a massive fermionic field, induced by the presence of a cosmic string in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In order to develop this analysis we construct the complete set of normalized eigenfunctions in the corresponding spacetime. We consider a special case of boundary conditions on the AdS boundary, when the MIT bag boundary condition is imposed on the field operator at a finite distance from the boundary, which is then taken to zero. The FC and the VEV of the energy-momentum tensor are decomposed into the pure AdS and string-induced parts. Because the analysis of one-loop quantum effects in the AdS spacetime has been developed in the literature, here we are mainly interested to investigate the influence of the cosmic string on the VEVs. The string-induced part in the VEV of the energy-momentum tensor is diagonal and the axial and radial stresses are equal to the...
Towards a $C$-function in 4D quantum gravity
Becker, Daniel
2014-01-01
We develop a generally applicable method for constructing functions, $C$, which have properties similar to Zamolodchikov's $C$-function, and are geometrically natural objects related to the theory space explored by non-perturbative functional renormalization group (RG) equations. Employing the Euclidean framework of the Effective Average Action (EAA), we propose a $C$-function which can be defined for arbitrary systems of gravitational, Yang-Mills, ghost, and bosonic matter fields, and in any number of spacetime dimensions. It becomes stationary both at critical points and in classical regimes, and decreases monotonically along RG trajectories provided the breaking of the split-symmetry which relates background and quantum fields is sufficiently weak. Within the Asymptotic Safety approach we test the proposal for Quantum Einstein Gravity in $d>2$ dimensions, performing detailed numerical investigations in $d=4$. We find that the bi-metric Einstein-Hilbert truncation of theory space introduced recently is gene...
Necessary conditions for an AdS-type instability
Menon, Dhanya S.; Suneeta, Vardarajan
2016-01-01
In this work, we analyze the necessary conditions for a nonlinear anti-de Sitter (AdS)-type instability in the gravity-scalar field system. In particular, we discuss the necessary conditions for a cascade of energy to higher modes by applying results in Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory. Our analytical framework explains numerical observations of instability of spacetimes even when the spectrum is only asymptotically resonant, and the fact that a minimum field amplitude is needed to trigger it. Our framework can be applied for similar stability analyses of fields in (locally) asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We illustrate this with the example of the AdS soliton. Further, we conjecture on the possible reasons for quasiperiodic behavior observed in perturbations of AdS spacetime. Certain properties of the eigenfunctions of the linear system dictate whether there will be localization in space leading to black hole formation. These properties are examined using the asymptotics of Jacobi polynomials. Finally we discuss recent results on the AdS instability in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in light of our work.
ULTRASSONOGRAFIA GESTACIONAL 3D/4D EM PEQUENOS ANIMAIS
Guilherme Fazan Rossi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir el uso actual de la ecografía tridimensional (3D/4D en obstetricia veterinários del pequeños animales. La ecografía tridimensional surgió en la década de 1950 y comenzó a tener una aplicación más amplia en las áreas de obstetricia y ginecología a principios de 1980. Esta técnica facilita 3D estudio volumétrico de ultrasonidos de órganos y las estructuras y permitir tercera plano de la imagen (plano coronal permite el cálculo volumétrico con mayor precisión, especialmente aquellos cuerpos de forma irregular. El método 4D se utiliza para evaluar las estructuras y funciones a través de la imagen de correlación espacio-temporal. Aun siendo una técnica disponible para más de 30 años en la medicina humana, en los estudios de veterinaria son necesarios para demostrar reciente y la especificidad y la sensibilidad de la técnica en la rutina de ultrasonido obstétrico de animales pequeños. A presente revisão tem por objetivo descrever as atuais utilizações da ultrassonografia tridimensional (US 3D/4D em obstetrícia veterinária de pequenos animais. A ultrassonografia tridimensional surgiu na década de 1950 e começou a ter maior aplicabilidade nas áreas de obstetrícia e ginecologia no início dos anos 1980. Essa técnica ultrassonográfica 3D facilita o estudo volumétrico de órgãos e estruturas e por permitir um terceiro plano da imagem (plano coronal possibilita o cálculo volumétrico mais precisamente, principalmente aqueles órgãos com formato irregular. A modalidade 4D é utilizada na avaliação de estruturas e funções via correlação imagem espaçotemporal. Mesmo sendo uma técnica disponível há mais de 30 anos em medicina humana, na veterinária os estudos são recentes e necessários para demonstrar a especificidade e sensibilidade da técnica ultrassonográfica na rotina da obstetrícia de pequenos animais. This review aims to describe the current use of three
4D Proton treatment planning strategy for mobile lung tumors
Purpose: To investigate strategies for designing compensator-based 3D proton treatment plans for mobile lung tumors using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional CT sets for 10 lung cancer patients were used in this study. The internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) was obtained by combining the tumor volumes at different phases of the respiratory cycle. For each patient, we evaluated four planning strategies based on the following dose calculations: (1) the average (AVE) CT; (2) the free-breathing (FB) CT; (3) the maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT; and (4) the AVE CT in which the CT voxel values inside the IGTV were replaced by a constant density (AVERIGTV). For each strategy, the resulting cumulative dose distribution in a respiratory cycle was determined using a deformable image registration method. Results: There were dosimetric differences between the apparent dose distribution, calculated on a single CT dataset, and the motion-corrected 4D dose distribution, calculated by combining dose distributions delivered to each phase of the 4DCT. The AVERIGTV plan using a 1-cm smearing parameter had the best overall target coverage and critical structure sparing. The MIP plan approach resulted in an unnecessarily large treatment volume. The AVE and FB plans using 1-cm smearing did not provide adequate 4D target coverage in all patients. By using a larger smearing value, adequate 4D target coverage could be achieved; however, critical organ doses were increased. Conclusion: The AVERIGTV approach is an effective strategy for designing proton treatment plans for mobile lung tumors
4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining
In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)
Non-spherical particle generation from 4D optofluidic fabrication.
Paulsen, Kevin S; Chung, Aram J
2016-08-01
Particles with non-spherical shapes can exhibit properties which are not available from spherical shaped particles. Complex shaped particles can provide unique benefits for areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, structural materials, and self-assembly building blocks. Current methods of creating complex shaped particles such as 3D printing, photolithography, and imprint lithography are limited by either slow speeds, shape limitations, or expensive processes. Previously, we presented a novel microfluidic flow lithography fabrication scheme combined with fluid inertia called optofluidic fabrication for the creation of complex shaped three-dimensional (3D) particles. This process was able to address the aforementioned limits and overcome two-dimensional shape limitations faced by traditional flow lithography methods; however, all of the created 3D particle shapes displayed top-down symmetry. Here, by introducing the time dimension into our existing optofluidic fabrication process, we break this top-down symmetry, generating fully asymmetric 3D particles where we termed the process: four-dimensional (4D) optofluidic fabrication. This 4D optofluidic fabrication is comprised of three sequential procedures. First, density mismatched precursor fluids flow past pillars within fluidic channels to manipulate the flow cross sections via fluid inertia. Next, the time dimension is incorporated by stopping the flow and allowing the denser fluids to settle by gravity to create asymmetric flow cross sections. Finally, the fluids are exposed to patterned ultraviolet (UV) light in order to polymerize fully asymmetric 3D-shaped particles. By varying inertial flow shaping, gravity-induced flow shaping, and UV light patterns, 4D optofluidic fabrication can create an infinite set of complex shaped asymmetric particles. PMID:27092661
4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating
Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.
2012-01-01
Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The
Exploring the Minimal 4D $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SCFT
Poland, David
2015-01-01
We study the conformal bootstrap constraints for 4D $\\mathcal{N}=1$ superconformal field theories containing a chiral operator $\\phi$ and the chiral ring relation $\\phi^2=0$. Hints for a minimal interacting SCFT in this class have appeared in previous numerical bootstrap studies. We perform a detailed study of the properties of this conjectured theory, establishing that the corresponding solution to the bootstrap constraints contains a $\\text{U}(1)_R$ current multiplet and estimating the central charge and low-lying operator spectrum of this theory.
MULTIVARIABLE ANALYSIS OF 2,4-D HERBICIDE PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION
LÓPEZ-VÁSQUEZ, ANDRÉS F.; COLINA-MÁRQUEZ, JOSÉ A.; FIDERMAN MACHUCA-MARTÍNEZ
2011-01-01
La degradación del herbicida 2,4-D en suspensiones de TiO2 en agua real fue evaluada bajo condiciones de irradiación artificial. El análisis multivariable de metodología de superficie de respuesta (MSR), se aplicó para evaluar el efecto de variables como la concentración de catalizador y pesticida, el pH y el caudal volumétrico sobre la reacción fotocatalítica en dos fotorreactores catalíticos: placa plana y tubular. La variable de respuesta fue la mineralización del pesticida expresada como ...
Beyond ICT4D: New Media in Uganda
Lovink, G.W.
2011-01-01
This research project aims to pick up where Incommunicado left off, to look past conferences organized in the West, the debates sponsored by western organizations, and to instead look through the lens of the individual end users on the ground. This project aims to embed itself amongst the people living at the ‘bottom of the ICT pyramid’ and to look at the same discussion from their perspective. It is this ‘other’ point of view that is too often missing in the ICT4D debate, otherwise a valuabl...
Contextualised ICT4D: a Bottom-Up Approach
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Sutinen, Erkki
2010-01-01
their own strengths to new levels by designing appropriate technologies with experts of technology and design. The bottomup approach requires a new kind of ICT education at the undergraduate level. An example of the development of a contextualized IT degree program at Tumaini University in Tanzania......The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Much of the research in the field is based on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Asian origin, in the context of developing countries. In a...
Multicolor 4D Fluorescence Microscopy using Ultrathin Bessel Light Sheets.
Zhao, Teng; Lau, Sze Cheung; Wang, Ying; Su, Yumian; Wang, Hao; Cheng, Aifang; Herrup, Karl; Ip, Nancy Y; Du, Shengwang; Loy, M M T
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a simple and efficient method for producing ultrathin Bessel ('non-diffracting') light sheets of any color using a line-shaped beam and an annulus filter. With this robust and cost-effective technology, we obtained two-color, 3D images of biological samples with lateral/axial resolution of 250 nm/400 nm, and high-speed, 4D volume imaging of 20 μm sized live sample at 1 Hz temporal resolution. PMID:27189786
Gelfond, O A
2015-01-01
Interactions of massless fields of all spins in four dimensions with currents of any spin is shown to result from a solution of the linear problem that describes a gluing between rank-one (massless) system and rank-two (current) system in the unfolded dynamics approach. Since the rank-two system is dual to a free rank-one higher-dimensional system, that effectively describes conformal fields in six space-time dimensions, the constructed system can be interpreted as describing a mixture between linear conformal fields in four and six dimensions. Interpretation of the obtained results in spirit of AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed.
Rigorous steps towards holography in asymptotically flat spacetimes
Dappiaggi, C; Pinamonti, N
2006-01-01
Scalar QFT on the boundary $\\Im^+$ at null infinity of a general asymptotically flat 4D spacetime is constructed using the algebraic approach based on Weyl algebra associated to a BMS-invariant symplectic form. The constructed theory is invariant under a suitable unitary representation of the BMS group with manifest meaning when the fields are interpreted as suitable extensions to $\\Im^+$ of massless minimally coupled fields propagating in the bulk. The analysis of the found unitary BMS representation proves that such a field on $\\Im^+$ coincides with the natural wave function constructed out of the unitary BMS irreducible representation induced from the little group $\\Delta$, the semidirect product between SO(2) and the two dimensional translational group. The result proposes a natural criterion to solve the long standing problem of the topology of BMS group. Indeed the found natural correspondence of quantum field theories holds only if the BMS group is equipped with the nuclear topology rejecting instead t...
Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective
Perlick Volker
2004-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.
Fine structure constant variation or spacetime anisotropy?
Recent observations on the quasar absorption spectra supply evidence for the variation of the fine structure constant α. In this paper, we propose another interpretation of the observational data on the quasar absorption spectra: a scenario with spacetime inhomogeneity and anisotropy. Maybe the spacetime is characterized by the Finsler geometry instead of the Riemann one. The Finsler geometry admits fewer symmetries than the Riemann geometry does. We investigate the Finslerian geodesic equations in the Randers spacetime (a special Finsler spacetime). It is found that the cosmological redshift in this spacetime deviates from the one in general relativity. The modification term to the redshift could be generally revealed as a monopole plus dipole function of spacetime locations and directions. We suggest that this modification corresponds to the spatial monopole and dipole of α variation in the quasar absorption spectra. (orig.)
An introduction to curved space-times.
Williams, R. M.
1991-07-01
These lectures focus on understanding relativity from a geometrical viewpoint, based on the use of space-time diagrams and without the tools of tensor calculus. After a brief discussion of flat space-times, curved space-times are introduced and it is shown how many of their properties may be deduced from their metric interval. The space-time around a spherically symmetric star and its possible collapse to form a black hole is described. Finally, some simple cosmological models are discussed, with emphasis on their causal properties and the existence of horizons. The titles of the lectures are: I. Flat space-times. II. Curved space-times. III. Spherical stars and stellar collapse. IV. Some simple cosmological models.
Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$
Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam
2016-01-01
We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...
A model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in an $AdS_3$ background
Frick, Rudolf
2016-01-01
In this paper we study a model of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in a 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter background. We use a generalized Schr\\"odinger picture in which the analogs of the Schr\\"odinger operators of the particle are independent of both the time and the space coordinates in different representations. The spacetime independent operators of the particle induce the Lie algebra of Killing vector fields of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. In this picture, we have a metamorphosis of the Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.
Quantization of Spacetime Based on Spacetime Interval Operator
Chiang, Hsu-Wen; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Chen, Pisin
2015-01-01
Motivated by both concepts of R.J. Adler's recent work on utilizing Clifford algebra as the linear line element $ds = \\left\\langle \\gamma_\\mu \\right\\rangle dX^\\mu $, and the fermionization of the cylindrical worldsheet Polyakov action, we introduce a new type of spacetime quantization that is fully covariant. The theory is based on the reinterpretation of Adler's linear line element as $ds = \\gamma_\\mu \\left\\langle \\lambda \\gamma ^\\mu \\right\\rangle$, where $\\lambda$ is the characteristic leng...
Quantum field theory on locally noncommutative spacetimes
A class of spacetimes which are noncommutative only in a prescribed region is presented. These spacetimes are obtained by a generalization of Rieffel's deformation procedure to deformations of locally convex algebras and modules by smooth polynomially bounded Rn-actions with compact support. Extending previous results of Bahns and Waldmann, it is shown how to perform such deformations in a strict sense. Some results on quantum fields propagating on locally noncommutative spacetimes are also given.
Space-time engineering with LASETRON pulses
Kozlowski, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.
2003-01-01
The LASETRON project (Phys. Rev. Lett, 88, (2002), p. 074801-1) offers the possibility of the investigation of electron-positron structure of the space-time. Following our results (From Quarks to Bulk Matter, Hadronic Press, 2001) we analyze theoretically possibility of the penetration of zeptosecond laser pulses through space-time. Key words: Zeptosecond laser pulses; LASETRON; Electron-positron pairs; Space-time.
Quantum field theory on locally noncommutative spacetimes
Lechner, Gandalf [Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Waldmann, Stefan [Leuven Univ. (Belgium)
2012-07-01
A class of spacetimes which are noncommutative only in a prescribed region is presented. These spacetimes are obtained by a generalization of Rieffel's deformation procedure to deformations of locally convex algebras and modules by smooth polynomially bounded R{sup n}-actions with compact support. Extending previous results of Bahns and Waldmann, it is shown how to perform such deformations in a strict sense. Some results on quantum fields propagating on locally noncommutative spacetimes are also given.
A Holographic Entanglement Entropy Conjecture for General Spacetimes
Sanches, Fabio
2016-01-01
We present a natural generalization of holographic entanglement entropy proposals beyond the scope of AdS/CFT by anchoring extremal surfaces to holographic screens. Holographic screens are a natural extension of the AdS boundary to arbitrary spacetimes and are preferred codimension 1 surfaces from the viewpoint of the covariant entropy bound. Screens have a unique preferred foliation into codimension 2 surfaces called leaves. Our proposal is to find the areas of extremal surfaces achored to the boundaries of regions in leaves. We show that the properties of holographic screens are sufficient to prove, under generic conditions, that extremal surfaces anchored in this way always lie within a causal region associated with a given leaf. Within this causal region, a maximin construction similar to that of Wall proves that our proposed quantity satisfies standard properties of entanglement entropy like strong subadditivity. We conjecture that our prescription computes entanglement entropies in quantum states that h...
Magnetic properties of 4d transition-metal clusters
We analyze the stability of magnetic states obtained within the tight-binding model solved by molecular dynamics for cubo-octahedral (fcc) and icosahedral clusters of 3d (Ni and Co) and 4d (Pd, Rh, and Ru) transition metals. The magnetic states are stabilized by the Hund close-quote s rule exchange interaction between the d orbitals. Taking realistic parameters deduced from band structure calculations and spectroscopic data, we obtained saturated ferromagnetism for Ni13, Co13, and Pd13 clusters, while Rh13 fcc and Ru13 clusters are partially magnetic, with an antiferromagnetic orientation of the moments on the central atoms in Ru clusters. Our results for 4d transition-metal clusters agree qualitatively with the recent experimental data and with other calculations. Metastable magnetic clusters were identified in several situations. We found a dependence of the equilibrium lattice constant on the magnetization in the considered clusters which may be explained by the character of wave functions in the cluster electronic structure. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
4D experience on Girassol Field block 17, Angola
Lefeuvre, F.; Brechet, E.; Bertini, F.; Jourdan, J.M.; Cassou, G. [TOTAL S.A., Luanda (Angola); Dubucq, D. [TOTAL Angola, Luanda (Angola)
2004-07-01
The Girassol field is located in Angolan deep water of Block 17 and consists of large vertically stacked turbidities complexes. The reservoir extends over approximately 200 km{sup 2} and water depth ranges between 1300 and 1400 meters. In that context High Resolution 3D seismic became the most valuable tool to describe and monitor the reservoir. The field development plan took into account, through re-injection of the gas into the reservoir, Total environmental policy imposing the recycling of production gas. Monitoring of this injection was the main reason to shoot the first High Resolution 4D extremely early in the life of field. Despite the complexity of interpretation due to complex fluid situation and pressure effect, the results went way beyond expectations as the 4D images are of very high quality. Data has also been used to update and refine the reservoir flow model as well as to help deciding on the location of latest development wells. Other repeat surveys are scheduled, the next one before the end of 2004. The ultimate goal which we hope to reach in the very near future will be to use seismic-derived saturation and pressure changes to constrain the reservoir model during the history matching process. (author)
Perspective: 4D ultrafast electron microscopy—Evolutions and revolutions
Shorokhov, Dmitry; Zewail, Ahmed H.
2016-02-01
In this Perspective, the evolutionary and revolutionary developments of ultrafast electron imaging are overviewed with focus on the "single-electron concept" for probing methodology. From the first electron microscope of Knoll and Ruska [Z. Phys. 78, 318 (1932)], constructed in the 1930s, to aberration-corrected instruments and on, to four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM), the developments over eight decades have transformed humans' scope of visualization. The changes in the length and time scales involved are unimaginable, beginning with the micrometer and second domains, and now reaching the space and time dimensions of atoms in matter. With these advances, it has become possible to follow the elementary structural dynamics as it unfolds in real time and to provide the means for visualizing materials behavior and biological functions. The aim is to understand emergent phenomena in complex systems, and 4D UEM is now central for the visualization of elementary processes involved, as illustrated here with examples from past achievements and future outlook.
488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING
Phifer, M.
2014-11-17
At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.
Spacetime-free Approach to Quantum Theory and Effective Spacetime Structure
Raasakka, Matti
2016-01-01
Motivated by hints of the effective emergent nature of spacetime structure, we develop a spacetime-free framework for quantum theory. We find that quantum states on an extended observable algebra, the free algebra generated by the observables, may give rise to effective spacetime structures. Accordingly, perturbations of the quantum state (e.g., excitations of the vacuum) lead to perturbations of the induced effective spacetime geometry. We initiate the study of these perturbations, and their relation to gravitational phenomena.
4+D digital engineering for advanced nuclear energy systems
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully automated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. In line with practice in disciplines of naval architecture, aerospace engineering, and automotive manufacturing, the paper proposes total digital systems engineering based on three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four-plus-dimensional (4+D) TechnologyTM, a critical know-how for digital management. The so-called OPIUM (Optimized Plant Integrated Ubiquitous Management) features a 4+D TechnologyTM for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4+D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Based on an integrated 3D configuration management system, OPIUM consists of solutions NOTUS (Nuclear Optimization Technique Ubiquitous System), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Nuclear Ubiquitous System), INUUS (Informatics Nuclear Utilities Ubiquitous System), JANUS (Junctional Analysis Numerical Ubiquitous System) and EURUS (Electronic Unit Research Ubiquitous System). These solutions will help initial simulation capability for NPPs to supply the crucial information. NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4+D system
QCD-instantons and conformal space-time inversion symmetry
In this paper, we explore the appealing possibility that the strong suppression of large-size QCD instantons - as evident from lattice data - is due to a surviving conformal space-time inversion symmetry. This symmetry is both suggested from the striking invariance of highquality lattice data for the instanton size distribution under inversion of the instanton size ρ→(left angle ρ right angle 2)/(ρ) and from the known validity of space-time inversion symmetry in the classical instanton sector. We project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via conformal stereographic mapping, before investigating conformal inversion. This projection to a compact, curved geometry is both to avoid the occurence of divergences and to introduce the average instanton size left angle ρ right angle from the lattice data as a new length scale. The average instanton size is identified with the radius b of this 5d-sphere and acts as the conformal inversion radius. For b= left angle ρ right angle, our corresponding results are almost perfectly symmetric under space-time inversion and in good qualitative agreement with the lattice data. For (ρ)/(b)→0 we recover the familiar results of instanton perturbation theory in flat 4d-space. Moreover, we illustrate that a (weakly broken) conformal inversion symmetry would have significant consequences for QCD beyond instantons. As a further successful test for inversion symmetry, we present striking implications for another instanton dominated lattice observable, the chirality-flip ratio in the QCD vacuum. (orig.)
Dirac's Equation in $R$-Minkowski Spacetime
Foughali, T
2016-01-01
We recently constructed the $R$-Poincar\\'e algebra from an appropriate deformed Poisson brackets which reproduce the Fock coordinate transformation. We showed then that the spacetime of this transformation is the de Sitter one. In this paper, we derive in the $R$-Minkowski spacetime the Dirac equation and show that this is none other than the Dirac equation in the de Sitter spacetime given by its conformally flat metric. Furthermore, we propose a new approach for solving Dirac's equation in the de Sitter spacetime using the Schr\\"{o}dinger picture.
Dirac's Equation in R-Minkowski Spacetime
Foughali, T.; Bouda, A.
2016-04-01
We recently constructed the R-Poincaré algebra from an appropriate deformed Poisson brackets which reproduce the Fock coordinate transformation. We showed then that the spacetime of this transformation is the de Sitter one. In this paper, we derive in the R-Minkowski spacetime the Dirac equation and show that this is none other than the Dirac equation in the de Sitter spacetime given by its conformally flat metric. Furthermore, we propose a new approach for solving Dirac's equation in the de Sitter spacetime using the Schrödinger picture.
Experimental observation of Minkowski spacetime melting
Smolyaninov, Igor I
2015-01-01
Cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid in the presence of an external magnetic field forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial, which may be described as an effective 3D Minkowski spacetime for extraordinary photons. If the magnetic field is not strong enough, this effective Minkowski spacetime gradually melts under the influence of thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, it may restore itself if the magnetic field is increased back to its original value. Here we present direct microscopic visualization of such a Minkowski spacetime melting/crystallization, which is somewhat similar to hypothesized formation of the Minkowski spacetime in loop quantum cosmology.
2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image
Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C.; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi
2014-05-01
Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.
2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image
Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes. (paper)
Feasibility of reduced-dose 3D/4D-DSA using a weighted edge preserving filter
Oberstar, Erick L.; Speidel, Michael A.; Davis, Brian J.; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles
2016-03-01
A conventional 3D/4D digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) requires two rotational acquisitions (mask and fill) to compute the log-subtracted projections that are used to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume. Since all of the vascular information is contained in the fill acquisition, it is hypothesized that it is possible to reduce the x-ray dose of the mask acquisition substantially and still obtain subtracted projections adequate to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume with noise level comparable to a full dose acquisition. A full dose mask and fill acquisition were acquired from a clinical study to provide a known full dose reference reconstruction. Gaussian noise was added to the mask acquisition to simulate a mask acquisition acquired at 10% relative dose. Noise in the low-dose mask projections was reduced with a weighted edge preserving (WEP) filter designed to preserve bony edges while suppressing noise. 2D log-subtracted projections were computed from the filtered low-dose mask and full-dose fill projections, and then 3D/4D-DSA reconstruction algorithms were applied. Additional bilateral filtering was applied to the 3D volumes. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in the filtered 3D/4D-DSA volumes was compared to the full dose case. The average ratio of filtered low-dose SNR to full-dose SNR was 1.07 for the 3D-DSA and 1.05 for the 4D-DSA, indicating the method is a feasible approach to restoring SNR in DSA scans acquired with a low-dose mask. The method was also tested in a phantom study with full dose fill and 22% dose mask.
Overview of 4D Printing Technology%四维打印技术概述
邵文; 邢明浩
2014-01-01
4D printing is a technology which adding one-dimensional time element on the basis of 3 D printing. People can set models and time by software, thus modified materials shape in set time. Relative to the 3D printing, 4D printing is more intel igent, because the materials could be assembly by itself, which has the advantages of economic, efficient and direct.%四维打印技术是在三维打印技术的基础上增加一维时间元素，人们可以通过软件设定模型和时间，变形材料会在设定的时间内折叠为所需的形状。相对于三维打印技术，四维打印技术更加“智能”，物料可自行组装，具有经济、高效、直接的优点。文章对这项新技术的相关名词、技术要点以及应用前景进行了简要介绍。
Overview of 4D Printing Technology%四维打印技术概述
邵文; 邢明浩
2014-01-01
四维打印技术是在三维打印技术的基础上增加一维时间元素，人们可以通过软件设定模型和时间，变形材料会在设定的时间内折叠为所需的形状。相对于三维打印技术，四维打印技术更加“智能”，物料可自行组装，具有经济、高效、直接的优点。文章对这项新技术的相关名词、技术要点以及应用前景进行了简要介绍。%4D printing is a technology which adding one-dimensional time element on the basis of 3 D printing. People can set models and time by software, thus modified materials shape in set time. Relative to the 3D printing, 4D printing is more intel igent, because the materials could be assembly by itself, which has the advantages of economic, efficient and direct.
Quantization of spacetime based on a spacetime interval operator
Chiang, Hsu-Wen; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Chen, Pisin
2016-04-01
Motivated by both concepts of Adler's recent work on utilizing Clifford algebra as the linear line element d s =⟨γμ⟩ d Xμ and the fermionization of the cylindrical worldsheet Polyakov action, we introduce a new type of spacetime quantization that is fully covariant. The theory is based on the reinterpretation of Adler's linear line element as d s =γμ⟨λ γμ⟩ , where λ is the characteristic length of the theory. We name this new operator the "spacetime interval operator" and argue that it can be regarded as a natural extension to the one-forms in the U (s u (2 )) noncommutative geometry. By treating Fourier momentum as the particle momentum, the generalized uncertainty principle of the U (s u (2 )) noncommutative geometry, as an approximation to the generalized uncertainty principle of our theory, is derived and is shown to have a lowest order correction term of the order p2 similar to that of Snyder's. The holography nature of the theory is demonstrated and the predicted fuzziness of the geodesic is shown to be much smaller than conceivable astrophysical bounds.
General Relativity and Spacetime Relationism.
Hoefer, Carl
1992-01-01
This dissertation takes up the project of showing that, in the context of the general theory of relativity (GTR), spacetime relationism is not a refuted or hopeless view, as many in the recent literature have maintained (John Earman, Michael Friedman, and others). Most of the challenges to the relationist view in General Relativity can be satisfactorily answered; in addition, the opposing absolutist and substantivalist views of spacetime can be shown to be problematic. The crucial burden for relationists concerned with GTR is to show that the realistic cosmological models, i.e. those that may be roughly accurate representations of our universe, satisfy Mach's ideas about the origin of inertia. This dissertation clears the way for and begins such a demonstration. After a brief discussion of the problem of the nature of spacetime and its history in the Introduction, chapters 2 and 3 provide conceptual analysis and criticism of contemporary philosophical arguments about relationism, absolutism, and particularly substantivalism. The current best arguments in favor of substantivalism are shown to be flawed, with the exception of the argument from inertial and metrical structure; and on this issue, it is shown that both relationism and substantivalism need to argue for modifications of GTR (restriction of its models to those with certain features) in order to have a non-trivial explanation of inertial and metrical structure. For relationists, a Machian account of the origin of inertia in some models of GTR is required. Chapter 4 demonstrates that such a Machian account is equivalent to the demand for a truly general relativity of motion. Chapter 5 explores the history of Einstein's commitment to Mach's ideas in his work on GTR. Through an examination of the history of Einstein's attempts to impose Machian constraints on the models of General Relativity, further insight into the nature of this problem is obtained, as are reasons to believe that the project is by no means
Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background
Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu
2016-06-01
We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.
Conformal extensions for stationary spacetimes
Aceña, Andrés E
2011-01-01
The construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity for stationary spacetimes is considered. Using a specific conformal gauge and frame, it is shown that the tensorial fields associated to the conformal Einstein field equations admit expansions in a neighbourhood of the cylinder at spatial infinity which are analytic with respect to some suitable time, radial and angular coordinates. It is then shown that the essentials of the construction are independent of the choice of conformal gauge. As a consequence, one finds that the construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity and the regular finite initial value problem for stationary initial data sets are, in a precise sense, as regular as they could be.
Chiral Anomaly in Contorted Spacetimes
Mielke, E W
1999-01-01
The Dirac equation in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes with torsion is reconsidered. As is well-known, only the axial covector torsion $A$, a one-form, couples to massive Dirac fields. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that besides the familiar Riemannian term only the Pontrjagin type four-form $dA\\wedge dA$ does arise additionally in the chiral anomaly, but not the Nieh-Yan term $d ^* A$, as has been claimed recently. Implications for cosmic strings in Einstein-Cartan theory as well as for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.
Particle creation in inhomogeneous spacetimes
We study the creation of particles by inhomogeneous perturbations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. For massless scalar fields, the pair-creation probability can be expressed in terms of geometric quantities (curvature invariants). The results suggest that inhomogeneities on scales up to the particle horizon will be damped out near the Planck time. Perturbations on scales larger than the horizon are explicitly shown to yield no created pairs. The results generalize to inhomogeneous spacetimes several earlier studies of pair creation in homogeneous anisotropic cosmologies
Anti-de-Sitter regular electric multipoles: towards Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons
Herdeiro, Carlos
2015-01-01
We discuss electrostatics in Anti-de-Sitter ($AdS$) spacetime, in global coordinates. We observe that the multipolar expansion has two crucial differences to that in Minkowski spacetime. First, there are everywhere regular solutions, with finite energy, for every multipole moment except for the monopole. Second, all multipole moments decay with the same inverse power of the areal radius, $1/r$, as spatial infinity is approached. The first observation suggests there may be regular, self-gravitating, Einstein-Maxwell solitons in $AdS$ spacetime. The second observation, renders a Lichnerowicz-type no-soliton theorem inapplicable. Consequently, we suggest Einstein-Maxwell solitons exist in $AdS$, and we support this claim by computing the first order metric perturbations sourced by test electric field multipoles, which are obtained analytically in closed form.
Induced higher-derivative massive gravity on a 2-brane in 4D Minkowski space
In this paper we revisit the problem of localizing gravity in a 2-brane embedded in a 4D Minkowski space to address induction of high derivative massive gravity. We explore the structure of propagators to find well-behaved higher-derivative massive gravity induced on the brane. Exploring a special case in the generalized mass term of the graviton propagator we find a model of consistent higher order gravity with an additional unitary massive spin-2 particle and two massless particles: one spin-0 particle and one spin-1 particle. The condition for the absence of tachyons is satisfied for both ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ signs of the Einstein–Hilbert term on the 2-brane. We also find the Pauli–Fierz mass term added to the new massive gravity in three dimensions and recover the low-dimensional DGP model
Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study
Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a “snap-shot” of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on
Background-metric independent formulation of 4D quantum gravity
Using the background-metric independence for the traceless mode as well as the conformal mode, 4D quantum gravity is described as a quantum field theory defined on a non-dynamical background metric. The measure then induces an action with four derivatives. So we think that fourth order gravity is essential and the Einstein-Hilbert term should be treated like a mass term. We introduce the dimensionless self-coupling constant t for the traceless mode. In this paper we study a model where the measure can be evaluated in the limit t → 0 exactly, using the background-metric independence for the conformal mode. The t-dependence of the measure is determined perturbatively using the background-metric independence for the traceless mode
When chaos meets hyperchaos: 4D Rössler model
Chaotic behavior is a common feature of nonlinear dynamics, as well as hyperchaos in high-dimensional systems. In numerical simulations of these systems it is quite difficult to distinguish one from another behavior in some situations, as the results are frequently quite “noisy”. We show that in such systems a global hyperchaotic invariant set is present giving rise to long hyperchaotic transient behaviors. This fact provides a mechanism for these noisy results. The coexistence of chaos and hyperchaos is proved via Computer-Assisted Proofs techniques. - Highlights: • The coexistence of chaos and hyperchaos in the 4D Rössler system is proved via Computer-Assisted Proofs techniques. • A global hyperchaotic invariant set is present giving rise to long hyperchaotic transient behaviors. • The long transient behaviors make difficult in numerical simulations to distinguish chaos from hyperchaos in some situations
When chaos meets hyperchaos: 4D Rössler model
Barrio, Roberto, E-mail: rbarrio@unizar.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada and IUMA, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Computational Dynamics group, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Angeles Martínez, M., E-mail: gelimc@unizar.es [Computational Dynamics group, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Serrano, Sergio, E-mail: sserrano@unizar.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada and IUMA, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Computational Dynamics group, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Wilczak, Daniel, E-mail: wilczak@ii.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 6, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)
2015-10-09
Chaotic behavior is a common feature of nonlinear dynamics, as well as hyperchaos in high-dimensional systems. In numerical simulations of these systems it is quite difficult to distinguish one from another behavior in some situations, as the results are frequently quite “noisy”. We show that in such systems a global hyperchaotic invariant set is present giving rise to long hyperchaotic transient behaviors. This fact provides a mechanism for these noisy results. The coexistence of chaos and hyperchaos is proved via Computer-Assisted Proofs techniques. - Highlights: • The coexistence of chaos and hyperchaos in the 4D Rössler system is proved via Computer-Assisted Proofs techniques. • A global hyperchaotic invariant set is present giving rise to long hyperchaotic transient behaviors. • The long transient behaviors make difficult in numerical simulations to distinguish chaos from hyperchaos in some situations.
Biomechanics of DNA structures visualized by 4D electron microscopy.
Lorenz, Ulrich J; Zewail, Ahmed H
2013-02-19
We present a technique for in situ visualization of the biomechanics of DNA structural networks using 4D electron microscopy. Vibrational oscillations of the DNA structure are excited mechanically through a short burst of substrate vibrations triggered by a laser pulse. Subsequently, the motion is probed with electron pulses to observe the impulse response of the specimen in space and time. From the frequency and amplitude of the observed oscillations, we determine the normal modes and eigenfrequencies of the structures involved. Moreover, by selective "nano-cutting" at a given point in the network, it was possible to obtain Young's modulus, and hence the stiffness, of the DNA filament at that position. This experimental approach enables nanoscale mechanics studies of macromolecules and should find applications in other domains of biological networks such as origamis. PMID:23382239
Immersive 4D Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Simulations
Teuben, P; Levy, S; Makino, J; McMillan, S; Zwart, S P; Shara, M M; Emmart, C; Teuben, Peter; Hut, Piet; Levy, Stuart; Makino, Jun; Millan, Steve Mc; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Shara, Mike; Emmart, Carter
2001-01-01
In dense clusters a bewildering variety of interactions between stars can be observed, ranging from simple encounters to collisions and other mass-transfer encounters. With faster and special-purpose computers like GRAPE, the amount of data per simulation is now exceeding 1TB. Visualization of such data has now become a complex 4D data-mining problem, combining space and time, and finding interesting events in these large datasets. We have recently starting using the virtual reality simulator, installed in the Hayden Planetarium in the American Museum for Natural History, to tackle some of these problem. This work (http://www.astro.umd.edu/nemo/amnh/) reports on our first ``observations'', modifications needed for our specific experiments, and perhaps field ideas for other fields in science which can benefit from such immersion. We also discuss how our normal analysis programs can be interfaced with this kind of visualization.
Immersive 4-D Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Simulations
Teuben, P. J.; Hut, P.; Levy, S.; Makino, J.; McMillan, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Shara, M.; Emmart, C.
In dense clusters a bewildering variety of interactions between stars can be observed, ranging from simple encounters to collisions and other mass-transfer encounters. With faster and special-purpose computers like GRAPE, the amount of data per simulation is now exceeding 1 TB. Visualization of such data has now become a complex 4-D data-mining problem, combining space and time, and finding interesting events in these large datasets. We have recently starting using the virtual reality simulator, installed in the Hayden Planetarium in the American Museum for Natural History, to tackle some of these problem. This work reports on our first ``observations,'' modifications needed for our specific experiments, and perhaps field ideas for other fields in science which can benefit from such immersion. We also discuss how our normal analysis programs can be interfaced with this kind of visualization.
Towards 4D intervention guidance using compressed sensing
Interventional radiology is nowadays usually guided with projection radiography using mono- or biplane systems. Due to the projective nature of this guidance imaging certain intraprocedural situations remain unclear. Although helpful, the use of 3D CT is limited due to radiation dose. Using advanced reconstruction techniques incorporating prior knowledge, one could overcome these limitations without exceeding dose limitations. Intervention guidance is especially appealing to those algorithms, because certain constrains apply to useful images in intervention guidance that vary relevantly from other CT applications. These are: key relevance of high contrast structures, sparse temporal updates and little relevance of absolute CT values. In this paper the principal usability of reconstruction algorithms for intervention guidance is tested. Compressed sensing algorithms PICCS and ASD-POCS are compared to the McKinnon-Bates and Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm. Animal experiments as well as simulations are performed. An outlook towards 4D intervention guidance is provided. (orig.)
4D Script N = 2 supergravity and projective superspace
Kuzenko, S. M.; Lindström, U.; Rocek, M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, G.
2008-09-01
This paper presents a projective superspace formulation for 4D Script N = 2 matter-coupled supergravity. We first describe a variant superspace realization for the Script N = 2 Weyl multiplet. It differs from that proposed by Howe in 1982 by the choice of the structure group (SO(3,1) × SU(2) versus SO(3,1) × U(2)), which implies that the super-Weyl transformations are generated by a covariantly chiral parameter instead of a real unconstrained one. We introduce various off-shell supermultiplets which are curved superspace analogues of the superconformal projective multiplets in global supersymmetry and which describe matter fields coupled to supergravity. A manifestly locally supersymmetric and super-Weyl invariant action principle is given. Off-shell locally supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models are presented in this new superspace.
Seeing the unseen-bioturbation in 4D
Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik; Crunelle, Diane;
2015-01-01
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of bioirrigation induced by benthic fauna ventilation is critical given its significance on benthic nutrient exchange and biogeochemistry in coastal ecosystems. The quantification of this process challenges marine scientists because faunal activities and...... behaviors are concealed in an opaque sediment matrix. Here, we use a hybrid medical imaging technique, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to provide a qualitative visual and fully quantitative description of bioirrigation in 4D (space and time). As a study case, we present images...... provide information that otherwise would require multiple methods. Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior. The lack of accessibility to the expensive...
Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes
Maurizio Melis
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.
Minimal area submanifolds in AdS x compact
Graham, C Robin
2014-01-01
We describe the asymptotic behavior of minimal area submanifolds in product spacetimes of an asymptotically hyperbolic space times a compact internal manifold. In particular, we find that unlike the case of a minimal area submanifold just in an asymptotically hyperbolic space, the internal part of the boundary submanifold is constrained to be itself a minimal area submanifold. For applications to holography, this tells us what are the allowed "flavor branes" that can be added to a holographic field theory. We also give a compact geometric expression for the spectrum of operator dimensions associated with the slipping modes of the submanifold in the internal space. We illustrate our results with several examples, including some that haven't appeared in the literature before.
Parallel Wavefront Analysis for a 4D Interferometer
Rao, Shanti R.
2011-01-01
This software provides a programming interface for automating data collection with a PhaseCam interferometer from 4D Technology, and distributing the image-processing algorithm across a cluster of general-purpose computers. Multiple instances of 4Sight (4D Technology s proprietary software) run on a networked cluster of computers. Each connects to a single server (the controller) and waits for instructions. The controller directs the interferometer to several images, then assigns each image to a different computer for processing. When the image processing is finished, the server directs one of the computers to collate and combine the processed images, saving the resulting measurement in a file on a disk. The available software captures approximately 100 images and analyzes them immediately. This software separates the capture and analysis processes, so that analysis can be done at a different time and faster by running the algorithm in parallel across several processors. The PhaseCam family of interferometers can measure an optical system in milliseconds, but it takes many seconds to process the data so that it is usable. In characterizing an adaptive optics system, like the next generation of astronomical observatories, thousands of measurements are required, and the processing time quickly becomes excessive. A programming interface distributes data processing for a PhaseCam interferometer across a Windows computing cluster. A scriptable controller program coordinates data acquisition from the interferometer, storage on networked hard disks, and parallel processing. Idle time of the interferometer is minimized. This architecture is implemented in Python and JavaScript, and may be altered to fit a customer s needs.
Brane world in a topological black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime
We study static brane configurations in the bulk background of the topological black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime. We find that such configurations are possible even for flat black hole horizon, unlike the AdS black hole case. We construct the brane world model with an orbifold structure S1/Z2 in such bulk background. We also study massless bulk scalar field. (author)
Cosmic Censorship for Gowdy Spacetimes
Hans Ringström
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Due to the complexity of Einstein’s equations, it is often natural to study a question of interest in the framework of a restricted class of solutions. One way to impose a restriction is to consider solutions satisfying a given symmetry condition. There are many possible choices, but the present article is concerned with one particular choice, which we shall refer to as Gowdy symmetry. We begin by explaining the origin and meaning of this symmetry type, which has been used as a simplifying assumption in various contexts, some of which we shall mention. Nevertheless, the subject of interest here is strong cosmic censorship. Consequently, after having described what the Gowdy class of spacetimes is, we describe, as seen from the perspective of a mathematician, what is meant by strong cosmic censorship. The existing results on cosmic censorship are based on a detailed analysis of the asymptotic behavior of solutions. This analysis is in part motivated by conjectures, such as the BKL conjecture, which we shall therefore briefly describe. However, the emphasis of the article is on the mathematical analysis of the asymptotics, due to its central importance in the proof and in the hope that it might be of relevance more generally. The article ends with a description of the results that have been obtained concerning strong cosmic censorship in the class of Gowdy spacetimes.
Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, Hai; Olsen, Edward; Cressie, Noel
2011-01-01
Space-time Data Fusion (STDF) is a methodology for combing heterogeneous remote sensing data to optimally estimate the true values of a geophysical field of interest, and obtain uncertainties for those estimates. The input data sets may have different observing characteristics including different footprints, spatial resolutions and fields of view, orbit cycles, biases, and noise characteristics. Despite these differences all observed data can be linked to the underlying field, and therefore the each other, by a statistical model. Differences in footprints and other geometric characteristics are accounted for by parameterizing pixel-level remote sensing observations as spatial integrals of true field values lying within pixel boundaries, plus measurement error. Both spatial and temporal correlations in the true field and in the observations are estimated and incorporated through the use of a space-time random effects (STRE) model. Once the models parameters are estimated, we use it to derive expressions for optimal (minimum mean squared error and unbiased) estimates of the true field at any arbitrary location of interest, computed from the observations. Standard errors of these estimates are also produced, allowing confidence intervals to be constructed. The procedure is carried out on a fine spatial grid to approximate a continuous field. We demonstrate STDF by applying it to the problem of estimating CO2 concentration in the lower-atmosphere using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Japanese Greenhouse Gasses Observing Satellite (GOSAT) over one year for the continental US.
Li, Jianfa; Jiang, Man; Wu, Huan; Li, Yimin
2009-04-01
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) gel was used for encapsulating anionic herbicide 2,4-D for its controlled release. The slower release rate of 2,4-D in water and soil was obtained by adding in the gel formulation some modified bentonites, which were prepared by intercalating inorganic or organic cations in interlayers of Na(+)-saturated bentonite. The higher encapsulation efficiencies of 2,4-D were observed on the bentonite/CMC gel formulations due to the sorption of 2,4-D on modified bentonites. The time taken for 50% of 2,4-D to be released in water, t(50), showed a variation (8.8-19.8 h) for these gel formulations, the largest value corresponding to the formulation incorporated with hydroxy-iron intercalated bentonite that has the highest sorption capacity to 2,4-D. The gel formulations could also control the release of 2,4-D when applied to a thin soil layer and demonstrated potential to reduce leaching of such anionic herbicides in soil. PMID:19253964
Hawking Evaporation Time Scale of Topological Black Holes in Anti-de Sitter Spacetime
Yen Chin Ong
2015-01-01
It was recently pointed out that if an absorbing boundary condition is imposed at infinity, an asymptotically anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black hole with a spherical horizon takes only a finite amount of time to evaporate away even if its initial mass is arbitrarily large. We show that this is a rather generic property in AdS spacetimes: regardless of their horizon topologies, neutral AdS black holes in general relativity take about the same amount of time to evaporate down to the same size ...
Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter spacetime
So, Ashaq Hussain; Sibuea, Marlina Rosalinda; Akhoon, Shabir Ahmad; Khanday, Bilal Nisar; Majeed, Sajad Ul; Rather, Asloob Ahmad; Nahvi, Ishaq
2013-01-01
In this paper we will analyse quantum ?eld theory on de Sitter space- time. We will ?rst analyse a general scalar and vector ?eld theory on de Sitter spacetime. This is done by ?rst calculating these propagators on four-Sphere and then analytically continuing it to de Sitter spacetime.
Quantum matter in quantum space-time
Bojowald, Martin; Kagan, Mikhail; Tomlin, Casey
2013-01-01
Quantum matter in quantum space-time is discussed using general properties of energy-conservation laws. As a rather radical conclusion, it is found that standard methods of differential geometry and quantum field theory on curved space-time are inapplicable in canonical quantum gravity, even at the level of effective equations.
Curved Space-Times from Strict Deformations?
Much, Albert
2016-01-01
We use a deformed differential structure and the Rieffel deformation to obtain a curved metric by deforming the flat space-time. In particular, a deformed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and an ultra-static space-time emerge from this strict deformation scheme.
Holonomy and projective symmetry in spacetimes
Hall, G S; Lonie, D P [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)
2004-10-07
It is shown using a spacetime curvature classification and decomposition that for certain holonomy types of a spacetime, proper projective vector fields cannot exist. Existence is confirmed, by example, for the remaining holonomy types. In all except the most general holonomy type, a local uniqueness theorem for proper projective symmetry is established.
Holonomy and projective symmetry in spacetimes
It is shown using a spacetime curvature classification and decomposition that for certain holonomy types of a spacetime, proper projective vector fields cannot exist. Existence is confirmed, by example, for the remaining holonomy types. In all except the most general holonomy type, a local uniqueness theorem for proper projective symmetry is established
Field theory in Goedel-type spacetimes
Marecki, Piotr [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)
2008-07-01
I will discuss mathematical aspects of the massless scalar field in spacetimes of Goedel type. Due to their high symmetry, these spacetimes might provide an arena for the next step of development of concrete models of quantum fields in curved spacetimes, such as these developed already for the de Sitter spacetime. While the motion of the sources of Goedel spacetimes (dust with non-vanishing vorticity) is physically interesting and not too-implausible, a difficulty with causality is encountered: sufficiently large regions of Goedel spacetimes posses CTCs. A complete picture of the classical solutions of the wave equation, which will be presented, sheds some light on the seriousness of this difficulty from the point of view of classical field theory and provides a link to known treatments of quantum fields in simple non-globally hyperbolic spacetimes such as time-like cylinders etc. I present an algebraic construction of the solutions based on the symmetry-generators of Goedel-type spacetimes and a connection to the analysis of unitary irreducible representations of SU(1,1).
Space-time disarray and visual awareness
Koenderink, J.J.; Richards, W.; Van Doorn, A.J.
2012-01-01
Local space-time scrambling of optical data leads to violent jerks and dislocations. On masking these, visual awareness of the scene becomes cohesive, with dislocations discounted as amodally occluding foreground. Such cohesive space-time of awareness is technically illusory because ground truth is
Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS
Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L
2015-01-01
We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS---including both collapsing and non-collapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasi-periodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this work we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic non-collapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs ...
Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS
Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.
2015-10-01
We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.
An analytic regularisation scheme on curved spacetimes with applications to cosmological spacetimes
Géré, Antoine; Pinamonti, Nicola
2015-01-01
We develop a renormalisation scheme for time--ordered products in interacting field theories on curved spacetimes which consists of an analytic regularisation of Feynman amplitudes and a minimal subtraction of the resulting pole parts. This scheme is directly applicable to spacetimes with Lorentzian signature, manifestly generally covariant, invariant under any spacetime isometries present and constructed to all orders in perturbation theory. Moreover, the scheme captures correctly the non--geometric state--dependent contribution of Feynman amplitudes and it is well--suited for practical computations. To illustrate this last point, we compute explicit examples on a generic curved spacetime, and demonstrate how momentum space computations in cosmological spacetimes can be performed in our scheme. In this work, we discuss only scalar fields in four spacetime dimensions, but we argue that the renormalisation scheme can be directly generalised to other spacetime dimensions and field theories with higher spin, as ...
Asymptotic structure of the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS$_{3}$
Perez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2015-01-01
The asymptotic structure of AdS spacetimes in the context of General Relativity coupled to the Maxwell field in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed. Although the fall-off of the fields is relaxed with respect to that of Brown and Henneaux, the variation of the canonical generators associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors can be shown to be finite once required to span the Lie derivative of the fields. The corresponding surface integrals then acquire explicit contributions from the electromagnetic field, and become well-defined provided they fulfill suitable integrability conditions, implying that the leading terms of the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field are functionally related. Consequently, for a generic choice of boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetries are broken down to $\\mathbb{R}\\otimes U\\left(1\\right)\\otimes U\\left(1\\right)$. Nonetheless, requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with one of the asymptotic Virasoro symmetries, singles out the set to be characterized b...
Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm3) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target-stretching, partial
Vacuum polarization induced by a cosmic string in anti-de Sitter spacetime
de Mello, E R Bezerra
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor associated with a massive scalar quantum field induced by a generalized cosmic string in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In order to develop this analysis we evaluate the corresponding Wightman function. As we shall observe, this function is expressed as the sum of two terms: the first one corresponds to the Wightman function in pure AdS bulk and the second one is induced by the presence of the string. The second contribution is finite at coincidence limit and is used to provide closed expressions for the parts in the VEVs of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor induced by the presence of the string. Because the analysis of vacuum polarizations effects in pure AdS spacetime have been developed in the literature, here we are mainly interested in the investigation of string-induced effects. We show that the curvature of the background spacetime has an essential influenc...
Quantum singularities in static and conformally static space-times
Konkowski, D A; 10.1142/S0217751X11054334
2011-01-01
The definition of quantum singularity is extended from static space-times to conformally static space-times. After the usual definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed, examples of quantum singularities in static space-times are given. These include asymptotically power-law space-times, space-times with diverging higher-order differential invariants, and a space-time with a 2-sphere singularity. The theory behind quantum singularities in conformally static space-times is followed by an example, a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with cosmic string. The paper concludes by discussing areas of future research.
Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes
Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T
2014-01-01
A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.
Electrodynamics and spacetime geometry: Astrophysical applications
Cabral, Francisco
2016-01-01
After a brief review of the foundations of (pre-metric) electromagnetism in differential forms, we proceed with the tensor formulation and explore physical consequences of Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime. The generalized Gauss and Maxwell-Amp\\`ere laws, as well as the wave equations, reveal potentially interesting astrophysical applications. The physical implications of these equations are explored and some solutions are obtained. In all cases new electromagnetic couplings and related phenomena are induced by the spacetime curvature. The applications of astrophysical interest considered here correspond essentially to the following geometries: the Schwarzschild spacetime and the spacetime around a rotating spherical mass in the weak field and slow rotation regime. In the latter, we use the Parameterised Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. In general, new electromagnetic effects induced by spacetime curvature include the following: Gravitational contributions for the decay of electric and magnetic fields in...
Evolving spacetimes with purely radial tension
B. Nasre Esfahani
2000-12-01
Full Text Available In this study time-dependent and spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations in an anisotropic background with a purely radial tension are presented. There exist three classes of solutions,1 An open spacetime with a wormhole at its center. 2 A conical spacetime. 3 A closed spacetime. These inhomogeneous solutions are reduced to FRW spacetimes in matter-dominated era, asymptotically. Therefore, they can be used to describe local inhomogeneities that are not considered in the standard model. For the wormhole solution. it is explicity shown that the considered matter is non-exotic, that is, it does not violate the energy conditions. Also, static solutions are studied. There is only one static solution,a conical spacetime. In this case, the matter satisfies the energy condition critically.
Minkowski Spacetime A Hundred Years Later
Petkov, Vesselin
2009-01-01
This volume is dedicated to the one hundredth anniversary of the publication of Hermann Minkowski's paper "Space and Time" in 1909. His work on the spacetime representation of special relativity had a huge impact on the twentieth century physics to the extent that modern physics would be impossible without the notion of spacetime. While there is consensus on the mathematical significance of spacetime in theoretical physics, for a hundred years there has been no consensus on the nature of spacetime itself. We owe Minkowski a clear answer to the question of the nature of spacetime -- whether it is only a mathematical space or represents a real four-dimensional world. A century after its publication the original Minkowski paper still represents an enrichment to the physicists, especially the relativists, who read it with the intent to fully investigate the depth of Minkowski's ideas on space and time and the physical meaning of special relativity. The volume begins with an excellent retranslation of Minkowski's ...
Spatial curvature, spacetime curvature, and gravity
Price, Richard H.
2016-08-01
The belief that curved spacetime gravity cannot be simply and correctly presented results in such misleading presentations as elastic two-dimensional sheets deformed as they support heavy objects. This article attempts to show that the conceptual basis of curved spacetime gravity can be simply and correctly presented, and that the spatial curvature of a deformed elastic sheet is very different from the spacetime curvature underlying gravity. This article introduces the idea of a "splittable" spacetime that has spatial curvature, but is missing most of the manifestations of gravity. A section in which no mathematics is used is directed at students who have studied no more than introductory physics. A separate section, for students who have taken only an introductory course in general relativity, gives mathematical arguments centering on splittable spacetimes.
Expressing entropy globally in terms of (4D) field-correlations
Sorkin, Rafael D
2012-01-01
We express the entropy of a scalar field phi directly in terms of its spacetime correlation function W(x,y) = , assuming that the higher correlators are of "Gaussian" form. The resulting formula associates an entropy S(R) to any spacetime region R; and when R is globally hyperbolic with Cauchy surface Sigma, S(R) can be interpreted as the entropy of the reduced density-matrix belonging to Sigma. One acquires in particular a new expression for the entropy of entanglement across an event-horizon. Thanks to its spacetime character, this expression makes sense in a causal set as well as in a continuum spacetime.
Expressing entropy globally in terms of (4D) field-correlations
We have expressed the entropy of a scalar field directly in terms of its spacetime correlation function, assuming that the higher correlators are of ''Gaussian'' form. The resulting formula associates an entropy to any spacetime region, and when this region is globally hyperbolic with Cauchy surface then the entropy can be interpreted as the entropy of the reduced density-matrix belonging to the Cauchy surface. One acquires, in particular, a new expression for the entropy of entanglement across an event-horizon. Thanks to its spacetime character, this expression makes sense in a causal set as well as in a continuum spacetime
Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.
2015-09-01
We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion
We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion
4D Dynamic RNP Annual Interim Report-Year 1
Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Chung, William W.; Salvano, Daniel; Klooster, Joel; Hochwarth, Joachim K.
2010-01-01
This Annual Interim Report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results obtained during the first year of this research effort to expand the RNP concept to 4 dimensions relative to a dynamic frame of reference. Joint Program Development Office (JPDO)Concepts of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) considers 4 Dimension Trajectory (4DT) procedures a key enabler to Trajectory Based Operations (TBO). The JPDO defines 4DT as a precise description of an aircraft path in space and time . While NextGen assumes that this path is defined within an Earth-reference frame, many 4DT procedure implementations will require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft to form aggregate flows or a weather cell to allow for flows to shift. Current methods of implementing routes and flight paths rely on aircraft meeting a Required Navigation Performance (RNP) specification and being equipped with a monitoring and alerting capability to annunciate when the aircraft system is unable to meet the performance specification required for the operation. Since all aircraft today operate within the NAS relative to fixed reference points, the current RNP definition is deemed satisfactory. However, it is not well understood how the current RNP construct will support NextGen 4DT procedures where aircraft operate relative to each other or to other dynamic frames of reference. The objective of this research effort is to analyze candidate 4DT procedures from both an Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) and aircraft perspective, to identify their specific navigational requirements, assess the shortcomings of the current RNP construct to meet these requirements, to propose an extended 4 Dimensional Dynamic RNP (4D Dynamic RNP) construct that accounts for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of the selected 4DT procedures, and finally, to design an
Mechanics of higher dimensional black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes
We construct a covariant phase space for the Einstein gravity in dimensions d ≥ 4 with a negative cosmological constant, describing black holes in local equilibrium. Thus, spacetimes under consideration are asymptotically anti-de Sitter and admit an inner boundary representing an isolated horizon. This allows us to derive a first law of black hole mechanics that involves only quantities defined quasi-locally at the horizon, without having to assume that the bulk spacetime is stationary. The first law proposed by Gibbons et al for the Kerr-AdS family follows from a special case of this much more general first law
Superradiance and instability of small rotating charged AdS black holes in all dimensions
Aliev, Alikram N. [Yeni Yuezyil University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul (Turkey)
2016-02-15
Rotating small AdS black holes exhibit the superradiant instability to low-frequency scalar perturbations, which is amenable to a complete analytic description in four dimensions. In this paper, we extend this description to all higher dimensions, focusing on slowly rotating charged AdS black holes with a single angular momentum. We divide the spacetime of these black holes into the near-horizon and far regions and find solutions to the scalar wave equation in each of these regions. Next, we perform the matching of these solutions in the overlap between the regions, by employing the idea that the orbital quantum number l can be thought of as an approximate integer. Thus, we obtain the complete low-frequency solution that allows us to calculate the complex frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, whose imaginary part is determined by a small damping parameter. Finally, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the damping parameter, which appears to be a complex quantity in general. We show that the real part of the damping parameter can be used to give a universal analytic description of the superradiant instability for slowly rotating charged AdS black holes in all spacetime dimensions. (orig.)
Superradiance and instability of small rotating charged AdS black holes in all dimensions
Rotating small AdS black holes exhibit the superradiant instability to low-frequency scalar perturbations, which is amenable to a complete analytic description in four dimensions. In this paper, we extend this description to all higher dimensions, focusing on slowly rotating charged AdS black holes with a single angular momentum. We divide the spacetime of these black holes into the near-horizon and far regions and find solutions to the scalar wave equation in each of these regions. Next, we perform the matching of these solutions in the overlap between the regions, by employing the idea that the orbital quantum number l can be thought of as an approximate integer. Thus, we obtain the complete low-frequency solution that allows us to calculate the complex frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, whose imaginary part is determined by a small damping parameter. Finally, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the damping parameter, which appears to be a complex quantity in general. We show that the real part of the damping parameter can be used to give a universal analytic description of the superradiant instability for slowly rotating charged AdS black holes in all spacetime dimensions. (orig.)
Quantum effects near spacetime singularities
The authors incorporate quantum effects into the gravitational dynamics in the vicinity of singularity in the case of three important general relativistic spacetimes, namely the spherically symmetric dust-ball collapse, standard Friedmann models and a general cosmological scenario given by Belinskii et al. The quantum state of the universe is represented by a general wave function where the conformal degree of freedom is quantised. It is seen in each case that the spread around the classical state diverges in the limit of approach to the classically singular epoch. Thus, non-classical, non-singular states can occur with finite probability. The authors' results show that including quantum effects radically changes the usual singularity scenario
Energy on black hole spacetimes
Corichi, Alejandro
2012-01-01
We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.
Geometrodynamics on a background spacetime
Papadopoulos, P P; Papadopoulos, Philippos; Sopuerta, Carlos F.
2001-01-01
The formulation of the initial value problem for the Einstein equations is at the heart of obtaining interesting new solutions using numerical relativity and still very much under theoretical and applied scrutiny. We develop a specialised background geometry approach, for systems where there is non-trivial a priori knowledge about the spacetime under study. The background three-geometry and associated connection are used to express the ADM evolution equations in terms of physical non-linear deviations from that background. Expressing the equations in first order form leads naturally to a system closely linked to the Einstein-Christoffel system, introduced by Anderson and York, and sharing its hyperbolicity properties. The background metric approach can drastically alter the source structure of the equations, and we present an argument as to why this is likely to be numerically advantageous.
Shi, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Light with phase front carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM) is useful in many fields, such as optical tweezers, astronomy. In optical communication, light encoded information in its OAM degrees of freedom enables networks to carry significantly more information and increase their capacity significantly. However, light with OAM has a difficulty in propagating in commercial optical fibers, while light in Gaussian mode encoded with time-bin is most suitable for transmission in fiber. Therefore it is crucially important to build up a bridge for interfacing lights with OAM and time-bin. Here, we report the realization of a photonic space-time transcoder, by which light with an arbitrary OAM superposition is experimentally converted into a time-bin Gaussian pulse and vice versa in principle. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that the coherence is conserved very well and there is no crosstalk between orthogonal modes. Such a photonic device is simple and theoretically can be built up in a scalable architectu...
Newtonian gravity on quantum spacetime
Majid Shahn
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The bicrossproduct model λ-Minkowski (or ‘κ-Minkowski’ quantum space-time has an anomaly for the action of the Poincaré quantum group which was resolved by an extra cotangent direction θ’ not visible classically. We show that gauging a coefficient of θ′ introduces gravity into the model. We solve and analyse the model nonrelativisticaly in a 1/r potential, finding an induced constant term in the effective potential energy and a weakening and separation of the effective gravitational and inertial masses as the test particle Klein-Gordon mass increases. The present work is intended as a proof of concept but the approach could be relevant to an understanding of dark energy and possibly to macroscopic quantum systems.
Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime
We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles
Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers
Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Dunn, Martin L.
2016-08-01
We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.
Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers.
Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K; Fang, Nicholas X; Dunn, Martin L
2016-01-01
We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures. PMID:27499417
2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis
Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie
2016-01-01
The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212
From accelerating and Poincaré coordinates to black holes in spacelike warped AdS3, and back
Jugeau, Frederic; Moutsopoulos, George; Ritter, Patricia
2011-02-01
We first review spacelike stretched warped AdS3 and we describe its black hole quotients by using accelerating and Poincaré coordinates. We then describe the maximal analytic extension of the black holes and present their causal diagrams. Finally, we calculate spacetime limits of the black hole phase space (TR, TL). This is done by requiring that the identification vector ∂θ has a finite non-zero limit. The limits we obtain are the self-dual solution in accelerating or Poincaré coordinates, depending respectively on whether the limiting spacetimes are non-extremal or extremal, and warped AdS3 with a periodic proper time identification.
From accelerating and Poincar\\'e coordinates to black holes in spacelike warped AdS$_3$, and back
Jugeau, Frederic; Ritter, Patricia
2010-01-01
We first review spacelike stretched warped AdS$_3$ and we describe its black hole quotients by using accelerating and Poincar\\'e coordinates. We then describe the maximal analytic extension of the black holes and present their causal diagrams. Finally, we calculate spacetime limits of the black hole phase space $(T_R,T_L)$. This is done by requiring that the identification vector $\\partial_\\theta$ has a finite non-zero limit. The limits we obtain are the self-dual solution in accelerating or Poincar\\'e coordinates, depending respectively on whether the limiting spacetimes are non-extremal or extremal, and warped AdS with a periodic proper time identification.
Spacetime Metrology with LISA Pathfinder
Congedo, Giuseppe
2012-04-01
LISA is the proposed ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector in the 0.1 mHz - 0.1 Hz band. LISA Pathfinder is the down-scaled version of a single LISA arm. The arm - named Doppler link - can be treated as a differential accelerometer, measuring the relative acceleration between test masses. LISA Pathfinder - the in-flight test of the LISA instrumentation - is currently in the final implementation and planned to be launched in 2014. It will set stringent constraints on the ability to put test masses in geodesic motion to within the required differential acceleration of 3times10^{-14} m s^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} and track their relative motion to within the required differential displacement measurement noise of 9times10^{-12} m Hz^{-1/2}, around 1 mHz. Given the scientific objectives, it will carry out - for the first time with such high accuracy required for gravitational wave detection - the science of spacetime metrology, in which the Doppler link between two free-falling test masses measures the curvature. This thesis contains a novel approach to the calculation of the Doppler response to gravitational waves. It shows that the parallel transport of 4-vectors records the history of gravitational wave signals. In practice, the Doppler link is implemented with 4 bodies in LISA and 3 bodies in LISA Pathfinder. To compensate for noise sources a control logic is implemented during the measurement. The closed-loop dynamics of LISA Pathfinder can be condensed into operators acting on the motion coordinates, handling the couplings, as well as the cross-talks. The scope of system identification is the optimal calibration of the instrument. This thesis describes some data analysis procedures applied to synthetic experiments and shows the relevance of system identification for the success of LISA Pathfinder in demonstrating the principles of spacetime metrology for all future space-based missions.
Gravity induced from quantum spacetime
We show that tensoriality constraints in noncommutative Riemannian geometry in the two-dimensional bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime algebra [x, t] = λx drastically reduce the moduli of possible metrics g up to normalization to a single real parameter, which we interpret as a time in the past from which all timelike geodesics emerge and a corresponding time in the future at which they all converge. Our analysis also implies a reduction of moduli in n-dimensions and we study a suggested spherically symmetric classical geometry in n = 4 in detail, identifying two one-parameter subcases where the Einstein tensor matches that of a perfect fluid for (a) positive pressure, zero density and (b) negative pressure and positive density with ratio wQ=−(1/2). The classical geometry is conformally flat and its geodesics motivate new coordinates which we extend to the quantum case as a new description of the quantum spacetime model as a quadratic algebra. The noncommutative Riemannian geometry is fully solved for n = 2 and includes the quantum Levi-Civita connection and a second, nonperturbative, Levi-Civita connection which blows up as λ → 0. We also propose a ‘quantum Einstein tensor’ which is identically zero for the main part of the moduli space of connections (as classically in 2D). However, when the quantum Ricci tensor and metric are viewed as deformations of their classical counterparts there would be an O(λ2) correction to the classical Einstein tensor and an O(λ) correction to the classical metric. (paper)
The Black Hole Singularity in AdS/CFT
Fidkowski, Lukasz; Hubeny, Veronika; Kleban, Matthew; Shenker, Stephen
2003-01-01
We explore physics behind the horizon in eternal AdS Schwarzschild black holes. In dimension d >3, where the curvature grows large near the singularity, we find distinct but subtle signals of this singularity in the boundary CFT correlators. Building on previous work, we study correlation functions of operators on the two disjoint asymptotic boundaries of the spacetime by investigating the spacelike geodesics that join the boundaries. These dominate the correlators for large mass bulk fields....
Scalar perturbations of Kerr-AdS black holes
We numerically study the scalar perturbation of a rotating black hole in anti-de Sitter spacetime (Kerr-AdS black hole). It is found that small Kerr-AdS black holes characterized by r+ + and l stand, respectively, for the radial coordinate value of the black hole event horizon in the Boyer-Lindquist coordinates and the cosmological length-scale, defined by l=(-3/Λ)1/2. Here Λ is the (negative) cosmological constant.
AdS-Wave Solutions of f(Riemann) Theories
Gurses, Metin; Hervik, Sigbjørn; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram(Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey)
2013-01-01
We show that the recently found AdS-plane and AdS-spherical wave solutions of quadratic curvature gravity also solve the most general higher derivative theory in D-dimensions. More generally, we show that the field equations of such theories reduce to an equation linear in the Ricci tensor for Kerr-Schild spacetimes having type-N Weyl and traceless Ricci tensors.
Thermodynamics of rotating thin shells in the BTZ spacetime
Lemos, José P S; Minamitsuji, Masato; Rocha, Jorge V
2015-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamic equilibrium states of a rotating thin shell, i.e., a ring, in a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant. The inner and outer regions with respect to the shell are given by the vacuum anti-de Sitter (AdS) and the rotating Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetimes, respectively. The first law of thermodynamics on the thin shell, together with three equations of state for the pressure, the local inverse temperature and the thermodynamic angular velocity of the shell, yields the entropy of the shell, which is shown to depend only on its gravitational radii. When the shell is pushed to its own gravitational radius and its temperature is taken to be the Hawking temperature of the corresponding black hole, the entropy of the shell coincides with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. In addition, we consider simple ans\\"atze for the equations of state, as well as a power-law equation of state where the entropy and the thermodynamic stability conditions can be ...
Pre-Big Bang, space-time structure, asymptotic Universe
Gonzalez-Mestres Luis
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Planck and other recent data in Cosmology and Particle Physics can open the way to controversial analyses concerning the early Universe and its possible ultimate origin. Alternatives to standard cosmology include pre-Big Bang approaches, new space-time geometries and new ultimate constituents of matter. Basic issues related to a possible new cosmology along these lines clearly deserve further exploration. The Planck collaboration reports an age of the Universe t close to 13.8 Gyr and a present ratio H between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale around 67.3 km/s/Mpc. The product of these two measured quantities is then slightly below 1 (about 0.95, while it can be exactly 1 in the absence of matter and cosmological constant in patterns based on the spinorial space-time we have considered in previous papers. In this description of space-time we first suggested in 1996-97, the cosmic time t is given by the modulus of a SU(2 spinor and the Lundmark-Lemaître-Hubble (LLH expansion law turns out to be of purely geometric origin previous to any introduction of standard matter and relativity. Such a fundamental geometry, inspired by the role of half-integer spin in Particle Physics, may reflect an equilibrium between the dynamics of the ultimate constituents of matter and the deep structure of space and time. Taking into account the observed cosmic acceleration, the present situation suggests that the value of 1 can be a natural asymptotic limit for the product H t in the long-term evolution of our Universe up to possible small corrections. In the presence of a spinorial space-time geometry, no ad hoc combination of dark matter and dark energy would in any case be needed to get an acceptable value of H and an evolution of the Universe compatible with observation. The use of a spinorial space-time naturally leads to unconventional properties for the space curvature term in Friedmann-like equations. It therefore suggests a major modification of
The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Deur, Alexandre
2010-01-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum $L$ and r...
Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange
Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika
2016-01-01
Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...
Strings from 3D gravity: asymptotic dynamics of AdS 3 gravity with free boundary conditions
Apolo, Luis; Sundborg, Bo
2015-01-01
Pure three-dimensional gravity in anti-de Sitter space can be formulated as an SL(2,R) $\\times $ SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory, and the latter can be reduced to a WZW theory at the boundary. In this paper we show that AdS$_3$ gravity with free boundary conditions is described by a string at the boundary whose target spacetime is also AdS$_3$. While boundary conditions in the standard construction of Coussaert, Henneaux, and van Driel are enforced through constraints on the WZW currents, we find...
Gauge Theory of Gravity and Spacetime
Hehl, Friedrich W
2012-01-01
The advent of general relativity settled it once and for all that a theory of spacetime is inextricably linked to the theory of gravity. From the point of view of the gauge principle of Weyl and Yang-Mills-Utiyama, it became manifest around the 1960s (Sciama--Kibble) that gravity is closely related to the Poincare group acting in Minkowski space. The gauging of this external group induces a Riemann-Cartan geometry on spacetime. If one generalizes the gauge group of gravity, one finds still more involved spacetime geometries. If one specializes it to the translation group, one finds a specific Riemann-Cartan geometry with teleparallelism (Weitzenbock geometry).
Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime
Borris, Markus; Verch, Rainer [Inst. f. Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)
2008-07-01
We present the Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime as a model of quantum field theory on a Lorentzian non-commutative background spacetime. This provides an example for a quantum field theory on Lorentzian spectral geometries proposed by M. Paschke and R. Verch, and others. The scattering of the Dirac field coupled to a non-commutative potential term is investigated and it is shown that the scattering transformation is unitarily implementable in the vacuum Hilbert-space representation of the Dirac field. The way in which the scattering transformations induce observables of the Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime, and their possible interpretation, will also be discussed.
Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime
We present the Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime as a model of quantum field theory on a Lorentzian non-commutative background spacetime. This provides an example for a quantum field theory on Lorentzian spectral geometries proposed by M. Paschke and R. Verch, and others. The scattering of the Dirac field coupled to a non-commutative potential term is investigated and it is shown that the scattering transformation is unitarily implementable in the vacuum Hilbert-space representation of the Dirac field. The way in which the scattering transformations induce observables of the Dirac field on Moyal-Minkowski spacetime, and their possible interpretation, will also be discussed
32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D who is a: (a) Duly ordained minister of religion; or (b)...
Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory
Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.
2007-04-16
Abstract. Noncritical M-theory in 2+1 dimensions has been defined as a double-scaling limit of a nonrelativistic Fermi liquid on a flat two-dimensional plane. Here we study this noncritical M-theory in the limit of high energies, analogous to the alpha' --> infinity limit of string theory. In the related case of two-dimensional Type 0A strings, it has been argued that the conformal alpha' --> infinity limit leads to AdS_2 with a propagating fermion whose mass is set by the value of the RR flux. Here we provide evidence that in the high-energy limit, the natural ground state of noncritical M-theory similarly describes the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime, with a massless propagating fermion. We argue that the spacetime effective theory in this background is captured by a topological higher-spin extension of conformal Chern-Simons gravity in 2+1 dimensions, consistently coupled to a massless Dirac field. Intriguingly, the two-dimensional plane populated by the original nonrelativistic fermions is essentially the twistor space associated with the symmetry group of the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime; thus, at least in the high-energy limit, noncritical M-theory can be nonperturbatively described as a"Fermi liquid on twistor space.''
A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research
Norris, Hannah, E-mail: Hannah.norris@duke.edu; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Minhas, Anum; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
2014-03-15
Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models
A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research
Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models
A Simple Quantum-Mechanical Model of Spacetime I: Microscopic Properties of Spacetime
Makela, J.
2008-01-01
This is the first part in a series of two papers, where we consider a specific microscopic model of spacetime. In our model Planck size quantum black holes are taken to be the fundamental building blocks of space and time. Spacetime is assumed to be a graph, where black holes lie on the vertices. In this first paper we construct our model in details, and show how classical spacetime emerges at the long distance limit from our model. We also consider the statistics of spacetime.
Space-time extensions from space-time densities and Bose-Einstein correlations
Schlei, B. R.
1996-01-01
Using a (3+1)-dimensional solution of the relativistic Euler-equations for $Pb+Pb$ at 160 $AGeV$, space-time extensions of kaon emission zones are calculated from space-time densities and compared to the inverse widths of two-kaon Bose-Einstein correlation functions. The comparison shows a satisfactory agreement and it is concluded that because of the Gaussian shape of the kaon correlation functions, the space-time parameters of the kaon source can be calculated directly from space-time densi...
Two AdS2 branes in the euclidean AdS3
We compute the density of open strings stretching between AdS2 branes in the euclidean AdS3. This is done by solving the factorization constraint of a degenerate boundary field, and the result is checked by a Cardy-type computation. We mention applications to branes in the minkowskian AdS3 and its cigar coset. (author)
Two AdS2 branes in the Euclidean AdS3
Ribault, S
2003-01-01
We compute the density of open strings stretching between AdS2 branes in the Euclidean AdS3. This is done by solving the factorization constraint of a degenerate boundary field, and the result is checked by a Cardy-type computation. We mention applications to branes in the Minkowskian AdS3 and its cigar coset.
Axiomatic quantum field theory in curved spacetime
Hollands, S
2008-01-01
The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features--such as Poincare invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state--that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, it is essential that the theory be formulated in an entirely local and covariant manner, without assuming the presence of a preferred state. We propose a new framework for quantum field theory, in which the existence of an Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is elevated to a fundamental status, and, in essence, all of the properties of the quantum field theory are determined by its OPE. We provide general axioms for the OPE coefficients of a quantum field theory. These include a local and covariance assumption (implying that the quantum field theory is locally and covariantly constructed from the spacetime metric), a microlocal spectrum condition, an "associativity" condition, and t...
Interactions Between Real and Virtual Spacetimes
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2014-01-01
Here arise the problems of modern physics that theories at the quantum scales have been discontinued. Therefore we should pass through the quantum scales and review phenomena at the sub quantum levels. The question is where to enter the sub quantum levels? Answer is; open a new window for massive...... photons. The reason this answer is that although there are theoretical reasons to accept that the photon is a massless particle. The massless particle is an assumption, also a long series of very different experiments lead to the current experimental upper bound on the photon mass greater than zero. In...... this article, we analyzed that c is the edge of visible and invisible particles such as virtual photons and graviton. It leads us passing the real spacetime and enter into the virtual spacetime and describe interactions between real spacetime and virtual spacetime and reach to non-obvious space....
Kinematical bound in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes
Shiromizu, T; Tomizawa, S; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ida, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Shinya
2004-01-01
We present positive energy theorems in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes which can be applicable to black strings and charged branes. We also address the bound property of the tension and charge of branes.
Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes
Natario, Jose
2004-01-01
We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.
Riemann curvature of a boosted spacetime geometry
Battista, Emmanuele; Scudellaro, Paolo; Tramontano, Francesco
2014-01-01
The ultrarelativistic boosting procedure had been applied in the literature to map the metric of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime into a metric describing de Sitter spacetime plus a shock-wave singularity located on a null hypersurface. This paper evaluates the Riemann curvature tensor of the boosted Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric by means of numerical calculations, which make it possible to reach the ultrarelativistic regime gradually by letting the boost velocity approach the speed of light. Thus, for the first time in the literature, the singular limit of curvature through Dirac's delta distribution and its derivatives is numerically evaluated for this class of spacetimes. Eventually, the analysis of the Kteschmann invariant and the geodesic equation show that the spacetime possesses a scalar curvature singularity within a 3-sphere and it is possible to define what we here call boosted horizon, a sort of elastic wall where all particles are surprisingly pushed away, as numerical analysis demonstrates. Thi...
Singularities in globally hyperbolic space-time
A singularity reached on a timelike curve in a globally hyperbolic space-time must be a point at which the Riemann tensor becomes infinite (as a curvature or intermediate singularity) or is of type D and electrovac. (orig.)
Field Theory on Curved Noncommutative Spacetimes
Alexander Schenkel
2010-08-01
Full Text Available We study classical scalar field theories on noncommutative curved spacetimes. Following the approach of Wess et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 22 (2005, 3511 and Classical Quantum Gravity 23 (2006, 1883], we describe noncommutative spacetimes by using (Abelian Drinfel'd twists and the associated *-products and *-differential geometry. In particular, we allow for position dependent noncommutativity and do not restrict ourselves to the Moyal-Weyl deformation. We construct action functionals for real scalar fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes, and derive the corresponding deformed wave equations. We provide explicit examples of deformed Klein-Gordon operators for noncommutative Minkowski, de Sitter, Schwarzschild and Randall-Sundrum spacetimes, which solve the noncommutative Einstein equations. We study the construction of deformed Green's functions and provide a diagrammatic approach for their perturbative calculation. The leading noncommutative corrections to the Green's functions for our examples are derived.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Impact of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in porous media
Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto
2015-02-01
We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in porous media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous porous media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The impact of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform porous system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.
Static black holes with no spatial isometries in AdS-electrovacuum
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen
2016-01-01
We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully non-linear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-AdS equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast with the uniqueness results f...
Predicting lower mantle heterogeneity from 4-D Earth models
Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Bower, Dan J.
2016-04-01
basal layer ˜ 4% denser than ambient mantle. Increasing convective vigour (Ra ≈ 5 x 108) or decreasing the density of the basal layer decreases both the accuracy and sensitivity of the predicted lower mantle structure. References: D. J. Bower, M. Gurnis, N. Flament, Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 238, 8-22 (2015). V. Lekic, S. Cottaar, A. Dziewonski, B. Romanowicz, Cluster analysis of global lower mantle tomography: A new class of structure and implications for chemical heterogeneity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 357, 68-77 (2012).
Spacetime metric from linear electrodynamics. III
Rubilar, G F; Hehl, F W; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2001-01-01
We extend our previous results on the wave propagation in a spacetime with a linear electromagnetic spacetime relation to the most general case in which the corresponding constitutive tensor is asymmetric. We find the corresponding Fresnel equation governing the geometry of light rays and show that it is always quartic in the wave covectors. The conditions for the wave covectors to define a single or a double (birefringence) light-cone structure are discussed and the corresponding conformal metric is constructed.
Noncommutative effects of spacetime on holographic superconductors
Debabrata Ghorai; Sunandan Gangopadhyay
2016-01-01
The Sturm–Liouville eigenvalue method is employed to analytically investigate the properties of holographic superconductors in higher dimensions in the framework of Born–Infeld electrodynamics incorporating the effects of noncommutative spacetime. In the background of pure Einstein gravity in noncommutative spacetime, we obtain the relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also obtain the value of the condensation operator and the critical exponent. Our findings sug...
Noncommutative effects of spacetime on holographic superconductors
Ghorai, Debabrata; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2016-01-01
The Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue method is employed to analytically investigate the properties of holographic superconductors in higher dimensions in the framework of Born-Infeld electrodynamics incorporating the effects of noncommutative spacetime. In the background of pure Einstein gravity in noncommutative spacetime, we obtain the relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also obtain the value of the condensation operator and the critical exponent. Our findings sug...
On the spacetime geometry of quantum nonlocality
Beil, Charlie
2015-01-01
We present a new geometry of spacetime where events may be positive dimensional. This geometry is obtained by applying the identity of indiscernibles, which is a fundamental principle of quantum statistics, to time. Quantum nonlocality arises as a natural consequence of this geometry. We also examine the ontology of the wavefunction in this framework. In particular, we show how entanglement swapping in spacetime invalidates the preparation assumption of the PBR theorem.
Noncommutative Space-Time in DSR theories
Heuson, C
2003-01-01
Space-time coordinates in DSR theories with two invariant scales based on a dispersion relation with an energy independent speed of light are introduced by the demand, that boost and rotation generators are invariant under a transformation from SR to DSR variables. This turns out to be equivalent to a recent suggestion postulating the existence of plane wave solutions in DSR theories. The momentum space representation of coordinates is derived, yielding a noncommutative space-time and the deformed algebra.
Strong cosmic censorship and Misner spacetime
Denaro, Pedro
2015-01-01
Misner spacetime is among the simplest solutions of Einstein's equation that exhibits a Cauchy horizon with a smooth extension beyond it. Besides violating strong cosmic censorship, this extension contains closed timelike curves. We analyze the stability of the Cauchy horizon, and prove that neighboring spacetimes in one parameter families of solutions through Misner's in pure gravity, gravity coupled to a scalar field, or Einstein-Maxwell theory, end at the Cauchy horizon developing a curvature singularity.
Strong cosmic censorship and Misner spacetime
Denaro, Pedro; Dotti, Gustavo
2015-07-01
Misner spacetime is among the simplest solutions of Einstein's equation that exhibits a Cauchy horizon with a smooth extension beyond it. Besides violating strong cosmic censorship, this extension contains closed timelike curves. We analyze the stability of the Cauchy horizon and prove that neighboring spacetimes in one parameter families of solutions through Misner's in pure gravity, gravity coupled to a scalar field, or Einstein-Maxwell theory end at the Cauchy horizon developing a curvature singularity.
Effective quantum field theories in general spacetimes
Raab, Andreas
2008-01-01
We introduce regular charts as physical reference frames in spacetime, and we show that general spacetimes can always be fully captured by regular charts. Effective quantum field theories (QFTs) can be conveniently defined in regular reference frames, and the definition is independent of specific background metric and independent of specific regular reference frame. As a consequence, coupling to classical gravity is possible in effective QFTs without getting back-reaction effects. Moreover, w...
Asymptotically Plane Wave Spacetimes and their Actions
Witt, Julian Le; Ross, Simon F.
2008-01-01
We propose a definition of asymptotically plane wave spacetimes in vacuum gravity in terms of the asymptotic falloff of the metric, and discuss the relation to previously constructed exact solutions. We construct a well-behaved action principle for such spacetimes, using the formalism developed by Mann and Marolf. We show that this action is finite on-shell and that the variational principle is well-defined for solutions of vacuum gravity satisfying our asymptotically plane wave falloff condi...
A proposal of foundation of spacetime geometry
Tresguerres, Romualdo
2014-01-01
A common approach to metric-affine, local Poincar\\'e, special-relativistic and Galilei spacetime geometry is developed. Starting from an affine composite bundle, we introduce local reference frames and their evolution along worldlines and we study both, absolute and relative simultaneity postulates, giving rise to alternative concepts of spacetime. In particular, the construction of the Minkowski metric, and its required invariance, allows either to reorganize the original affine bundle as a ...
Fundamental limitations on "warp drive" spacetimes
Lobo, Francisco S N; Visser, Matt
2004-01-01
"Warp drive" spacetimes are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" communication. We verify the non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions of the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second order of the non-relativistic warp-bubble v...
A causally connected superluminal Warp Drive spacetime
Loup, F.; Held, R.; Waite, D; Halerewicz, Jr., E.; Stabno, M.; Kuntzman, M.; Sims, R.
2002-01-01
It will be shown that while horizons do not exist for warp drive spacetimes traveling at subluminal velocities horizons begin to develop when a warp drive spacetime reaches luminal velocities. However it will be shown that the control region of a warp drive ship lie within the portion of the warped region that is still causally connected to the ship even at superluminal velocities, therefore allowing a ship to slow to subluminal velocities. Further it is shown that the warped regions which ar...
Modern space-time and undecidability
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803-4001, United States)
2008-01-01
The picture of space-time that Minkowski created in 1907 has been followed by two important developments in physics not contained in the original picture: general relativity and quantum mechanics. We will argue that the use of concepts of those theories to construct space-time implies conceptual modifications in quantum mechanics. In particular one can construct a viable picture of quantum mechanics without a reduction process that has outcomes equivalent to a picture with a reduction process...
Noncommutative Space-Time in DSR theories
Heuson, Clemens
2003-01-01
Space-time coordinates in DSR theories with two invariant scales based on a dispersion relation with an energy independent speed of light are introduced by the demand, that boost and rotation generators are invariant under a transformation from SR to DSR variables. This turns out to be equivalent to a recent suggestion postulating the existence of plane wave solutions in DSR theories. The momentum space representation of coordinates is derived, yielding a noncommutative space-time and the def...
Observed Spacetime Dimensionality from Fundamental Principles
Pradhan, Rajat K.
2013-01-01
It is shown by very simple arguments that the observed 3+1 dimensionality of spacetime may be understood on the basis of four fundamental principles of physics namely, Causality, General Covariance, Gauge Invariance and Renormalizability. This approach not therefore only fixes the spacetime dimensionality at 3+1, but also imposes the compactification of extra dimensions in higher dimensional theories based on these principles such as string theory as an internal consistency requirement rather...
Instanton interaction in de Sitter spacetime
Metaxas, Dimitrios
2013-01-01
Because of the presence of a cosmological horizon the dilute instanton gas approximation used for the derivation of the Coleman-De Luccia tunneling rate in de Sitter spacetime receives additional contributions due to the finite instanton separation. Here I calculate the first corrections to the vacuum decay rate that arise from this effect and depend on the parameters of the theory and the cosmological constant of the background spacetime.
Space-time singularities in Weyl manifolds
Lobo, I.P. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil); Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Barreto, A.B.; Romero, C. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, C. Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2015-09-15
We extend one of the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems in general relativity to the case of some scalar-tensor gravity theories in which the scalar field has a geometrical character and space-time has the mathematical structure of a Weyl integrable space-time. We adopt an invariant formalism, so that the extended version of the theorem does not depend on a particular frame. (orig.)
Geometric Analysis of Particular Compactly Constructed Time Machine Spacetimes
Dietz, Jürgen; Dirmeier, Alexander; Scherfner, Mike
2011-01-01
We formulate the concept of time machine structure for spacetimes exhibiting a compactely constructed region with closed timelike curves. After reviewing essential properties of the pseudo Schwarzschild spacetime introduced by A. Ori, we present an analysis of its geodesics analogous to the one conducted in the case of the Schwarzschild spacetime. We conclude that the pseudo Schwarzschild spacetime is geodesically incomplete and not extendible to a complete spacetime. We then introduce a rota...
Scalar Wave Tails in Even Dimensional Weakly Curved Static Newtonian Spacetimes
Chu, Yi-Zen
2014-01-01
In a 4-dimensional (4D) weak field geometry governed by the linearized Einstein's equations and sourced primarily by a static, spatially localized, but otherwise arbitrary mass density $T_{00}$, it is known that the leading order tail part of the Green's functions of the minimally coupled massless scalar, Lorenz gauge photon, and de Donder gauge graviton at late times are not only time translation symmetric, but also space-translation and spherically symmetric. Only the monopole moment of the matter source is responsible for the late-time tail of the Green's function. We provide evidence, in this paper, that both of these statements will cease to hold for all even dimensions higher than 4. As a consequence, we anticipate that the late time behavior of massless fields propagating in higher even dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes will exhibit richer phenomenology than their 4D counterparts.
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
Lee, Jungjai [Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyunseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
Spacetime Metrology with LISA Pathfinder
Congedo, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
LISA is the proposed ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector in the 0.1 mHz - 0.1 Hz band. LISA Pathfinder is the down-scaled version of a single LISA arm. The arm -- named Doppler link -- can be treated as a differential accelerometer, measuring the relative acceleration between test masses. LISA Pathfinder -- the in-flight test of the LISA instrumentation -- is currently in the final implementation and planned to be launched in 2014. It will set stringent constraints on the ability to put test masses in geodesic motion to within the required differential acceleration of 3\\times10^{-14} m s^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} and track their relative motion to within the required differential displacement measurement noise of 9\\times10^{-12} m Hz^{-1/2}, around 1 mHz. Given the scientific objectives, it will carry out -- for the first time with such high accuracy required for gravitational wave detection -- the science of spacetime metrology, in which the Doppler link between two free-falling test masses measures the curvature. Thi...