WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4-year post-secondary institutions

  1. Post-Secondary Vocational Education and Training: Pathways and Partnerships. Institutional Management in Higher Education

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth of tertiary education is partly due to the expansion of post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV). A well developed post-secondary PSV system and links between universities and VET institutions improve skills and employment opportunities. What is post-secondary PSV and how does it relate to other components of the…

  2. 22 CFR 196.3 - Grants to post-secondary education institutions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants to post-secondary education institutions...-secondary education institutions. The Department of State may make a grant to a post-secondary education institution for the purpose of increasing the level of knowledge and awareness of and interest in...

  3. Government, Coercive Power and the Perceived Legitimacy of Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.; Kondra, Alex Z.; Lamertz, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Governments regulate and control organizations, yet their role in determining organizational legitimacy is largely unexamined. In the changing Canadian post-secondary landscape, legitimacy is an increasingly important issue for post-secondary institutions as they compete amongst themselves for access to ever-shrinking resources. Using an…

  4. Supporting Successful Transitions to Post-Secondary Education for Indigenous Students: Lessons from an Institutional Ethnography in Ontario, Canada

    Jean-Paul Restoule

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines some of the ways institutional policies and practices can support or hinder the successful transition to post-secondary education for Indigenous people. Tracing the path from Indigenous high school student to post-secondary education applicant and utilizing knowledge gained from interviews, focus groups, and online surveys as part of an institutional ethnography approach, we offer recommendations for institutions and applicants to help increase enrollment and enhance the success of Indigenous post-secondary students. We share implications for institutions and post-secondary education applicants utilizing self-identification or cultural identity tracking.

  5. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  6. Sustainability in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: The Interrelationships among Sustainability Initiatives and Geographic and Institutional Characteristics

    Beveridge, Dan; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a census of high-level sustainability initiatives at all accredited post-secondary institutions in Canada by documenting the institutions that have undertaken sustainability assessments, have signed one or more sustainability declarations, have sustainability offices or officers or have sustainability…

  7. Movement of All Registrants among B.C. Public Post-Secondary Institutions. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the Student Transitions Project (STP) examined the movement of all British Columbia (BC) pubic post-secondary registrants between post-secondary institutions from 2003/03 to the Fall of 2007. This is an expansion of STP's previous research focusing on the movement and outcomes of a cohort of BC secondary school graduates. (Contains…

  8. Quality Education Management in self-funded Post Secondary Education Institutions in Hong Kong

    Wong Edwin K. P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of external validation exercises (academic audit. Such exercises are now seen as providing an important means for assessing the quality of education in self-funded Post Secondary Education Institutions in Hong Kong, and therefore careful preparation for them is essential. Relevant individual's implicit/tacit knowledge has been converted to explicit knowledge for organizational formal transfer. Ten implementation strategies for the achievement of key performance results are proposed, and a check list of twenty tasks is formulated, against which institutions might assess their level of achievement and evaluate their readiness for external validation.

  9. Integration of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at post-secondary institutions

    Davis, Sara Allison

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incorporation of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at two post-secondary public education residential institutions, Northern Arizona University (NAU) and the University of South Carolina (USC). A total of 17 faculty members, six administrators, and 31 students were interviewed in the study. An individual case record for each participating institution was developed. The two case records were then qualitatively cross-case analyzed to derive crosscutting themes and patterns at the two participating institutions. Based on the findings of this study, several major themes emerged across the two post-secondary public institutions. Sustainability was consistently viewed by faculty members, administrators, and students as a very broad term. While faculty members and administrators differentiated between the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, students commonly associated sustainability more narrowly with an ecological meaning. Several common factors that influenced faculty members' and administrators' understanding of sustainability included literature, campus-wide training, personal influences, and professional networking. Common methods used by faculty to incorporate the concepts of sustainability into teaching included assigned readings, class discussions, and class projects. Key benefits of incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching included increased student awareness, collaboration, vision development, and social implications, while key challenges included time, support, assessment, student understanding, and more realistic classroom experiences. Key driving forces for faculty members and administrators for incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching were the initiatives specifically developed at the institutions. Based on the common themes at the two institutions studied, it is recommended that post-secondary institutions desiring to deploy the concepts

  10. Following Their Footsteps: What Happens to Students Who Move from Research Universities to Other BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions?

    Heslop, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    British Columbia has a differentiated post-secondary system in which different kinds of institutions provide students with a wide range of educational program options and numerous opportunities for credential completion. As a result of the many education choices and pathways available to students in BC, they tend to navigate their way through the…

  11. Student Services/One Stop Centers: A Qualitative Examination of Implementation at Three Post-Secondary Institutions

    Becker, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates Student Services/One Stop Centers at three post-secondary institutions, looking at the origination of the centers and success through the lens of behavioral theories. Comparing the 3-stage Group Dynamics Theory of Lewin (1947), Social Learning Theory of Bandura (1977), and the 8-stage Change Management Model of Kotter…

  12. Evaluating the Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Characteristics of Undergraduate Students at Two Post-Secondary Institutions Utilizing Two Different Curriculum Models

    Hepner, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study compared the critical thinking skills of students at two post-secondary education institutions that utilize two different curriculum models. A contemporary institution that offers a core curriculum and degree specialization (majors) was contrasted with a Great Books school that utilizes a canon of primary sources and…

  13. Orchestrating Organizational Change in One Traditional Post-Secondary Institution in the Midst of Trying Times

    Weiss, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    American higher education finds itself in a veritable upheaval as it attempts to respond to shifting social, economic, and political times. Raising tuition, cutting or consolidating programs, furloughing staff and faculty, drawing down endowments, and capping enrollments are common responses by public and private institutions. This qualitative…

  14. The Impact of Self Beliefs on Post-Secondary Transitions: The Moderating Effects of Institutional Selectivity

    Elliott, Diane Cardenas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between self beliefs, institutional characteristics, and college student persistence. More specifically, this study sought to understand whether self-efficacy beliefs, both academic self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, play a role in college persistence. Further, the possible moderating…

  15. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Acceptance of Disability: Understanding Intentions to Request Instructional Accommodations in Post-Secondary Institutions

    Rivas, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Graduating high-school students with disabilities are making the decision to pursue a post-secondary education in greater numbers. While many students with disabilities self-identify at enrollment as having a disability and thereby qualify for instructional accommodations, few of them request accommodations to assist with meeting course…

  17. A descriptive study of the process post-secondary military institutions use to adopt, implement and train for use of new instructional technologies

    Miller, William David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to identify the strategies used by post-secondary military institutions to adopt, implement and train faculty for the use of new instructional technologies in the learning environment. Termed the Innovation Migration Process, it includes: 1) the adoption decision (selection of the innovation), 2) strategies for implementation and, 3) how faculty are trained on its use. The study was a two phased, explanatory, mixed-methods design beginning ...

  18. Comparing Student Performance and Growth in 2- and 4-Year Institutions.

    Strauss, Linda C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2002-01-01

    Examined the organizational characteristics of 51 higher education institutions in relationship to student performance and growth. Findings included that the different 2-year and 4-year campus missions do exert significantly different influences on undergraduate GPA and self-reported intellectual growth, with students at 2-year institutions…

  19. Undergraduate public health at 4-year institutions: it's here to stay.

    Riegelman, Richard K; Albertine, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Undergraduate public health education at 4-year institutions, those with and without graduate public health education, has grown rapidly during the first decade of the 21st century since the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates have access to education in public health." Much of this growth has been guided by the Educated Citizen and Public Health initiative, a collaboration of arts and sciences and public health educators that encourages introductory course work in public health, epidemiology, and global health plus undergraduate minors and majors in public health. The Educated Citizen and Public Health model, as opposed to existing professional models, envisions core public health education based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Liberal Education and America's Promise essential learning outcomes that encourage experiential learning, evidence-based thinking, a global and community focus, plus integration and synthesis. Public health education in this model provides solid generalist grounding for graduate education in public health as well as a range of graduate disciplines from the health professions to international affairs and from law to business. In addition, it helps ensure a broad range of college graduates who understand and support public health approaches. The Healthy People 2020 objective to increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer minor or major in public health should help propel additional growth, especially in 4-year colleges without graduate public health education. Integrative curricula designed as part of the reform of undergraduate education provide opportunities to make evidence-based public health approaches available to a large number of undergraduates. PMID:21238873

  20. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas' successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees

    Zamudio, Rocio

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the narrative of Latina graduates who successfully navigated through community college and 4-year institutions in the STEM fields. Rather than focus on what these students lack as much of the current research does, the study explored what assets these students bring that supports their success in STEM fields. Utilizing an ethnographic interview approach, participants who attained STEM baccalaureates in California were interviewed. Qualitative findings revealed various experiences, attitudes, and cultural influences that led to successful completion of a STEM degree. First, the study found that successful community college Latina STEM graduates exhibit grit, are resilient, determined, and have positive attitudes about their underrepresentation in STEM. Second, participants sought after peer, faculty, and staff relationships that helped them be successful. Lastly, participants had the support of their families and reported a high level of connectedness to their culture. Implications, recommendations for practice, and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Perceptions of Student Affairs and Services Practitioners in Ontario's Post-Secondary Institutions: An Examination of Colleges and Universities

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Burrow, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Student affairs and services divisions and the partnerships and collaborations in which they engage with faculty, students, and the community form the structural centre of institutions' approaches to student support. Although past research has identified areas typically associated with the student affairs and services portfolio and factors…

  2. Steady Stream of High School Graduates Enter B.C. Public Post-Secondary Education for the First Time Each Year. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    Student Transitions Project, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Student Transition project (STP) has collected eleven years of grade 12 and post-secondary enrollment data, since it's inception in 2003. This information is used to track student transitions from grade 12 graduation into post-secondary education, student mobility between post-secondary institutions and post-secondary credential completions.…

  3. Student Grade Expectations at Technical College, 2-, and 4-Year Institutions

    McCann, Lee I.; Immel, Kathy R.; Kadah-Ammeter, Tammy L.; Priniski, Stacy J.

    2013-01-01

    Although students' final course grade expectations have been the focus of several studies, none have looked systematically at students' expectations for grade distributions for the whole class across institutional types, student year in school, and course levels. This study examined such differences as a function of gender, course level,…

  4. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia terminology in practice: 4-year experience at a single institution.

    Kane, Sarah E; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2012-03-01

    An alternative WHO classification system for endometrial precancers and hyperplasia separates a lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) from diffuse hormonal effects and cancer, resulting in a 3-category system. EIN is a localized lesion with objective histologic criteria, characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, and associated with a 45-fold elevated cancer risk. This study summarizes our department's experience with EIN diagnoses in the 4 years since conversion to the new terminology. We identified all reports from endometrial samples diagnosed as EIN or including the terms "gland crowding" or "atypia" since conversion and obtained follow-up information from subsequent pathology specimens or clinic notes (82%). The diagnoses were reported by a mixture of pathologists, the majority of whom are not subspecialized to gynecologic pathology and the slides were not reviewed. Overall, 17.1% of women with EIN had carcinoma and 34.9% had either carcinoma or persistent EIN. The proportion of women with EIN or cancer on follow-up did not trend with years since adoption of EIN terminology. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 55 years in an overall population of women who underwent sampling at a median age of 47 years. The median follow-up time was 4 months. All cancers were of endometrioid histology; all but 2 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1. In comparison with a previous reproducibility study among expert pathologists on a comparable population from our department, these results for general pathologists show a higher false positive rate for subsequent cancer. PMID:22317874

  5. Here To Stay? Women, Counselling, Post-Secondary Education

    Macdonald, Mairi St. John

    1978-01-01

    As the number of adult students, particulary women, attending post-secondary institutions continues to increase, it is important for counselors and teachers to be aware of the needs, problems, and conflicts that these students have. This article examines some of these needs and conflicts and ways that counselors can help. (Author/JEL)

  6. The perception of science department chairs regarding the performance of community college science majors transferring to 4-year institutions

    Ford, Brenda Jordan

    The purpose for conducting the study was to determine the perceptions held by science department chairs toward 2-year college transfer students regarding their ability to succeed in upper level science courses as compared to that of native students. A two-section, researcher-developed questionnaire was utilized to collect data. The first section was related to demographic information about the department chair's institution, such as institution size, number of transfer students at the institution, and the post-graduate plans of students. The second section presented 15 skills that if found in students should lead to academic success. A total of 61 (N = 61) surveys were returned, representing an overall return rate of 54.4%. The mean, the standard deviation, and paired t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that science department chairs perceived significant differences in native and transfer students. The significant differences found between native and transfer students became greater as the size of the institution increased. The significant differences found between native and transfer students became less the greater the number of transfer students attending an institution. Significant differences were found between students planning to attend professional school and students going to jobs after graduation. No significant differences were found between students going to graduate school and those who were undecided about post-graduation plans. Two-year college transfer students were perceived by department chairs as having the ability to be academically successful at 4-year institutions.

  7. Transitioning Roles of Post-Secondary Education and Community Colleges Worldwide

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Chase-Mayoral, Audree

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Research in Comparative and International Education investigates the spread and development of two-year and community college institutions worldwide. While not all post-secondary education falls within the scope or definition of community colleges, both post-secondary and community college education tend to serve the needs of…

  8. Post-Secondary Educators’ Perceptions of Students’ Test Anxiety

    Hannah A. Connon; Rash, Joshua A; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Beverly Bramble; Jeff Landine; Gerwing, Travis G.

    2016-01-01

    Student test anxiety (TA) is a far-reaching concern in many post-secondary institutions as it can have a negative impact on student performance and retention. Educator perceptions of TA may influence the incidence of TA as well as treatment success. As such, we surveyed educators at a medium-sized Canadian university about their perceptions and experiences with TA. In total, 90% of surveyed educators (n=50) were willing to accommodate students with TA, and 69% of educators were aware of TA su...

  9. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  10. Post secondary project-based learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Rachel A Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL - to distinguish from problem-based learning - PBL) has become a recurrent practice in K-12 classroom environments. As PjBL has become prominent in K-12 classrooms, it has also surfaced in post-secondary institutions.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the research that has studied a variety of science, technology, engineering and mathematic subjects using PjBL in post-secondary classrooms. Eleven articles (including qualitative, quantitative and mixed metho...

  11. (The evolution of) post-secondary education: a computational model and experiments

    Ortmann, Andreas; Slobodyan, Sergey

    -, č. 355 (2008), s. 1-46. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : post-secondary education * for-profit higher education providers * computational simulations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp355.pdf

  12. (The evolution of) post-secondary education: a computational model and experiments

    Ortmann, Andreas; Slobodyan, Sergey

    -, č. 355 (2008), s. 1-46. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : post-secondary education * for-profit higher education providers * computational simulations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp355.pdf

  13. Instructors' Use of Technology in Post-Secondary Undergraduate Mathematics Teaching: A Local Study

    Jesso, A. T.; Kondratieva, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, instructors of undergraduate mathematics from post-secondary institutions in Newfoundland were surveyed (N = 13) and interviewed (N = 8) about their use of, experiences with, and views on, technologically assisted teaching. It was found that the majority of them regularly use technologies for organizational and communication…

  14. Suicide Prevention for Counselors Working with Youth in Secondary and Post-Secondary School

    Wiley, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest statistics, suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in those aged 15-24 (CDC, 2010), when many are enrolled in secondary and post-secondary institutions. Because of such alarming statistics, the need for prevention education is great. However, many counselors and educators feel ill- equipped in prevention and intervention…

  15. Post-Secondary Pathways of Non-Graduates from B.C. Grade 12. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    Beatty-Guenter, Patricia; Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The Student Transitions Project (STP) has focused its research since 2005 on the achievements of British Columbia (B.C.) grade 12 graduates who enrolled in post-secondary education. Some students who do not graduate from Grade 12 also enroll at post-secondary institutions in a variety of programs, but little has been reported on these…

  16. Mental health in British Columbia’s post-secondary institutions’ disability policies

    Wilson, Dana Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia’s public post-secondary institutions, the needs of students living with physical or psychological disabilities are usually addressed through a dedicated disability policy. This approach focuses on making accommodations for eligible students but because mental illness is often less visible than physical impairment, it tends to be forgotten in policy design. As a result, students living with mental illness do not receive a comparable level of institutional support. This inad...

  17. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

    L.R. Kogan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution. Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than

  18. Students with disabilities: Post-secondary voices and universal design for learning

    Coomber, Shirley Ann

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human rights legislation has supported the provision of disability support services for twenty years within the public post-secondary system in British Columbia. However, most institutions and their students with disabilities have faced the challenge of disparate views regarding access to learning. The purposes of this study are rooted in a discourse of equality and social justice: how can the educational community maximize academic access for students with disabilities so that they ...

  19. The public role in private post-secondary education : a review of issues and options

    Blomqvist, Ake; Jimenez, Emmanuel

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers whether private educational institutions can play an expanded role in helping attain society's objective with respect to the efficiency and equity of the system of post-secondary education. The authors focus on how public subsidies can be used to meet the social objectives of private education. In recent years there hasbeen increasing evidence of a growing problem of graduate unemployment. Higher education has also been perceived as a socially unproductive but privately p...

  20. Transitional Challenges Faced by Post-Secondary International Students and Approaches for Their Successful Inclusion in Classrooms

    Xu, Lichan

    2015-01-01

    As the number of international students in post-secondary education institutions in Canada and the United States continues to increase substantially, much scholarly attention is being paid to the wide variety of transitional challenges that international students face. At the same time frequent controversial conversations are occurring about…

  1. International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Model

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…

  2. The Quality Assurance System for Post-Secondary Education in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive, Developmental and Unified Approach

    Darandari, Eqbal Z.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh A.; Allen, Ian D.; Al-Yafi, Wafaa A.; Al-Sudairi, Abdulsalam A.; Catapang, Joey

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of post-secondary institutions in Saudi Arabia over the last few years necessitated the creation of a government agency for accreditation and quality assurance. The National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment was established in 2004 for this purpose. Between 2005 and 2008, it developed a new…

  3. Immigrant Parents' Investments in Their Children's Post-Secondary Education

    Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…

  4. Descriptive Summary of 1995-96 Beginning Postsecondary Students: Three Years Later. With an Essay on Students Who Start at Less-Than-4-Year Institutions. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:96198). Statistical Analysis Report.

    Berkner, Lutz; Horn, Laura; Clune, Michael

    This report, part of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study, provides information about the three-year persistence and degree attainment of students who began their postsecondary education in 1995-96, with a primary focus on students who started at less-than-4-year institutions. The report finds that many of the differences in the…

  5. Does Percentage of Latinas/os Affect Graduation Rates at 4-Year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Emerging HSIs, and Non-HSIs?

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2013-01-01

    As the population of college-aged Latinas/os grows, the number of Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) increases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percentage of Latinas/os has an effect on the institutional graduation rates of Latina/o students attending HSIs, emerging HSIs, and non-HSIs. Data were drawn from the Integrated…

  6. Post secondary project-based learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Rachel A Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Project-based learning (PjBL - to distinguish from problem-based learning - PBL has become a recurrent practice in K-12 classroom environments. As PjBL has become prominent in K-12 classrooms, it has also surfaced in post-secondary institutions.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the research that has studied a variety of science, technology, engineering and mathematic subjects using PjBL in post-secondary classrooms. Eleven articles (including qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods were included.  The format includes: an introduction and background (which defines PjBL and STEM, research methods, quality appraisal used, results, and a discussion, future research and a conclusion.  Two tables and two figures are included. In this paper, theoretical backgrounds and key terms were identified, followed by a literature review discussing four themes: content knowledge, interdisciplinary skills, collaboration and skill development for future education and careers.  Results suggested that there is a positive connection between content knowledge learning and PjBL in collaborative settings.  Additionally, some negative perceptions arose regarding teamwork situations.  Interdisciplinary skills were achieved, but quite limited in post-secondary classrooms.  PjBL and STEM were perceived to be important for future education and careers.  Future research needs to be completed and institutional curriculum changes informed by the results of this research need to occur to further explore interdisciplinary courses and the use of PjBL.

  7. Post-Secondary Partnership : BCcampus Library Services, Learning Objects, and Virtual Reference

    Rosseel, Trish

    2006-01-01

    Describes the BCcampus Library Services Gateway, chat reference pilot project and planning for a provincial post-secondary virtual reference service. The rationale, vision, models, and challenges for a post-secondary virtual reference service are discussed.

  8. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Post Secondary Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Abdullah ALMUSALLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a diverse system of post-secondary education, and it is expanding rapidly in response to demographic changes and increasing demands for participation. There is also very rapid economic and industrial development and increasing exposure to international competition in many areas of activity. Post-secondary education must continue to expand and standards of education and training that are equivalent to international best practice must be achieved and widely recognized. The standards must be achieved in all institutions and in all programs. These requirements have led the government to establish the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment as an independent agency for quality assurance and accreditation. The Commission has responsibility for establishing standards, supporting quality improvement, and accreditation and in all post-secondary institutions other than those in defense. Its focus will be on both quality of institutions as a whole, and the quality of education and training programs. Principles underlying the system the Commission is developing include encouraging continuing improvement rather than being satisfied with minimally acceptable standards, encouraging diversity, ensuring cooperation and mutual support among the different agencies involved and designing approaches tailored to Saudi Arabia’s traditions and requirements rather than adopting a system developed elsewhere. In doing this the Commission is drawing on the best ideas we can find elsewhere in the world, but the system we develop will be our own. Pilot programs have been conducted in two universities involving institutional and program self-studies and independent external reviews to trial and refine the procedures involved. Developmental reviews are being carried out in a number of other universities and colleges to provide experience with the new processes. Most higher education institutions conducted initial self-evaluations based

  9. Understanding Student Mobility in the B.C. Public Post-Secondary System. Highlights from the Student Transitions Project: Post-Secondary Student Mobility

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This annual newsletter summarizes the work of the Post-secondary Student Mobility (PSM) Subcommittee of the Student Transitions Project (STP) . In an effort to better understand student mobility in the B.C. public post-secondary system, the Student Transitions Project continues to describe and quantify the numerous education pathways of students…

  10. Post-Secondary Educators’ Perceptions of Students’ Test Anxiety

    Hannah A. Connon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Student test anxiety (TA is a far-reaching concern in many post-secondary institutions as it can have a negative impact on student performance and retention. Educator perceptions of TA may influence the incidence of TA as well as treatment success. As such, we surveyed educators at a medium-sized Canadian university about their perceptions and experiences with TA. In total, 90% of surveyed educators (n=50 were willing to accommodate students with TA, and 69% of educators were aware of TA support services on campus, whereas only 40% could identify symptoms of TA. Two principal components were extracted from survey responses: the importance of TA on campus, and the importance of institutional commitment to managing TA. Perceived importance of TA varied by educator age and sex, with female and older educators perceiving TA as a more serious condition than male and younger educators. Educators that were aware of TA services had a more positive view of institutional commitment to TA. In addition, 42% of educators felt limited in their ability to assist students with TA, and only 40% believed their classes were structured in such a way as to minimize or address TA. Providing information to educators about the symptoms and treatability of TA, as well as available support services is recommended. L’anxiété des étudiants face aux examens est une préoccupation qui a des implications importantes dans de nombreux établissements d’enseignement post-secondaire car elle peut avoir des effets négatifs sur les résultats des étudiants et sur leur rétention. Les perceptions des éducateurs concernant l’anxiété face aux examens risquent d’influencer l’incidence de l’anxiété ainsi que la réussite du traitement. C’est pourquoi nous avons fait un sondage auprès d’éducateurs dans une université canadienne de taille moyenne à propos de leurs perceptions et de leurs expériences concernant l’anxiété face aux examens. Au total, 90

  11. Instructors' use of technology in post-secondary undergraduate mathematics teaching: a local study

    Jesso, A. T.; Kondratieva, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, instructors of undergraduate mathematics from post-secondary institutions in Newfoundland were surveyed (N = 13) and interviewed (N = 8) about their use of, experiences with, and views on, technologically assisted teaching. It was found that the majority of them regularly use technologies for organizational and communication purposes. However, the use of math-specific technology such as computer algebra systems, or dynamic geometry software for instructional, exploratory, and creative activities with students takes place mostly on an individual basis, only occasionally, and is very much topic specific. This was even the case for those instructors who use technology proficiently in their research. The data also suggested that familiarity with and discussions of examples of technology implementation in teaching at regular and field-oriented professional development seminars within mathematics departments could potentially increase the use of math-specific technology by instructors.

  12. Recommendations for Tobacco Control on Post-Secondary Campuses that are Geographically Isolated

    Alain P. Gauthier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Ontarians continue to report exposure to second-hand smoke in public spaces. Completely smoke-free environments are the preferred and socially responsible option for non-smoking policies; however, when considering the variety of landscapes in which post-secondary institutions are located, „a one size fits all‟ smoking policy is unrealistic to implement and en-force. The purpose of the study was to: 1 gain a better sense of the prevalence of smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke in a post-secondary context that is geographically isolated; 2 assess the awareness of existing non-smoking initiatives; and 3 identify preferred approaches for tobacco control. Methods: An online survey was distributed in 2012 to all members of the Laurentian University community. Descriptive statistics are presented, using frequency distributions, and group comparisons are reported, using Chi-Square analyses. Results: A total of 1282 persons completed the survey. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that they had been exposed to second-hand smoke in the past month on campus and the majority of respondents felt that smoking should only be allowed in Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas (51.5%; including 37.3% of daily smokers and occasional smokers. Conclusion: Institutions with a geographically isolated campus, which limit options to divert smokers from public entrances, should consider the use of Designated Outdoor Smoking Areas. Implementation will create immediate reductions in the prevalence of smoking at building entrances and in high traffic locations and will therefore protect non-smokers from the dangers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  13. Academic Motivation in Post-Secondary Students: Effects of Career Outcome Expectations and Type of Aspiration

    Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…

  14. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  15. The Learning Society. Report of the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario.

    Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario (Canada).

    The Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario was appointed in 1969 to advise the Ministers of Education and of University Affairs. The Commission was asked to consider, in the light of then-current provisions, the pattern necessary to ensure the further effective development of post-secondary education in the Province to 1980, and in…

  16. Shifting Roles and Approaches: Government Coordination of Post-Secondary Education in Canada, 1995-2006

    Shanahan, Theresa; Jones, Glen A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses changing approaches to system-level governance in Canadian post-secondary education from 1995-2006. A review of major policy initiatives reveals a shift in provincial and federal government roles in and approaches to the coordination of post-secondary education. The federal government has strategically invested in…

  17. Breaking the Cycle: A Phenomenological Approach to Broadening Access to Post-Secondary Education

    Cefai, Carmel; Downes, Paul; Cavioni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a substantial increase in post-secondary education participation in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union countries. This increase, however, does not necessarily reflect a parallel equitable growth in post-secondary education, and early school leaving is still an…

  18. Part I - A case study in post-secondary mathematics: the importance of mental health awareness

    Resch, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Due to the shift of civilization from the Industrial Age to the Information Age, mathematical literacy has become a necessity in the twenty-first century. However, in order to learn and contribute to the mathematical community, one has to be in a state of good mental health. When I say 'good mental health,' I mean one has to develop a set of healthy coping strategies, be in a positive learning environment, and have a social support system. Traditionally, universities have been the venue of such higher learning. If these institutions want to remain as thriving grounds for higher education and engines of research, post-secondary institutions need to be aware of these factors and actively contribute to the well-being of its students and faulty. Unfortunately, students do not always receive the support necessary to be mentally healthy. The purpose of this paper is to examine how social awareness and sensitivity of mental health in a university setting is a key component for individuals to flourish academically an...

  19. Increasing the participation of rural Canadians in post-secondary education

    Carr, Jeffrey John

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the rural-urban post-secondary education participation gap in Canada. Using data collected in the Access and Support for Education and Training Survey (ASETS) released in 2009, this research investigates the barriers to post-secondary education faced by rural students, and whether these barriers differ from those experienced by other Canadians. A literature review, crosstab analysis, and logistic regression are used to help assess four policy alternatives and the status...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    ... COGNITIVE The typical 4-year-old: Has a vocabulary of more than 1,000 words Easily puts ... and sharing with other children. Encourage creative play. Teach your child to do small chores, such as ...

  1. Adult Learning and the Future of Post-Secondary Education.

    Ziegler, Warren L.; Healy, Grace M.

    Written materials analyzed in this paper were gathered from work with faculty, students, and administration within higher/postsecondary institutions in inventing the future of education. A wide range of alternative futures is discussed which has emerged from this work, conducted in graduate seminars in short and long term social action research…

  2. (Re)Inserting The Subjective “I” : Globalization, Neo-Liberalism & Student Agency In Post-Secondary Education

    Sarah DesRoches

    2011-01-01

    In an increasingly globalized world, post-secondary education is being reduced to instrumental and economic ends; a significant effect of this is that student agency is undermined. Students are incited to perform neo-liberal values that subvert their willingness (and potentially their ability) to think of their post-secondary experience as anything other than professional training. Neo-liberal values do inhibit individuality and agency within a post-secondary context; however, from a Foucault...

  3. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  4. Under-Represented Groups in Post-Secondary Education in Ontario and the Republic of Ireland

    Cheng-Hoy, April

    2012-01-01

    Increasing access to and participation in post-secondary education (PSE) for students with disabilities, from low-income families, and with parents who do not have any PSE are common issues that Ontario and the Republic of Ireland are currently facing. The barriers confronted by these under-represented groups in both PSE systems are often complex,…

  5. The Impact of Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of using of guided notes in the post-secondary classroom is not fully appreciated or understood. In an effort to add to the existing research about this phenomenon, the current investigation expands on previously published research and one previously published meta-analysis that examined the impact of guided notes on…

  6. Organizational Learning to Implementation: Development of Post-Secondary Online Degree Programs

    Davis, Kirk Alan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze organizational learning and the facilitating factors and critical elements for development of post-secondary distance education and online degree programs at three universities in Hawaii: University of Hawaii at Hilo (public), Hawaii Pacific University and Chaminade University (both private). The researcher…

  7. The Political Economy of Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec

    Fisher, Donald; Rubenson, Kjell; Jones, Glen; Shanahan, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    A policy sociology approach is taken to examine the connections between neo-liberalism, post-secondary provincial education (PSE) policy in Canada and the impact of those policies. Our thesis regarding the broad political economy of PSE is that over the last two decades the adoption of this ideology has been a major cause of some dramatic changes…

  8. Response to the Report of the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario.

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This document written by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) is a response to the Report of the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in Ontario. The general introduction presents two principles that are considered important in discussing the report: social responsiveness and quality. The best form of social responsiveness is to ensure the…

  9. The "Third Ear" Decolonizes: Integrating Deaf Students into Post-Secondary Classes

    McHeimech, Zeinab

    2009-01-01

    Can we effectively integrate Deaf students into our post-secondary classes before recognizing and listening to them? Studies indicate that Deaf students continue to struggle, be silenced, and experience isolation when mainstreamed. Deaf students, or second-language students, inevitably develop new identities once included; however, we cannot…

  10. Visualizing the Future of Research on Post Secondary Correctional Education: Designs, Data, and Deliverables

    Wheeldon, J.

    2011-01-01

    Providing post-secondary education in correctional settings has emerged as one of the best ways to reduce recidivism, save taxpayer dollars, and promote post release employment and community reintegration. While a number of studies exist, this paper argues persistent challenges connected to research design, data collection, and the communication…

  11. A Systematic Review of Small-Group Communication in Post-Secondary Online Courses

    Jahng, Namsook

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review establishes a comprehensive understanding of research trends and the findings of current studies that focus on small-group communication in post-secondary online courses. The review includes 18 journal articles which are categorised and summarised on the basis of their common themes. This review finds that a majority of the…

  12. Lost in the Lifeworld: Technology Help Seeking and Giving on Diverse, Post-Secondary Campuses

    Tannis, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) is integrated throughout a student's lived experience in their post-secondary learning environment. In order for students with limited or no background with ICT to achieve their academic goals, a central part of their adaptation involves an intensive period of ICT help seeking. Using anecdotes from…

  13. Effectiveness of An Essay Writing Strategy for Post-Secondary Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Shaw, Julia W.; Hughes, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the ANSWER Strategy (Hughes, Schumaker, & Deshler, 2005) in improving the essay composition skills of post-secondary students with developmental disabilities. The six-step strategy incorporated analyzing essay prompts, creating an outline, generating an essay response, and reviewing the answer. The students…

  14. An Analysis of Foster Care Placement History and Post-Secondary Graduation Rates

    Day, Angelique; Dworsky, Amy; Feng, Wenning

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has document significant disparities in post-secondary educational attainment between young adults who had been in foster care and their peers in the general population. This study uses survival analysis to compare the four-year college graduation rate of students who had been in foster care to the graduation rate of first…

  15. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  16. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  17. Transcending Disciplinary Lines to Promote Student Achievement at the Post-Secondary Level

    Bentley, Erinn; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Writing proficiencies in the K-12 setting and at the post-secondary level have become stagnant and have decreased in some instances. Several studies indicated using peer review was beneficial for students by increasing student engagement and providing appropriate feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a peer review workshop…

  18. Enhancing Student Learning and Critical Thinking through Academic Controversy in Post Secondary Macroeconomics

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of student learning and critical thinking skills in post-secondary macroeconomics courses. The literature indicates that the lack of learning outcomes can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the student…

  19. Course Modality Choice and Student Performance in Business Statistics Courses in Post Secondary Institutions

    Radners, Richard Harry, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of course modality choice (face-to-face [FTF] or online [OL]) on course grades. At the study site, an independent college, the research problem was the lack of research on the proportions of undergraduate students who completed a statistics course as part of their academic program, in either OL or…

  20. Special Consideration in Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends at a Canadian University

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Kamenetsky, Stuart B.; Pongracic, Syb

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in the practice of granting special consideration for missed tests and late papers in colleges and universities. We analyzed a database of 4,183 special consideration requests at a large Canadian university between 1998 and 2008. Results show a growing rate of requests per enrolment between 2001 and 2007. Although…

  1. Post-Secondary Distance Education in a Contemporary Colonial Context: Experiences of Students in a Rural First Nation in Canada

    Simon, Jesse; Burton, Kevin; Lockhart, Emily; O'Donnell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Post-secondary distance education gives students and their families living in remote and rural regions the option to stay in their communities while they study instead of moving closer to the universities in cities. Post-secondary distance education is an option in many rural and remote First Nation (Indigenous) communities in Canada; however…

  2. Media Usage in Post-Secondary Education and Implications for Teaching and Learning

    G. Gidion; L.F. Capretz; K.N. Meadows; Grosch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Web 2.0 has permeated academic life. The use of online information services in post-secondary education has led to dramatic changes in faculty teaching methods as well as in the learning and study behavior of students. At the same time, traditional information media, such as textbooks and printed handouts, still form the basic pillars of teaching and learning. This paper reports the results of a survey about media usage in teaching and learning conducted with Western University students a...

  3. Reflections on the practice of blended learning in first year post-secondary education

    Sturgess, Monica Christina

    2006-01-01

    Many educators in post-secondary education recognize the value of creating a learning environment that is relevant to the times we live in. As an instructor in a first year university course, Foundations of Teamwork & Communication (FTC), I have written this thesis to explore some of the specific elements in the development and delivery of the course that appear to be beneficial in creating a meaningful learning environment for students of the Net Generation. The purpose of this study is ...

  4. (The Evolution of) Post-Secondary Education: A Computational Model and Experiments

    Andreas Ortmann; : Sergey Slobodyan

    2008-01-01

    We propose a computational model to study (the evolution of) post-secondary education. “Consumers” who differ in quality shop around for desirable colleges or universities. “Firms” that differ in quality signal the availability of their services to desirable students. As long as they have capacity, colleges and universities make offers to students, who apply and qualify. Our model generalizes an earlier literature (namely, Vriend 1995) in an important dimension: quality, the model confirms ke...

  5. (The Evolution of) Post-Secondary Education: A Computational Model and Experiments

    Andreas Ortmann; : Sergey Slobodyan; Nordberg, Samuel S.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a computational model to study (the evolution of) post-secondary education. "Consumer" who differ in quality shop around for desirable colleges or universities. "Firm" that differ in quality signal the availability of their services to desirable students. Colleges and universities, as long as they have capacity, make offers to students who apply and qualify. We study the dynamics and asymptotics for three nested variants of this matching model: the first variant replicates the Vrie...

  6. The impact of the DoH Commissioning for Quality and Innovation incentive on the success of venous thromboembolism risk assessment in hospitalised patients. A single institution experience in a quality outcome improvement over a 4-year cycle

    Sandhu, Polly; Ali, Vernisha; Jones, Garth; Baker, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To i) demonstrate compliance with the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation for venous thromboembolism risk assessment ii) to undertake root cause analysis of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis and to investigate its impact on quality of care. Design Prospective monitoring of all admissions. Setting Imperial College Healthcare Hospitals, London. Participants All Hospital Provider Spells as defined on the NHS Data Model and Dictionary. Main outcome measures i) Percentage of patients undergoing Venous Thromboembolism Risk Assessment (VTE-RA) at and 24-hours after admission ii) root cause analysis of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis up to 90 days following discharge. Results Over a 48-month cycle 83% were overall VTE-RA assessed with 36% in the first 12 months but with significant improvement to ≥95% between April 2013 and April 2015, achieving compliance target since April 2012 involving a massive 633, 850 Spells over the 4 year period. We undertook root cause analysis of all VTE episodes from April 2013 to March 2014, to ascertain Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (HAT), we analysed 433, 174 inpatient days and found a HAT rate of 1 per 1000 with 23% and 24% for DVTs and PEs potentially avoidable respectively. We further analysed VTE risk stratification (n = 1000) and found 37.0% at high risk, 44.4% at medium risk and 18.6 % at low risk, indicating the need of thromboprophylaxis in 81.4% (high and medium) of whom 33.6% were excluded. Conclusions We achieved 95% RA compliance which has favourably impacted on our daily practice and improved the quality of the clinical care.

  7. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  8. Post-Secondary Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Systems about Language Teaching/Learning and Technology/Teaching with Technology

    Oda, Kazue

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have demonstrated the advantages of using computer technology in foreign language classrooms, many post-secondary foreign language (FL) teachers still remain reluctant to use technology in instruction. Even when teachers do use technology, critiques have indicated that it is oftentimes used merely to replicate traditional…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Testing Aids on Post-Secondary Student Performance: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    Larwin, Karen H.; Gorman, Jennifer; Larwin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Testing aids, including student-prepared testing aids (a.k.a., cheat sheets or crib notes) and open-textbook exams, are common practice in post-secondary assessment. There is a considerable amount of published research that discusses and investigates the impact of these testing aids. However, the findings of this research are contradictory and…

  10. The Story behind the Science: Bringing Science and Scientists to Life in Post-Secondary Science Education

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    With funding from the United States National Science Foundation, 30 historical short stories designed to teach science content and draw students' attention to the nature of science (NOS) have been created for post-secondary introductory astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics courses. The project rationale, story development and…

  11. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  12. Perceived Factors Influencing Post-Secondary Enrollment and Economic Stability of Single and Married Mothers in Utah

    Campos-Rosenthal, Angelina M.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the perceived factors that influenced the decisions of single and married mothers to enroll or not enroll in post-secondary education. The study then investigated the relationship between educational level and income for single mothers in Utah. From a survey of 1197 Utah mothers, this study concluded that mothers enroll in…

  13. Science dual enrollment: An examination of high school students' post-secondary aspirations

    Berry, Chelsia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in science dual enrollment courses influenced African American high school students' post-secondary aspirations that will lead to college attendance. The investigation examined the relationship between African American students' learning experiences and how their self-efficacy and outcome expectations impact their goal setting. The goal was to determine the impact of the following variables on African American students' plan to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree: (a) STEM exposure, (b) Algebra 1 achievement, (c) level of science class, and (d) receiving science college credit for dual enrollment course. The social cognitive career theory framed this body of research to explore how career and academic interests mature, are developed, and are translated into action. Science dual enrollment participation is a strategy for addressing the lack of African American presence in the STEM fields. The causal comparative ex post facto research design was used in this quantitative study. The researcher performed the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze secondary data from the High School Longitudinal Study first follow-up student questionnaire. The results indicate that STEM exposure and early success in Algebra 1 have a statistically significant impact on African American students' ambition to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree. According to the Pearson's chi-square and independent sample Kruskal-Wallis analyses, level of students' science class and receiving college credit for dual enrollment do not significantly influence African American students' postsecondary aspirations.

  14. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Karizma Mawjee

    Full Text Available To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM, transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy.97 post-secondary students (59.8% female aged 18-35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session, a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group. All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM, CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM. Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms.Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use.This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657721.

  15. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy?

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income - post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate substantially smaller PS attendance gaps by parental income in Cana...

  16. Indigenous education and the post-secondary student support program: Colonial governance, neo-liberal imperatives, and gendered outcomes

    McLean, Christine Amie

    2007-01-01

    The Post-Secondary Student Support Program funds higher education for status Indian and Inuit individuals. Since the 1970’s, program administration has devolved from the federal government to the Band level. From 1989, federal changes to the PSSSP have restricted length of funded study, imposed performance measures and a funding cap and implemented block funding mechanisms. This allowed the federal government to curtail costs while seemingly increasing First Nations’ autonomy and resources. F...

  17. Adolescent Criminal Acts Committed and Substance Use with a Voluntary Sample Recruited from Post-Secondary Institutions

    Collette, Tessa; Pakzad, Sarah; Bergheul, Saïd

    2015-01-01

    The current study focuses on exploring the relationships between various patterns of criminal acts committed, drug use, alcohol consumption, and adult personality traits in a sample with a low probability of life course persistent criminal behaviors. A retrospective questionnaire and the NEO-FFI (Five Factor Inventory) were administered to a…

  18. Teaching, Learning, and Collaborating in the Cloud: Applications of Cloud Computing for Educators in Post-Secondary Institutions

    Aaron, Lynn S.; Roche, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" refers to the use of computing resources on the Internet instead of on individual personal computers. The field is expanding and has significant potential value for educators. This is discussed with a focus on four main functions: file storage, file synchronization, document creation, and collaboration--each of which has…

  19. Girls in Science and Technology in Secondary and Post-Secondary Education: The Case of France

    Stevanovic, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Based on surveys undertaken by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (France's National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) and by the Direction de l'évaluation de la prospective et de la performance (Directorate of Evaluation, Forecasting and Performance), this article examines the evolution of…

  20. Transfer Credit Assessment: A Survey of Institutional Practices

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Assessing credits that transfer students bring to an institution may require a significant amount of institutional resources. The increased mobility of students among post-secondary institutions in British Columbia (BC), and the need to ensure efficient admission processes for both the student and the institution, makes transfer credit assessment…

  1. (ReInserting The Subjective “I” : Globalization, Neo-Liberalism & Student Agency In Post-Secondary Education

    Sarah DesRoches

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, post-secondary education is being reduced to instrumental and economic ends; a significant effect of this is that student agency is undermined. Students are incited to perform neo-liberal values that subvert their willingness (and potentially their ability to think of their post-secondary experience as anything other than professional training. Neo-liberal values do inhibit individuality and agency within a post-secondary context; however, from a Foucaultian perspective, the dominant discourse can never squelch the possibility of alternative discourses from emerging, thereby unhinging the seemingly cemented reality described above. In the first section of this paper, I will provide a theoretical overview of globalization, its relationship to neo-liberalism and how these have impacted post-secondary education. This overview will enable me to consider a very specific example of how neo-liberal ideology is being manifested in post-secondary classrooms: namely, the reluctance of pre-service teachers to use the first person singular pronoun in their research papers.De plus en plus, l'éducation post-secondaire est réduite à une fin instrumentale et économique. Un effet important de cette instrumentalisation est que la capacité d'agent (agency des étudiants est compromise. Les élèves sont incités à adopter des valeurs néo-libérales qui mettent en échec leur volonté (et potentiellement leur capacité de penser leur expérience post-secondaire comme autre chose qu'une formation professionnelle. Dans ce contexte post-secondaire, les valeurs néo-libérales refoulent l'individualité et la capacité d'agent; mais dans une perspective foucaldienne, le discours dominant n’est jamais figé, les discours alternatifs permettant de lever l'emprise d'une réalité qui peut apparaître cimenté. Dans la première section de cet article, je vais brosser un aperçu théorique de la mondialisation et de sa relation

  2. An Investigation of Academic Writing in International Students in Post-Secondary Education

    Causarano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Writing and the power of the written word is a very important aspect of our literate society and writing is integrated into all aspects of our daily life. Good writing skills are paramount in social and educational institutions where textual production and related writing activities represent the main framework for knowledge production and…

  3. Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia

    Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

    2005-01-01

    In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

  4. Minnesota's Post-Secondary Education Enrollment Data. Basic Data Series, 2002.

    Minnesota Higher Education Services Office, St. Paul.

    This report provides data on enrollments in Minnesota postsecondary institutions. It has four parts: (1) five-year summaries, which includes total headcount, full-time and part-time, male and female, and new entering student enrollments; (2) residence, including county, state, and foreign country; (3) distribution by year of high school…

  5. Investing for the Future: Post-Secondary Education Issues and the Canadian Federal Election

    Educational Policy Institute (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    On October 14, 2008, Canadians will travel to the polls for the 40th Canadian General Election--only two years since the 2006 election which brought the Conservative Government to power. In preparation for the election, the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) is publishing a series of election-related papers, including an overview of the top…

  6. Factors Students Use in Choosing to Attend Church of Christ Institutions of Higher Education when Students Have No Affiliation with the Church of Christ

    Wood, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a post-secondary institution to further one's education is a significant decision in a person's life. Throughout the past three decades, the issue of college choice has been researched. Much of this research has dealt with factors that influence student choice. While the research on how and why students choose a post-secondary institution…

  7. Post-Secondary Education in the South Pacific: Present Patterns and Future Options. Educational Development in the Small States of the Commonwealth Series.

    Crocombe, Ron; Crocombe, Marjorie Tuainekore

    This book contains the results of a study examining post-secondary education in the South Pacific by surveying the number of educational opportunities currently offered, by analyzing key trends, and by comparing developments in the Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Following an introductory section on terminology and the region, the first main…

  8. Transitions to Post-Secondary and Tertiary Education in the Netherlands: A Trend Analysis of Unconditional and Conditional Socio-Economic Background Effects

    Tieben, Nicole; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.

    2010-01-01

    In the tracked educational system of the Netherlands, students at the end of secondary education have to decide whether they want to enter subsequent post-secondary or tertiary education. Depending on the previous qualification, they have the choice between up to four different options, including not entering further education. We propose, in line…

  9. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  10. Predictors of Funded Scholarly Activity at 4-Year, Non-Doctoral Colleges and Universities

    Edwards, Maria Montoro

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to develop a model of institutional supports necessary for faculty to succeed as funded scholars at 4-year non-doctoral colleges and universities. Research was conducted using secondary data analysis on a pre-existing, cross-sectional database from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Expectancy theory was used as the…

  11. New Faculty Experience in Times of Institutional Change

    Yeo, Michelle; Bennett, Deb; McNichol, Jane Stoneman; Merkley, Cari

    2015-01-01

    Many post-secondary institutions in Canada over the past decade have made the transition from college to university status. The researchers on this team were hired in the midst of such a transition at one western Canadian institution. As new faculty we were navigating the normal tides of adjusting to a new faculty position, but our induction…

  12. Crossing the Special-General Education Divide at the Post-Secondary Level: Observations and Outcomes of Co-Teaching across Curricula

    Drescher, Talya

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONCrossing the Special-General Education Divide at the Post-Secondary Level:Observations and Outcomes of Co-Teaching across CurriculaByTalya Louise DrescherDoctor of Philosophy in Special EducationUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2015California State University, Los Angeles, 2015Professor Sandra Graham, ChairThis dissertation contains two case studies aimed at expanding the body of literature on the topic of collaborative teaching in pre-service education progr...

  13. The Passive in 3- and 4-Year-Olds

    de Barros Pereira Rubin, Maraci Coelho

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that analyzing the patterns of individual subject performance in tests of comprehension of passives might give insight into how little children interpret passives: 3 and 4 year-olds seem to go through a range of passive interpretation, that varies from actual comprehension to total non-comprehension. The fact that some small…

  14. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  15. Effects of Diversity Experiences on Critical Thinking Skills over 4 Years of College

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Martin, Georgianna L.; Hanson, Jana M.; Trolian, Teniell L.; Gillig, Benjamin; Blaich, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of student engagement in diversity experiences on a range of college outcomes have been well documented. However, the potential influence of involvement in diversity experiences during college on the cognitive and intellectual outcomes of post-secondary education is only beginning to be understood. Gurin et al. (2002) made a…

  16. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  17. Developing an Empirical Test of the Impact of Vouchers on Elasticity of Demand for Post-Secondary Education and on the Financing of Higher Education; and Economic Efficiency in Post-Secondary Education. Final Project Report.

    Newton, Jan N.; And Others

    Two separate NIE research projects in higher education, closely related in substance and complementary, were undertaken in Oregon in 1973-75. During the first year, the objectives were to: (1) compute and analyze various configurations of student schooling costs and financial resources according to institutional type and to student sex and…

  18. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-Secondary Students

    Fischer, Lane; Hilton, John, III; Robinson, T. Jared; Wiley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In some educational settings, the cost of textbooks approaches or even exceeds the cost of tuition. Given limited resources, it is important to better understand the impacts of free open educational resources (OER) on student outcomes. Utilizing digital resources such as OER can substantially reduce costs for students. The purpose of this study…

  19. A Descriptive Study of Student Recruitment Methodology Employed by Two-Year Non-Religiously Affiliated Post-Secondary Institutions in the United States.

    Duda, Thomas

    A nationwide survey of 1,084 nonreligiously affiliated colleges offering degrees that require at least two but less than four years of study was conducted to identify student recruitment and advertising practices. Respondents were asked to indicate: (1) which recruitment practices on a 40-item checklist were currently in use; (2) recruitment…

  20. A's for Everyone: The Effect of Student Consumerism in the Post-Secondary Classroom

    Plunkett, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    With millennial students as the primary population in many higher education institutions today, many instructors are experiencing a paradigm shift of behaviors they are observing in their classroom. Many educators are observing today's students failing to take personal responsibility for their educational endeavors and in turn viewing their…

  1. The Sociolinguistic Competence of Former Immersion Students at the Post-Secondary Level: The Case of Lexical Variation

    Rehner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines two sociolinguistic lexical variables, "work" and "to dwell," in the spoken French of former immersion students in their first or fourth year at a bilingual university in Ontario, Canada. Their patterns of use are compared to those of non-immersion graduates in the same institution, to Ontario high school immersion students, to…

  2. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  3. Deciphering Primary and Popular Literature: An Interactive Approach for Promoting Students’ Development of Scientific, Digital, and Information Literacy in Post-Secondary Contexts

    Lacy M. Cleveland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advancement, it is imperative that individuals possess the ability to interpret and make meaning of current scientific phenomena, including those of both national and global importance.  Despite this necessity, research suggests that less than 30% of Americans are able to understand the science section of the New York Times or other popular media resources.  In this paper, we present an interactive approach utilizing primary and popular literature that is designed to: a enhance students’ understanding of science content; b promote students’ ability to make use of evidence to support or reject claims regarding controversial science topics; and c improve students’ oral and written communication skills.  Applications for use in post-secondary classrooms are discussed.

  4. Higher Education Institutional and Program Evaluations in Taiwan and the Emerging Roles of Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Wei, Yen-Shun; Wang, Li-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Post-secondary education institutions in Taiwan are divided into two tracks, general higher education (HE) and technological and vocational education (TVE). The evaluation of all universities/colleges is mandated by the University Act. Higher education institutions receive mandated institutional evaluation every six years and program evaluation…

  5. ALEXIS, the little satellite that could -- 4 years later

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Bloch, J.; Little, C. [and others

    1997-10-01

    The 113-kg Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) satellite was launched from the fourth flight of Pegasus on 25 April, 1993 into a 750 x 850 km, 70 degree inclination orbit. Due to damage sustained at the time of launch, ground controllers did not make contact with the satellite until late June. By late July, full satellite operations had been restored through the implementation of new procedures for attitude control. Science operations with the two onboard experiments began at that time. Now 4 years later is still collecting more than 100 MB of mission data per day. ALEXIS was originally designed to be a high risk, single string. {open_quotes}Smarter-Faster-Cheaper{close_quotes} satellite, with a 1 year nominal and a 3 year design limit. This paper will discuss how well the various satellite and experiment subsystems are surviving a variety of low and high radiation environments and what improvements have been made to make operations more autonomous. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An Analysis of Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Vocational Technical Education Framework for Culinary Arts and Its Effectiveness on Students Enrolled in Post-Secondary Culinary Programs

    D'Addario, Albert S.

    2011-01-01

    This field-based action research practicum investigated how students who have completed culinary training programs in Massachusetts public secondary schools perform in post-secondary coursework. The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education has developed the Vocational Technical Education (VTE) Framework for Culinary Arts that outlines…

  7. Masonry. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary masonry education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in masonry in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first two sections of 10…

  8. Cosmetology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local postsecondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  9. Measuring post-secondary stem majors' engagement in sustainability: The creation, assessment, and validation of an instrument for sustainability curricula evaluation

    Little, David L., II

    Ongoing changes in values, pedagogy, and curriculum concerning sustainability education necessitate that strong curricular elements are identified in sustainability education. However, quantitative research in sustainability education is largely undeveloped or relies on outdated instruments. In part, this is because no widespread quantitative instrument for measuring related educational outcomes has been developed for the field, though their development is pivotal for future efforts in sustainability education related to STEM majors. This research study details the creation, evaluation, and validation of an instrument -- the STEM Sustainability Engagement Instrument (STEMSEI) -- designed to measure sustainability engagement in post-secondary STEM majors. The study was conducted in three phases, using qualitative methods in phase 1, a concurrent mixed methods design in phase 2, and a sequential mixed methods design in phase 3. The STEMSEI was able to successfully predict statistically significant differences in the sample (n= 1017) that were predicted by prior research in environmental education. The STEMSEI also revealed statistically significant differences between STEM majors' sustainability engagement with a large effect size (.203 ≤ eta2 ≤ .211). As hypothesized, statistically significant differences were found on the environmental scales across gender and present religion. With respect to gender, self-perceived measures of emotional engagement with environmental sustainability was higher with females while males had higher measures in cognitive engagement with respect to knowing information related to environmental sustainability. With respect to present religion, self-perceived measures of general engagement and emotional engagement in environmental sustainability were higher for non-Christians as compared to Christians. On the economic scales, statistically significant differences were found across gender. Specifically, measures of males' self

  10. Qualitative Insights from a Canadian Multi-Institutional Research Study: In Search of Meaningful E-Learning

    Carter, Lorraine M.; Salyers, Vince; Myers, Sue; Hipfner, Carol; Hoffart, Caroline; MacLean, Christa; White, Kathy; Matus, Theresa; Forssman, Vivian; Barrett, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Called the Meaningful E-learning or MEL project, the study was an exploration of the teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students as well as their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of…

  11. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  12. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  13. Facial esthetics in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate 3 years after alveolar bonegrafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age

    Offert, B.; Janiszewska-Olszowska, J.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Brudnicki, A.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate facial esthetics in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) after alveolar bone grafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: The Department of Pediatric Surgery, Institute of Mother and Child,

  14. Facial esthetics in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate 3 years after alveolar bonegrafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age.

    Offert, B.; Janiszewska-Olszowska, J.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Brudnicki, A.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate facial esthetics in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) after alveolar bone grafting combined with rhinoplasty between 2 and 4 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: The Department of Pediatric Surgery, Institute of Mother and Child,

  15. Faculty Perceptions of Factors Affecting Faculty Attrition and Retention at 4-Year Public Colleges and Universities in One Southern North American State

    Rhone, Denton W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of faculty at selected 4-year public colleges and universities in the state of Georgia regarding factors that would influence them to leave or remain at their respective institutions. This study uses a quantitative descriptive design, utilizing an online survey with 20 intrinsic and…

  16. Inverse Planned High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: 4-Year Outcomes

    Tinkle, Christopher L.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chen, Lee-May [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Littell, Ramey [Gynecologic Oncology, The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, California (United States); Cunha, J. Adam M.; Sethi, Rajni A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chan, John K. [Gynecologic Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: ichow.hsu@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of image guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 2003 through September 2009, 111 patients with primary cervical cancer were treated definitively with IPSA-planned HDRB boost (28 Gy in 4 fractions) after external radiation at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using image guided brachytherapy. Of the patients, 70% had a tumor size >4 cm, 38% had regional nodal disease, and 15% had clinically evident distant metastasis, including nonregional nodal disease, at the time of diagnosis. Surgical staging involving pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 15% of patients, and 93% received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Toxicities are reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 guidelines. Results: With a median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 3-84 months), no acute or late toxicities of grade 4 or higher were observed, and grade 3 toxicities (both acute and late) developed in 8 patients (1 constitutional, 1 hematologic, 2 genitourinary, 4 gastrointestinal). The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of late grade 3 toxicity was 8%. Local recurrence developed in 5 patients (4 to 9 months after HDRB), regional recurrence in 3 (6, 16, and 72 months after HDRB), and locoregional recurrence in 1 (4 months after HDR boost). The 4-year estimates of local, locoregional, and distant control of disease were 94.0%, 91.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 4 years were 64.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 54%-73%) and 61.0% (95% CI, 51%-70%), respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDRB boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease. However, overall

  17. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  18. Shifting gears higher - digital slides in graduate education - 4 years experience at Semmelweis University

    Molnár Béla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spreading of whole slide imaging or digital slide systems in pathology as an innovative technique seems to be unstoppable. Successful introduction of digital slides in education has played a crucial role to reach this level of acceptance. Practically speaking there is no university institute where digital materials are not built into pathology education. At the 1st. Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University optical microscopes have been replaced and for four years only digital slides have been used in education. The aim of this paper is to summarize our experiences gathered with the installation of a fully digitized histology lab for graduate education. Methods We have installed a digital histology lab with 40 PCs, two slide servers - one for internal use and one with external internet access. We have digitized hundreds of slides and after 4 years we use a set of 126 slides during the pathology course. A Student satisfaction questionnaire and a Tutor satisfaction questionnaire have been designed, both to be completed voluntarily to have feed back from the users. The page load statistics of the external slide server were evaluated. Results The digital histology lab served ~900 students and ~1600 hours of histology practice. The questionnaires revealed high satisfaction with digital slides. The results also emphasize the importance of the tutors' attitude towards digital microscopy as a factor influencing the students' satisfaction. The constantly growing number of page downloads from the external server confirms this satisfaction and the acceptance of digital slides. Conclusions We are confident, and have showed as well, that digital slides have got numerous advantages over optical slides and are more suitable in education.

  19. Longitudinal relations between child vagal tone and parenting behavior: 2 to 4 years.

    Kennedy, Amy E; Rubin, Kenneth H; Hastings, Paul D; Maisel, Beth

    2004-07-01

    The longitudinal relations between physiological markers of child emotion regulation and maternal parenting practices were examined from 2 to 4 years of age. At Time 1, cardiac vagal tone was assessed for one hundred four 2-year-olds (54 females); their mothers completed an assessment of parenting styles. Two years later, at Time 2, 84 of the original participants were reassessed on measures of cardiac vagal tone and parenting style. Results indicated both baseline cardiac vagal tone and maternal parenting practices to be stable from 2 to 4 years of age. Children's cardiac vagal tone predicted specific parenting practices from the toddler to preschool years. Further, child cardiac vagal tone moderated maternal restrictive-parenting practices from 2 to 4 years of age; mothers of children who were highly or moderately physiologically dysregulated were more likely to report restrictive parenting practices at both 2 and 4 years of age. PMID:15229872

  20. An Examination of the Influence of Institutional Context on Student Persistence at 4-Year Colleges and Universities: A Multilevel Approach

    Titus, Marvin A.

    2004-01-01

    Using constructs from Bean's (1990) [In: D. Hossler and J. P. Bean (Eds.), The strategic management of college enrollments. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass] student attrition model and the Berger and Milem (2000) [In: J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. XV, pp. 268?338). New York: Agathon Press] college impact…

  1. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  2. Institutional Support for the Virtual Professor

    Tom JONES

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Academics who hold positions at single-mode, distance education institutions are presently being hampered by an adherence to a long-standing set of protocols (specific office location, face-to-face meetings that were put in place when the conventional post-secondary was the norm. With the advent of a powerful merging of personal computers and the internet, a shift from those protocols to one of support for the virtual professor is in the offing, to the benefit of both the professoriate and the student. A key factor in this shift is the degree and quality of institutional support that will allow these changes to take place. This paper focuses on a number of the key factors that will have to be addressed if this new type of distance education academic is to function effectively.

  3. Late juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplantation; a 4-year follow-up study.

    Navarro, C; Fernández, J M; Domínguez, C; Fachal, C; Alvarez, M

    1996-01-01

    We treated a 28-year-old woman who had metachromatic leukodystrophy with bone marrow transplantation. Leukocyte arylsulfatase A levels increased to the donor's range after successful graft. Motor and sensory nerve conduction values did not change significantly in the 4 years after the transplant, and subcortical white matter lesions, as shown on MRI, remained stable during that period of time. The results, after 4 years of follow-up, indicate that the disease has not progressed and signs and symptoms are stabilized. PMID:8559389

  4. Improving Student Interest, Mathematical Skills, and Future Success through Implementation of Novel Mathematics Bridge Course for High School Seniors and Post-secondary Students

    Webb, Derek; Richgels, Glen; Wolf, Marty J.; Frauenholtz, Todd; Hougen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We present a new course titled “Introduction to the Mathematical Sciences.” The course content is 1/3 algebra, 1/3 statistics, and 1/3 computer science and is taught in a laboratory environment on computers. The course pedagogy departs radically from traditional mathematics courses taught in the U.S. and makes extensive use of spreadsheet software to teach algebraic and statistical concepts. The course is currently offered in area high schools and two-year postsecondary institutions with fina...

  5. It unfolded quite wonderfully: a history of the Certificate in Conflict Resolution at the Justice Institute of British Columbia 1983–1993

    Hughes, Nym Annie-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Certificate in Conflict Resolution based at the Justice Institute of British Columbia was a manifestation of a North American conflict resolution movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Its location in a justice and public safety training institution facilitated its emergence and its first decade was marked by exponential growth. This study makes visible the theoretical and contextual bases of this first Canadian post-secondary conflict resolution educational program. A narrative research approa...

  6. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    Prins, J R; Van Oven, M W; Helder-Woolderink, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years afte

  7. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  8. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  9. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 4-year-old girl associated with alimemazine

    van Maldegem, Bianca T; Smit, Leo M E; Touw, Daan J; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2002-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but serious disorder caused by antipsychotic medication including phenothiazines. For sedative purposes, increasing doses of alimemazine were administered to a 4-year-old multiple handicapped girl, with cerebral damage of the basal ganglia.

  10. Vowel Confusion Patterns in Adults during Initial 4 Years of Implant Use

    Vaalimaa, Taina T.; Sorri, Martti J.; Laitakari, Jaakko; Sivonen, Ville; Muhli, Arto

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated adult cochlear implant users' (n == 39) vowel recognition and confusions by an open-set syllable test during 4 years of implant use, in a prospective repeated-measures design. Subjects' responses were coded for phoneme errors and estimated by the generalized mixed model. Improvement in overall vowel recognition was highest…

  11. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  12. Psychosocial health of 4-year-old boys and girls, as observed by parents and teachers

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    Both parents and teachers assessed the psychosocial health of 228 4-year-old children at the start of elementary school in the Netherlands. Assessments were conducted using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL; ages 1 1/2-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF; ages 1 1/2-5). Results were co

  13. Fixed prosthetics over implant-tooth support – survival rate over 4 years of follow up

    Nikolovski, Bruno; Cvetanovska-Stojchevska, Daniela; Bundalevska-Aleksandrovska, Ana; Minovska, Ana; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Long – term survival rate of bridges over implants is the goal of the implant therapy. Often fixed bridges are supported by combination of natural teeth and implants. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to check the survival rate of the prosthetics over combination of natural teeth and implants comparing to fixed prosthetics over natural teeth within 4 years of follow up. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The patients were divided into 2 groups. The implant group of 20 patients with 32 implants were pla...

  14. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in ...

  15. Genes and environment in asthma: a study of 4 year old twins

    Koeppen-Schomerus, G; Stevenson, J; Plomin, R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Although the genetic and environmental factors of asthma have been investigated in adolescence and adulthood, no previous studies have focused on the early development of asthma.
AIMS—To test, in a large sample of 4 year old twins, the hypotheses derived from the literature on adolescents and adults that genetic influences are substantial and shared environmental influences are modest.
METHODS—The sample consisted of 4910 twin pairs who were born in England and...

  16. Myositic Type of Idiopathic Orbital Pseudotumor in a 4-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Ahmet Elbeyli; Ahmet Gocmez; Mehtap Beker Acay; Abdullah Kursat Cingu; Ayse Ahsen Bakan; Selim Bakan; Serra Sencer

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor is a benign, noninfectious, and nonneoplastic disease with unknown cause. It is the third most common orbital disease after thyroid orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative disorder. Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor is extremely rare in pediatric age group and may cause real diagnostic problems. This paper describes a 4-year-old girl who presented with sudden ptosis in the right eye and swollen eyelid. She recovered completely with high-dose steroid therapy. We report ...

  17. Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Atkin, K; Lorch, Marjorie P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and a mental age of approximately 1:5 who demonstrates precocious oral-reading behaviour in the absence of spontaneous speech. Tests of reading regular and irregular words, pseudowords, homographic heterophones, single sentences and texts were carried out. Performance on a variety of reading tasks suggests the ability to use grapheme–phoneme correspondences and whole word reading for decoding...

  18. Predicting reading and spelling disorders: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the ch...

  19. 高中職學校發展特色課程之課綱問題分析 An Analysis of Problems of Curriculum Guidelines in Developing Featured Curriculum in Post-Secondary Schools

    劉欣宜 Hsin-Yi Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 臺灣即將於2014年實施十二年國民基本教育,政策重點之一係在鼓勵並協助學校規劃與實施「特色課程」,以促進學生的適性學習與創造學校的亮點及優勢。然而,高中職學校依循課程綱要發展特色課程時,常有彈性不足、難以符合學生需求,或是因升學主義與學科本位影響而無法兼顧特色課程的教育本質與核心理念等限制。本研究即聚焦於此,首先探究高中職學校依據課程綱要發展特色課程時,對於課程綱要適切性的認知,其次分析高中職學校發展特色課程時,對於現行課程綱要中課程及學分數的調整需求,最後則提出高中職課程綱要的研修建議,包括調整高中職課程綱要架構、強化校本課程發展專業能力等,期能對未來高中職發展特色課程時有所助益。The Taiwan 12-year basic education will be implemented in 2014, one of the important force to enhance the competitiveness of post-secondary schools is developing the featured curriculum. Under the context, this paper explored the problems of developing featured curriculum confined by curriculum guidelines, then analyzed the possibilities of adjusting curriculum guidelines for developing featured curriculum. Finally, the paper provided suggestions for promoting the development of featured curriculum of post-secondary schools, including the flexibility of framework of curriculum guidelines, the establishment of the curriculum supportive system, and the encouragement for sustainable development of professional teams.

  20. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    Tiffany J. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

  1. A 4-year-old boy with post-traumatic winging of the scapula

    Sridhar, Arani; Parepalli, Srinivas; Pande, Suchandra

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with acute post-traumatic winging of right scapula following a fall onto his back. The x-ray of his right shoulder showed no fracture. An MRI Scan of cervical spine and brachial plexus did not reveal any abnormalities. He was managed conservatively with regular physiotherapy. At 2 years follow-up, there was no improvement in the winging of his right scapula. He was asymptomatic at rest but complains of p...

  2. The effectiveness of physical education of the military academy cadets during a 4-year study

    Marić Lela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The main role of physical education is health and educational practices of cadets and all-round personality development. Instruction executing is successful only when the set requirements are realized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physical education in order to rise physical capabilities of the Military Academy cadets during a 4-year education. Methods. The study was conducted in the Military Academy, Belgrade. A total of 120 cadets who at the beginning of the study were 19 years ± 6 months and at the end 23 years ± 6 months were included in this study. The study used the following tests for verification and assessment of physical fitness: pull-ups, lifting the trunk from the ground, standing long jump seats, running at 1,600 m and overcoming the infantry obstacles. The data were analyzed using statistical programs to calculate the central and dispersion parameters. The difference in the achieved results in the individual variables were evaluated by the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA, while the differences in the system variables by region were identified by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and discriminant analysis. The group membership was determined using profile analysis. Results. There were statistically significant differences in all the tests to evaluate the effectiveness of physical education during a 4-year study, except in the standing long jump test. The best average results in motor capabilities tests, were achieved after two years of study, while in the endurance tests showed the best results achieved at the end of a 4-years studying. Conclusion. The results of overcoming specific tests for the physical abilities of the Military Academy cadets show that the physical education curriculum only slightly improves the development of physical skills of cadets during a 4-year study. The existing program shows the best results in the pull-ups test of the ground troops, and

  3. A pelvic mass with obstructive uropathy in a 4-year old boy

    Majid Malaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis is endemic in middle- East it may present in different sites mostly liver, but children show atypical signs in uncommon sites. A 4 years old boy presents with urinary retention, his imaging demonstrates a 6cm cystic mass displaced and compressed bladder outlet during survey another asymptomatic cyst found in chest but his liver was not involved. Retroperitoneal Cystic Echinococcosis is a rare event especially in children if present with urinary obstruction it may be due to rectum penetration and dislodged to lymphatic drainage head to chest. Cyst growth rapidity rate is 2-3 cm/year as our study.

  4. Changes in astigmatism between the ages of 1 and 4 years: a longitudinal study.

    Abrahamsson, M; Fabian, G.; Sjöstrand, J

    1988-01-01

    Changes in astigmatism during development were studied in 299 infants with astigmatism as they grew from 1 to 4 years of age. All consecutive cases of 1-year-old infants with an astigmatism of 1.0 D or more in at least one eye found at an ophthalmic screening survey were selected for follow-up. The cycloplegic refraction was longitudinally followed at yearly intervals. During development there was no decrease in the degree of hypermetropia, but there was a significant decrease in the incidenc...

  5. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis.

    Patton, Tiffany J; Sentongo, Timothy A; Mak, Grace Z; Kahn, Stacy A

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  6. Pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) infestation of the scalp in a 4-years old infant

    Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARYThe pubic or crab louse (Pthirus pubis), is a parasitic insect spending its entire life on human hair and feeding exclusively on blood. Humans are the only known host of this parasite. Pubic lice usually infest a new host by close contact between individuals, making sexual contacts among adults and parent child interactions the more likely routes of infestation. We report the case of a 4-year old male child, who was complaining from pruritus on the head area and around the eyes for sev...

  7. Myositic Type of Idiopathic Orbital Pseudotumor in a 4-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    Bakan, Selim; Bakan, Ayse Ahsen; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Beker Acay, Mehtap; Gocmez, Ahmet; Elbeyli, Ahmet; Sencer, Serra

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor is a benign, noninfectious, and nonneoplastic disease with unknown cause. It is the third most common orbital disease after thyroid orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative disorder. Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor is extremely rare in pediatric age group and may cause real diagnostic problems. This paper describes a 4-year-old girl who presented with sudden ptosis in the right eye and swollen eyelid. She recovered completely with high-dose steroid therapy. We report clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of orbital myositis, which is a rare subtype of idiopathic orbital pseudotumor in children and needs to be differentiated from other orbital disease especially malignancy. PMID:22719772

  8. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    Yves Herry; Claire Maltais; Katherine Thompson

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418) who attended the program on a full-day basis during the 2000-2001 school year (the inaugural year of the full-day program). The instruments used in t...

  9. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  10. The 4 year stability of psychopathic traits in non-referred youth.

    Frick, Paul J; Kimonis, Eva R; Dandreaux, Danielle M; Farell, Jamie M

    2003-01-01

    One significant limitation in research extending the construct of psychopathy to youth has been the absence of longitudinal studies testing the stability of psychopathic traits prior to adulthood. To begin to address this limitation, the current study estimated the stability of psychopathic traits over a 4 year period in a sample of non-referred children in the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh grades at the first assessment. For parent ratings of psychopathic traits, stability estimates using intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 across 2-4 years, with a stability estimate of 0.93 across all four assessments. There were also distinct trends in the patterns of stability found in the sample. Specifically, children rated as being initially high on these traits were more likely to be rated lower at later assessments than was the case for children rated initially low on these traits. Finally, the child's level of conduct problems, the socioeconomic status of the child's family, and the quality of parenting the child received were the most consistent predictors of stability of psychopathic traits. PMID:14696028

  11. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years.

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children's early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children's responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children's awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children's DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children's early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  12. Summer institute for the teaching of psychology

    Rycek, R.F.; Miller, R.L. [Univ. of Nebraska, Kearney, NE (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This presentation will focus on the development of a summer institute to enhance high school and post-secondary teaching in psychology. The purpose of the institute is to provide an intensive teaching seminar in a specific content area of psychology presented by notable researchers and textbook authors in the field. The goal of the institute is to: (1) update participants in a particular content area, (2) introduce participants to new methods and technologies for teaching the content area at the high school and college level, and (3) provide attendees with a set of curriculum materials including classroom exercises and demonstrations which will allow students to conduct scientific experiments in psychology as well as to relate their findings to real world issues. The actual institute is staffed by at least three nationally known experts in a particular topic area of psychology. Over a five-day period, each expert gives at least three major presentations followed by appropriate breakout session which include demonstrations and discussions. The experts supply lecture outlines and supporting materials for their topics area which participants receive as a part of their learning packet. Participants also have the opportunity to share their teaching experiences and expertise.

  13. Operating Room Technology. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Simpson, Bruce; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary operating room technology education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in operating room technology in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival…

  14. Pulmonary Venous Malformation in a 4- Year-Old Boy: a Case Report

    We report a case of a pulmonary venous malformation in a 4-year-old boy who presented with recurrent pneumonia. A radiograph revealed a right infrahilar mass and a hyperlucent right lung. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a mass containing intensely enhancing areas and multiple phleboliths located in the right lower lobe and encasing the right bronchus and right inferior pulmonary vein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) precisely revealed the mass demarcation. A right lower lobectomy was performed and a pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a venous malformation. To the best of our knowledge, a venous malformation in pulmonary tissue has not been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report a case of a pulmonary venous malformation, with the radiograph, CT, MRI, and blood pool scan findings, along with its pathologic correlation

  15. Timber-Concrete Composite Floor Beams under 4 Years Long-Term Load

    David Yeoh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term behaviour of timber-concrete composite is characterized by the response of its three components (timber, concrete and connection to load, moisture content, temperature and relative humidity of the environment. This paper reports results of a 4-years long-term test on three 8m span laminated veneer lumber (LVL-concrete composite floor beams under service load performed in an indoor, uncontrolled, and unheated environment at the University of Canterbury. The environmental conditions were characterized by either low temperature with high relative humidity or high temperature with low relative humidity, conditions considered to be reasonably severe and presumably close to service class 3 according to Eurocode 5. The mid-span deflections were extrapolated to the end of service life (50 years and compared to span/200 deflection limit, which was exceeded by all beams.

  16. Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up

    Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

  17. LOCAL RECURRENCE OF TUBULOCYSTIC CARCINOMA 4 YEARS AFTER RENAL RESECTION (A CLINICAL OBSERVATION

    M. V. Peters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of a local recurrence of tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC in a 46-year-old man, a relatively good course (the relapse occurred after 4 years, who has been successfully operated on and is being followed up. This disease is a rare renal malignancy and, until recently, it has been referred to as collecting tubular carcinoma. However, this disease has come to be regarded as an independent nosological entity, by taking into account its certain morphological, immunohistohemical, and cytogenetic characteristics, as well as the nature of its course. About 80 TCC cases have been described to date. Further study of this disease and other rare renal malignancies will allow the more accurate elaboration of management tactics for such patients in terms of certain prognostic factors, which calls for a larger number of cases of this disease.

  18. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  19. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  20. Subjective memory complaints in general practice predicts future dementia: a 4-year follow-up study

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Siersma, Volkert Dirk;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many older patients in general practice have subjective memory complaints (SMC); however, not all share this information with their general practitioner (GP). The association between SMC and future cognitive decline or dementia is not clear, especially in a general practice population......-nursing home residents aged 65 years and older consulted their GP in October and November 2002, and, when asked, 177 (24%) reported memory problems, and 50 (6.6%) received a hospital-based dementia diagnosis within the 4-years follow-up. SMC had an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 2.27 for subsequent dementia...... independent predictor for subsequent hospital-based dementia diagnosis. Thus, the GP could consider inquiring for memory complaints to identify vulnerable older patients....

  1. Microperimetric Assessment after Epiretinal Membrane Surgery: 4-Year Follow-Up

    Marco Dal Vecchio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate retinal function using microperimetry in patients affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM and cataract who underwent combined surgery: 4-year follow-up. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients with iERM and age-related cataract underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. At baseline, 90 and 180 days, and 1 and 4 years, we examined retinal mean sensitivity (MS, retinal mean defect (MD, fixation stability, and frequency of microscotomas using MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT were also performed. Results. All patients completed 1-year follow-up, while 23 patients reached last follow-up. Baseline MS and MD (10.48 ± 4.17 and −9.18 ± 4.40 dB significantly changed at one year (12.33 ± 3.66 and −7.49 ± 3.31 dB, p<0.01, at four years (14.18 ± 3.46 and −4.66 ± 2.85, p<0.01, and between one and four years (p<0.01 after surgery. Compared to baseline, CRT and BCVA significantly changed at one year and remained stable at four years. No variations were observed in fixation stability and frequency of microscotomas compared to baseline. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up using microperimetry seems useful to evaluate patients after iERM surgery: retinal sensitivity changes even when BCVA and CRT remain stable.

  2. Microperimetric Assessment after Epiretinal Membrane Surgery: 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Dal Vecchio, Marco; Lavia, Carlo; Nassisi, Marco; Grignolo, Federico M; Fea, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate retinal function using microperimetry in patients affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) and cataract who underwent combined surgery: 4-year follow-up. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients with iERM and age-related cataract underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. At baseline, 90 and 180 days, and 1 and 4 years, we examined retinal mean sensitivity (MS), retinal mean defect (MD), fixation stability, and frequency of microscotomas using MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were also performed. Results. All patients completed 1-year follow-up, while 23 patients reached last follow-up. Baseline MS and MD (10.48 ± 4.17 and -9.18 ± 4.40 dB) significantly changed at one year (12.33 ± 3.66 and -7.49 ± 3.31 dB, p < 0.01), at four years (14.18 ± 3.46 and -4.66 ± 2.85, p < 0.01), and between one and four years (p < 0.01) after surgery. Compared to baseline, CRT and BCVA significantly changed at one year and remained stable at four years. No variations were observed in fixation stability and frequency of microscotomas compared to baseline. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up using microperimetry seems useful to evaluate patients after iERM surgery: retinal sensitivity changes even when BCVA and CRT remain stable. PMID:27088008

  3. Long-term exercise in older adults: 4-year outcomes of music-based multitask training.

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, François R; Fielding, Roger A; Reid, Kieran F; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Prospective controlled evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term exercise to prevent physical decline and reduce falls in old age is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the effects of long-term music-based multitask exercise (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics) on physical function and fall risk in older adults. A 3-year follow-up extension of a 1-year randomized controlled trial (NCT01107288) was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland), in which 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk of falls received a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program. Four years following original trial enrolment, 52 subjects (baseline mean ± SD age, 75 ± 8 years) who (i) have maintained exercise program participation through the 4-year follow-up visit ("long-term intervention group", n = 23) or (ii) have discontinued participation following original trial completion ("control group", n = 29) were studied. They were reassessed in a blind fashion, using the same procedures as at baseline. At 4 years, linear mixed-effects models showed significant gait (gait speed, P = 0.006) and balance (one-legged stance time, P = 0.015) improvements in the long-term intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, long-term intervention subjects did better on Timed Up & Go, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand and handgrip strength tests, than controls (P music-based multitask exercise program is a promising strategy to prevent age-related physical decline in older adults. They also highlight the efficacy of sustained long-term adherence to exercise for falls prevention. PMID:25148876

  4. COST Action D42 "ENVIART" "The Czech Republik": Impact of 4 Years Networking.

    Škrdlantová, M.; Doubravová, K.; Kučerová, L.; Smolík, Jiří; Andělová, Ludmila; Džumbová, Lucie; Veselý, M.; Zmeškal, O.; Dzik, P.

    2010, P 129. ISBN N. [Final Conference 2010 of the COST Action D42 - Impact of the Indoor Environment of the Preservation of Our Moveable Cultural Heritage. Dublin (IE), 07.11.2010-10.11.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : dyed textile * aerosol in library * photographs fading Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Word order and information structure in Czech 3-and 4-year-olds' comprehension.

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2015), s. 237-253. ISSN 0142-7237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26779S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Case marking * grammar comprehension * information structure Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.400, year : 2014

  6. Performance of the SCUBA-2 dry dilution refrigerator: 4 years of operation at the JCMT

    Bintley, Dan; Kuroda, John T.; Starman, Erik G.; Craig, Simon; Holland, Wayne S.

    2012-09-01

    Cryogen free or ‘dry’ dilution refrigerators that integrate a cryocooler such as a two stage pulse tube to replace the conventional liquid helium bath and 1K pot, have become a practical alternative for cooling astronomical detectors to mK temperatures and offer many advantages. SCUBA-2, the new submillimetre camera in operation at the JCMT, on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, was one of the first instruments to use such a fridge design. The dry dilution fridge for SCUBA-2 has now been in service for almost 4 years during commissioning at JCMT. In the most recent astronomical commissioning phase, the dilution fridge was in continuous operation for 10 months with no loss of base temperature or cooling power, cooling the SCUBA-2 detector arrays to below 100mK while maintaining a further 100Kg of enclosure, shields and SQUID amplifiers at 1K. In this paper we review some of the lessons from operating a dry dilution fridge at the JCMT and the necessary changes that have been incorporated. We present the performance of the fridge and discus its role in ensuring the success of SCUBA-2.

  7. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  8. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    J. R. Prins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen.

  9. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation.

    Prins, J R; Van Oven, M W; Helder-Woolderink, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen. PMID:26491585

  10. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue-past reliability-the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access-was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony. PMID:26925718

  11. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  12. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  13. Traumatic ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old boy after blunt chest injury

    Yun Mi Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD resulting from blunt chest injury is a very rare event. The mechanisms of traumatic VSD have been of little concern to dateuntil now, but two dominant theories have been described. In one, the rupture occurs due to acute compression of the heart; in the other, it is due to myocardial infarction of the septum. The clinical symptoms and timing of presentation are variable, so appropriate diagnosis can be difficult or delayed. Closure of traumatic VSD has been based on a combination of heart failure symptoms, hemodynamics, and defect size. Here, we present a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with a traumatic VSD following a car accident. He showed normal cardiac structure at the time of injury, but after 8 days, his repeated echocardiography revealed a VSD. He was successfully treated by surgical closure of the VSD, and has been doing well up to the present. This report suggests that the clinician should pay great close attention to the patients injured by blunt chest trauma, keeping in mind the possibility of cardiac injury.

  14. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  15. Do wavelets really detect non-Gaussianity in the 4-year COBE data?

    Mukherjee, P; Lasenby, A N

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the detection of non-Gaussianity in the 4-year COBE data reported by Pando, Valls-Gabaud & Fang (1998), using a technique based on the discrete wavelet transform. Their analysis was performed on the two DMR faces centred on the North and South Galatic poles respectively, using the Daubechies 4 wavelet basis. We are unable to reproduce the numerical results of Pando et al., but note that the results we present here have been independently verified (Valls-Gabaud, private communication). By calculating unbiassed estimates of the skewness, kurtosis and scale-scale correlation of the wavelet coefficients in all of the available scale domains of the transform, we obtain several detections of non-Gaussianity in the DMR-DSMB map at greater than the 99 per cent confidence level, but these occur mainly on pixel-pixel scales and are therefore not cosmological in origin. Indeed, after removing all multipoles beyond l = 40 from the COBE maps, these detections disappear. We repeat the analysis for the 53...

  16. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    Bukhovets, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.

  17. A 4-Year Longitudinal Study of 555 Patients Treated with Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Rasmussen, Annette; Bloch, Sara B; Fuchs, Josefine; Hansen, Louise Kim Hillerup; Larsen, Michael; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the visual outcome, pattern of discontinuation, ocular complications, and mortality of patients treated with a variable ranibizumab dosing regimen for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for 4 years.......To investigate the visual outcome, pattern of discontinuation, ocular complications, and mortality of patients treated with a variable ranibizumab dosing regimen for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for 4 years....

  18. Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years.

    Bagnato, Francesca; Jeffries, Neal; Richert, Nancy D; Stone, Roger D; Ohayon, Joan M; McFarland, Henry F; Frank, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple sclerosis patients were evaluated for numbers of CELs and BHs. A BH was defined as a hypointense lesion on a T1 pre-contrast image that coincided with a region of high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. A BH was considered as acute (ABH) when it occurred coincidently with the presence of enhancement and as persisting (PBH) when present after the cessation of enhancement. The present study aimed to analyse: (i) the incidence of CELs and new PBHs, and the accumulation of PBHs; (ii) the relationship between the quantity of the CELs in a given month and the likelihood of accumulating PBHs in the subsequent month; and (iii) the relationship between the duration of CELs and PBHs. Pitman's correlation test evaluated the effect of time on either the increase of CELs and new PBHs or the accumulation of PBHs, while a multiple logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationship between progression of time and CELs, and the increase of PBHs in a multivariate model. The relationship between the enhancing lesions duration and the PBHs duration, or the time to revert back to an isointense lesion was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival models. PBHs accumulated (P formation of new PBHs increased in four patients (P or =2 monthly MRIs. The formation of a new PBH was found to be related to CELs activity; however, duration of PBHs is most likely a consequence of the duration of the enhancement. PMID:12821527

  19. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  20. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    Bennerstedt, T.N.O. (TeknoTelje HB, Torhamn (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  1. Unbundling Institutions

    Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the importance of property rights institutions', which protect citizens against expropriation by the government and powerful elites, and contracting institutions', which enable private contracts between citizens. We exploit exogenous variation in both types of institutions driven by colonial history, and document strong first-stage relationships between property rights institutions and the determinants of European colonization (settler mortality and population density bef...

  2. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  3. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  4. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  5. Institutional advantage

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  6. Confucius Institute

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  7. Guide for the preparation of proposals for faculty development projects in energy education, 1980. I. Summer workshops: 4-year college, community college, and 2-year postsecondary technical education teachers. II. Summer workshops: high school teachers. III. In-service workshops: elementary teachers

    1980-01-01

    A program announcement to support Faculty Development Projects in Energy is presented. The project supported will include summer or in-service workshops for groups of teachers conducted by the grantee institution and staffed by faculty or others selected for their appropriate expertise. Eligible organizations include any accredited 4-year college, university, community college, or 2-year postsecondary technical institution.

  8. Institutional upbringing

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring......In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...

  9. Forging Links for the Future: Secondary, Post-Secondary, and Business/Industry Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Northwest Regional Articulation Conference (Farmington, New Mexico, November 8-10, 1990).

    San Juan Coll., Farmington, NM.

    This report is a summary of presentations and recommendations made by representatives of area public school districts, postsecondary institutions, and businesses who met at San Juan College to engage in an extended discussion about the articulation of mathematics and language arts instruction at secondary and postsecondary institutions in…

  10. Intradiscal injection of oxygen-ozone and intraforaminal steroid for the treatment of prolapsed intervertebral disc: 4 years follow up

    Asmita Karnalkar

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Intradiscal injection of O2-O3 and intraforaminal steroid is highly effective in relieving lower back pain in patients with lumbar disc herniation not responding to conservative therapy. There was significant clinical outcome even after 4 years. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3848-3852

  11. Genetic and Environmental Mediation of the Relationship between Language and Nonverbal Impairment in 4-Year-Old Twins

    Viding, Essi; Price, Thomas S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This study of 4-year-old twins investigated the genetic and environmental origins of comorbidity between language impairment and nonverbal ability by testing the extent to which language impairment in one twin predicted nonverbal ability in the co-twin. Impairment of language ability was defined as scores below the 15th percentile on a general…

  12. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  13. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples - association with IVF?

    Kuiper, Derk B.; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Heineman, Maas J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/IC

  14. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  15. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  16. Institutional Economics.

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  17. Evaluation of dose-volume histograms after prostate seed implantation. 4-year experience

    Background and purpose: permanent interstitial brachytherapy by seed implantation is a treatment alternative for low-volume low-risk prostate cancer and a complex interdisciplinary treatment with a learning curve. Dose-volume histograms are used to assess postimplant quality. The authors evaluated their learning curve based on dose-volume histograms and analyzed factors influencing implantation quality. Patients and methods: since 1999, 38 patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were treated at the authors' institution with seed implantation using palladium-103 or iodine-125, initially using the preplan method and later real-time planning. Postimplant CT was performed after 4 weeks. The dose-volume indices D90, V100, V150, the Dmax of pre- and postplans, and the size and position of the volume receiving the prescribed dose (high-dose volume) of the postplans were evaluated. In six patients, postplan imaging both by CT and MRI was used and prostate volumes were compared with preimplant transrectal ultrasound volumes. The first five patients were treated under external supervision. Results: patients were divided into three consecutive groups for analysis of the learning curve (group 1: n = 5 patients treated under external supervision; group 2: n = 13 patients; group 3: n = 20 patients). D90post for the three groups were 79.3%, 74.2%, and 99.9%, the V100post were 78.6%, 73.5%, and 88.2%, respectively. The relationship between high-dose volume and prostate volume showed a similar increase as the D90, while the relationship between high-dose volume lying outside the prostate and prostate volume remained constant. The ratio between prostate volumes from transrectal ultrasound and CT imaging decreased with increasing D90post, while the preplanning D90 and V100 remained constant. The different isotopes used, the method of planning, and the implanted activity per prostate volume did not influence results. Conclusion: a learning curve characterized by an increase in

  18. Collective Bargaining: Its Impact for Institutional Research.

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    Central Michigan University was the first single campus, 4-year institution of higher education in the United States to enter into a collective bargaining agreement with its faculty. This first agreement in 1969 was followed by a multiyear contract for the year 1971-74 which represented the first instance of a second successful contract in a…

  19. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  20. Determining the Effects of Pre-College STEM Contexts on STEM Major Choices in 4-Year Postsecondary Institutions Using Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    Lee, Ahlam

    2013-01-01

    Many STEM studies have focused on traditional learning contexts, such as math- and science-related learning factors, as pre-college learning predictors for STEM major choices in colleges. Few studies have considered a progressive learning activity embedded within STEM contexts. This study chose computer-based learning activities in K-12 math…

  1. CSCAPES Institute

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  2. Institutional Ethnography

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    managerial respondents. This leads to another bias in the study of M&As: an managerial one. These critiques are an important step in pinpointing some of the problematic aspects in the field, which we suggest can be part remedied by institutional ethnography developed by Dorothy Smith and her colleagues. In...... institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it, and...... point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  3. Institutional Investors

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately a....... Practitioner/Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  4. Institutional economics

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  5. Height, infant-feeding practices and cardiovascular functioning among 3 or 4 year old children in three ethnic groups.

    Baranowski, T; Bryan, G T; Harrison, J A; Rassin, D K; Greaves, K A; Baranowski, J H

    1992-05-01

    Barker recently hypothesized that factors affecting prenatal and infant growth are related to adult blood pressure and CVD mortality. Predictions from Barker's hypothesis in regard to infant feeding were tested among a sample of 3 or 4 year old children. The relationship of infant-feeding characteristics (duration of breast-feeding, times of introduction of high fat, high carbohydrate, high potassium foods and table salt) to indicators of cardiovascular functioning (resting blood pressures and heart rates, and heart rate response to graded activity) while controlling for anthropometric (height, sum of seven skinfolds, BMI) and demographic (ethnicity, gender, social status) characteristics revealed that infant-feeding practices were not related to CV functioning in the predicted directions among this sample of 3 or 4 year old children. Furthermore, the positive relationship between height and systolic blood pressure was inconsistent with the Barker hypothesis. PMID:1588357

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influence on Language Impairment in 4-Year-Old Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Twins

    Viding, Essi; Spinath, Frank M.; Price, Thomas S.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: We investigated the aetiology of language impairment in 579 four-year-old twins with low language performance and their co-twins, members of 160 MZ twin pairs, 131 same-sex DZ pairs and 102 opposite-sex DZ pairs. Methods: Language impairment in 4-year-olds was defined by scores below the 15th percentile on a general factor derived from…

  7. Retsmedicinsk Institut

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers

    1996-01-01

    Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er statsobd......Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er...... institut. De bygningsmæssige forhold er utidssvarende og medfører arbejdsmæssige og retssikkerhedsmæssige problemer, En snarlig udflytning er derfor nødvendig....

  8. Unimagined Institutions

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and...... methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  9. Institution Morphisms

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  10. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of

  11. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

    Alok Kumar; Satish Sharma,; Narayan Ingole; Nitin Gangane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra) during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of...

  12. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C; Cesar G Victora

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (63...

  13. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Methods: Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. Results: The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of a...

  14. The vertical cloud structure of the West African monsoon: a 4 year climatology using CloudSat and CALIPSO

    Stein, Thorwald H. M.; D. J. Parker; J. Delanoë; Dixon, N. S.; Hogan, Robin J.; Knippertz, P; Maidment, Ross I.; J. H. Marsham

    2011-01-01

    The West African summer monsoon (WAM) is an important driver of the global climate and locally provides most of the annual rainfall. A solid climatological knowledge of the complex vertical cloud structure is invaluable to forecasters and modelers to improve the understanding of the WAM. In this paper, 4 years of data from the CloudSat profiling radar and CALIPSO are used to create a composite zonal mean vertical cloud and precipitation structure for the WAM. For the first time, the near-coin...

  15. Market institutions

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets...

  16. INSTITUTIONS MATTER

    .

    1994-01-01

    Successful development policy entails an understanding of the dynamics of economic change if the policies pursued are to have the desired consequences. And a dynamic model of economic change entails as an integral part of that model analysis of the polity since it is the polity that specifies and enforces the formal rules. While we are still some distance from having such a model the structure that is evolving in the new institutional economics, even though incomplete, suggests radically diff...

  17. Measuring institutions

    Farayi Gwenhamo; Johannes W. Fedderke; Raphael de Kadt

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new dataset of indicators of political freedom, property rights and political instability for Zimbabwe for the period 1946 to 2005. The dataset is constructed by systematically coding the three concepts of political freedom, property rights and political instability along a multitude of dimensions. The lengthy time coverage of the dataset allows country-specific econometric analysis to evaluate generalizing propositions about the effects of political institutions on ec...

  18. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  19. Dental pain and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Goiânia

    Marília Galvão Chaves Lemes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of dental pain and associated factors in 2-4-year-old children in Goiânia (GO. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using home interviews with parents or guardians and anthropometric measures. The sample consisted of 385 children from 2 to 4 years old. The variables analyzed were: dental pain sometime in their lives, and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors (health condition, diet, nutritional status and behavior. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed, based on a hierarchical model for risk assessment, considering the sample weights. RESULTS: Dental pain prevalence was 9.9% (95%CI 7.4 - 13.1. After adjustment for other variables, children whose mothers had low education level and those who regularly consumed artificial powder juice containing sugar were more likely to have dental pain (OR = 3.03 and 2.15, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that one in ten children had dental pain, and the prevalence was associated with low education level of the mother and the regular consumption of artificial powder juice.

  20. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV1 and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids on prevalence ofallergic diseases among 4-year-old children.

    Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Chen, Chi-Jen; Ito, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoichi M; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous chemicals extremely resistant and widespread throughout the environment, frequently being detected in human blood samples. Animal studies have revealed that exposure to PFAAs results in immunotoxicity. However, the association between PFAAs, especially long-chain PFAAs, and allergies in humans is not well established. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAAs is associated with allergic diseases among 4-year-old children in a large-scale prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 1558 mother-child pairs were included in this study and prenatal levels of eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples obtained between 28 and 32weeks of pregnancy by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Participant demographic and characteristic information were obtained from self-administered pre- and postnatal questionnaires and medical birth records. Infant allergies were assessed using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three questionnaire, which was administered 4years post-delivery. Symptoms included eczema, wheezing and rhinoconjunctivitis with a prevalence of 19.0%, 18.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Associations of PFAA quartiles with allergic outcomes were examined using logistic models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile (Q4 vs. Q1) for total allergic diseases (including at least one allergic outcome) significantly decreased for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDa) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.621; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.454, 0.847) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.712; 95% CI: 0.524, 0.966) in all children. We obtained similar results when examining the association between PFAAs and eczema. The adjusted OR (Q4 vs. Q1) for wheezing in relation to higher maternal PFHxS levels was 0.728 (95% CI: 0.497, 1.06) in all children. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to long

  2. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    Kramer, Christiane [University of California, Irvine; Trumbore, Susan E. [University of California, Irvine; Froberg, Mats J. [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zhang, Dachun [University of California, Irvine; Xu, Xiamei [University of California, Irvine; Santos, Guaciara [University of California, Irvine; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  3. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case - The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI (TESA-ICSI in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany was used. Conclusion - The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done.

  4. A Successfully Treated Metastatic Choriocarcinoma Coexistent With Pregnancy: A Case Report of a 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Yu, Panxi; Diao, Wenqi; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-05-01

    Gestational choriocarcinoma ended with a successful parturition is extremely rare, especially in cases where multiple metastases occurred.A 29-year-old Chinese primigravida was admitted with vaginal bleeding at 32 gestational week, and diagnosed with gestational choriocarcinoma with vaginal, pulmonary, and cerebral metastasis after pathological, and imaging examination. At 33 gestational week, a healthy infant was delivered by cesarean section. Although no evidence of choriocarcinoma or any other forms of gestational trophoblastic diseases was found in the placenta and uterine curettages, the patient was given 7 cycles of postpartum chemotherapy. Her serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level fell to the normal range, and the metastatic lesions reduced. The baby is still free from diseases, and the patient reports no clinical manifestation 4 years after the hospital discharge.Despite its rapid metastases and complications, gestational choriocarcinoma still can be successfully treated by postpartum chemotherapy with the least delay. PMID:27227917

  5. Mechanical Complication with Broviac Repair Kit in a 4-Year-Old Boy with MEN 2a

    Sergio B. Sesia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mechanical complications in the use of indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs such as the Broviac catheter (BC include kinking, occlusion, dislocation or leaking. We report on a mechanical complication after using a repair kit for the BC. Method. A 4-year old boy, suffering from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN 2a, intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung's disease, and short bowel syndrome, required a BC for home parenteral nutrition. Result. Due to recurrent leakage of the BC, 5 subsequent repairs were necessary within seven months. During one repair a metallic tube belonging to the repair kit was found to have migrated proximally to the skin entrance level within the BC and requiring surgical removal. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on such a serious complication using a BC and its repair kit. The proximal migration of this metallic tube constitutes a distinct theoretical risk of endothoracic foreign body embolization.

  6. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  7. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion. PMID:27217648

  8. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    Boot Annemieke M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children.

  9. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    Hu, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-lag study des

  10. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  11. Monitoring dioxins and furans in subjects living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator after 4 years of operation

    Bocio, A.; Domingo, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In 1996, construction of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) was initiated in Constanti, Tarragona, Spain. Because this facility was the first, and up to date, the only HWI in Spain, the concern about its potential environmental impact and health risks has been considerable in the public opinion. Regular operations in the facility started in 1999. In order to establish the potential health risks of PCDD/PCDF exposure on the general population living near the new HWI, a biological monitoring program was designed. Samples of blood, breast milk and adipose tissue were obtained during the construction period of the HWI from subjects living in the neighborhood of the facility and analyzed for baseline levels of PCDD/PCDF. Moreover, taking into account that food is the main route of exposure to PCDD/Fs, the assessment of the dietary intake of these pollutants by the population living in the area under potential influence of the HWI was also included in the monitoring program. Approximately 4 years after the new HWI began regular operations (2003), biological samples from individuals living in the same area were again collected, and PCDD/PCDF concentrations determined. The update of PCDD/PCDF intake from food is essential in order to establish clearly if any potential increase in the levels of these compounds in biological tissues of individuals living in the area under influence of the HWI could be due to environmental emissions of PCDD/PCDF by the facility or to increases of the levels of these pollutants in food. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in biological human samples from subjects living in the vicinity of the HWI. The dietary intake of these compounds by the population in this area, after 4 years of regular operations, is also shown. Results were compared with baseline PCDD/PCDF levels obtained in 1999.

  12. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  13. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  14. Institute news

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  15. On the Cutting Edge: Movements and Institutional Examples of Technological Disruption

    Leon, Marjorie Roth; Price, Todd Alan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes technological disruptions in higher education that pose challenges and offer opportunities to college and university students, faculty, and administrators. It provides examples of innovative responses being explored by 2-year and 4-year higher education institutions.

  16. Creation of security engineering programs by the Southwest Surety Institute

    Romero, Van D.; Rogers, Bradley; Winfree, Tim; Walsh, Dan; Garcia, Mary Lynn

    1998-12-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute includes Arizona State University (ASU), Louisiana State University (LSU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The universities currently offer a full spectrum of post-secondary programs in security system design and evaluation, including an undergraduate minor, a graduate program, and continuing education programs. The programs are based on the methodology developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past 25 years to protect critical nuclear assets. The programs combine basic concepts and principles from business, criminal justice, and technology to create an integrated performance-based approach to security system design and analysis. Existing university capabilities in criminal justice (NMSU), explosives testing and technology (NM Tech and LSU), and engineering technology (ASU) are leveraged to provide unique science-based programs that will emphasize the use of performance measures and computer analysis tools to prove the effectiveness of proposed systems in the design phase. Facility managers may then balance increased protection against the cost of implementation and risk mitigation, thereby enabling effective business decisions. Applications expected to benefit from these programs include corrections, law enforcement, counter-terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, financial and medical care fraud, industrial security, and border security.

  17. Development of a distance education program by a Land-Grant University augments the 2-year to 4-year STEM pipeline and increases diversity in STEM.

    Jennifer C Drew

    Full Text Available Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate's degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor's degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states' highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university's life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students' experiences are similar to the on-campus students' experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point

  18. The Education and Public Outreach Plan for UCLA's Institute for Planets and Exoplanets (iPLEX)

    Glesener, G. B.; Jewitt, D. C.; Curren, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing the number and diversity of students pursuing and completing STEM education is a crucial part of UCLA's Institute for Planets and Exoplanets (iPLEX)'s goal of promoting research on planetary systems around the sun and other stars. Cultivating students' interest and success in STEM subject areas from K-12 to the bachelor's degree is an important factor in student retention. As they pursue a bachelor's degree in a STEM major, many become discouraged and decide not to finish with this type of degree; women, underrepresented minorities (URM), and students of low socioeconomic status (SES) have the highest attrition rates (Bayer 2010). Focusing primarily on students at the high school and community college levels, our education and public outreach plan utilizes the multidisciplinary science of astrobiology as a resource for building stronger learning environments in STEM education. By implementing formal education programs that encourage and foster student learning in STEM fields, we intend to (1) increase the efficiency with which students move from high school into STEM-related undergraduate programs, (2) improve the corresponding transfer rate from community colleges to advanced degree programs in STEM at the 4-year university level, and (3) create more opportunities for students to become involved in meaningful research as they progress in their studies. To ensure the success of these programs, we will partner with teachers from local high schools and community colleges, and UCLA's Center X. By being geographically located in Los Angeles County, having one of the highest URM populations in the United States (US Census Bureau, 2007), and partnering with Hampton University (HU) in Virginia, whose student body is 91% African American, we are in a position to make a large impact on diversity. To further ensure the success of our EPO, an independent evaluator will measure and track the following program objectives: increase (1) post-secondary STEM enrollment

  19. Integrating across episodes: Investigating the long-term accessibility of self-derived knowledge in 4-year-old children.

    Varga, Nicole L; Stewart, Rebekah A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been investigated previously, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The current research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, although performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest that knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays even in a population where this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259

  20. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Profile of Oral Narrative Ability for 4-year-old children.

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T; Boyd, Lynda

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated if the story retelling and comprehension task Ana Gets Lost, that is frequently used with school-aged children, has clinical utility with a preschool population. The study also assessed the task's concurrent and predictive validity with norm-referenced tests of language performance. A total of 92 typically-developing 4-year-old children participated. After 12 months, 57 children were available for a follow-up session. At each session, children listened twice to the story while looking at the pictures and then retold the story without the use of pictures. After the first exposure the children were asked comprehension questions to assess their oral narrative comprehension. Children's performance was analysed on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, morphosyntax, and verbal productivity to provide a Profile of Oral Narrative Ability (PONA). Results showed normal distribution of some of the measures and acceptable concurrent and predictive correlations with two norm-referenced measures of language ability. Although the results indicate the potential usefulness of this tool with preschool children, further research should investigate its potential as a screening measure of oral narrative performance. PMID:22204368

  1. Towards a research informed teaching experience within a diagnostic radiography curriculum: The level 4 (year 1) student holistic experience

    Aim: This article discusses the level 4 (year 1) diagnostic radiography student holistic experience of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) at the University of Salford, UK. The purpose of RiTe is to expose undergraduate radiography students to more formal research, as part of their normal teaching and learning experience. Method: A grounded theory approach was adopted and a focus group with eight level 4 students was used to explore and evaluate the student experience and perception of RiTe. Results: Open coding defined categories and sub-categories, with axial and selective coding used to interrogate and explore the relationships between the focus group data. A number of insights were gained into the student holistic experience of RiTe. The issue of leadership for level 4 students was also identified. Discussion: The focus group participants found RiTe to be an extremely positive learning experience. RiTe also facilitated their translation of learnt theory into clinical skills knowledge alongside their understanding of and desire to participate in more research as undergraduates. The article also highlights areas for future research.

  2. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  3. Influence of different approaches to training of main movements on physical fitness of 4 years boys with various motor asymmetry

    Galamandjuk L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of effectiveness of different training main movements’ methods in physical fitness improvement of boys with different manual motor asymmetry. Material: 50 boys with ambidexterity (4 years old age took part in the research. There was used the following: oral questioning, dynamometry and methodic by M.M. Bezrukikh. Results: usage of one of variants of “symmetric” approach determines specificities of motor qualities’ development: among boys with ambidexterity in motor asymmetry variant “first with passive hand, then with active one” and variant “first with active and then with passive hand” ensure improvement of all tested qualities (except flexibility and quickness. Boys with right orientation of manual motor asymmetry demonstrated improvement of all qualities (except coordination in ballistic movements for accuracy, fulfilled by right arm in the first variant. In the second variant all qualities (except already mentioned quickness are improved. Conclusions: with any orientation of manual motor asymmetry the necessary condition of high activity and successful child’s training is development of interaction between cerebral semi-spheres. Coordinated movements by left and right arms strengthen such interaction. That is why it is purposeful to consequently fulfill every movement by every arm and by two arms simultaneously.

  4. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

    Alok Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of total sero-reactive donors. In 2009, only 10 cases were sero-reactive while in 2012, 36 cases were sero-reactive for Hepatitis C infection. Conclusions: Hepatitis C infection among blood donors are in rising trends in this study area. Voluntary donors are safer than replacement donors as they have very low sero-prevalence. As these blood donors represent the highly selective community of a general population in most of the countries. So the actual sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection may be more in the general population. Promoting HCV screening, voluntary blood donation, diagnosis and treatment among blood donors are very important measures to control the transmission of HCV infection, decrease sero-reactive cases and ensure safe blood collection.

  5. Changes in White college students' color-blind racial ideology over 4 years: do diversity experiences make a difference?

    Neville, Helen A; Poteat, V Paul; Lewis, Jioni A; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2014-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we explored how White students' (N = 857) color-blind racial ideology (CBRI; i.e., beliefs that serve to deny, minimize, and/or distort the existence of racism) changed over time and the factors associated with these patterns of change. Specifically, we investigated whether gender, diversity attitudes (i.e., openness to diversity and interest in social issues), and college diversity experiences (i.e., diversity-related courses/activities and close interracial friendships) predicted patterns of CBRI change. Findings indicated that gender and diversity attitudes were related to initial levels of CBRI, such that women and students who were more open to diversity issues at the beginning of college were more likely to report lower levels of CBRI; gender was also related to a greater decrease in CBRI changes over the college experience. Furthermore, college diversity experiences predicted changes in CBRI over time, such that students who completed a greater number of diversity courses and activities and those who had a greater number of close Black friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over their 4 years in college; interestingly, students who reported having no Latino friends compared with having some close Latino friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over time. PMID:24635589

  6. Kidney biopsy proved diagnosis of renal disorders in a tertiary care hospital: sharing a 4 years experience

    Objective: To evaluate outcome of renal biopsies in patients at a nephrology unit of a tertiary care centre at Rawalpindi over a period of 4 years. Study Design: Retrospective and cross sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Nephrology, Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from 2008-2012 Methodology: The study was based upon the data of patients with different renal pathologies who underwent kidney biopsy for establishment of diagnosis. All the patients who underwent successful kidney biopsy from 2008-2012 in our hospital were included in the study. Results: A total of 235 patients underwent successful kidney biopsy (with conclusive pathological findings). Out of these, 170 (72%) were males and 65 (28%) were females and the age ranged from 06 years to 55 years, with mean age of 28.6 years among males and 31.5 years among females. Out of these 100 (42.6%) patients had mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, 65 (27.6%) had membranous nephropathy, 37 (15.7%) patients had focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, 11 (4.7%) patients had IgA glomerulopathy, 7 (3%) had minimal change nephropathy whereas 15 (6.4%) patients had other causes of glomerulonephritis (including systemic illnesses, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis). Conclusion: The most common biopsy proved diagnosis in the patients with different renal disorders was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and the least common was minimal change nephropathy. (author)

  7. Integrating research-informed teaching within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum: Results from a level 4 (year 1) student cohort

    Aim: Previously we reported on focus group research which explored the level 4 (year 1) student experience of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe). This article discusses follow up research with a new student cohort. Method: An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 4 student cohort experience of RiTe. A Multi-method approach was taken to analyse the data, identify themes and link questionnaire findings with those from the focus group research. Results: A 54% (27/50) response rate was achieved. Students found RiTe to be a positive experience and there was strong agreement that it had increased their knowledge of research methods and understanding of key areas of practice. Conclusions: Results from the questionnaire supported the focus group findings. One of the key factors in the success of RiTe was that of collaborative learning. This was achieved by the students undertaking an inquiry and situated approach to learning within small groups

  8. Health risk factors and the incidence of hypertension: 4-year prospective findings from a national cohort of 60 569 Thai Open University students

    Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Adrian C. Sleigh1.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the impact of a number of demographic, biological, behavioural and lifestyle health risk factors on the incidence of hypertension in Thailand over a 4-year period. Design A 4-year prospective study of health risk factors and their effects on the incidence of hypertension in a national Thai Cohort Study from 2005 to 2009. Setting As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular dise...

  9. Vertebroplasty as treatment of aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: up to 4 years of follow-up

    Guarnieri, G.; Ambrosanio, G.; Vassallo, P.; Galasso, R.; Lavanga, A.; Izzo, R.; Muto, M. [AORNA Cardarelli, Neuroradiology Service, Naples (Italy); Pezzullo, M.G. [Seconda Universita degli studi di Napoli - SUN, Radiology Service, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    This study aimed to illustrate the validity of the treatment with vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with aggressive or symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (VH) with or without epidural extension. From January 2003 to December 2007, 24 consecutive patients have been treated with VP, for a total of 36 vertebral bodies affected by VH: two cervical, ten dorsal, 24 lumbar. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuous medical medication; four of 24 patients also presented aggressive magnetic resonance features of the vertebral lesion and two patients showed also epidural extension. A unipedicular approach has been performed in 16 patients; a bipedicular approach has been performed in six, while for the cervical spine an anterior-lateral approach with manual dislocation of the carotid axis has always been performed. Bone biopsy was never done. All procedures have been carried out with local anesthesia, except for the treatment of the cervical hemangiomas which has always been performed under general anesthesia. Four vertebral bodies in the same session have been treated in one case. Results have been evaluated with the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index methods. In all the patients, in the following 24-72 h, a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage has been observed in four patients, without any onset of clinical radicular syndrome due to epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up until 4 years has been performed in 12 patients and it showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain. Percutaneous treatment with VP for aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas even with epidural extension is a valuable, mini-invasive, and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of fracture of a vertebral body adjacent or distant to the one treated. (orig.)

  10. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  11. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis: A 4-Year Single-Center Experience.

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN).Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes.Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula.GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  12. Incidence of malaria and efficacy of combination antimalarial therapies over 4 years in an urban cohort of Ugandan children.

    Tamara D Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination therapies are now recommended to treat uncomplicated malaria. We used a longitudinal design to assess the incidence of malaria and compare the efficacies of 3 combination regimens in Kampala, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children aged 1-10 years were enrolled from randomly selected households in 2004-05 and 2007, and were followed at least monthly through 2008. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs were provided in 2006. Children were randomized upon their first episode, and then treated for all episodes of uncomplicated malaria with amodiaquine/sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ/SP, artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ, or artemether/lumefantrine (AL. Risks of parasitological failure were determined for each episode of uncomplicated malaria and clinical parameters were followed. A total of 690 children experienced 1464 episodes of malaria. 96% of these episodes were uncomplicated malaria and treated with study drugs; 94% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The rank order of treatment efficacy was AL > AS/AQ > AQ/SP. Failure rates increased over time for AQ/SP, but not the artemisinin-based regimens. Over the 4-year course of the study the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia decreased from 11.8% to 1.4%, the incidence of malaria decreased from 1.55 to 0.32 per person year, and the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <10 gm/dL decreased from 5.9% to 1.0%. No episodes of severe malaria (based on WHO criteria and no deaths were seen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With ready access to combination therapies and distribution of ITNs, responses were excellent for artemisinin-containing regimens, severe malaria was not seen, and the incidence of malaria and prevalence of parasitemia and anemia decreased steadily over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org ISRCTN37517549.

  13. Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: A 4-year experience

    A K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: India has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB, although there is little data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Although MDR-TB has existed for long time in India, very few diagnostic laboratories are well-equipped to test drug sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB, first-line drug resistance patterns and its changing trends in northern India in the 4 years. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2007 to December 2010. Microscopy, culture by Bactec460 and p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP test was performed to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb complex (MTBC. Drug sensitivity testing (DST was performed by 1% proportional method (Bactec460 for four drugs: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. Various clinical and demographical profiles were evaluated to analyse risk factors for development of drug resistance. Results: We found the overall prevalence rate of MDR-TB to be 38.8%, increasing from 36.4% in 2007 to 40.8% in 2010. we found that the prevalence of MDR-TB in new and previously treated cases was 29.1% and 43.3% ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. The increasing trend of MDR-TB was more likely in pulmonary TB when compared with extra-pulmonary TB ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. Conclusions: we found a high prevalence (38.8% of MDR-TB both in new cases (29.1% and previously treated cases (43.3%.This study strongly highlights the need to make strategies for testing, surveillance, monitoring and management of such drug-resistant cases.

  14. National pathfinder survey on children's oral health in Italy: pattern and severity of caries disease in 4-year-olds.

    Campus, G; Solinas, G; Strohmenger, L; Cagetti, M G; Senna, A; Minelli, L; Majori, S; Montagna, M T; Reali, D; Castiglia, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dental health status of Italian 4-year-olds in 2004/2005 and analyzes the association between caries in preschool children and some background characteristics in children and parents. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. 5,538 subjects were examined. Information on the children's and their parents' social, behavioral, ethnic and demographic status was obtained through a series of closed questions. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between caries and background characteristics. The probability of being an extra zero for the dmfs index was estimated via the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB). 78.4% (95% CI = 77.2-79.6) of the children were caries-free. The national mean dmfs index was 1.36 (95% CI = 1.15-1.57), ranging from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03-1.42) in the Italian North-East to 1.73 (95% CI = 0.83-2.63) in the South section. Significant bivariate associations between caries experience and risk factors were observed for parents' nationality (not Italian vs. Italian: p preterm birth (yes vs. no: p = 0.011), prolonged breastfeeding (13 months: p = 0.038) and early tooth eruption (fathers with a high educational level showed a probability of being an extra zero of 0.22. The results suggest a need to plan preventive programs to reduce oral health disparities among Italian preschool children, based on educational intervention with parents and children concerning oral health and caries prevention. PMID:19365120

  15. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  16. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education – a 4-year follow-up study

    Thomas Rotthoff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods: We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE on basic clinical skills (n=26, (b OSCE on communication skills (n=21, and (c peer feedback (n=18. The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results: Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively. Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies.

  17. Vertebroplasty as treatment of aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: up to 4 years of follow-up

    This study aimed to illustrate the validity of the treatment with vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with aggressive or symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (VH) with or without epidural extension. From January 2003 to December 2007, 24 consecutive patients have been treated with VP, for a total of 36 vertebral bodies affected by VH: two cervical, ten dorsal, 24 lumbar. All the patients complained of a pain syndrome resistant to continuous medical medication; four of 24 patients also presented aggressive magnetic resonance features of the vertebral lesion and two patients showed also epidural extension. A unipedicular approach has been performed in 16 patients; a bipedicular approach has been performed in six, while for the cervical spine an anterior-lateral approach with manual dislocation of the carotid axis has always been performed. Bone biopsy was never done. All procedures have been carried out with local anesthesia, except for the treatment of the cervical hemangiomas which has always been performed under general anesthesia. Four vertebral bodies in the same session have been treated in one case. Results have been evaluated with the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index methods. In all the patients, in the following 24-72 h, a successful outcome has been observed with a complete resolution of pain symptom. Extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage has been observed in four patients, without any onset of clinical radicular syndrome due to epidural diffusion. Clinical and radiological follow-up until 4 years has been performed in 12 patients and it showed stability of the treatment and absence of pain. Percutaneous treatment with VP for aggressive and symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas even with epidural extension is a valuable, mini-invasive, and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of the painful vertebral symptoms without findings of fracture of a vertebral body adjacent or distant to the one treated. (orig.)

  18. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  19. Triple pelvic osteotomy in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using a single anterolateral incision: a 4-year review.

    Conroy, Eimear

    2010-07-01

    Femoral head incongruency at skeletal maturity is associated with the development of osteoarthritis in early adulthood. Containment of the femoral head provides a larger surface area for remodelling of the collapsed femoral head and the development of spherical congruency. Triple pelvic osteotomy has a role to play in Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease by improving femoral head containment and preventing subluxation. This is traditionally a two-incision approach with significant associated morbidity. In our unit we perform triple osteotomies through a single anterolateral incision. To retrospectively review the clinical and radiographic outcome of children who had triple osteotomies performed through a single incision over a 4-year period. In our unit from 2003 to 2006 we performed eight triple osteotomies through a single incision in children aged between 6 and 12 years with Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease. The procedure was performed through a single anterolateral incision made beneath the middle of the iliac crest and carried forward according to Salter\\'s osteotomy. Image intensification was used to confirm iliac, pubic and ischial cuts. After performing a standard Salter\\'s osteotomy the acetabular fragment was free to rotate anteriorly and laterally. None of the children were casted and all were allowed immediate mobilization nonweight bearing with crutches for 6 weeks. Clinical results and hip function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the modified Harris hip score. The average length of hospital stay was 4.7 days. None of the children had a nonunion. The centre edge angle of Wiberg was measured on all preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. In all our patients there was an improvement in the centre edge angle of Wiberg and in the modified Harris hip score. The preoperative modified Harris hip scores ranged from 38 to 60 and postoperatively ranged from 77 to 92. The preoperative centre edge angle of Wiberg ranged

  20. Evaluation of 4 years of continuous δ13C(CO2) data using a moving Keeling plot method

    Vardag, Sanam Noreen; Hammer, Samuel; Levin, Ingeborg

    2016-07-01

    Different carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters can be distinguished by their carbon isotope ratios. Therefore measurements of atmospheric δ13C(CO2) and CO2 concentration contain information on the CO2 source mix in the catchment area of an atmospheric measurement site. This information may be illustratively presented as the mean isotopic source signature. Recently an increasing number of continuous measurements of δ13C(CO2) and CO2 have become available, opening the door to the quantification of CO2 shares from different sources at high temporal resolution. Here, we present a method to compute the CO2 source signature (δS) continuously and evaluate our result using model data from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. Only when we restrict the analysis to situations which fulfill the basic assumptions of the Keeling plot method does our approach provide correct results with minimal biases in δS. On average, this bias is 0.2 ‰ with an interquartile range of about 1.2 ‰ for hourly model data. As a consequence of applying the required strict filter criteria, 85 % of the data points - mainly daytime values - need to be discarded. Applying the method to a 4-year dataset of CO2 and δ13C(CO2) measured in Heidelberg, Germany, yields a distinct seasonal cycle of δS. Disentangling this seasonal source signature into shares of source components is, however, only possible if the isotopic end members of these sources - i.e., the biosphere, δbio, and the fuel mix, δF - are known. From the mean source signature record in 2012, δbio could be reliably estimated only for summer to (-25.0 ± 1.0) ‰ and δF only for winter to (-32.5 ± 2.5) ‰. As the isotopic end members δbio and δF were shown to change over the season, no year-round estimation of the fossil fuel or biosphere share is possible from the measured mean source signature record without additional information from emission inventories or other tracer measurements.

  1. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infantsage groups tested (infants=4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  2. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the mos...

  3. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change

    Koene, B.A.S.; Ansari, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institutionalizatio...

  4. The Search for Meaningful e-Learning at Canadian Universities: A Multi-Institutional Research Study

    Vincent Salyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While e-learning is now characterized by a past and trends within that past, there continues to be uncertainty about how e-learning is defined and conceptualized, whether or not we like e-learning, and whether or not it is as meaningful to us as face to face learning. The purpose of this study was to document the e-learning perceptions of students at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Key components of e-learning courses including ease of navigation, course design, resource availability, and adequacy of e-learning supports and their impact on the student learning experience were also evaluated. Based on a survey of students (n= 1,377 as well as their participation in focus groups, the following are presented as important findings: the majority of students studying in e-learning courses at the three institutions represented in the study were women; ease of navigation, course design, and previous experience with e-learning consistently demonstrated a statistically significant predictive capacity for positive e-learning experiences; and students expressed less preference for e-learning instructional strategies than their faculty. Study findings hold implications for e-learning faculty, instructional designers, and administrators at institutions of higher education in Canada and elsewhere where e-learning is part of the institutional mandate. Additionally, further research into student perceptions of and experiences with e-learning is recommended.

  5. Institutional Priority for Diversity at Christian Institutions

    Paredes-Collins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This evaluative study explored the relationship between institutional priority for diversity and minority enrollment at four schools within the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, a consortium of Christian institutions. This institutional evaluation utilized public resources in order to gather descriptive data on minority enrollment…

  6. Institute Study Report

    Whitaker, Ann; Steadman, Jackie; Little, Sally; Underwood, Debra; Blackman, Mack; Simonds, Judy

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the MSFC working group on Institutes in 1995 on the structure, organization and business arrangements of Institutes at a time when the agency was considering establishing science institutes. Thirteen institutes, ten science centers associated with the state of Georgia, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and IIT Research Institute (IITRI), and general data on failed institutes were utilized to form this report. The report covers the working group's findings on institute mission, structure, director, board of directors/advisors, the working environment, research arrangements, intellectual property rights, business management, institute funding, and metrics.

  7. Post-Secondary Educational Attainment of Immigrant and Native Youth

    Keller, Ursula; Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2008-01-01

    We examine immigrant generation differences in college attendance and college type among youth ages 18 through 26 who have graduated from a U.S. high school. Results indicate that first- and second-generation immigrants are significantly more likely to attend college than their third-plus generation counterparts of similar race/ethnicity,…

  8. Impediments to Increasing Diversity in Post-Secondary Education

    Johnson, Carol Siri

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity in the financial aid process and the movement of available financial aid up the economic scale, poor people and minorities have less access to college, including engineering programs. Some impediments are lack of access to knowledge about college, increasing complexity and up-front costs in the application process…

  9. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-A. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the second of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for two of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 197 tasks included in these two duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  10. Industrial Maintenance, Volume I. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the first of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains two sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of the occupational…

  11. Industrial Maintenance, Volume III. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the fourth of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains three sections and appendixes. Section 4 provides suggested methods of structuring the curriculum. Suggested ways of recording and documenting student progress are presented in section 5. Section 6 contains…

  12. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  13. Radio and TV Repair. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Smith, Pamela E.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary radio and television repair education programs in Georgia. Its aim is to provide for development of entry level skills in radio and television repair in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival…

  14. Epistemological Development and Critical Thinking in Post-Secondary

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Using Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, this study explores to what extent epistemological development is a factor in critical thinking performance and learning in reading and writing among a diverse group of six adult learners. Analysis of a developmental interview, a summative assessment and participant surveys indicated that learners…

  15. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  16. Measurement and Evaluation in Post-Secondary ESL

    Ekbatani, Glayol V

    2010-01-01

    Practical and concise, this introductory text for language teaching professionals is a guide to ESL assessment and to fulfilling the testing component of TESOL programs in the U.S. and around the world

  17. Library resource sharing in British Columbia post-secondary libraries

    Stuart-Stubbs, Basil

    1992-01-01

    Objective of Study, from the Executive Summary: To identify and evaluate the key components that facilitate or restrict resource sharing of library collections and other information resources among B.C. libraries. A primary goal is to determine what can be done to extend resource sharing by removing barriers and improving those elements that affect the quantity and quality of services. Information is to be collected about current policies and practices, cost and related financial require...

  18. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the most significant element that constitutes the visual identity of an institution. While forming architectural and interior architectural planning of institutions, establishing places that will clearly reşect the corporate identity is gaining importance. In the perception of visual identity of institutions, planning elements such as; colour, texture, material and form are more significant than others.

  19. Maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum and emotional/behavioural difficulties in children: results from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Mensah, Fiona; Giallo, Rebecca; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on women's mental health in the perinatal period and the subsequent impacts on children. Comparatively, we know much less about maternal depression at later time points and the potential implications for child mental health. The objective of this paper was to explore the association between maternal depression and child emotional/behavioural difficulties at 4 years postpartum, taking into account earlier episodes of perinatal depression. The Maternal Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,507 nulliparous women. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum and again at 4 years postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum were associated with significantly increased odds of child emotional/behavioural difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.21-5.43). This remained significant after adjusting for earlier episodes of perinatal depression and socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 2.07, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.63). We also observed a robust association between child difficulties at age 4 and measures of socio-economic disadvantage. Our findings suggest a pressing need to rethink current paradigms of maternal health surveillance and extend mental health surveillance and support to at least 4 years postpartum. PMID:26271281

  20. A STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF SOIL CARBON DENSITY FRACTIONS FOLLOWING 4 YEARS OF CONTINUOUS CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURE IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...

  1. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample…

  2. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with less optimal neurological condition in 4-year-old singletons, in vitro fertilization itself is not

    Schendelaar, P.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Heineman, M. J.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Seggers, Jorien; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedures required for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection or the combination of both, affect the neurological outcome of 4-year-old singletons? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure and

  3. What are Institutional Logics

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well as...... change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore and...

  4. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself by...... forming firms capable of expanding internationally. At the level of subsidiaries as providing institutional back up for these firms' abilities to fight for survival and growth within the frame of rivalling subsidiaries of the MNC. The article discusses at these two levels the comparative institutional...

  5. Elites and institutional persistence

    Robinson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Particular sets of institutions, once they become established in a society, have a strong tendency to persist. In this paper I argue that understanding how elites form and reproduce is key to understanding the persistence of institutions over time. I illustrate this idea with a simple political economy theory of institutions and through examples from Liberia, the US, South Africa and Germany I show how elites influence institutions. To change institutions requires having an understanding of h...

  6. TYPOLOGIES OF INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION

    IOSIF, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    From the point of view of Durkheim, institutions are way so facting, feeling and thinking,expressing any social act. Institution shave stringent action on the individual, have its own existence, independent of individual manifestations, which are distinctive for a given group, being accepted by all members.Types of social institutions are economic institutions, educational, political, cultural and family.Within institutions, communication is an inherent phenomenon. For Katzand Kahn "communica...

  7. Institutional Logics in Action

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  8. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    Bishop Dorothy VM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average. The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29% met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI at 4 years of age, and a further two (8% had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14% met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8% had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

  9. Endomyocardial fibrosis and mural thrombus in a 4-year-old girl due to idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome described with serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Tai, Christiana P; Chung, Taylor; Avasarala, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome, endomyocardial fibrosis, and mural thrombus. This condition is rarely seen in children outside the tropics. Myocardial biopsy is historically the standard for diagnosis. Reports in adult literature, however, have shown the utility of cardiac MRI as a non-invasive tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with serial cardiac MRI in a child. PMID:25683059

  10. Exploring the Impact of using Stories and ICT to teach English to 3- and 4- year-old Spanish children: Motivation and Development.

    Recio, A

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study involving 3-4 year-old English language learners enrolled in a course where electronic stories were used. The study aimed to explore two main areas: 1. teachers and children use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the language classroom and 2. the influence of electronic stories on the development of emergent literacy skills. Results of the study showed that teachers found the use of ICT a positive strategy to enhance young children's...

  11. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    Aditi Kapur; Chawla, H S.; Gauba, K.; Goyal, A; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and ...

  12. Micronutrient Fortified Milk Improves Iron Status, Anemia and Growth among Children 1–4 Years: A Double Masked, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Sazawal, Sunil; Dhingra, Usha; Hiremath, Girish; Sarkar, Archana; Dhingra, Pratibha; Dutta, Arup; Verma, Priti; Menon, Venugopal P.; Robert E. Black

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent reviews suggest common infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death among preschool children in developing countries. Identification of feasible strategies to combat this disease burden is an important public health need. We evaluated the efficacy of adding prebiotic oligosaccharide and probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 to milk, in preventing diarrhea, respiratory infections and severe illnesses, in children aged 1–4 years as part of a four group study desi...

  13. Institut de physique et institut de chimie

    Haroche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Au cœur de Paris et du quartier Latin Le 17 mars 2015, l'Institut de physique et l'Institut de chimie du Collège de France ont été inaugurés par le président de la République François Hollande. Dans un bâtiment entièrement rénové du Collège de France, prennent désormais place deux centres de recherche : l’Institut de physique et l’Institut de chimie. Chacun constitué de plusieurs chaires dévolues à ces disciplines, ainsi que de jeunes équipes, ils perpétuent la longue tradition de la physiq...

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  15. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  16. Do Institutions Cause Growth?

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the debate over whether political institutions cause economic growth, or whether, alternatively, growth and human capital accumulation lead to institutional improvement. We find that most indicators of institutional quality used to establish the proposition that institutions cause growth are constructed to be conceptually unsuitable for that purpose. We also find that some of the instrumental variable techniques used in the literature are flawed. Basic OLS results, as well as a var...

  17. Contracting institutions and development

    2012-01-01

    The quality of contracting institutions has been thought to be of second-order importance next to the impact that good property rights institutions can have on long- run growth. Using a large range of proxies for each type of institution, we find a robust $negative$ link between the quality of contracting institutions and long-run growth when we condition on property rights and a number of additional macroeconomic variables. Although the result remains something of a puzzle, we present eviden...

  18. Where Did They Go? Market Share Trends of Business Student Enrollment at Public, Not-for-Profit, and For-Profit Institutions from 1996 to 2008

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…

  19. Implementing Institutional Research Findings.

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Although many agree that institutional research in higher education has come of age and is accepted as a part of institutional management, great variations exist in the extent to which institutional research findings are synthesized and utilized in management decision-making. A number of reasons can be identified as accounting for this phenomenon,…

  20. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  1. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    Zhidan eWang; Rebecca eWilliamson; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than...

  2. Metabolic profile in early pregnancy is associated with offspring adiposity at 4 years of age: the Rhea pregnancy cohort Crete, Greece.

    Vasiliki Daraki

    Full Text Available Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits.Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age.The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort "Rhea" study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12 weeks, SD: 0.7. A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements.Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81, central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49, and greater fat mass by 5.10 mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71 at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40 mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30 mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20 at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45, and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71 mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86 at 4 years of age.Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age.

  3. Annual rates of change in pre- vs. post- bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC over 4 years in moderate to very severe COPD

    Tashkin, Donald P.; Ning LI; Halpin, David; Kleerup, Eric; Decramer, Marc; Celli, Bartolome; Elashoff, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the slope of decline in FEV1 has traditionally been calculated from the post- rather than the pre-bronchodilator measurement in COPD interventional trials, it is not clear whether and to what extent these two slopes differ in symptomatic patients with COPD. Therefore, we used data from the 4-year UPLIFT trial of tiotropium 18 mcg QD vs. placebo to compare annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 5041 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (mean FEV1 48% pred) i...

  4. Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies…

  5. International whole body counter intercomparison based on bomab phantom simulating 4 years old child; Partecipazione dell`ENEA alla campagna internazionale di interconfronto wholebody counter con fantoccio simulante un bambino di 4 anni

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB`s sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities.

  6. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  7. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which-depending on specific task demands-may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  8. Compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation of French [u]: an acoustic and perceptual study of 4-year-old children

    Ménard, Lucie; Aubin, Jérôme; Savariaux, Christophe; Thibeault, Mélanie

    2008-01-01

    The relations between production and perception in 4-year-old children were examined in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic and perceptual analyses of the rounded vowel [u] produced by twelve 4-year-old French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a 15-mm-diameter tube inserted between the lips. Recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation (N1), immediately upon insertion of the tube and for the next 19 trials in this perturbed condition, with (P2) or without articulatory instructions (P1), and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials (N2). The results of the acoustic analyses reveal speaker-dependent alterations of F1, F2, and/or F0 in the perturbed conditions and after the removal of the tube. For some subjects, the presence of the tube resulted in very little change; for others, an increase in F2 was observed in P1, which was generally reduced in some of the 20 repetitions, but not systematical...

  9. Healthcare Consulting: Institutional Psychotherapy?

    Craven, Nancy H.; Covvey, H. Dominic

    1984-01-01

    Health care computing consultants are often brought in to assist institutions in solving their computing problems. Not unlike the disturbed client seeking psychotherapy, the problems the institution has with the introduction of computers are symptoms of deeper problems. Consultants and institutions must learn to identify and address underlying disorders first, before attacking the computing problems, or the outcome will more likely be failure - if not in the short term, then certainly in the ...

  10. Investment and Institutions

    Yishay Yafeh; Kenichi Ueda; Stijn Claessens

    2010-01-01

    We study how financial systems and institutional environments affect investment efficiency using a sample of some 300,000 firm-years from 48 countries. Based on a canonical investment model, we identify two possible channels by which institutional environments may affect investment: firm-level financial frictions and the macro-level required rate of return. We find that a good institutional environment, in particular strong corporate governance, reduces financial frictions and lowers the requ...

  11. Developing Institutional Language Policy

    Nemira Mačianskienė

    2011-01-01

    Higher education institutions face challenges set by Bologna process, the implementation of which requires creating conditions for language learning and intercultural competence acquisition. Although higher education institutions in Lithuania maintain different and in a way promiscuous approaches to the role of HEI in the development of students‘ linguistic and intercultural competences, but a certain institutional policy with regard to language learning and teaching has inevitably been forme...

  12. Institutions, Capital, and Growth

    2010-01-01

    The international development community has encouraged investment in physical and human capital as a precursor to economic progress. Recent evidence shows, however, that increases in capital do not always lead to increases in output. We develop a growth model where the allocation and productivity of capital depends on a country's institutions. We find that increases in physical and human capital lead to output growth only in countries with good institutions. In countries with bad institutions...

  13. Creating an institutional repository

    Grozdanić, Marija; Macan, Bojan; Vodopijevec, Alen

    2006-01-01

    Institutional repository is a digital collection that capture, mantain, save, index, preserve and redistribute entire output of an institution in digital format. They adhere to open access modell and they are OAI – compliant. Building of insitutional repository is essential to the library whose mission is to provide access to wide range of information sources including open access sources and to promote them, as well. Intellectual output of the Institute might contain: pre-prints, post-...

  14. Institutions and offshoring decision

    Nicolini, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    Several papers have proven that the institutional environment of the receiving country can influence the choice to establish an FDI. Property rights theory suggests that contract enforcement matters differentially across sectors. This paper is the first attempt to test whether institutions matter differentially across different sectors in FDI decision. Using data on U.S. Direct Investment Abroad, I find that institutional characteristics of the country and the industry positively affect the v...

  15. Institutions and growth accelerations

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of institutions on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995-2007. We follow Henderson, Storeygard, and Weil (American Economic Review 102(2): 994-1028, 2012) in combining Penn World Tables GDP data with satellite-based data on nightlights in order to arrive at a more accurate measure of economic growth. We find that countries with good institutions grew faster than countries with poor institutions. Using external instruments, 2SLS regressions ...

  16. Do Institutions Impact Innovation?

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Elmslie, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on institutions and economic growth by conducting an empirical examination on the links between innovation and institutions. Using cross-country data and the instrumental variable method, this study finds that institutional arrangements explain much of the variation on patent production across countries. We find evidence that control of corruption, market-friendly policies, protection of property rights and a more effective judiciary system boost an ec...

  17. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  18. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Vinekar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Anand Vinekar,1 Chaitra Jayadev,1 Siddesh Kumar,2 Shwetha Mangalesh,1,3 Mangat Ram Dogra,4 Noel J Bauer,5 Bhujang Shetty6 1Department of Pediatric Retina, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bangalore, 2Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University of Health Scien...

  19. An institutional review of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

    Cao, Henry; Phe, Kady; Laine, Gregory A; Russo, Hannah R; Putney, Kimberly S; Tam, Vincent H

    2016-09-01

    In order to combat increasing rates of bacterial resistance, many institutions have implemented antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) to improve antibiotic use. To ascertain the potential impact of our stewardship programme at Baylor St Luke's Medical Center (Houston, TX), antimicrobial-related interventions were analysed over a 4-year period. ASP recommendations related to antimicrobial therapy from 2009 to 2012 were retrieved from the hospital electronic database and were retrospectively reviewed. The number of interventions for each time period was adjusted to the hospital census data. The interventions were randomly assessed and categorised for clinical significance based on established institutional guidelines. In total, 14654 non-duplicate antimicrobial therapy interventions were retrieved, of which 11874 (81.0%) were audited for accuracy. Approximately 13 interventions were made per 1000 patient-days, but there were no significant patterns observed regarding the number of interventions performed from month to month (range 8-21). The most frequent types of interventions were related to inappropriate dosing (39.0%), antimicrobial selection (20.5%) and drug allergy (13.0%). Serious adverse drug events (ADEs) were potentially avoided in 20.7% of all interventions. Cumulative potential cost avoidance was more than US$6.5 million. In our institution, proper drug and dose selection were the major components of the ASP. Without focusing solely on reduction of drug acquisition costs, implementation of an ASP could still be cost effective by improving the quality of patient care and avoiding ADEs with serious consequences. PMID:27530844

  20. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create......Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... the stable and planned and predominantly national models of economic organization supported by the Keynesian state, which dominated in the 30 years after 1945, to the uncertain and high-risk environment of the current period in which globalization has opened up the possibility of new forms of firms...

  1. On educational institutions evaluation

    Rosa María Tafur Puente

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to provide a view on the importance of institutional evaluations in educational programs that strive for continuous improvement. Furthermore, the article analyzes the concept of evaluation, explores some quality management models, and suggests the measures required for the design and implementation of an institutional evaluation process within the organization or one of its areas.

  2. On educational institutions evaluation

    Rosa María Tafur Puente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a view on the importance of institutional evaluations in educational programs that strive for continuous improvement. Furthermore, the article analyzes the concept of evaluation, explores some quality management models, and suggests the measures required for the design and implementation of an institutional evaluation process within the organization or one of its areas.

  3. Budgeting and Budgetary Institutions

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Budgetary institutions have historically played a critical role in a gradual movement toward responsive, responsible, and accountable public governance in industrial countries. This paper includes the following headings: overview; a primer on budgeting and budgetary institutions; the budget and its coverage; capital budgets -- theory and practice; budget methods and practices; a primer on ...

  4. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  5. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  6. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue for...

  7. [The effect of selected prophylactic-educational programs on oral hygiene, periodontium and caries in school children during a 4-year observation].

    Grocholewicz, K

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was the continuation of the evaluation of the efficacy of three prophylactic-educational programs in the field of oral cavity hygiene, status of periodontium and dental caries, and their influence on the forming of pro-health awareness and correct hygiene habits among school children. The work under discussion is the second stage of observations of the above-mentioned programs as well as the complete evaluation of 4-years examinations. The clinical and questionnaire studies were carried out in two elementary schools in Szczecin. Two hundred and twenty-three pupils were randomly allocated to three test groups: I (45 children), II (71 children), III (60 children) and control group K (47 children). In both schools mentioned above the examinations started when children were 7-8 years old and all of them were receiving planned stomatological treatment and contact fluoridation. All programs of the second stage of studies were the same as those of the first stage [49], only with the modified frequency of meetings with children. Program I, carried out in group I, was based on individual, motivating instructions of oral cavity hygiene (total 10 meetings during second stage of research). Programs II and III (group II and III accordingly) were expanded by educational activity among children and their parents. Additionally program III was enriched by professional mechanical tooth-cleaning, the use of fissure sealants, intensive dental care and proximal surface cleaning with dental floss (Tab. 1). The above-mentioned programs were carried out in co-operation with school dentists, teachers, fifth year dentistry students and students from Medical College--Oral Hygienist Faculty. After 4-years-long studies the evaluation of the three above-mentioned programs in oral cavity hygiene was achieved by using OHI-S and PI(QH). The status of periodontium was evaluated by GI and the intensity of dental caries by DMFT and DMFS. The increase of caries during the second

  8. Repeatability of methacholine challenges in 2- to 4-year-old children with asthma, using a new technique for quantitative delivery of aerosol

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    To determine the repeatability of bronchial responsiveness in awake young children, two methacholine challenge tests were performed on separate days in 16 children with stable asthma (mean age, 3 3/4 years). Methacholine was administered using a new method for quantitative delivery of aerosol...... that eliminates the effect of dilution of the aerosol by entrainment of air and enables quantitative delivery of aerosol according to body weight. Respiratory function was monitored by measurement of respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint), respiratory resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (Rrs5......, respectively. Rint PD30 and Rrs5 PD30 proved to be less reproducible: [1.2 (1)] and [1.6 (0.9)] doubling doses, respectively. The new method of aerosol delivery offers a means of standardizing the bronchoconstrictor stimulus, and the results show that estimates of bronchial responsiveness in young children can...

  9. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg. PMID:24730632

  10. Changing institutions of knowing

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational - and...... professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers and...... interviews with seven companies come to focus on competences of interdisciplinary collaboration and sustainable innovation in SME. The anticipation of future building regulation of 2015 and 2020 creates an institutional pressure in education for change including handling differentiated demands of customers...

  11. Long-term effects following 4 years of randomized treatment with atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis.

    Krane, Vera; Schmidt, Kay-Renke; Gutjahr-Lengsfeld, Lena J; Mann, Johannes F E; März, Winfried; Swoboda, Florian; Wanner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    The 4D (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse) Study was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing 4 years of treatment with atorvastatin to placebo in 1255 hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary end point of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was non-significantly reduced by 8%. However, long-term effects remained uncertain. Therefore, surviving patients were invited to a follow-up survey done by questionnaire. Post-trial statin therapy was at nephrologist discretion, and outcomes were centrally adjudicated and analyzed by intention to treat and time to first event in the original treatment groups. Median overall follow-up was 11.5 years. Post-trial statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not differ between groups. Statin treatment non-significantly affected the former primary outcome (relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.07). The risk of all cardiac events combined and the risk of cardiac death were significantly lower in the original statin group compared to placebo (0.83, 0.70-0.97, and 0.80, 0.66-0.97). No significant effect was detected on cerebrovascular events, fatal stroke, fatal cancer, non-vascular, or all-cause death. No rhabdomyolysis was reported. Thus, after 4 years of atorvastatin treatment in diabetic hemodialysis patients, similar effects on outcomes were found after 11.5 years of follow-up as were found at the end of the original study. There was no evidence of emerging hazards in the long term, confirming current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:26924051

  12. High Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Substantial Bone Loss over 4 Years Among HIV-Infected Persons in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Escota, Gerome V; Mondy, Kristin; Bush, Tim; Conley, Lois; Brooks, John T; Önen, Nur; Patel, Pragna; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Wood, K C; Lichtenstein, Kenneth A; Overton, Edgar T

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected persons are living longer on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) but experiencing more comorbidities including low bone mineral density (BMD). Using data from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study), we determined the prevalence of low BMD (T-score below one standard deviation of the reference mean) and compared it with matched controls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also assessed 4-year longitudinal BMD changes among participants virologically suppressed on cART. Of 653 participants included in this analysis (77% male, 29% black, median age 41 years, median CD4(+) cell count 464 cells/mm(3), 89% with HIV RNA <400 copies/ml), 51% and 10% had baseline osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively. Low BMD at the femoral neck was significantly more prevalent than for the NHANES controls (47% versus 29%, p<0.001). Lower body mass index, nonwhite race, longer tenofovir exposure, older age, being unemployed or retired, and lower apolipoprotein E were independently associated with baseline osteoporosis. Among 170 participants virologically suppressed on cART and with longitudinal BMD data, 31% experienced substantial bone loss (≥5% BMD decline from baseline) over 4 years. Female sex, current smoking, and longer stavudine use were more common among participants who had substantial bone loss, although these variables failed to reach statistical significance. Low BMD was highly prevalent among HIV-infected persons. One-third of participants experienced substantial bone loss despite cART, suggesting the need for monitoring and potential clinical interventions. PMID:26366785

  13. Institutional Characteristics and College Student Dropout Risks: A Multilevel Event History Analysis

    Chen, Rong

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, although access to higher education for American students has improved, student persistence in 4-year institutions is far from assured. There have been a number of research studies on student persistence/dropout in higher education, but most have focused on the characteristics and behavior of students as illustrated by the…

  14. International Institutions and GHG

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  15. Rescaling or Institutional Flexibility?

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2010-01-01

    -border integration has given rise? Does a process exist whereby the ‘problem' and its solution are readily identified and absorbed by existing institutional structures with actions carried out through ‘selective competence delegation'? Based on two case studies, the integration of the labour market and the creation......ABSTRACT This article is based on the experience of the cross-border integration processes across the Øresund strait which separates Denmark from Sweden, and the related institutional and spatial interaction processes. The role of ‘space of flows' and that of ‘space of place', or territory, will be...... examined in relation to this cross-border integration. Several related questions will be addressed: has there been a re-scaling in the form of new cross-border institutions or have existing national and regional institutional structures been able to adapt to the new landscape to which the cross...

  16. National Institute on Aging

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  17. Joint Quantum Institute

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  18. Contributions to institutional matters

    The papers included in this document deal with the institutional aspects and the legal framework of spent fuel management. The international management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel is addressed. Licensing procedures are discussed

  19. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  20. On pragmatist institutional economics

    Yefimov, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The movement of New Institutional Economics (NIE), born in the seventies, followed the Institutional Economics of John R. Commons by putting the notion of ‘transaction’ in the centre of its study. The seventies were a period of appearance of an absolute authority of neoclassical economics with its hypothetic-deductive (Cartesian and positivist) methodology and the NIE followed this methodology. The NIE was assimilated by many of the members of its community with ‘transaction costs economics’....

  1. Institutions and Rules.

    Jessop, Bob; Nielsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This short statement has three aims. First, it suggests that rules and institutionsare a convenient and productive entrypoint for analysing capitalism and mainstream proposals for its reform. But it also suggests that analyses cannot stop there if adequate critiques and alternative strategies are to be developed. Above all we need to move beyond rules and institutions to examine the microfoundations of institutions in particular subjectivities, cognitive frames, modes of calculation, norms of...

  2. SHERPA and Institutional Repositories

    Hubbard, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The SHERPA project (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access) has been set up to encourage change in the scholarly communication process by creating open-access institutional "e-print" repositories for the dissemination of research findings. This article looks at the terminology involved with such repositories and at the issues that such repositories raise for their construction and use. It reviews the advantages of having an institutional basis for a repository and ...

  3. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  4. Institutions, Innovations, and Growth

    Chenggang Xu; Haizhou Huang

    1999-01-01

    The fundamental importance of economic institutions for economic growth through their impact on technological change has been argued, reconfirmed by recent empirical studies, but not examined theoretically. This paper tries to fill that gap. In the model proposed, economic growth is affected by the efficiency and riskiness of research and development (R&D), which are endogenized through financial institutions. The theory and its results shed lights on the debate of convergence versus divergen...

  5. Institutions and Economic Growth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of institutional factors on economic growth of a set of 37 developed and developing countries for six successive periods of five years, from 1975 until 2000, using a static panel data model. The key findings generated by this empirical test stipulate a dominant effect exerted by economic institutions on economic growth of the total sample of countries and developed countries.

  6. Blogs in cultural institutions

    Michał Kaczyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses examples of three blogs of the National Library, both in terms of their structure and content as highlighting elements that impact on the promotion of both the blog and the institutions they lead. Discussed the advantages of one of Poland’s most popular blogging platforms WordPress. It also presents a short briefings to customize the look of your blog based on WordPress platform needs to actuate the institution.

  7. Disease, Institutions and Underdevelopment

    Hasan, Lubna

    2009-01-01

    What explains poverty of Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia? One view holds the disease environment of these regions as the primary culprit. Others see it as a typical symptom of growth retarding institutions. We test validity of these competing assertions for a cross section of countries. Our results indicate that institutions are the prime determinant of economic performance of countries. Disease does not play a significant role in determining outcomes. On the contrary, we find support for ...

  8. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    Breen, Michael; Gillanders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively affects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is con- trolled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulati...

  9. Trade Policy, Openness, Institutions

    Dawood Mamoon; Mansoob Murshed, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of institutions vis-à-vis openness and trade policies in determining per capita income differences across countries. Recent literature has tried to demonstrate that more open economies grow faster. On the other hand, it has also been asserted that it is not openness per se but institutions and good governance that matter in promoting growth. This paper attempts to test this hypothesis across a crosssection of nations. Unlike other papers in the field, we hav...

  10. Institutions and Venture Capital

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  11. Effects of a Specialist-Led, School Physical Education Program on Bone Mass, Structure, and Strength in Primary School Children: A 4-Year Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Daly, Robin M; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Rohan M; Eser, Prisca; Naughton, Geraldine; Seibel, Markus J; Telford, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    This 4-year cluster randomized controlled trial of 365 boys and 362 girls (mean age 8.1 ± 0.3 years) from grade 2 in 29 primary schools investigated the effects of a specialist-taught physical education (PE) program on bone strength and body composition. All children received 150 min/week of common practice (CP) PE from general classroom teachers but in 13 schools 100 min/week of CP PE was replaced by specialized-led PE (SPE) by teachers who emphasized more vigorous exercise/games combined with static and dynamic postural activities involving muscle strength. Outcome measures assessed in grades 2, 4, and 6 included: total body bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) by DXA, and radius and tibia (4% and 66% sites) bone structure, volumetric density and strength, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by pQCT. After 4-years, gains in total body BMC, FM, and muscle CSA were similar between the groups in both sexes, but girls in the SPE group experienced a greater gain in total body LM (mean 1.0 kg; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.9 kg). Compared to CP, girls in the SPE group also had greater gains in cortical area (CoA) and cortical thickness (CoTh) at the mid-tibia (CoA, 5.0% [95% CI, 0.2% to 1.9%]; CoTh, 7.5% [95% CI, 2.4% to 12.6%]) and mid-radius (CoA, 9.3% [95% CI, 3.5% to 15.1%]; CoTh, 14.4% [95% CI, 6.1% to 22.7%]), whereas SPE boys had a 5.2% (95% CI, 0.4% to 10.0%) greater gain in mid-tibia CoTh. These benefits were due to reduced endocortical expansion. There were no significant benefits of SPE on total bone area, cortical density or bone strength at the mid-shaft sites, nor any appreciable effects at the distal skeletal sites. This study indicates that a specialist-led school-based PE program improves cortical bone structure, due to reduced endocortical expansion. This finding challenges the notion that periosteal apposition is the predominant response of bone to loading during the prepubertal and early-pubertal period. PMID:26260216

  12. Alimentos industrializados en la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos Contribution of processed foods to the energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes of Mexican children aged 1 to 4 years

    Dinorah González-Castell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a industrializados modernos (IM, b industrializados tradicionales (IT y c no industrializados (NI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070 se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La contribución de energía a partir de IM e IT, respectivamente, fue: energía, 17 y 31%; proteína total, 14 y 25%; proteína vegetal, 10 y 10%; proteína animal, 17 y 34%; carbohidratos, 18 y 26%; fibra, 4 y 5%; grasa total, 15 y 41%; grasa saturada, 16 y 52%; y colesterol, 7 y 7 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos industrializados aportan más de 39% de la energía, proteína animal, carbohidratos y grasas a la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos. Se recomienda la participación de la industria alimentaria para prevenir la mala nutrición infantil en México.OBJECTIVE: To classify the foods consumed by Mexican children 1-4 years in three food categories according to the preparation process and temporality: a Processed Modern Foods (PMF, b Processed Traditional Foods (PTF and c Non-Processed Foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 in children 1-4 years (n =1070. The contribution of each food category to the total energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes was analyzed. RESULTS: The contribution of PMF and PTF was as follows, respectively: Energy: 17%, 31%; total protein: 14%, 25%; non-animal protein: 10%, 10%; animal protein: 17%, 34%; carbohydrates: 18%, 26%; fiber: 4%, 5%; total fat 15%, 41%; saturated fat 16%, 52%; and cholesterol 7%, 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of PF to the diets of Mexican children accounts for >39% of energy, total protein, animal protein

  13. Developing Institutional Language Policy

    Nemira Mačianskienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face challenges set by Bologna process, the implementation of which requires creating conditions for language learning and intercultural competence acquisition. Although higher education institutions in Lithuania maintain different and in a way promiscuous approaches to the role of HEI in the development of students‘ linguistic and intercultural competences, but a certain institutional policy with regard to language learning and teaching has inevitably been formed on the institutional level, though not always defined by normative documents. The aim of the research is to summarise the development of language policy in HEIs on the basis of the practice of European higher education institutions. The research applied the findings of ENLU (European Network for the Promotion of Language Learning among All Undergraduates and MOLAN (Network for the Exchange of Information about Good Practices that Serve to Motivate Language Learners, performing comparative and content analysis. The descriptive statistics and analysis of research into the practical organisation of language learning and teaching provided at VMU served as the basis aiming to identify preconditions for institutional language policy formation.

  14. Antecedents of institutional process

    Emilio Díez de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to advance the understanding of why organizations are responsive to the institutionalization process. To this end, we describe key elements that help explain the origin of this process. Furthermore, this research has followed a qualitative research methodology, using the ‘concept mapping’ technique, and grouping the different constructs items that act as motivating factors in the transformation of organizations to institutions. Methodologically we have tried to overlook the differentiation between old and new institutionalism, this approach follows the ideas of those researchers that question the suitability of drawing a line between the “old” and the “new” theory. We consider that the role of the CEO is essential in driving the institutionalization process, though usually their decisions are supported or have passed through the filter of the organization governance staff or the board of directors. Any progress that the organization makes depends fundamentally on the capabilities, perceptions, training and mindset of the CEO. The research results reinforce several key topics suggested in the literature on institutional theory. Particularly, we have proposed a classification with the motives that give rise to institutional initiatives: institutional authority; advantage in management; and, social involvement. This classification is consistent, to a larger extend, to the pillars of institutionalization that have been defined in the institutional theory literature, helping to understand, in more detail, the origin of the business processes and the background or motivations that generates and guide them.

  15. Reforming Institutions: Where to Begin?

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2009-01-01

    No society is devoid of institutions but many live with poor institutions. Institutions promote growth. This is a view now held firmly and widely. The task then is to ‘engineer’ growth-promoting institutions. Endogeneity characterises institutions; for example, groups enjoying political power influence economic institutions, but political power itself is a function of wealth. Given endogeneity, if the task is to design institutional reforms, the question then arises, as to what to reform firs...

  16. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    Zhidan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s hefting acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development.

  17. Is sexual abuse a part of war? A 4-year retrospective study on cases of sexual abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Mary W. Kuria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009. Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363 form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict.

  18. Magnitude of undernutrition in children aged 2 to 4 years using CIAF and conventional indices in the slums of Mumbai city.

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2015-01-01

    Conventional indicators - weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) reflect different facets of the nutritional status. Weight-for-age is the most commonly used indicator. When used individually or in combination, conventional indices fail to depict the overall magnitude of undernutrition in the population. Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is an alternative classification system which attempts to fill this lacuna. Thus, we undertook this study with the objective to compare the prevalence of undernutrition using CIAF and the conventional indices. We included 634 children aged between 2 to 4 years from anganwadis located in three areas of Mumbai. Weight, height and MUAC measurements were taken. Z scores were computed for weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) using WHO Anthro software. Children were classified as per the conventional indices and CIAF. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 35.7%, 33.8% and 18.5% respectively. None of the children had MUAC high. PMID:26825557

  19. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults. PMID:27250147

  20. [A case of non-resectable pancreatic cancer surviving more than 4 years by intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy with angiotensin-II].

    Tsuji, Y; Ohigashi, H; Ishikawa, O; Yasuda, T; Nakano, H; Nakamori, S; Kameyama, M; Hiratsuka, M; Sasaki, Y; Kabuto, T; Furukawa, H; Imaoka, S; Iwanaga, T

    1996-09-01

    This is a report of a 62-year-old woman whose non-resectable pancreatic cancer had been treated effectively by a new method of intra-arterial regional chemotherapy for more than 4 years. A catheter was placed into the celiac artery during laparotomy, and an intra -arterial chemotherapy (methotrexate (50 mg) and Angiotensin-II (AT-II, 5 micrograms)) has been repeated every other week (108 times) in addition to the external beam therapy (50 Gy). Both pain relief and "partial response" in the size of tumor have been obtained, with no hepatic metastasis or adverse effect. She died of brain metastasis at 51 postoperative months. Autopsy revealed that the pancreatic tumor was mostly replaced by fibrous connective tissues. Scintigraphic study indicated that the intra-arterial infusion of AT-II increased the blood flow in the tumor but decreased it in the surrounding non-cancerous tissues. This seemed to explain the effective loco-regional control in the present case. PMID:8854821

  1. Role of atmospheric heat source/sink over the Qinghai- Xizang Plateau in quasi-4- year oscillation of atmosphere- land-ocean interaction

    2001-01-01

    Using 1961-1995 monthly atmospheric apparent heat source/sink over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) and reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR, and 1961-1994 monthly SST of UK/GISST2, the statistical study is undertaken on the QXP heat source/sink in relation to both atmospheric circulation in Asia and El Ni?o/La Ni?a events. It is discovered that there exists noticeable interaction in a quasi-4-year period among the of the QXP, low-level me-ridional winds east of the QXP, low-level zonal winds in the equatorial Pacific, SST in the equatorial eastern Pacific, and the circulation at mid and high latitudes north of the QXP. They have difference in phase. The cold source intensity of the QXP in winter favours a low-level meridional wind anomaly to prevail in the mainland of China and its coast east of the QXP and to last until the subsequent autumn. The wind anomaly can induce a low-level zonal wind anomaly of the tropic Pacific that finally affects an El Ni?o/La Ni?a event in the autumn and subsequent winter. The event in autumn/winter has effect on the deep trough position and cold air track of East Asia in next winter that influences the intensity of the QXP winter cold source.

  2. [Loeys-Dietz syndrome (TGFβR2 mutation) in a 4-year-old child with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    De Potter, M-J; Edouard, T; Amadieu, R; Plaisancié, J; Julia, S; Hadeed, K; Hascoët, S; Acar, P; Dulac, Y

    2016-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare form of connective tissue disorder, whose clinical features can resemble those of Marfan syndrome, but with a more unpolished appearance. Recently brought out, this pathology remains little known; however, its consequences may be dramatic. We report on the case of a 4-year-old girl followed for a congenital hip dislocation, in which a systematic exam found increased cutaneous elasticity and a bifid uvula, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Symptoms were unpolished, as the child's height was normal, without any positive cardiac, rheumatological, or ophthalmological family history. Cardiovascular tests found a thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Valsalva sinus (26mm, Z-score=+4.24). A genetic investigation found a TGFβR2 gene mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2. Skeletal damage associated with bifid uvula and/or hypertelorism and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta should guide the genetic investigation to the search for TGF-β vasculopathy such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome. PMID:27017362

  3. Environmental surveillance and molecular epidemiology of waterborne pathogen Legionella pneumophila in health-care facilities of Northeastern Greece: a 4-year survey.

    Alexandropoulou, Ioanna G; Ntougias, Spyridon; Konstantinidis, Theocharis G; Parasidis, Theodoros A; Panopoulou, Maria; Constantinidis, Theodoros C

    2015-05-01

    A 4-year proactive environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in the water distribution and cooling systems of five health-care facilities was carried out as part of the strategy for the prevention of hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease in Northeastern Greece. Legionella spp. were detected in 71 out of 458 collected samples. The majority of strains belonged to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2-15 (75.0%), while all L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains (23.6%) were isolated from a single hospital. The highest percentage of positive samples was found in distal sites (19.4%), while no Legionella strains were detected in cooling systems. Each hospital was colonized at least once with L. pneumophila, while remedial actions resulted in significant reduction of Legionella concentration. The molecular epidemiology of environmental L. pneumophila strains was also investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multi-gene sequence-based analysis. Based on RAPD patterns, L. pneumophila serogroups 2-15 and serogroup 1 strains were classified into 24 and 9 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. Sequencing of housekeeping and diversifying pressure-related genes recommended by European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) revealed not only a high intraspecies variability but also the circulation and persistence of one specific genotyping profile in the majority of hospitals. This study highlights the necessity for diachronic surveillance of Legionella in health-care facilities by adopting both cultural and molecular methods. PMID:25712880

  4. Herniation to foramen magnum in the course of cerebellitis in a 4-year-old boy, as shown by CT and MRI - case report

    Background: Acute cerebellitis is an uncommon but dangerous complication of infectious diseases. Besides neurological examination, neuroimaging (especially MR imaging) is very useful for diagnosing cerebellitis. Case Report: A 4-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a 1-week history of fever, vomiting and headache. His past medical history was unremarkable. The physical examination revealed disturbance of consciousness and truncal ataxia. He underwent urgent CT and MRI examinations which demonstrated isolated swelling of the cerebellar hemispheres and the vermis, with increased signal intensity in T2-weighted, FLAIR, and DWI sequence and a significant mass effect associated with tonsillar herniation. An emergent life-saving suboccipital craniectomy was performed with removal of the C1 vertebral arch. There was a gradual clinical improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI revealed disappearance of cerebellar swelling and of mass effect. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance (MR), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence, plays an important role in the diagnostic work-up of cerebellitis in children. This imaging method is very useful for detecting cerebellitis, evaluating its severity and monitoring the disease. (authors)

  5. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    Anaïs Racca

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions.

  6. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bächli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt. PMID:26613270

  7. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system. PMID:25933095

  8. Long-Term Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Naturalistic Case Series of 1 to 4 Years After a Controlled Trial.

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Anson, Martin

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) after 1 to 6months but none in the long term. The aim of this study was to follow up the participants in a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus anxiety management to determine whether or not the treatment gains were maintained over time. Thirty of the original 39 participants who had CBT were followed up over 1 to 4years and assessed using a number of clinician and self-report measures, which included the primary outcome measure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD. Outcome scores generally maintained over time from end of treatment to long-term follow-up. There was a slight deterioration from n=20 (51.3%) to n=18 (46.2%) who met improvement criteria at long-term follow-up. Eleven (28.2%) were in full remission and 22 (56.4%) were in partial remission. The gains made were generally maintained at long-term follow-up. However, there were a significant number of participants who maintained chronic symptoms after treatment and may need a longer-term or more complex intervention and active medication management. PMID:26520220

  9. Opening a Can of Worms: The Schools/ Math/Science/ 2-4 year Colleges and the Job Market - Are We just 'Fishing' for Solutions?

    Christine M. Yukech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper confronts some of the biggest problems educators face in the teaching of math and science. The article focuses on a grass roots method called the Algebra project. The Algebra project has improved algebra skills among groups of students who are either steered away from upper level math or who may not ever have the chance to take an advanced math course. According to the data by the department of labor and statistics many jobs are going unfilled. This paper discusses where the jobs are, the courses that are the gateway to employment and the skill sets students need to fill the jobs. Math and science courses need to be used as a tool for liberation of such a problem. We have to ask ourselves why we have a society where only a small group of students are prepared for their future. We need to determine where the knowledge gap is and provide courses that prepare students for the job market and transfer credit from the 2 year to 4 year colleges. This paper also looks at factors that effect change, who the change agents are and what mind set implement solutions.

  10. Institutions and Modernity

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  11. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  12. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations are...... found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their...

  13. Institutional social engagement

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  14. The Physics Institute

    Dalibard, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The Collège de France’s Physics Institute is a new research centre set up on the historical Marcelin-Berthelot site. Its establishment follows a long tradition that was recently illustrated by that of Louis Leprince-Ringuet’s, Marcel Froissart’s and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes’s laboratories. The Institute is comprised of three physics Chairs and a junior research team incubator, surrounded by efficient technical and administrative services. In total, about one hundred researchers, engineers, tec...

  15. Do Financial Institutions Matter?

    Franklin Allen

    2001-01-01

    In standard asset pricing theory, investors are assumed to invest directly in financial markets. The role of financial institutions is ignored. The focus in corporate finance is on agency problems. How do you ensure that managers act in shareholders' interests? There is an inconsistency in assuming that when you give your money to a financial institution there is no agency problem but when you give it to a firm there is. It is argued both areas need to take proper account of the role of finan...

  16. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  17. The institutional repository

    Jones, Richard; MacColl, John

    2006-01-01

    Providing a thorough review of the concept of the Institutional Repository (IR) the book examines how they can be set up, maintained and embedded into general institutional working practice. Specific reference is made to capturing certain types of research material such as E-Theses and E-Prints and what the issues are with regard to obtaining the material, ensuring that all legal grounds are covered and then storing the material in perpetuity. General workflow and administrative processes that may come up during the implementation and maintenance of an IR are discussed.

  18. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose......-macro level analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical...

  19. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20-kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser

    Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Michaelis, M.M. [Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (South Africa). Faculty of Science

    1994-10-01

    When space debris forced a change of plan for a recent US Space Shuttle mission, it finally reached the point of broad awareness. Almost a million pieces of debris have been generated by 35 years of spaceflight, and now threaten some long-term space missions. This problem can best a be solved by causing space debris items to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory. Illumination of the objects by a repetitively-pulsed laser will easily produce a laser-ablation jet providing the impulse to de-orbit the object. For reasons we will discuss, we propose the use of a ground-based laser system, atmospheric-turbulence compensating beam director, computer and high resolution detection system to solve this problem. A laser of just 2OkW average power and state-of-the-art detection capabilities could clear near-Earth space below 1100km altitude of all space debris larger than 1 cm but less massive than 100kg in about 4 years. The LISK-BROOM laser would be located near the Equator above 5km elevation [e.g., the Uhuru site on Kilimanjarol, minimizing turbulence correction and absorption of the 530-nm wavelength laser beam. LISK-BROOM is a special case of Laser Impulse Space Propulsion (LISP), by which objects are propelled in space by the ablation jet due to a distant laser. We will also discuss active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and the object detection system which are necessary.

  20. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    Aditi Kapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham′s anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps.

  1. Results of 4-year analysis of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors in renal transplant patients: single-center experience.

    Sert, Mehmet; Celik, Ali; Kural, Kemal; Ersan, Sibel; Ataca, Pinar; Atila, Koray; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Hüseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2011-01-01

    In this retrospective study, 83 patients were accepted. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) group consisting of 37 patients were converted from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), and the control group included 46 patients (initially CNI-receiving patients). As a control-match of each mTOR inhibitor patient, the succeeding patient with transplantation who continued CNI therapy was chosen. All patients received CNI, MMF, and prednisolone as an immunosuppressive therapy initially. In comparison of two groups, there was no significant difference between sex, donor organ source, donor organ ischemia time, or mismatches. However, mean age between groups was significantly different (mTOR group: 48.3 ± 12, CNI group: 38.6 ± 11, p < 0.001). Decision of conversion to mTOR inhibitors in 30 patients was made by biopsy. The reasons for conversion were determined as CNI nephrotoxicity in 15 patients, chronic allograft nephropathy in 15 patients, malignancy in 6 patients, and renal artery stenosis in 1 patient. Basal glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were markedly lower in mTOR group than in CNI group (38.8 mL/min vs. 72.7 mL/min). At the end of 48-month follow-ups, GFR increased from 38 mL/min to 54 mL/min in mTOR group; however, it decreased to 53 mL/min from 72 mL/min in CNI group. There was no difference left between the two groups in GFR after 4-year follow-up. Hyperlipidemia was higher in mTOR group. Acute rejection rates were similar. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was more prevalent in CNI group. Graft failure developed due to secondary reasons, causing mortality in both groups. We suggest that conversion to mTOR inhibitors maintains and improves graft functions well. PMID:21787153

  2. A Microeconomic Analysis of Institutions

    Olsson, Ola

    2000-01-01

    This survey paper has three themes; a microeconomic analysis of institutions, an institutional analysis of microeconomics, and a discussion on the scope for an "institutional microeconomics" that takes insights from psychology and older institutional theory into account. Institutions are defined as the long-run rules of the economy that have the character of public goods and whose main function is the reduction of transaction costs. The institutional requirements for the Walrasian equilibrium...

  3. Individ, institution og samfund

    I denne antologi giver en række førende fagpersoner deres bud på det nye fag "Individ, institution & samfund"'s indholdselementer. Emnerne tæller bl.a. styreformer- og styringslogikker, dannelse, institutionalisering, tværinstitutionelt arbejde, etik, social ulighed, globalisering og forvaltning af...

  4. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  5. East African institutions

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  6. International institutional law

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  7. Marketingour institution internationally

    Rooijen, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance is quickly taking on a vital role when it comes to managing the increasingly complex internationalisation process. Not only is it essential in reaching institutional goals in a controlled manner, it is also becoming an integral part of maintaining and improving every institution’s

  8. Confronting Institutional Racism.

    Keleher, Terry; Johnson, Tammy

    2001-01-01

    The best way to measure institutional racism is to examine effects (statistical outcomes), not intentions. Administrators can actively address racial inequality, collect realistic data, combine equity and quality considerations in all policies, support accountability while resisting high-stakes tests, involve the whole community, and avoid silver…

  9. Institute for Nuclear Theory

    This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion

  10. The branding of institutions.

    Stephenson, S

    1991-02-20

    Institutional operations capitalizing on national foodservice brands have seen sales increase as much as 40%, operators say. But what if operators choose to stay independent and develop their own brands? Our feature presents both business strategies and the concepts that are winning customers. PMID:10109711

  11. Developments at the inter faculty reactor institute

    The Inter faculty Reactor Institute is part of the Delft University of Technology. It is a central training and research facility for the Dutch Universities and it has a national function for providing expertise in nuclear reactors, ionizing radiation and radio nuclides to the academic community. The institute operates a 2 MW pool type unclear reactor with a maximum neutron flux of 1.5 x 1017 m -2s-1, a 3 MV pulsed electron accelerator, different positron sources and other experimental facilities for research with radio nuclides and radiation. In 5 scientific departments an extensive research program is carried out in the areas of neutron physics, Moessbauer spectrometry, radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, reactor physics and nuclear technology. The applications are mainly in the fields of materials science, environment and biology, sensors and instrumentation, energy and sustainable production technologies. On January first 1997 the institute obtained a new licence, which allowed the change from HEU to LEU. This change has been prepared and initiated. During a period of 4 years the total inventory of our core will be changed from HEU to LEU. In July 1997 the construction started for a new beam hall. In this building existing instruments will be positioned along with a number of new instruments that are currently being developed. The new instruments are in the first place connected with a newly developed intense positron source, which is connected to the reactor. Two new instruments are connected to this source: a positron - electron microscope and a 2-D angular correlation measuring set-up. During the past year new plans for future R and D have been initiated. The development started with an assessment of the quality of our R and D quality. In this process first a yardstick for quality was developed and used in a self assessment. Subsequently the Royal Dutch Academy of Science installed a panel of internationally recognised experts. They made the assessment. The

  12. Toward standard HER2 testing of endometrial serous carcinoma: 4-year experience at a large academic center and recommendations for clinical practice.

    Buza, Natalia; English, Diana P; Santin, Alessandro D; Hui, Pei

    2013-12-01

    HER2 overexpression and/or amplification have been reported in endometrial serous carcinoma, suggesting that HER2 may be a promising therapeutic target. However, there is considerable variation in the reported rates of HER2 overexpression and amplification, likely--at least in part--resulting from variability in the testing methods, interpretation, and scoring criteria used. Unlike in breast and gastric cancer, currently there are no established guidelines for HER2 testing in endometrial carcinoma. A total of 108 endometrial carcinoma cases--85 pure serous carcinomas and 23 mixed endometrial carcinomas with serous component--were identified over a 4-year period. All H&E and HER2 immunohistochemical slides were reviewed and HER2 FISH results (available on 52 cases) were retrieved from pathology reports. HER2 immunohistochemical scores were assigned according to the FDA criteria and the current breast ASCO/CAP scoring criteria. Clinical information was retrieved from the patients' medical records. Thirty-eight cases (35%) showed HER2 overexpression and/or gene amplification, 20 of which (53%) had significant heterogeneity of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Lack of apical membrane staining resulting in a lateral/basolateral staining pattern was observed in the majority of HER2-positive tumors. Five of the HER2-positive cases (13%) demonstrated discrepant immunohistochemical scores when using the FDA versus ASCO/CAP scoring system. The overall concordance rate between HER2 immunohistochemistry and FISH was 75% (39/52) when using the FDA criteria, compared with 81% (42/52) by the ASCO/CAP scoring system. In conclusion, in this largest comprehensive study, 35% of endometrial serous carcinoma harbors HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification, over half of which demonstrate significant heterogeneity of protein expression. The current breast ASCO/CAP scoring criteria provide the highest concordance between immunohistochemistry and FISH. Assessment of

  13. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  14. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our times will require new forms of social learning and political engagement that dramatically enhance capacities for institutional innovation.

  15. Empirical Analysis of Informal Institutions

    Park, Sang-Min

    2013-01-01

    The New Institutional Economics has established itself as widely accepted extension to the standard neoclassical paradigm. Here, institutions are defined as commonly known rules that structure recurring interaction situations and the corresponding sanctioning mechanism. For-mal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that is organized by the state. In-formal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that ...

  16. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE

    Tatiana Petrovna POPOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern linguistics attributes analysis of discourse to a most actual scientific problem. The paper considers different approaches to study of discourse, gives its short characteristics, describes its linguistic and extra linguistic features, and provides definitions of discourse. The article also describes several models of institutional discourse, the main features of which are normativeness, conventionality, hierarchy, appellate character, integrity, consistency etc. The author of the article carries out comparative analysis of the terms ―text‖ and ―discourse‖, taking into account various frames of reference of scholars dealing with this problem, considers some kinds of institutional discourse (e.g. electronic, pedagogical. Special attention is paid to academic discourse defined as a complex of all possible texts, which reflect scientific knowledge and have a high degree of inter-textuality. 

  18. Lanoteplase Genetics Institute.

    Hopfner, R

    2000-12-01

    Lanoteplase, a modified form of a tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) lacking fibronectin finger-like and epidermal growth factor domains, was developed by the Genetics Institute for the potential treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Suntory, the Japanese licensee, has filed an NDA in Japan for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) [301222]. It was also licensed to Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) for worldwide development (excluding Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan) [178225]. BMS conducted phase III trials for acute MI [272490] but discontinued development and returned the license to Genetics Institute during 1999 [359688]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted the drug had a 60% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2000. The analysts predicted peak sales would occur in 2006, with peak sales of $200 million in the US and US $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. PMID:11249701

  19. Institute for safety technology

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  20. Transportation Institutional Plan

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  1. Institutions and poverty.

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  2. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  3. Norwegian Fashion Institute

    Heggli, Karolina; Soraas, Nina Cathrine; Thorstensen, Nina Fredrikke; Thorso, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This report has been conducted in cooperation with Norwegian Fashion Institute (hereinafter NFI). NFI is a non-profit organisation that represents the participants within the Norwegian fashion Industry. It seeks to make Norwegian fashion brands recognized at home and overseas. There are 90 members in the organisation that represents the wide spectrum of Norwegian fashion. Obtaining knowledge of the market will help NFI promote Norwegian fashion brands in the UK and identify the...

  4. Crime, Corruption and Institutions

    Ishita Chatterjee; Ranjan Ray

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the link between crime and corruption, compares their magnitudes, determinants and their effects on growth rates. The study uses a large cross country data set containing individual responses to questions on crime and corruption along with information on the respondents’ characteristics. This data set is supplemented by country level indicators from a variety of sources on a range of macro variables and on institutions in the respondent’s country of residence. A methodolog...

  5. Institutions, Technology, and Trade

    Wolfgang Keller; Carol H. Shiue

    2008-01-01

    We study the importance of technology and institutions in determining the size of markets in five different countries and fifteen different German states. The setting of 19th century Europe presents a unique opportunity to address this issue, since it witnessed fundamental change in both dimensions. At the beginning of the century, numerous customs borders, separate currencies with different monetary systems, and poor transportation facilities were major obstacles that held back trade. Import...

  6. Institutional changes of SPACs

    Lakicevic, Milan; Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    We document the changes of corporate design of modern Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) from 2003 to 2012. We assign the impact on changes of SPACs to each of the three groups of stakeholders: founders, investors and underwriters and test whether institutional characteristics of SPACs determine the success of their merger outcomes. We document that SPACs significantly redesigned its structure in the period under observation. Additionally, the probability of the merger for SPACs ...

  7. Conditioning Institutions and Renegotiation

    Ramey, Garey; Watson, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a theory of contracting in long-term relationships, emphasizing the role of social institutions in conditioning players' joint selection of Equilibria. Players adopt a social conditioning system in order to place boundaries on their recurrent negotiation and thereby sustain a desirable joint selection of equilibrium. Social conventions have value because players cannot freely reinterpret the labels attached to histories, in contrast to labels that the players might assign internall...

  8. Conditioning Institutions and Renegotiation

    Ramey, Garey; Watson, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a theory of contracting in long-term relationships, emphasizing the role of social institutions in conditioning players' joint selection of equilibria. Players adopt a social conditioning system in order to place boundaries on their recurrent negotiation and thereby sustain a desirable joint selection of equilibrium. Social conventions have value because players cannot freely reinterpret the labels attached to histories, in contrast to labels that the players might assign internall...

  9. Mainstreaming Informal Financial Institutions

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Informal financial institutions (IFIs), among them the ubiquitous rotating savings and credit associations, are of ancient origin. Owned and self-managed by local people, poor and non-poor, they are self-help organizations which mobilize their own resources, cover their costs and finance their growth from their profits. With the expansion of the money economy, they have spread into new areas and grown in numbers, size and diversity; but ultimately, most have remained restricted in size, outre...

  10. Redefining the Institutional Repository

    Keene, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Repositories have grown in importance over the last 10 years to offer a core University and Library service, however, their role is developing faster now than it has ever done. Funder Open Access requirements, internal reporting, research data. Ref2020 and more are increasing the demands on the traditional repository, putting pressure on staff resources and challenging the underlying software. This webinar will outline these issues as well as look at how the needs and use of...

  11. Institutions and Labour Reallocation

    Bertola, Giuseppe; Rogerson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labour markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wage-setting institutions and job security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive t...

  12. Institutions and Labor Reallocation

    Giuseppe Bertola; Richard Rogerson

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labor markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wagesetting institutions and job-security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive the...

  13. Institute of physics

    A survey is given of the personnel and activities of the Institute of Physics. Research by staff of the Nuclear Physics Group includes mainly work on heavy ion reactions and investigations of rare earth nuclei. The Elementary Particle Group has studied antineutron and antiproton annihilations, neutral current pions minus and has used the CERN ISRs. The Cosmic Physics Group has used rockets, satellite data and balloons to study the electron and proton precipitation in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, and aurorae. (JIW)

  14. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions

    E. Stam; Nooteboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation along a cycle in which exploration and exploration follow upon each other. We place the roles of entrepreneurship in innovation policy within this cycle of innovation. Different types of innovation along the cycle of innovation are realized with different forms of entrepreneurship, which are constrained or enabled by different legal institutions. One of the key roles of governments is to design, change or destr...

  15. INSTITUTIONS AND FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Rose, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    As budgetary commitments outpace current revenues and long-term liabilities balloon, the fiscal sustainability of state and local governments is a matter of mounting concern. Over the years, these governments have experimented with a wide variety of political and fiscal institutions, ranging from direct democracy to balanced budget rules, with the goal of slowing the growth of government and increasing financial responsibility. This article synthesizes the related empirical literature, summar...

  16. HOLIDAY AS SOCIAL INSTITUTE

    Galaktionova Nelli Anatolyevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with holiday as social institute, stages of its institutionalization, such as emergence of need; formation of general objects and ideology proving them; development of social norms and rules;practical adoption of rules and procedures; establishment sanction system; creation of statuses and role system. On the example of Russian festive tradition the general institutional signs of a holiday are described, it is specified that the majority of holidays are at a stage of cultural symbol search having the behavior code; system of ideas; utilitarian and cultural lines; installations and examples of behavior. Taking into consideration the view of Nelli Galaktionova, we can say, that these principles explain the popularity of the Victory Day Holiday and not stable Russian holiday on the 12-th of June- day of Russia. It is stated that the absence of the ritual prevents the popularity of holiday in society. In the article obvious and latent functions of a holiday as social institute are described - regulatory function, integrative, broadcasting, function of reproduction of the social relations, socializing, educational, guarding, forming the culture, communicative, sociocultural, actable, function of leisure and rest organization, adaptive and compensatory, function of removal of ethical regulations. According to the author of article, the holiday is a basis of formation of national and state and civil identity.

  17. How (not) to measure institutions

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The statement “institutions matter” has become commonplace. A precondition for it to be supported by empirical evidence, is, however, that institutions are measurable. Glaeser et al. (2004) attacks many studies claiming to prove the relevance of institutions for economic development as being based on flawed measures of institutions, or not even on institutions at all. This paper shows that their criticism deserves to be taken seriously, but that it is somewhat overblown. Some of the difficult...

  18. Exploring How Perceptions of Blog Authenticity Shape Students' Conceptions about and Interactions with Institutions of Higher Education

    Sandlin, Jean Kelso

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to recruit digitally native high school students, admission professionals at colleges and universities are incorporating blogs on their websites in an effort to render authenticity in their marketing materials. Of 4-year accredited colleges and universities, 66% have a blog; 85% percent of institutions with blogs reported that their…

  19. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  20. Analgesia caudal continua guiada por ultrasonido en una paciente de 4 años Caudal anesthesia ultrasound-guided continuos flow in patient 4 years

    A. Beltrán Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La epidural caudal es la técnica más popular en anestesia y analgesia regional pediátrica. El empleo de una guía ecográfica en este procedimiento, aunque aún no es un estándar, podría disminuir los riesgos inherentes a la técnica tradicional y ofrecer algunas ventajas. Nosotros describimos el caso de una niña de 4 años sometida a una resección de un rabdomiosarcoma en muslo izquierdo con metástasis ganglionar inguinal e implantación de catéteres para braquiterapia; a quien se le colocó un catéter caudal para analgesia postoperatoria continua, usando la ultrasonografía (US como método para guiar la colocación de dicho catéter. Después de inducir anestesia general, se realizó un escaneo ecográfico previo de la zona sacra identificando la anatomía, posteriormente después de implementar las medidas antisépticas y asépticas se colocó un catéter caudal guiado por US en tiempo real y con modo Doppler color se confirmó la posición en el espacio epidural caudal al inyectar una dosis en bolo de mezcla anestésica. Se presentó un adecuado control del dolor postoperatorio. El uso de US es una excelente alternativa a las técnicas clásicas fundamentadas en anatomía para la inserción de catéteres epidurales continuos en pediatría y permite ciertas ventajas que las técnicas a ciegas no pueden brindar.Caudal epidural is the most popular regional analgesia and anesthesia technique in pediatrics. The use of ultrasound (US guidance in this procedure, is not yet the standard, but could reduce the risks related with the traditional approach and offer some advantages. We described a case of a 4-years-old patient undergoing a resection of a rabdomyosarcome on the left thigh plus inguinal metastatic nodes and implantation of brachitherapy catheters, in whom a continous caudal epidural catheter was placed under US guidance. After general anesthesia induction, a scout scanning identified the anatomy and afterwards, using strict

  1. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  2. EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAG ANALYSIS OF A 4 YEAR-OLD CHINESE STURGEON PITUITARY%4龄中华鲟垂体的EST分析

    曹宏; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis is an efficient tool for gene discovery and for profiling gene expression. In order to isolate specific functional genes involved in reproduction and endocrine regulation and to reveal their evolutionary mechanisms in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray) , a chondrostean fish with a history of 140 million years, we constructed its pituitary cDNA library from a 4 year-old male. A total of 944 random clones were sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank database. Among all the 944 EST clones, 802 (84.96%) clones were identified as 461 known genes, and additional 142 (15.04%) as unknown genes. Functional categorization indicated that the most abundantly expressed functional gene was the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which accounted for almost 10. 17% of the overall expression, indicating its important function in the pituitary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of 7 unknown genes were analyzed in various tissues, such as heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, testes, ovary and pituitary. Three different categories of expression patterns were observed from them. Several unknown ESTs, such as EG009334, EG009337, EG009338 and EG009340, were detected to be pituitary-specific, or pituitary and ovary-specific genes. Further studies on their functions will be very useful for better understanding the mechanisms of sturgeon reproduction biology and endocrinology.%表达序列标签(Expressed sequence tag,EST)是鉴定基因表达规律和发现新基因的一种有效的分子生物学手段.为了能在中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis Gray)中发现与生长和生殖内分泌调控相关的基因,我们构建了中华鲟垂体的SMART cDNA质粒文库.垂体是调节生长和生殖内分泌的重要器官.在本研究中,通过测序筛选得到了944个EST克隆,将所得EST与GenBank数据库中的序列进行比对,结果表明,802(84.96%)个克隆可以找到同源序列,共代表461个基因,其中含132

  3. Solar Technology Institute

    For the past three years, Ken Olson and Johnny Weiss and their staff have been quietly delivering the tools of sustainable development to people in places as diverse (or similar) as Manhattan and the jungles of Colombia. Their delivery vehicle is the Solar Technology Institute, officially launched in May of 1991. Founded on thirty years of combined experience and inspired by Johnny and Ken's most recent work in developing countries, STI reflects its founders' evolving abilities to tackle environmental energy and development challenges on a global scale. This article describes the STI and highlights some of its global activities in education and application of solar technology

  4. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world...... than others, namely that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay...... attention to and regulate positional concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  5. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  6. Institute annual report 2004

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Digitalization of daycare institutions

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    meaningful for the respective pedagogical practice. Against this background, the presentation will in particular explore what this digitalization process may entail for the aim of promoting reciprocal intergenerational communication and practice. It draws on recent work in childhood geography as well as on...... devices affect the relational spatiality of situated intergenerational communication and practice? The presentation will build on preliminary findings from an ethnographically inspired empirical pilot study in a daycare institution. It aims at prototyping a conceptual framework which assists in...... purposefully tackling the above questions through implementing reciprocal intergenerational communication and practice as a tool of collaborative inquiry and analysis....

  8. Institute annual report 2004

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  9. 10-month angiographic and 4-year clinical outcome of everolimus-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in patients with diabetes mellitus (the DiabeDES IV randomized angiography trial)

    Maeng, Michael; Baranauskas, Arvydas; Christiansen, Evald H J;

    2015-01-01

    randomized 213 patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease to EES (n = 108) or SES (n = 105) implantation. Angiographic follow-up was performed 10 months after the index procedure and all patients were followed clinically for 4 years. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late luminal loss...... at 10-month follow-up. Secondary endpoints included angiographic restenosis rate, the need for target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, or TLR) at 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: At 10-month...... and coronary artery disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  10. Institutions, innovation and growth / Institutions, innovation et croissance

    Spinesi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The general argument of this dissertation focuses on the relationship and interplay between institutions, both private and public, the innovation process, and growth. The first essay focuses on institutional quality, inequality and growth. The results show that bad institutional quality widens income inequality and reduces the per-capita output growth rate. Moreover, bad institutional quality increases inequality in consumption level between unskilled and skilled workers. With a full informat...

  11. Institutional and Non-Institutional Explanations of Economic Differences

    Stanley L. Engerman; Sokoloff, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Although we cannot conceive of processes of economic growth that do not involve institutional change, in this essay we outline some reasons why one should be cautious about grounding a theory of growth on institutions. We emphasize how very different institutional structures have often been found to be reasonable substitutes for each other, both in dissimilar as well as similar contexts. The historical record, therefore, does not seem to support the notion that any particular institution, nar...

  12. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  13. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  14. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  15. International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy

    Chapman, Terrence L.

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…

  16. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...... relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...

  19. Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years

    Majid S Al-Thaqafy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that the implementation of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI ventilator bundle alone or with other preventive measures are associated with reducing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP rates. However, the association with ventilator utilization was rarely examined and the findings were conflicting. The objectives were to validate the bundle association with VAP rate in a traditionally high VAP environment and to examine its association with ventilator utilization. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the adult medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2010 and 2013. VAP data were collected by a prospective targeted surveillance as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN methodology while bundle data were collected by a cross-sectional design as per IHI methodology. Results: Ventilator bundle compliance significantly increased from 90% in 2010 to 97% in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001. On the other hand, VAP rate decreased from 3.6 (per 1000 ventilator days in 2010 to 1.0 in 2013 (P for trend = 0.054 and ventilator utilization ratio decreased from 0.73 in 2010 to 0.59 in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001. There were negative significant correlations between the trends of ventilator bundle compliance and VAP rate (cross-correlation coefficients −0.63 to 0.07 and ventilator utilization (cross-correlation coefficients −0.18 to −0.63. Conclusion: More than 70% improvement of VAP rates and approximately 20% improvement of ventilator utilization were observed during IHI ventilator bundle implementation among adult critical patients in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Replicating the current finding in multicenter randomized trials is required before establishing any causal link.

  20. Institutional Repository Bibliography, Version 1

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The Institutional Repository Bibliography (IRB) presents selected English-language articles, books, and other scholarly textual sources that are useful in understanding institutional repositories. Although institutional repositories intersect with a number of open access and scholarly communication topics, this bibliography only includes works that are primarily about institutional repositories. For example, an article dealing with the NIH open access policy would not be included, but one dea...

  1. Emerging Institutions: Pyramids or Anthills?

    Czarniawska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In the present text, an institution is understood to be an (observable) pattern of collective action, justified by a corresponding social norm. By this definition, an institution emerges slowly, although it may be helped or hindered by various specific acts. From this perspective, an institutional entrepreneur is an oxymoron, at least in principle. In practice, however, there are and always have been people trying to create institutions. This paper describes the emergence of London School of ...

  2. Institutions, Firms and Economic Growth

    Jane Frances

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on institutions and explores the ways in which institutions can influence economic growth, with a particular focus on how institutions affect the use that firms make of human capital to improve their productivity. It discusses the influence of underlying institutions, such as law and order and secure property rights, on the general environment within which the economic activities of production and exchange takes place. It also explores the influence of activi...

  3. Institutions matter, but which ones?

    Pranab K. Bardhan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the narrow focus of the current institutional economics literature in development on the institutions protecting individual property rights, and to look at the economic effects of some other aspects of institutional quality on the development process (like democratic participation rights and institutions to address coordination failures). Another purpose is to suggest an alternative instrumental variable in quantifying the effects of property rights i...

  4. HISTORY OF THE LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE.

    HILL, ARCHIBALD A.

    THIS HISTORY, CONTAINED IN THE 1964 BULLETIN OF THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE, GIVES AN ACCOUNT OF THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTE FROM ITS FOUNDATION (IN 1928) AND EARLY SESSIONS UNDER THE DIRECTORSHIP OF EDGAR H. STURTEVANT. IT OFFERS A CONDENSED, YEAR-BY-YEAR DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTE'S ACTIVITIES, MAKING NOTE OF…

  5. Improving Institutional Report Card Indicators

    McGowan, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Institutional report cards are increasingly being used by higher educational institutions to present academic outcomes to external audiences of prospective students and parents, as well as program and institutional evaluators. While some prospective students are served by national transparency measures most users mine information from the…

  6. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  7. Gaining independence through institutional repositories

    Buckholtz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    The author presents SPARC's Initiative about open archives and its relationship with the OAI. Institutional repositories are institutionally defined as a content generated by institutional community, have a scholarly content: preprints and working papers, published articles, enduring teaching materials, student theses, etc. And also are cumulative and perpetual (preserve ongoing access to material) and interoperable and open access: free, online, global.

  8. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  9. Studying institutional work in organizations

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – In order to provide new and other directions to institutional studies in organization theory, Lawrence and Suddaby forward the notion of institutional work of actors aimed at maintaining, changing and disrupting institutions. The purpose of this paper is to further theory and method...... in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... and anthropology. Findings – The ways have been analyzed in which social theories of human agency in institutional contexts and field methodology have co-evolved in an inter-disciplinary perspective. The analysis shows how field methodologies may provide inspirations to theory and method in studying institutional...

  10. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  11. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  12. NEWS: Institute news

    2000-03-01

    Recognition for teachers The Institute of Physics has continued its programme of recognition for inspiring teachers with nine Teachers Awards in 2000, one at primary level and eight at secondary. The quality and quantity of nominations for secondary awards was very encouraging, especially those nominations made by students, but the number of nominations for teachers in the primary sector was disappointing. The award winners are: Teacher of Primary Science Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Gill Stafford, Greens Norton Church of England Primary School, Towcester, Northants Teachers of Physics (Secondary) John Allen, All Hallows High School, Penwortham, Preston Tim Gamble, Lings Upper School, Northampton Denise Gault, Dalriada School, Ballymoney, Co Antrim Ian Lovat, Ampleforth College, North Yorkshire David Smith, Highgate School, North London Clive Thomas, Newcastle Emlyn Comprehensive School Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Mark Travis, Cape Cornwall School, St Just, Cornwall If you know a teacher in a local primary school who is doing an exceptional job in motivating youngsters and colleagues in the teaching and learning of science, why not consider nominating them for an award? Further details can be obtained from the Institute's Education Department (Steven Chapman) by post or e-mail (schools.education@iop.org .) Annual Congress More details are now available on the various activities at this event taking place on 27 - 30 March 2000 at the Brighton Conference Centre. Among those organized by the Education Department are general science and technology hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 to 12 and more specific physics activities on Static Electricity for older students: * A series of short talks with hands-on demonstrations of music and musical instruments given by musicians, manufacturers and physicists. * A chance for students in years 9 to 13 to experience music making from the professionals' perspective. Mornings, 28 to 30 March

  13. The California Hazards Institute

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  14. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  15. PSI Paul Scherrer Institute

    From research activities focused on civil and military uses of nuclear energy and developed after the second world war, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) has been able to diversify its activities following 2 axis. First, the Gantry proton-therapy that is characterized by a compact equipment and an accurate 3-dimensional treatment of tumors (more than 260 patients have been treated by Gantry from 1996 to 2005). Secondly, new technologies in the fields of energy and transport. Nevertheless, PSI has been able to keep a high of valuation of its staff in nuclear engineering and materials that are the core of its activities. The main equipment of PSI are: -) SLS (Swiss Light Source): a synchrotron radiation source that is both a microscope and an X-ray source; -) SINQ: a neutron source based on spallation reactions; -)SμS: a muon source; and -) the Philips accelerator that is used in radiochemistry and the production of isotopes used for the treatment of eye tumors. PSI has established a large cooperation with French research laboratories on issues like: nuclear reactor safety, synchrotron radiation, the transmutation of nuclear wastes, the design of a source of ultra-cold neutrons, or the development of a hydrogen-fueled light vehicle. The total budget of PSI for 2007 reached 174.2 million euros. (A.C.)

  16. NEWS: Institute news

    2000-07-01

    When Mary took up her appointment in the Institute's Education Department in June 1997, she indicated that she wished to return to teaching in two or three years. We have just heard that in September she will be joining the staff of the Science Department at Camden Girls' School, London. Mary's departure from the Institute is a great loss to the Department, where she has worked tirelessly, and with great imagination, to support those who teach physics at all secondary levels - and at primary level too when the opportunity presented itself. She has made tremendous contributions to the careers side of the Department's work, supporting careers events, providing informal training for others willing to do the same, helping to develop new careers materials and identifying people whom the Institute could use as role models or as the subject of case studies in print or electronic publications. Mary has been equally happy and willing to support pupils, students and teachers, and has been a wonderful role model herself, coming from an industrial research background, training for teaching after a career break and willing and able to teach biology, chemistry and design technology as well as physics. Mary has also written and edited Phases virtually single-handed. We are delighted to hear that Mary will continue to support the department's work as one of its teacher `volunteers'. Ilya Eigenbrot We are pleased to report that Ilya Eigenbrot, who will be known to some through his work at the Royal Institution and his appearances at the Christmas Lectures in a technical support role, has agreed to give the IOP Schools (touring) Lecture next year. The subject will be Lasers and this will follow nicely on to Zbig's lecture this year. Resources (print) Physics on Course The tenth issue of the Institute's popular guide to higher education, Physics on Course 2001, will be published early in July and distributed to all schools and colleges in the United Kingdom and the Republic of

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Relation to Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Dysfunction Among Southern Chinese Elderly Men: A 4-Year Prospective Study of Mr OS Hong Kong.

    Liu, Zhao-min; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Dicken; Tse, Lap Ah; Yip, Benjamin; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The role of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in relation to prostate health remains inconclusive. This 4-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of FV intake and the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, a cluster of chronic urinary symptoms occurring in bladder, prostate and urethra), incidence of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese elderly men. Data were obtained from a 4 years longitudinal study (Mr OS Hong Kong, the largest prospective study on bone health in Chinese elderly). Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 years and older were recruited from the local community, of whom 1998 (99.9%) at baseline and 1564 (78.2%) at 4-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, which were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS). Erectile function was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaires at 2- (n = 386) and 4-year (n = 475) follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Analysis was conducted using multivariate linear and logistic regression. For total FV and most of their subclasses, moderate consumption had the lowest mean changes of LUTS; we thus applied the moderate levels as the reference in the regression models. The high levels of total FV intake (>350  g/1000  kcal/day) were significantly associated with reduced IPSS by scores of -1.174 ± 0.459 (or -17.3% of basal IPSS, P = 0.011) relative to the moderate groups (250-350  g/1000  kcal/day). FV consumption had no significant association with the score change of ED or the odds of sexual activities at 4-year (all P > 0.05). High intake of dark and leafy vegetables (>50  g/1000  kcal/day) significantly reduced the risk of LUTS progression by 37.2% [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI): 0.628 (0.466∼0.848), P = 0.002] or risk of symptomatic BPH by 34.3% [OR (95% CI): 0

  18. Taking Stock on Institutional Entrepreneurship

    Leca, Bernard; Battilana, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2006-01-01

    entrepreneurship. It also presents the enabling conditions that have been previously identified and reviews the research methods that have been applied to the study of institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, based on this analysis, this paper highlights future directions for research on this topic. Researchers...... may use this paper to build targeted and sophisticated research designs that add value to the emerging body of literature on institutional entrepreneurship.Keywords: Institutional Entrepreneur, Institutional Change, Paradox of Embedded Agency......This paper analyzes the literature that has been published on institutional entrepreneurship since Paul DiMaggio introduced this notion in 1988. Based on a systematic selection and analysis of articles, the paper outlines an emerging consensus on the definition and process of institutional...

  19. Commensalistic institutions and value conflicts

    Botterill, Linda Courtenay; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    of global private standard schemes have been developed that have incorporated values rejected by the SPS Agreement. This paper examines the relationship between the Agreement and the private standards and argues that this case highlights a gap in the institutional literature with respect to parallel...... institutions emerging autonomously from the primary institution to embody values excluded by the latter. We adopt the term commensalism for these previously undescribed relationships....

  20. Governance and Australian Financial Institutions

    Kevin Davis

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines issues of corporate governance arising from the activities of financial institutions and markets. It is argued that governance problems are particularly severe in financial institutions vis-a-vis firms in other industries, and particularly important for society given the central role of financial institutions and markets in the financing and corporate governance activities of the economy. Processes of financial reform and financial system design have, it is argued, general...

  1. Risk Disclosure by Financial Institutions

    Financial and Payment System Department

    1997-01-01

    Public disclosure by financial institutions has long provided information about business performance through the publication of financial statements. In recent years, however, a number of financial institutions have come to focus on disclosure of a wider range of information, including their management policies. This is partly attributable to the expansion of derivatives transactions, which has made risk management techniques increasingly important in the management of financial institutions,...

  2. Institutions and Comparative Regional Research

    Stallmann, Judith I.

    2010-01-01

    This is a personal view of regional science, which draws on my experiences and my training in both institutional economics and regional economics. I will start with some of those experiences and the questions they raised for me about the importance of institutions1 in regional development and some of the difficulties of doing comparative regional research. While I include regions at many levels of aggregation, my particular interest is how to incorporate institutions into the analysis of regi...

  3. Growth of Indian Institutional Repositories

    Sawant, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study estimated the number and the rate of growth of digital documents of Indian institutional repositories. Total 16 institutional repositories were identified using various sources of information such as: Literature; Search by search engines especially Google; Directories of archives / repositories; Blogs etc. It was observed that the IISc repository contained highest number of digital documents (6305) was the first institutional repository available to users for submission and ...

  4. Management of Indian Institutional Repositories

    Sawant, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates various issues concerning the management of institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Data collection done using a web based questionnaire, created using software provided by surveymonkey.com. The entire population i.e. all IRs identified in India were surveyed. It was observed that in 42.86% (6) of Institutional Repositories implementation programmes were headed by librarians. No special staff was appointed by any institution for carrying out different jobs...

  5. Asset Prices and Institutional Investors

    Basak, Suleyman; Pavlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that trades by institutional investors have sizable effects on asset prices, generating phenomena such as index effects, asset-class effects and others. It is difficult to explain such phenomena within standard representative-agent asset pricing models. In this paper, we consider an economy populated by institutional investors alongside standard retail investors. Institutions care about their performance relative to a certain index. Our framework is tractable, adm...

  6. Developing a sustainable institutional repository

    White, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide an assessment of the factors involved in the development of sustainable platforms and processes for institutional repositories, drawing on the experience of the team at the University of Southampton and from project initiatives in the UK. It will look at the fundamental integration of repositories into the cultural, financial and technical structures of institutions to promote healthy repository growth. How do we effectively link repository development to institutional...

  7. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the...

  8. What institutions help immigrants Integrate?

    Huber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 77, 38 pages I analyse the importance of national migration policy and labour market institutions for immigrants’ labour market integration. Results indicate that the sending country structure of immigrants to a country, its ethnic diversity and its wage bargaining institutions as well as product market regulation are the most important national institutions impacting immigrants’ labour market integration. Variables related to the generosity of the welfare state...

  9. Institutions and the resource curse

    2002-01-01

    Countries rich in natural resources constitute both growth losers and growth winners. We claim that the main reason for these diverging experiences is differences in the quality of institutions. More natural resources push aggregate income down, when institutions are grabber friendly, while more resources raise income, when in- stitutions are producer friendly. We test this theory building on Sachs and Warner's influential works on the resource curse. Our main hypothesis: that institutions...

  10. Institutions, Education, and Economic Performance

    Lim, Jamus Jerome; Adams-Kane, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interactions between governance, educational outcomes, and economic performance. More specifically, we seek to establish the linkages by which institutional quality affect growth by considering its mediating impact on education. While the contribution of both human capital and institutions to growth are often acknowledged, the channels by which institutions affect human capital and, in turn, growth, has been relatively underexplored. Our empirical approach adopts a tw...

  11. New Institutions and Economic Liberalisation

    Demid Golikov

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how the organization of society, the complexity of the economy, and its level of technological development influence the relationship between the institutions of democracy and economic growth; why the foundation of democracy and market institutions at the same time, in a society without a relevant historical background, remains problematical; and whether enforcement of the institutions of democracy is helpful for stabilization and further sustainability of growth.

  12. Marketing of an Educational Institution

    Šijan, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the area of marketing for educational institutions. First part is focused on general theoretical aspects of marketing of services, specificity of marketing for educational institutions and marketing communication. The operative part attends to a selection of an educational institution, an execution of an analysis of internal and external environment of the school, an implementation of a marketing research recognizing image of the school and based on that des...

  13. Institutional PLEs. Paradise or paradox?

    Davis, Hugh; White, Su

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to create an institutional personal learning environment? This question has recently triggered considerable debate amongst those concerned with implementing learning and teaching technologies within higher education, For some the argument lies in the fundamental (linguistic) paradox of claiming that the institutional can be personal. Others would derive from this a pedagogic perspective and argue that reliance and use of any institutional initiative and infrastructure would nec...

  14. Leadership in Islamic Education Institution

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-01-01

    Education institution may not be separated by social system. It can be formal and informal education. A formal education institution such as school, Islamic school or Islamic boarding school is in social environment and bringing a basic value and law from its institution. Meanwhile, Islamic education institution is believed as tool to reach the aim of education. The aim of education is hard to reach if there is no leadership in it. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  15. INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Ruxandra-Adriana MATEESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review previous developed studies regarding the institutional investors’ issue, as the influence they exert in the companies they invest in is growing in importance. In the first part, the paper tries to review the existing literature regarding the institutional investors’ research theme, especially regarding their attitude towards investment, while the second main part will try to describe the presence of institutional investors in Romanian listed companies. Also, the paper aims to review previous studies regarding the influence of institutional investors over corporate governance mechanisms (especially board’s members’ independence and composition and financial and non-financial disclosure practices.

  16. Fostering Institutional Creativity at Multiple Levels: Towards Facilitated Institutional Bricolage

    Douglas J. Merrey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems occur when institutional arrangements for collective management of food and water systems fail to meet demands. Many of the problems characterising river basins and other collectively managed water resource systems can be ascribed largely to the failure of institutions to enable problems beyond the individual to be managed collectively. The nature of these demands, and the institutional responses to them, vary widely and are not amenable to simple definitions and prescriptions. We begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to analysing institutions and organisations, focused largely, but not exclusively, on river basins. We observe that attempts to reduce the institutional landscape of river basins to over-simplistic formulas introduces more problems than solutions, because the reality is that institutions evolve through complex creative processes that adopt and adapt diverse ingredients – rather like making a stew. Despite such intricacies, institutions are clearly non-random, so we continue a search for a means of describing them. We adopt the concept of bricolage, as proposed by Cleaver and others, and use it to show the value of promoting and facilitating an organic creative approach to building and strengthening river basin and other water management institutions.

  17. The Uranium Institute

    Full text: The Uranium Institute has run a World Wide Web site since July 1995 and has seen user sessions reach around 5600 per week. The site comprises some 700 pages of news and information and has attracted a good deal of favourable comment. The site is intended as an information resource to augment the service provided by the UI Information Service and is aimed at both industry and non-industry web users. The actual user community includes UI members and others from the industry, mining and financial analysts, lots of students and school children, journalists and a large number of unknown individuals. Hopefully the workshop can be used to examine user reactions to industry sites and get some idea of the extent to which we are talking to ourselves over the net rather than talking to our 'publics'. Although the Ul was quite early on the web scene by nuclear standards, development of the UI site has proceeded fairly slowly and the accent has always been on good quality information. With 170,000 visitors per year site use indicates that there is a demand for nuclear information while responses indicate that there is a substantial body of quiet nuclear support which welcomes the opportunity to communicate with the industry. Does the web help to pull the industry and its supporters together? The WWW has often been portrayed as a vehicle which allows good news and information to be communicated direct to the 'public' but attempts to realise this opportunity have not always met with success. The UI has had a generally positive experience with its web site but this is not universally the case. I would like to explore the background to this both in my presentation and in the subsequent discussion. My general theme is to ask the question 'What do users want from a nuclear related web site and are we providing it?'. Conversely it is pertinent to ask the question, 'does what the users seem to want coincide with what we wish to supply?'. I will seek to address these

  18. What predicts incident use of cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence? A 4-year prospective examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young adults

    Sydow, Kirsten von; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine risk factors of incident onset of use, abuse and dependence of cannabis in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Risk factors were examined in a prospective longitudinal design across 4 years in a representative sample (N=2446) aged 14-24 at the outset of the study (EDSP). Patterns of DSM-IV defined cannabis use, abuse and dependence were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Potential risk factors were ass...

  19. Distributed Learning and Institutional Restructuring.

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the following challenges institutions must consider as they enter the new marketplace of distributed learning: library access, faculty workload, faculty incentives, faculty-support structures, intellectual property, articulation agreements, financial aid, pricing, cross-subsidization of programs, institutional loyalty and philanthropy,…

  20. Institute enriching students in Africa

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).