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Sample records for 4-month infant temperament

  1. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  2. Temperament of premature infants with cerebral palsy

    Ryu, Hyo Jeong; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the infant temperaments of children with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected through questionnaires sent to 118 mothers of infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Results] Different infant temperament scores were obtained according to the degrees of disability, type of palsy, birth weights, gestational age, and periods of hospitalization in an NICU; however, the differences ...

  3. Temporal bisection in 4-month-old infants.

    Provasi, Joëlle; Rattat, Anne-Claire; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The present study was the first to investigate infants' ability to discriminate time using a bisection task that has been extensively used with animals and human adults. Infants aged 4 months were presented with two standard auditory signals, one short (S = 500 ms) and one long (L = 1,500 ms), and were trained either to look to the left after S and to the right after L, or vice versa. During the test phase, the infants were then presented with intermediate durations without reinforcement as well as the two reinforced standard durations, for which the reinforcement was either immediate or delayed of 3 s. The times spent by the infants looking to the right, left or away from the target after the stimulus duration were coded by two blind coders. The results revealed an orderly psychophysical function with the proportion of long responses increasing with signal duration. The point of subjective equality (Bisection Point) was closer to the geometric mean of the short and long standard duration than to their arithmetic mean. Modeling using the scalar timing models revealed that our infants had a relatively high sensitivity to time but that their temporal performance was affected by the fact that they made a large number of random responses. The development of the perception of time is discussed in the light of similarities and differences in temporal bisection performance between different species (rats and humans) and the different levels of development observed within a given species. PMID:20804277

  4. Differences in infant temperament between Chile and the US.

    Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament. For the first aim, 150 Chilean infants aged 10-15 months were assessed, and 73 US infants aged 10-15 months were examined for the second aim. The children's parents completed a demographic questionnaire and the IBQ-R-VSF, which measures three dimensions of temperament: Surgency, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. The reliability of each dimension for the Chilean sample was between 0.70 and 0.75, and significant differences between Chilean and US infants emerged. Parents of Chilean infants reported higher levels of Effortful Control, whereas US parents reported that their infants exhibited higher levels of Negative Affectivity. A relationship between parents' higher educational level and infants' higher levels of Surgency was found for both countries. No gender or age differences were observed for any of the three temperament dimensions. These results and their implications for cultural studies are discussed. PMID:27450101

  5. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%). Bre

  6. Contributions of Attentional Style and Previous Experience to 4-Month-Old Infants' Categorization

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; Oakes, Lisa M.; McMurray, Bob

    2012-01-01

    We examined how infants' categorization is jointly influenced by previous experience and how much they shift their gaze back and forth between stimuli. Extending previous findings reported by K. A. Kovack-Lesh, J. S. Horst, and L. M. Oakes (2008), we found that 4-month-old infants' (N = 122) learning of the exclusive category of "cats" was related…

  7. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  8. Rotary Motion Impairs Attention to Color Change in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Kavsek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Continuous color changes of an array of elements appear to stop changing if the array undergoes a coherent motion. This "silencing" illusion was demonstrated for adults by Suchow and Alvarez ("Current Biology", 2011, vol. 21, pp. 140-143). The current forced-choice preferential looking study examined 4-month-old infants' sensitivity to the…

  9. Brain responses in 4-month-old infants are already language specific.

    Friederici, Angela D; Friedrich, Manuela; Christophe, Anne

    2007-07-17

    Language is the most important faculty that distinguishes humans from other animals. Infants learn their native language fast and effortlessly during the first years of life, as a function of the linguistic input in their environment. Behavioral studies reported the discrimination of melodic contours [1] and stress patterns [2, 3] in 1-4-month-olds. Behavioral [4, 5] and brain measures [6-8] have shown language-independent discrimination of phonetic contrasts at that age. Language-specific discrimination, however, has been reported for phonetic contrasts only for 6-12-month-olds [9-12]. Here we demonstrate language-specific discrimination of stress patterns in 4-month-old German and French infants by using electrophysiological brain measures. We compare the processing of disyllabic words differing in their rhythmic structure, mimicking German words being stressed on the first syllable, e.g., pápa/daddy[13], and French ones being stressed on the second syllable, e.g., papá/daddy. Event-related brain potentials reveal that experience with German and French differentially affects the brain responses of 4-month-old infants, with each language group displaying a processing advantage for the rhythmic structure typical in its native language. These data indicate language-specific neural representations of word forms in the infant brain as early as 4 months of age. PMID:17583508

  10. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant...... temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....

  11. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  12. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts. PMID

  13. Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants.

    Bremner, Andrew J; Bryant, Peter E; Mareschal, Denis

    2006-01-01

    An appreciation of object-centred spatial relations involves representing a 'within-object' spatial relation across changes in the object orientation. This representational ability is important in adult object recognition [Biederman, I. (1987). Recognition-by-components: A theory of human image understanding. Psychological Review, 94, 115-147; Marr, D., & Nishihara, H. K. (1978). Representation and recognition of the spatial organisation of three-dimensional structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B (Biological Sciences), 200, 269-294; Tarr, M. J., & Pinker, S. (1990). When does human object recognition use a viewer-centred reference frame? Psychological Science, 1, 253-256] and is also thought to be a fundamental component of the mature object concept [Piaget, J. (1954). The Construction of Reality in the Child. Routledge & Kegan-Paul: London, UK. (Originally published in French in 1937)]. An experiment is reported in which eighteen 4-month-old infants were familiarised to a specific spatial relation within an object, across six different orientations of the object. On subsequent test trials the object was presented to the infants in an entirely novel orientation. Between successive test trials the within-object spatial relation was alternated between novel and familiar. The infants demonstrated significant sensitivity of their looking to both the novelty of the stimuli and the order in which novel and familiar stimuli were presented. It is concluded that by 4 months of age infants are able to form object-centred spatial frames of reference. These findings are discussed in the light of our current understanding of the development of object representation during infancy. PMID:17138256

  14. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  15. Parent-reported Temperament Trajectories among Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    del Rosario, Mithi; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Temperament atypicalities have been documented in infancy and early development in children who develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigates whether there are differences in developmental trajectories of temperament between infants and toddlers with and without ASD. Parents of infant siblings of children with autism completed the Carey Temperament Scales about their child at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. Temperament trajectories of children with ASD reflected...

  16. Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood.

    Woodward, S A; McManis, M H; Kagan, J; Deldin, P; Snidman, N; Lewis, M; Kahn, V

    2001-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) were evaluated on 10-12-year-old children (N = 56) who had been classified as high or low reactive to unfamiliar stimuli at 4 months of age. BAER measurement was selected because high reactive infants tend to become inhibited or fearful young children, and adult introverts have a faster latency to wave V of the BAER than do extroverts. Children previously classified as high reactive at 4 months had larger wave V components than did low reactive children, a finding that possibly suggests greater excitability in projections to the inferior colliculus. The fact that a fundamental feature of brainstem activity differentiated preadolescent children belonging to two early temperamental groups supports the value of gathering physiological data in temperament research. PMID:11444488

  17. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship. PMID:25913568

  18. Ruptured giant intrathoracic lipoblastoma in a 4-month-old infant: CT and MR findings

    Park, C.H.; Kim, K.I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital (Korea); Lim, Y.T. [Department of Paediatrics, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea); Chung, S.W. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea); Lee, C.H. [Department of Surgical Pathology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Background. We describe a 4-month-old infant with a ruptured intrathoracic lipoblastoma arising from the parietal pleura and associated with a pleural effusion. Objective. The clinical presentation was rapidly evolving respiratory distress. The chest radiograph showed a large mass and a pleural effusion in the right thoracic cavity. CT demonstrated an inhomogeneous low-attenuation mass which was 7 cm in diameter and which showed areas of enhancement after intravenous contrast medium. MRI showed a fatty intrathoracic mass with intratumoral streaks and whorls, which were attributed to loose fibrovascular connective tissue on pathological examination. Results. Thoracotomy and pathological examination revealed a ruptured intrathoracic lipoblastoma arising from the parietal pleura. Conclusion. The pleural effusion might have suggested rupture of the tumour. (orig.)

  19. The temperament of preterm infant in preschool age

    Morales M Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments

  20. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health. PMID:19554438

  1. Different amounts of protest in 4-month-old infants of depressed vs. non-depressed mothers

    Gufler, Sandra Rejnholdt; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Harder, Susanne

    Amount of vocal protest was measured in 4-month-old infants of depressed vs. non-depressed mothers during 10 minute face-to-face interaction. The sample consisted of two groups of mothers with their infants: depressed (n=17) and non-depressed (n=49), in total N=66. Vocal protest was measured using...... PRAAT phonetic software and manual, reliable coding. Results showed that infants of depressed mothers expressed a lower amount of vocal protest compared to infants of non-depressed mothers as measured in mean percentage of time (p <.001)....

  2. The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months.

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Sullivan, Serena E; de Jersey, Susan J; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-10-01

    Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted. PMID:27133549

  3. Parents' personality and infants' temperament as contributors to their emerging relationship.

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Friesenborg, Amanda E; Lange, Lindsey A; Martel, Michelle M; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2004-05-01

    The authors examined the contributions of infant's temperament and parent's personality to their relationship. In Study 1, 102 infants, mothers, and fathers were studied when infants were 7 months; in Study 2, 112 infants and mothers were followed from 9 to 45 months. Infants' temperament (joy, fear, anger, and attention) was observed in standard temperament paradigms. Parents' personality measures encompassed the Big Five traits and Empathy in Study 1 and Mistrust, Manipulativeness, Aggression, Dependency, Entitlement, and Workaholism in Study 2. Parent-child relationship (shared positive affect and parental responsiveness in Studies 1 and 2 and parental tracking of the infant in Study 1) was observed in naturalistic contexts. In Study 1, mothers' Neuroticism, Empathy, and Conscientiousness and fathers' Agreeableness, Openness, and Extraversion related to the relationship with the infants. All measures of infant temperament also related to the emerging relationship. In Study 2, maternal Mistrust, Manipulativeness, Dependency, and Workaholism predicted the relationship with the child. PMID:15161398

  4. Infant Temperament Moderates Relations between Maternal Parenting in Early Childhood and Children's Adjustment in First Grade

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…

  5. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the base of the skull in a 4-month-old infant - CT findings

    An unusual case of giant cell reparative granuloma of the base of the skull of a 4-month-old infant is described. Computerized tomography was useful in defining extent of the lesion and soft tissue abnormalities. Differential diagnosis with other giant cell lesions is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    Tees, Michael T.; Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; BUEKENS, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2009-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant te...

  7. A longitudinal study of offspring born to methadone-maintained women. II. Dyadic interaction and infant behavior at 4 months.

    Bernstein, V; Jeremy, R J; Hans, S L; Marcus, J

    1984-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of offspring born to substance abusers, we assessed 17 methadone-exposed and 23 comparison 4-month-old infants using the Bayley Scales, and videotaped their interaction with their mothers. In analyzing the Bayley Infant Behavior Record we found that the methadone-exposed group differed from the comparison group on motor functioning but not significantly on social or cognitive behaviors; methadone-exposed infants were more tense, active, and poorly coordinated than comparisons. Using a scale we developed, we rated communicative functioning in dyadic interactions, and related mothers' interactive performance to their psychological and psychosocial resources and infants' interactive performance to their behavioral functioning as assessed on the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Applying a multidimensional technique, Guttman's Partial Order Scalogram Analysis by Coordinates (POSAC), we found an intriguing relationship that generalized across drug and comparison groups: greater tension than activity, with high tension especially, related to poorer functioning, but tension lower than activity related to better functioning. Specifically, infants who were tense and not active were also poorest on social functioning (low responsiveness to people and low cooperativeness) and showed short attention span and low persistence combined with high interest in sights and sounds. On the other hand, infants who showed low-to-moderate tension and moderate-to-high activity were highly responsive and cooperative; some also had long attention span and high persistence coupled with interest in sights and sounds. Infants who were both very tense and very active were poor on social functioning. Furthermore, most infants with tension higher than activity did poorly in communicating with their mothers, while infants with tension lower than activity interacted well. The POSAC technique has enabled us to identify meaningful subgroups of infants who were not merely

  8. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  9. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families

    Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer a...

  10. Recognition of Faces and Greebles in 3-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Temperament and Cognitive Abilities

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Lamm, Bettina; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether temperament and cognitive abilities are related to recognition performance of Caucasian and African faces and of a nonfacial stimulus class, Greebles. Seventy Caucasian infants were tested at 3 months with a habituation/dishabituation paradigm and their temperament and cognitive abilities…

  11. Behavior of Infant Chimpanzees during the Night in the First 4 Months of Life: Smiling and Suckling in Relation to Behavioral State

    Mizuno, Yuu; Takeshita, Hideko; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the behavior of 3 newborn chimpanzees in the first 4 months of life, reared by their mothers and living in a community of 14 chimpanzees in a semi-natural enriched environment. We focused on spontaneous activity during the night partly because sleeping behavior constitutes an essential part of the infants' activity.…

  12. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. PMID:27082752

  13. Attachment Classification from the Perspective of Infant-Caregiver Relationships and Infant Temperament.

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1985-01-01

    Temperament and attachment, as defined by Bowlby and his followers, are fundamentally different constructs, and research guided by the attachment perspective cannot meaningfully be assimilated to the temperament construct. Qualitative aspects of relationships simply cannot be reduced to individual behavioral dimensions. (RH)

  14. The association of temperament and maternal empathy with individual differences in infants' neural responses to emotional body expressions.

    Rajhans, Purva; Missana, Manuela; Krol, Kathleen M; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    We examined the role of infant temperament and maternal dispositional empathy in the neural processing of happy and fearful emotional body expressions in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials. Our results revealed that infants' tendency to approach novel objects and people was positively correlated with the neural sensitivity (attention allocation) to fearful expressions, while infant fearfulness was negatively correlated to the neural sensitivity to fearful expressions. Maternal empathic concern was associated with infants' neural discrimination between happy and fearful expression, with infants of more empathetically concerned mothers showing greater neural sensitivity (attention allocation) to fearful compared to happy expressions. It is critical that our results also revealed that individual differences in the sensitivity to emotional information are explained by an interaction between infant temperament and maternal empathic concern. Specifically, maternal empathy appears to impact infants' neural responses to emotional body expressions, depending on infant fearfulness. These findings support the notion that the way in which infants respond to emotional signals in the environment is fundamentally linked to their temperament and maternal empathic traits. This adds an early developmental neuroscience dimension to existing accounts of social-emotional functioning, suggesting a complex and integrative picture of why and how infants' emotional sensitivity varies. PMID:26439071

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  16. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  17. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Shiau Yun Chong

    Full Text Available Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044. Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85 for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32 when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53 but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53 when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

  18. Genetic Influence on Tester-Rated Infant Temperament as Assessed by Bayley's Infant Behavior Record: Nonadoptive and Adoptive Siblings and Twins.

    Braungart, Julia M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) assessed the temperament of 95 nonadoptive and 80 adoptive sibling pairs at 1 and 2 years of age. Data from this and an earlier similar study of identical and fraternal twins yielded evidence for genetic influence for IBR factors of extraversion, activity, and task orientation. (BC)

  19. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

    Fujiko Yamada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%. The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.4%–4.3% and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%, respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering.

  20. Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Methylation Associates With Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay and 3-Month-Old Temperament in Preterm Infants.

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay are early adverse stressful experiences, which may result in an altered temperamental profile. The serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), which has been linked to infant temperament, is susceptible to epigenetic regulation associated with early stressful experience. This study examined a moderation model in which the exposure to NICU-related stress and SLC6A4 methylation moderated infant temperament at 3 months of age. SLC6A4 methylation at 20 CpG sites was quantified in preterm infants (N = 48) and full-term infants (N = 30) from Italian middle-class families. Results suggested that in preterm infants NICU-related stress might be associated with alterations of serotonergic tone as a consequence of SLC6A4 methylation, which in turn, might associate with temperamental difficulties assessed at 3 months of age. PMID:26822441

  1. Serotonin Transporter Gene ("SLC6A4") Methylation Associates with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay and 3-month-old Temperament in Preterm Infants

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay are early adverse stressful experiences, which may result in an altered temperamental profile. The serotonin transporter gene ("SLC6A4"), which has been linked to infant temperament, is susceptible to epigenetic regulation associated with early stressful experience. This study…

  2. Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by…

  3. Self-reported maternal parenting style and confidence and infant temperament in a multi-ethnic community: results from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John

    2014-03-01

    Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months. PMID:23749252

  4. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Associations between Infant Fussy Temperament and Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Goodnight, Jackson A; Donahue, Kelly L; Waldman, Irwin D; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2016-09-01

    Previous research suggests that fussy temperament in infancy predicts risk for later antisocial behavior (ASB) in childhood and adolescence. It remains unclear, however, to what extent infant fussiness is related to later ASB through causal processes or if they both reflect the same family risk factors for ASB. The current study used two approaches, the comparison of siblings and bivariate biometric modeling, to reduce familial confounding and examine genetic and environmental influences on associations between fussiness in the first 2 years of life and ASB in childhood and late adolescence. Analyses were conducted on data from a prospective cohort (9237 at 4-9 years and 7034 at 14-17 years) who are the offspring of a nationally representative sample of US women. In the full sample, fussiness predicted both child and adolescent ASB to small but significant extents, controlling for a wide range of measured child and family-level covariates. When siblings who differed in their fussiness were compared, fussiness predicted ASB in childhood, but not ASB during adolescence. Furthermore, results from a bivariate Cholesky model suggested that even the association of fussiness with childhood ASB found when comparing siblings is attributable to familial factors. That is, although families with infants who are higher in fussiness also tend to have children and adolescents who engage in greater ASB, the hypothesis that infant fussiness has an environmentally mediated impact on the development of future ASB was not strongly supported. PMID:27105627

  5. Maternal oxytocin response during mother–infant interaction: Associations with adult temperament

    Strathearn, Lane; Iyengar, Udita; Fonagy, Peter; Kim, Sohye

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with social affiliation and maternal caregiving. However, its effects appear to be moderated by various contextual factors and stable individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-reported state and trait measures (such as temperament, mood and affect) with peripheral oxytocin response in mothers. Fifty-five first-time mothers participated in a semi-structured procedure, during which time repeated periph...

  6. Links between Infant Temperament and Neurophysiological Measures of Attention to Happy and Fearful Faces

    Martinos, Marina; Matheson, Anna; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Developing control of attention helps infants to regulate their emotions, and individual differences in attention skills may shape how infants perceive and respond to their socio-emotional environments. This study examined whether the temperamental dimensions of self-regulation and negative emotionality relate to infants' attention…

  7. Capnography Guided Awake Nasal Intubation in a 4 Month Infant with Pierre Robin Syndrome for Cleft Lip Repair-A Better Technique

    Pramod Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This four-month-old Pierre Robin child was admitted for cleft lip repair with history of two failed attempts at intubation and subsequent cancellation of surgery. The capnography guided awake nasal intubation was considered as the child′s parents were desperate to get the surgery done. A modified cuffless endotracheal tube was used with a capnography sampling tube placed within it. With the capnograph guidance the expiratory gas flow was followed to successfully intubate the child.This technique was found to be very convenient and helpful. The use of this technique in an infant has not been reported so far.

  8. Behavioral Genetics and Child Temperament

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2005-01-01

    Most temperament theories presume a biological basis to those behavioral tendencies thought to be temperamental in origin. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to test this assumption. Twin and adoption studies suggest that individual differences in infant and child temperament are genetically influenced. However, behavioral genetics has much more to offer to the study of temperament than simple heritability estimates. The present paper describes some recent findings from behavioral genetic...

  9. Nervous temperament in infant monkeys is associated with reduced sensitivity of leukocytes to cortisol’s influence on trafficking

    Capitanio, John P.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that temperament/personality factors are associated with immune function and health-related outcomes. Neuroticism, in particular, is a risk-factor for several diseases, many with a strong inflammatory component. We propose that neuroticism (or nervous temperament in monkeys) is related to dysregulation of immune function by glucocorticoids. The present study tested the hypothesis that animals with a nervous temperament would show no relationship between cortisol conc...

  10. Effect of maternal antepartum psychological therapy upon early infant temperament%孕期心理干预对婴儿气质的影响

    杨杰; 程利南; 施慎逊; 陈焱; 余文; 朱雍雍; 汤月芬; 陆雯; 王青青; 罗剑锋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out whether there was any change in early infant temperament after mothers had received group psychological therapy on depression and anxiety during pregnancy period. Methods A total of 800 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria, without the exclusion criteria and willing to sign the informed consent were recruited randomly from Shanghai International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital in their 16th-20th weeks of pregnancy. They were randomized into the therapy group and the control group by the doll randomization table. Women in the therapy group would have a group psychological therapy for 6 times, 1.5 hours each time, while the control group not. The group psychological therapy included therapist introduction and participator discussion. The therapy concerned the antepartum and postpartum depression, the risk factors concerned with antepartum and postpartum depression,antepartum and postpartum anxiety, psychological defense theory, reflex training and spouse lesson. Mothers reported their babies' infant temperament by filling the early infant temperament questionnaire (EITQ) within 3 months post-delivery. Results The percent of easy infant temperament type was 87. 9% in the psychological therapy group and 81.7% in the hard group. And there was significant difference between two groups (χ2=4. 530, ν=1, P=0. 033). And there were significant differences in the dimensions of approach-withdrawal and threshold of responsiveness in infant temperament between two groups. Conclusion The maternal antepartum psychological therapy can increase the ratio of easy infant temperament. And it has effects upon the temperament dimensions of approach-withdrawal and threshold of responsiveness.%目的 研究孕期心理干预对婴儿气质的影响.方法 从2005年3月到2006年2月间在上海市国际和平妇幼保健院登记建卡的孕妇中随机抽取的800名符合入组条件,没有排除标准的孕妇.根据孕妇门诊号及入组日期,

  11. The Young Child's Temperament: Implications for Child Care.

    Anderson-Goetz, Diana; Worobey, John

    1984-01-01

    Reviews approaches to the study of temperament and ways in which knowledge about temperament can be helpful in planning day care and counselling parents. Discusses the nine dimensions of temperament developed by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1965) to describe infants and children and standardized instruments for measuring temperament developed by…

  12. Social Support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: A Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.

    1986-01-01

    Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

  13. Analysis of iron deficiency anemia of 4 months-3 years old infants in Jinan City%济南市4个月至3岁婴幼儿缺铁性贫血调查分析

    苑赟; 刘淑珍; 鞠丽娜; 孙燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解济南市药山社区婴幼儿缺铁性贫血现状,探讨影响济南市儿童缺铁性贫血的影响因素,促进小儿健康成长.方法 对2007年10月至2010年12月来山东黄河医院儿保门诊健康查体的1 094例4个月至3岁健康足月婴幼儿进行研究,查末梢血血常规,分析各年龄段贫血患病率,进一步分析贫血与6个月内喂养方式、母亲文化程度、喂养习惯与缺铁性贫血的关系.结果 药山社区4个月至3岁婴幼儿缺铁性贫血总患病率为37.9%(415/1 094),其中轻度贫血占88.2%(366/415),中度贫血占11.8%(49/415).贫血的患病率与月龄、母亲文化程度、6个月内喂养方式、是否合理添加辅食有关,6个月~<12月婴儿患病率明显高于其他组(χ2=14.95~31.93,P<0.01);母亲文化程度高者贫血的患病率低(χ2=10.86~47.02,P<0.01);人工喂养者的患病率明显高于母乳和混合喂养者(χ2=15.26~23.38,P<0.01);合理添加辅食者贫血的患病率明显下降(χ2=31.18,P<0.01).结论 药山社区婴幼儿贫血总患病率仍较高,贫血现状不容乐观,应采取有效措施大力改善婴幼儿营养性缺铁性贫血.%Objective To understand the current situation of iron deficiency anemia ( IDA ) in infants and young children in Yaoshan Community of Jinan City and to explore the influencing factors of IDA in the studied community, so as to promote the healthy growth of them. Methods From October 2007 to December 2010, 1 094 cases of 4 months to 3 years old healthy full-term infants and young children visiting child health outpatient for health examination were studied. Their peripheral blood samples were taken to analyze the prevalence of anemia at different ages. Further relationship between IDA and feeding patterns in the first 6 months, and the maternal education, and feeding was analyzed. Results The total prevalence rate of IDA was 37. 9% ( 415/1 094 ) in the studied children in Yaoshan Community, including 88.2% ( 366

  14. Analysis of temperament characteristics of 206 infants aged 5~ 11 months%5~11个月婴儿气质特点206例分析

    张永明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate temperament characteristics of infants and guide parents to rear the infants and develop a good emotional response. [Method] 206 infants were surveyed with Carey's Temperament Questionnaire Scale. [Results] The proportion of infants with different temperament types in this district was 36. 2% for easy type and 41. 4% intermediate low child type,8. 6% for difficult type and 6. 7% for intermediate high child type and 7. 1 % for slow-to-warm up type of temperament. There were significant the cesarean section group and the spontaneous delivery group in distribution of all temperament types(x2 = 10. 391 ,P = 0. 034). There were no significant differences in gender dimensions of infant tem-perament(all P>0. 05). There were no significant gender differences in distribution of all temperament types(x2 = 5. 002,P = 0. 287). [Conclusion] To carry out the work of early childhood development, more attention should be paied to earlychildhood temperament characteristics.%[目的]了解婴儿气质特征,指导家长科学养育,培养婴儿良好的情绪、情感反应. [方法]采用《Carey5~11月婴儿气质问卷》,对西城区社区保健科206名5~11月婴儿进行调查分析. [结果]婴儿的主要气质类型分别为:易养型(36.2%)、中间偏易养型(41.4%)、困难型(8.6%)、启动缓慢型(7.1%)、中间偏难养型(6.7%).剖宫产婴儿与自然分娩婴儿气质特点的比较,差异有统计学意义(x2=10.391,P=0.034);不同性别婴儿气质维度中,男童与女童无显著性差异(P均>0.05);不同气质类型分布之间性别比较差异无统计学意义(x2=5.002,P=0.287). [结论]开展儿童早期综合发展工作,应重视早期儿童的气质特点.

  15. Relationship of postnatal depressive symptoms to infant temperament, maternal expectations, social support and other potential risk factors: findings from a large Australian cross-sectional study

    Eastwood John G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in women living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Methods Mothers (n=15,389 delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2–3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were EPDS >9 and >12. Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of EPDS >9 was 16.93 per 100 (95% CI: 16.34 to 17.52 and EPDS >12 was 7.73 per 100 (95% CI: 6.96 to 7.78. The final parsimonious logistic regression models included measures of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother’s expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother’s country of birth. Conclusions Infant temperament and unmet maternal expectations have a strong association with depressive symptoms with implications for the design of both preventative and treatment strategies. The findings also support the proposition that social exclusion and social isolation are important determinants of maternal depression.

  16. Infant Temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and Similarities between Russian-Speaking Families

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Peleg, Yana; Young, Brandi N.; Slobodskaya, Helena R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses cross-cultural differences between infants born to families of Russian immigrants in USA and Israel, as well as Russian families residing in Russia, with the emphasis on evaluating the impact of immigration and acculturation. Community samples of primary caregivers of infants between 3 and 12 months of age were…

  17. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  18. Infant and maternal predictors of early life feeding decisions. The timing of solid food introduction.

    Doub, Allison E; Moding, Kameron J; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of solid food introduction. The current study examined how maternal feeding style and infant temperament independently and interactively predicted the age at which infants were introduced to solid food. Data from 115 predominately white, middle-class mothers were collected when infants were 4 and 6 months of age. The timing of solid food introduction was positively correlated with mothers' age, education, breastfeeding at 4 months, self-reported responsiveness to infants' hunger and satiety cues, and negatively correlated with mothers' pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), beliefs about feeding infants solid food prior to 6 months of age, and infants' temperamental motor reactivity. When controlling for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, and milk feeding method at 4 months, the timing of solid food introduction was negatively predicted by mothers' beliefs about feeding solid food prior to 6 months of age. Exploratory interaction analyses suggested that infant temperament marginally moderated maternal feeding style in predicting the timing of solid food introduction. PMID:26025089

  19. 哮喘婴幼儿的气质类型及其母亲人格因素分析%Temperament Types of Infants with Asthma and Personality Factors of Their Mothers

    吴星东; 江瑞芬; 谢辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore temperament features of infants with asthma and personality characteristics of their mothers, and to provide a basis for clinical comprehensive treatment and early intervention. Methods Forty-five infants with asthma were enrolled between March and May 2010 as asthma group. In addition, 45 normal subjects were selected as control group. Temperament features of infants were assessed with Carry Temperament Scale and personality characteristics of their mothers were evaluated with Carter's 16 personality factor questionnaire. Results Scores of emotional nature dimension in asthma group were higher than those in control group (3. 03 ± 0. 65 vs 2. 65 ± 0. 58,P0. 05). Scores of sensitivity, anxiety and tension of mothers of asthma infants were higher than those of mothers of normal infants (6. 19 ± 1. 57 vs 5. 52± 1. 12, 5. 06 ± 1. 51 vs 3. 95 ± 1. 81, and 5. 60 ± 1. 64 vs 4. 43 ±1. 72, respectively; P0.05).哮喘组母亲敏感性、忧虑性、紧张性分值均高于对照组[(6.19±1.57)分比(5.52±1.12)分、(5.06±1.51)分比(3.95±1.81)分、(5.60±1.64)分比(4.43±1.72)分,均P<0.05];而心理健康因素分值低于对照组[(22.20±5.31)分比(24.75±5.29),P<0.05].结论 在加强哮喘患儿情绪本质的管理,从人格因素入手,加强对哮喘婴幼儿母亲的健康教育有利于疾病的综合防治.

  20. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission

  1. Facial Expressivity at 4 Months: A Context by Expression Analysis.

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The specificity predicted by differential emotions theory (DET) for early facial expressions in response to 5 different eliciting situations was studied in a sample of 4-month-old infants (n = 150). Infants were videotaped during tickle, sour taste, jack-in-the-box, arm restraint, and masked-stranger situations and their expressions were coded second by second. Infants showed a variety of facial expressions in each situation; however, more infants exhibited positive (joy and surprise) than negative expressions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) across all situations except sour taste. Consistent with DET-predicted specificity, joy expressions were the most common in response to tickling, and were less common in response to other situations. Surprise expressions were the most common in response to the jack-in-the-box, as predicted, but also were the most common in response to the arm restraint and masked-stranger situations, indicating a lack of specificity. No evidence of predicted specificity was found for anger, disgust, fear, and sadness expressions. Evidence of individual differences in expressivity within situations, as well as stability in the pattern across situations, underscores the need to examine both child and contextual factors in studying emotional development. The results provide little support for the DET postulate of situational specificity and suggest that a synthesis of differential emotions and dynamic systems theories of emotional expression should be considered. PMID:16878184

  2. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sens...

  3. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  4. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia in 4-month-old, presented with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity

    Akram Aljahdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT is a rare disease affecting calcium metabolism and results in severe life-treating hypocalcemia of the neonates. Diagnosis can be challenging due to variable and nonspecific symptomatology. We are reporting on a 4-month-old female infant presenting with respiratory distress and chest wall deformity. We are trying to highlight different surgical options for this rare disease and importance of close collaboration with the pediatric endocrinologist in the treatment plan for those patients.

  5. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values measure most associated with a diagnosis of autism. For those with abnormal ABRs, increases in preference for higher rates of stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. PMID:23165989

  6. Evidence for interplay between genes and parenting on infant temperament in the first year of life: monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates effects of maternal sensitivity on infant anger proneness

    Pickles, A.; Hill, Jonathan; Breen, G.; Quinn, J.; Abbott, K.; Jones, H.; Sharp, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The low expression polymorphism of the MAOA gene in interaction with adverse environments (G × E) is associated with antisocial behaviour disorders. These have their origins in early life, but it is not known whether MAOA G × E occurs in infants. We therefore examined whether MAOA G × E predicts infant anger proneness, a temperamental dimension associated with later antisocial behaviour disorders. In contrast to previous studies, we examined MAOA G × E prospectively using an obs...

  7. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  8. Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories from 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Two goals guided this study: (a) describe changes in infant fear and anger reactivity from 4 to 16 months and (b) examine the degree to which infant temperament, attentional regulation, and maternal sensitivity predict reactivity trajectories. Participants included 143 mothers and infants (57% male) who visited the laboratory at 4, 8, 12, and 16…

  9. Early Temperament and Attachment Security with Mothers and Fathers as Predictors of Toddler Compliance and Noncompliance

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study (n?=?106) examined associations between temperament, attachment, and styles of compliance and noncompliance. Infant negative temperamental reactivity was reported by mothers at 3, 5 and 7?months. Infant attachment was assessed (Strange Situation) at 12 (mothers) and 14?months (fathers). Toddlers' styles of…

  10. Temperament Characteristics of Suicide Attempters.

    Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa

    1985-01-01

    In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…

  11. Temperament and its Association with Autism Symptoms in a High-risk Population.

    Garon, Nancy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M; Brian, Jessica; Roncadin, Caroline; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Armstrong, Vickie; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Roberts, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Temperament was investigated in a group of high-risk infants (N = 383; 45 % girls) who had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in community control infants (N = 162; 46 % girls) with no family history of ASD (low-risk). The infants were assessed at age 12 months using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and at 24 months using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire. At 36 months, an independent blind diagnostic assessment for ASD was conducted using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). The results indicate not only differences in temperament traits between the high- and low-risk groups, but also differences in the structure of higher-order temperament factors. The results support the importance of early reactive temperament in the development of Effortful Control in the high-risk sample. Furthermore, Effortful Control at 24 months appears to play a critical role in predicting later ASD symptoms (at 36 months). Taken together, these findings support the use of early temperament as an endophenotype for ASD. PMID:26315156

  12. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  13. Associations Between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of individual differences in social responsiveness in young children. The sample consisted of 62 infants assessed at 2-, 3-, and 4-years-old. Measures of t...

  14. Revising the Musical Equal Temperament

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2015-01-01

    Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of $2^{1/12}$. Although this temperament has been in use since the 19th century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this paper we confirm this conjecture quantitatively. Using entropy as a measure for harmonicity, we show numerically that the harmonic optimum is in fact obtained for frequency ratios larger than $2^{1/12}$. This suggests that the equal temperament should be replaced by a harmonized temperament as a new standard.

  15. Dietary iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy and the development of type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    Ashraf Ambika P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To investigate the impact of iron intake on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Methods Case-control study with self-administered questionnaire among families of children with T1DM who were less than 10 years old at the time of the survey and developed diabetes between age 1 and 6 years. Data on the types of infant feeding in the first 4 months of life was collected from parents of children with T1DM (n = 128 and controls (n = 67 Results The median (min, max total iron intake in the first 4 months of life was 1159 (50, 2399 mg in T1DM cases and 466 (50, 1224 mg among controls (P Conclusion In this pilot study, high iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy is associated with T1DM. Whether iron intake is causal or a marker of another risk factor warrants further investigation.

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis surgically replaced 4 months after implantation

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Engstrøm, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a new and rapidly evolving treatment option for high-risk surgical patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Long-term results with these new valve prostheses are lacking, and potential valve dysfunction and failure would require valve replacemen....... We report the first case of surgical valve replacement in a patient with a dysfunctional transcatheter-implanted aortic valve prosthesis 4 months after implantation....

  17. Personality and temperament.

    Lilenfeld, Lisa Rachelle Riso

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of personality and temperament in the context of eating disorders (EDs) poses unique challenges because of the physiological symptoms and sequelae of these illnesses. Four models of the relationship between personality and EDs are presented, along with a discussion of the different methodological designs which can evaluate these models. Current data support the likelihood that neuroticism and perfectionism are risk factors for EDs. Perfectionism and the related obsessive-compulsive personality disorder may also share a common cause with anorexia nervosa. High harm avoidance and low self-directedness also characterize all EDs, though more data are needed to confirm their role as risk factors; importantly however, this combination of traits may diminish one's ability to cope with stressful life events. At the other end of the spectrum, considering impulsivity multidimensionally may be important to understanding the role of this personality trait in EDs, though existing data do not yet allow for conclusions regarding its role as a risk factor versus a consequence of the ED. All of the identified traits that may be risk factors are also exacerbated as a consequence of having, or having had, an ED. Finally, the role of personality disorders in influencing the course and outcome of EDs is still unclear. A fruitful avenue for future research in this area is to utilize personality and temperament to classify individuals in a way that allows for the best chance of identifying genetic loci that confer increased risk for EDs. PMID:21243467

  18. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds’ Perception of Object Identity

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we investigated the effects of changing object shape and color, singly and in combination, on 4-month-olds’ perception of object continuity. A change in the ...

  19. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and at...

  20. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant–mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant–father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant–mother and infant–father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  1. Associations between child temperament, maternal feeding practices and child body mass index during the preschool years: a systematic review of the literature.

    Bergmeier, H; Skouteris, H; Horwood, S; Hooley, M; Richardson, B

    2014-01-01

    It is a research priority to identify modifiable risk factors to improve the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention strategies. Research, however, has largely overlooked the role of child temperament and personality implicated in obesogenic risk factors such as maternal feeding and body mass index (BMI) of preschoolers. A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to investigate the associations between child temperament, child personality, maternal feeding and BMI and/or weight gain in infants and preschoolers; 18 papers were included in the review. The findings revealed an association between the temperament traits of poor self-regulation, distress to limitations, low and high soothability, low negative affectivity and higher BMI in infants and preschool-aged children. Temperament traits difficult, distress to limitations, surgency/extraversion and emotionality were significantly associated with weight gain rates in infants. The results also suggested that child temperament was associated with maternal feeding behaviours that have been shown to influence childhood overweight and obesity, such as using restrictive feeding practices with children perceived as having poor self-regulation and feeding potentially obesogenic food and drinks to infants who are more externalizing. Interestingly, no studies to date have evaluated the association between child personality and BMI/weight gain in infants and preschoolers. There is a clear need for further research into the association of child temperament and obesogenic risk factors in preschool-aged children. PMID:23957249

  2. Differential susceptibility to the effects of child temperament on maternal warmth and responsiveness.

    Lee, Eunju J

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and responsiveness) as well as plausible reasons for these differences. With 2,130 mothers of 14-month-old infants (51% male) as subjects, a regression mixture analysis identified three latent classes with varying associations between the child's temperament and mother-child interactions: nonsusceptible class, susceptible-high class, and susceptible-low class. Mother-reported depression was most predictive of class membership. Latent class differences in the maternal self-efficacy, marital conflict, and coparenting alliance were also found. On the other hand, family income, maternal employment, and the child's gender were not significant predictors of class membership when individual and contextual resources were considered. Overall, mothers with abundant individual and family resources (i.e., less depressed, highly self-efficacious, few marital conflicts, and high coparenting alliance with their spouse) showed that their interaction style with a child would vary according to the child's temperament, whereas mothers with slender resources interacted with their children in a less warm and responsive manner, regardless of the child's temperament. The implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:23991614

  3. Mothers of Anxious/Ambivalent Infants: Maternal Characteristics and Child-Care Context.

    Scher, Anat; Mayseless, Ofra

    2000-01-01

    Explored the antecedents of the ambivalent attachment pattern in Israeli infants. Found that mothers of ambivalent infants showed lower education level, higher separation anxiety, and higher parenting stress than mothers of secure infants. Infants' perceived difficult temperament did not discriminate between the two groups. Longer maternal work…

  4. Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants.

    Bremner, A.J.; Bryant, P. E.; Mareschal, D

    2006-01-01

    An appreciation of object-centred spatial relations involves representing a 'within-object' spatial relation across changes in the object orientation. This representational ability is important in adult object recognition [Biederman, I. (1987). Recognition-by-components: A theory of human image understanding. Psychological Review, 94, 115-147; Marr, D., and Nishihara, H. K. (1978) Representation and recognition of the spatial organisation of three-dimensional structure. Proceedings of the Roy...

  5. Infants’ neural responses to facial emotion in the prefrontal cortex are correlated with temperament: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Ravicz, Miranda M.; Perdue, Katherine L.; Westerlund, Alissa; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate decoding of facial expressions is critical for human communication, particularly during infancy, before formal language has developed. Different facial emotions elicit distinct neural responses within the first months of life. However, there are broad individual differences in such responses, so that the same emotional expression can elicit different brain responses in different infants. In this study, we sought to investigate such differences in the processing of emotional faces by analyzing infants’s cortical metabolic responses to face stimuli and examining whether individual differences in these responses might vary as a function of infant temperament. Seven-month-old infants (N = 24) were shown photographs of women portraying happy expressions, and neural activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Temperament data were collected using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, which assesses the broad temperament factors of Surgency/Extraversion (S/E), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulation (O/R). We observed that oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) responses to happy face stimuli were negatively correlated with infant temperament factors in channels over the left prefrontal cortex (uncorrected for multiple comparisons). To investigate the brain activity underlying this association, and to explore the use of fNIRS in measuring cortical asymmetry, we analyzed hemispheric asymmetry with respect to temperament groups. Results showed preferential activation of the left hemisphere in low-NE infants in response to smiling faces. These results suggest that individual differences in temperament are associated with differential prefrontal oxyHb responses to faces. Overall, these analyses contribute to our current understanding of face processing during infancy, demonstrate the use of fNIRS in measuring prefrontal asymmetry, and illuminate the neural correlates of face processing as modulated by temperament. PMID

  6. Infants’ neural responses to facial emotion in the prefrontal cortex are correlated with temperament: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Miranda M Ravicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate decoding of facial expressions is critical for human communication, particularly during infancy, before formal language has developed. Different facial emotions elicit distinct neural responses within the first months of life. However, there are broad individual differences in such responses, such that the same emotion can elicit different brain responses in different infants. In this study we sought to investigate such differences in the processing of emotional faces by analyzing infants’ cortical metabolic responses to face stimuli and examining whether individual differences in these responses might vary as a function of infant temperament.Seven-month-old infants (N = 24 were shown photographs of women portraying happy expressions, and neural activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Temperament data were collected using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, which assesses the broad temperament factors of Surgency/Extraversion (S/E, Negative Emotionality (NE, and Orienting/Regulation (O/R. We observed that oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb responses to happy face stimuli were negatively correlated with infant temperament factors in channels over the left prefrontal cortex (uncorrected for multiple comparisons. To investigate the brain activity underlying this association, and to explore the use of fNIRS in measuring cortical asymmetry, we analyzed hemispheric asymmetry with respect to temperament groups. Results showed preferential activation of the left hemisphere in low-NE infants in response to smiling faces.These results suggest that individual differences in temperament are associated with differential prefrontal oxyHb responses to faces. Overall, these analyses contribute to our current understanding of face processing during infancy, demonstrate the use of fNIRS in measuring prefrontal asymmetry, and illuminate the neural correlates of face processing as modulated by temperament.

  7. Longitudinal Links between Early Coparenting and Infant Behaviour Problems

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.; DeMaris, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    This study of 164 married couples examined longitudinal links between parents' perceptions of coparenting support and undermining by spouse at 6 months postpartum and infant behaviour problems at the age of 12 months after controlling for marital quality, individual parenting, and infant temperament. Multiple methods (i.e. parent reports and…

  8. How to Understand Your Child's Temperament

    ... own usual type. The ease with which a child adjusts to his environment is strongly influenced by his temperament - adaptability and ... experiences and interactions with other people, with his environment and by his health. By the time a child has reached the school years, his temperament is ...

  9. Temperament and Generativity during the life span

    Amelia Rizzo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aimed to collect and discuss a variety of studies that utilized the Temperament and Chatacter Inventory (TCI, an instrument developed by Cloninger in 1993, based on his psychobiological model of temperament and character. Searching on PubMed, 26 from 828 researches has been selected on the basis of four criteria: (a articles published in English between 1993 and 2013 and identified as empirical or longitudinal studies; (b reaserches conducted in non pathological sample; (c measuring temperamental traits or dimensions with the TCI; (d regarding relevant topics to generativity. Implication for Temperament and character of couples and about the transmission of temperament from parents to children are pointed out. In conlcusion it can be said that TCI is a valid instrument that can describe and predict couples relationship and child temperament and character, until the late adulthood.

  10. Infant Affect and Affect Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm with Mothers and Fathers: The Role of Infant Characteristics and Parental Sensitivity.

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Garwood, Molly Murphy; Powers, Bruce P.; Notaro, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined parents' and 4-month-old infants' behavior during face-to-face interactions. Results indicated that mothers and fathers were equally sensitive to their infants, and that infants' affect and regulatory behaviors were stable across mother-infant and father-infant situations in the still-face model. (BC)

  11. Does temperament influence language development? Evidence from preterm and full-term children.

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language

  12. The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence / O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança

    Patrícia Alvarenga; Cesar A. Piccinini

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and ...

  13. Affective temperament and personal identity.

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René

    2010-10-01

    The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood. PMID:20236706

  14. Trajectories of children's social interactions with their infant sibling in the first year: a multidimensional approach.

    Oh, Wonjung; Volling, Brenda L; Gonzalez, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Individual differences in longitudinal trajectories of children's social behaviors toward their infant sibling were examined simultaneously across multiple social dimensions: Positive engagement (moving toward), antagonism (moving against), and avoidance (moving away). Three distinct social patterns were identified: (C1) positively-engaged (n = 107, 50%); (C2) escalating-antagonism (n = 90, 42%); and (C3) early-onset antagonism (n = 16, 8%). Children in the positively-engaged class had high levels of positive engagement with their infant siblings, coupled with low levels of antagonism and avoidance. The escalating-antagonism class was positively-engaged in sibling interaction with a steep escalation in antagonistic behavior and avoidance from 4 to 12 months. Children in the early-onset antagonism class displayed the highest level of antagonistic behavior starting as early as 4 months, and became increasingly avoidant over time. A path model, guided by a Process × Person × Context × Time model, revealed that low parental self-efficacy heightened by parenting stress and children's dysregulated temperament was directly related to the escalating-antagonism pattern. Punitive parenting in response to children's antagonistic behavior increased the likelihood of being in the early-onset antagonism class. Together, the results highlighted heterogeneity in the earliest emergence of sibling interaction patterns and the interplay of child and parent factors in predicting distinct sibling interaction trajectory patterns. PMID:25664367

  15. Selection of Blood (Packed RBCs for Transfusion in Newborn Baby up to the Age of 4 Months

    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper selection of donor’s blood group is essential to prevent transfusion hazards. It is known that ABO antigen is fully developed at birth but the newborn baby does not produce ABO antibodies until 3 to 6 months of age. The ABO antibodies present in the serum of newborn babies are derived from mother’s blood due to placental transfer. So the blood group of the newborn baby is done by ABO antigen grouping (forward grouping only, antibody grouping (reverse grouping is not required. In case of transfusion of blood in newborn under 4 months of age, cross-matching of donor’s blood is done with the mother’s blood if it is available. We know, recipient’s same group of blood is always preferable in case of transfusion in adults or older children. But selection of blood for transfusion in the infants under 4 months of age depends on the mother’s blood group as well. If the mother’s blood group differs from the infant’s blood group, the infant’s same group of blood may not be selected for transfusion. For example, if the mother’s blood group is “O” and the newborn blood group is “A” or “B”, infant’s same group “A” or “B” group blood could not be transfused, because the anti-A & anti-B antibodies can be derived in the infant’s serum from mother’s blood which may react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the donor’s blood. In this case “O” group packed RBCs should be selected for transfusion. “O” group whole blood may contain IgG anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma which can react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the infant’s blood. So to avoid anti-A & anti-B antibodies in “O” group, plasma should be discarded and the packed RBCs should be transfused.In case of Rh-negative mother with Rh positive baby, Rh antibody may develop in mother’s blood and Rh antibody may enter into baby’s circulation, in this case the infant should be transfused with Rh-negative blood to avoid Rh

  16. Sleep and Temperament: Maternal Perceptions of Temperament of Sleep-Disturbed Toddlers.

    Sadeh, Avi; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sleep problems and temperament in 63 toddlers who had night-waking problems and 35 nonreferred toddlers. On the Toddler Temperament Questionnaire, night wakers showed lower sensory thresholds and less adaptivity than did controls. On the Parental Stress Index, night wakers were rated as more distractible, less…

  17. The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence / O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence were investigated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only maternal childrearing practices were significant to explain the variance in the externalizing behaviors and social competence. The work discusses the relevance of parental practices and the limitations of the evaluation of temperament and maternal responsiveness as predictors for the comprehension of social development.

  18. Negative temperament as a moderator of intervention effects in infancy: testing a differential susceptibility model.

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L

    2014-10-01

    A consideration of potential moderators can highlight intervention effects that are attenuated when investigating aggregate results. Differential susceptibility is one type of interaction, where susceptible individuals have poorer outcomes in negative environments and better outcomes in positive environments, compared to less susceptible individuals, who have moderate outcomes regardless of environment. In the current study, we provide rationale for investigating this type of interaction in the context of a behavioral childhood obesity preventive intervention and test whether infant negativity moderated intervention effects on infant self-regulation and weight gain and on two aspects of mothers' parenting competence: parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction. Results showed that infants' negative temperament at 3 weeks moderated intervention effects on some, but not all, outcomes. The intervention led to greater parenting satisfaction in mothers with highly negative infants but did not affect parenting satisfaction in mothers with less negative infants, consistent with a model of differential susceptibility. There was also a trend toward less weight gain in highly negative intervention group infants. In contrast, there was a main effect of the intervention on infant self-regulation at 1 year, such that the intervention group had higher observed self-regulation, across levels of infant negativity. Results support the importance of incorporating tests of moderation into evaluations of obesity interventions and also illustrate that individuals may be differentially susceptible to environmental effects on some outcomes but not others. PMID:23832637

  19. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    Abassi; Abolghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods ...

  20. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    Brock, M. E.; Freuler, A.; Baranek, G. T.; Watson, L. R.; Poe, M. D.; Sabatino, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations…

  1. Finding Your Fit: Some Temperament Tips for Parents

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This article describe one of the most robust notions from temperament research: "finding the fit" between the temperaments of child and caregiver. The authors provide parents with a series of questions to help them identify their child's temperament and suggestions for how to adapt to their child's style. (Note: This article is excerpted from the…

  2. 早期健全人格培养对儿童气质变化影响的研究%Study on the change in children's temperament by early cultivation of healthy personality

    黎宁真; 李红辉; 刘萍; 温源

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the influence of early cultivation of healthy personality on children's temperament, and to learn about the gap in children's temperament dimension between the treatment group and control group and thus provide a scientific basis for guiding Children's early integrated development. [Methods] 192 parent-child members with age from 0 to 3 years old from the early integrated development of Children's Health Department during 2009-2011 were selected as the treatment group for the study on the early cultivation of healthy personality. 212 children from the outpatient physical examination were selected randomly as the control group. Analysis had been carried out with the testing software for children's temperament by dividing them into 1 - 4 months,5~ 11 months and 1~3 years old group according to ages. [Results] There was a slight difference in children's temperament type between the treatment and control group in the 1 - 4 months and from the 5-11 months, while there was a great difference from 1~3 years old, with the treatment group tending to be raised easily. As for the difference in the temperament dimension of different ages between the treatment and control group,there was a difference in rhythmicity,phobotaxis,adaptability and quality of mood with increase in age,while with the extension in intervening time, temperament characteristics appeared after the intervention, such as low activity level, good rhythmicity, active mood, undispersed attention, low adaptability, decreasing perseverance and high reaction threshold. [Conclusions] Though temperament is a relatively stable individual mental characteristic,it will be changed in some degree under the influence from the later living environment and education. There is a great significance in cultivating infants' healthy personality from learning about the variability in the development of temperament.%[目的] 探讨早期健全人格培养对儿童气质变化的影响,了解干预组与对

  3. Infants' Social-Emotional Adjustment within a Childcare Context of Korea

    Kim, Min-Hee; Moon, Hyukjun

    2011-01-01

    In a child day-care setting, the naturally occurring social-emotional behaviours and play interaction of 51 infants were observed and recorded. Individual differences in gender, age, temperament, and maternal parenting behaviours were examined to understand how these variables might be related to social-emotional adjustment of infants. The…

  4. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...... variables, and these were proposed to reflect fearfulness, activity, exploration, and attention towards the environment. These hypothesised underlying temperamental traits were consistent with findings of previous studies using larger numbers of calves. Two learning PCs were extracted from the PCA on...

  5. A RULE BASED APPROACH TOWARDS DETECTING HUMAN TEMPERAMENT

    ShomoyeAbiodun R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a rule based system for detecting human temperament.. The system was developed to provide support for an expert psychologist in properly predicting the temperament of an individual as well as given advice to the user. The system does this by following specified rules. Of this, we have deduced some features that makes up known temperament types from which the system can accurately classify the user‘s temperament based on the person‘s characters. Also, our work is solely limited to temperament, any expert advice sought from and given by the system is limited to this scope.

  6. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  7. A prospective study on parental coping 4 months after termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies

    Korenromp, M. J.; Page-Christiaens, G. C. M. L.; van den Bout, J.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.; Potters, C. M. A. A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Binsbergen, C. J. M.; Brons, J. T. J.; Omtzigt, A. W. J.; Visser, G. H. A.; Beekhuis, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify short-term factors influencing psychological outcome of termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, in order to define those patients most vulnerable to psychopathology. Study Design A prospective cohort of 217 women and 169 men completed standardized questionnaires 4 months af

  8. Vaginal bleeding in a 4-month-old preterm girl : extreme minipuberty mimicking central precocious puberty

    de lange, Aafke H. M.; Bocca, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    We present a 4-month-old girl who showed vaginal bleeding and breast development. She was born preterm at 25 weeks and 4 days of gestation. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were extremely elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion of unknown nature in the pituita

  9. Delayed Presentation of Renocolic Fistula at 4 Months after Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Sang Don Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of previously reported reno-colic fistulas included primary renal and colonic pathologic states involving infectious, malignant or other inflammatory processes. However, reno-colic fistula after renal injury is extremely uncommon. We report an unusual delayed presentation of reno-colic fistula that occurred at 4 months later after blunt abdominal trauma.

  10. Delayed Presentation of Renocolic Fistula at 4 Months after Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Sang Don Lee; Tae Nam Kim; Hong Koo Ha

    2011-01-01

    Causes of previously reported reno-colic fistulas included primary renal and colonic pathologic states involving infectious, malignant or other inflammatory processes. However, reno-colic fistula after renal injury is extremely uncommon. We report an unusual delayed presentation of reno-colic fistula that occurred at 4 months later after blunt abdominal trauma.

  11. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Swift Judy A; Siriwardena A Niroshan; Nathan Dilip; Atkinson Philippa; Redsell Sarah A; Glazebrook Cris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning th...

  12. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  13. Temperament, Speech and Language: An Overview

    Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support…

  14. Eye scanning activity influenced by temperament traits

    Lukavský, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 121. ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception 2005. 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Eye movements * scanning * temperament * TCI-R * Rorschach test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. CPR - infant

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  16. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 ± 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 ± 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses

  17. Metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Gender differences in personality are considered to have biological bases. In an attempt to understand the gender differences of personality on neurobiological bases, we conducted correlation analyses between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factors of personality in males and females. Thirty-six healthy right-handed volunteers (18 males, 33.8 {+-} 17.6 y;18 females, 36.2 {+-} 20.4 y) underwent FDG PET at resting state. Three temperament factors of personality (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) within 10 days of FDG PET scan. Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament factor was tested using SPM2. In males, a significant negative correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyri, the hippocampus and the insula, while it was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri, the right superior temporal gyrus and the left cingulate cortex and the putamen in females. A positive HA correlation was found in the right midbrain and the left cingulate gyrus in males, but in the bilateral basal ganglia in females. A negative RD correlation was observed in the right middle frontal and the left middle temporal gyri in males, while the correlation was found in the bilateral middle frontal gyri and the right basal ganglia and the superior temporal gyrus in females. These data demonstrate different cortical and subcortical metabolic correlates of temperament factors of personality between males and females. These results may help understand biological substrate of gender differences in personality and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  18. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  19. A 4-month-old baby boy presenting with anaphylaxis to a banana: a case report

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children and recent studies suggest increased prevalence of both food allergy and anaphylaxis. Among foods, fruits are rarely implicated as the cause of anaphylaxis. Furthermore, anaphylaxis to fruit in the first months of life is rare. Although banana allergy has been well described in adults, there are only two case reports of anaphylaxis to banana in children. Case presentation A 4-month-old Hispanic baby boy with a histo...

  20. Contributions of attentional style and previous experience to 4-month-old infants’ categorization

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; Oakes, Lisa M.; McMurray, Bob

    2011-01-01

    We examined how infants’ categorization is jointly influenced by previous experience and how much they shift their gaze back-and-forth between stimuli. Extending previous findings reported by Kovack-Lesh, Horst, and Oakes (2008), we found that 4-month-old infants’ (N = 122) learning of the exclusive category of cats was related to whether they had cats at home and how much they shifted attention between two available stimuli during familiarization. Individual differences in attention assessed...

  1. CPR - infant

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  2. From Enneagram to Nine Types Temperament Model: A Proposal

    Yılmaz, Enver Demirel; Bezmialem Vakıf Üniversitesi; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Başakşehir Devlet Hastanesi; Ünal, Özge; İstanbul Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Nöroloji Kliniği; Aydemir, Ömer; Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, character and personality concepts are addressed by many disciplines that study interpersonal differences. Although each of these concepts is related with each other, they are different and often used instead of one another. Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), a new temperament model formulated with the interpretation of Enneagram System, explains the definition, limit, scope and interrelations of these concepts, as well as presents a new perspective on studying the differences ...

  3. The Structure of Temperament and Personality Traits: A Developmental Perspective

    Rebecca L. Shiner; DeYoung, Colin G.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we articulate a developmental perspective on personality traits from early childhood through adulthood. In the first section, we address two topics that are fundamental in defining the most important traits at each point in the life span: the relationship between temperament and personality and the methods used to ascertain the structure of traits in the temperament and personality research traditions. We argue in this section that temperament and personality are different wa...

  4. Temperament and Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Metacognition

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders (n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which t...

  5. Reliability of serum metabolite concentrations over a 4-month period using a targeted metabolomic approach.

    Anna Floegel

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a promising tool for discovery of novel biomarkers of chronic disease risk in prospective epidemiologic studies. We investigated the between- and within-person variation of the concentrations of 163 serum metabolites over a period of 4 months to evaluate the metabolite reliability expressed by the intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC: the ratio of between-person variance and total variance. The analyses were performed with the BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQ™ targeted metabolomics technology, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose in 100 healthy individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam study who had provided two fasting blood samples 4 months apart. Overall, serum reliability of metabolites over a 4-month period was good. The median ICC of the 163 metabolites was 0.57. The highest ICC was observed for hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ICC = 0.85 and the lowest was found for acylcarnitine C3:1 (ICC = 0. Reliability was high for hexose (ICC = 0.76, sphingolipids (median ICC = 0.66; range: 0.24-0.85, amino acids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.41-0.72 and glycerophospholipids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.03-0.81. Among acylcarnitines, reliability of short and medium chain saturated compounds was good to excellent (ICC range: 0.50-0.81. Serum reliability was lower for most hydroxyacylcarnitines and monounsaturated acylcarnitines (ICC range: 0.11-0.45 and 0.00-0.63, respectively. For most of the metabolites a single measurement may be sufficient for risk assessment in epidemiologic studies with healthy subjects.

  6. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in 4-month old male wistar rat

    Behavioral dysfunction of memory process arising 4 months after whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) has been demonstrated in 16-27 month old rats, as compared with non irradiated rats. This study was therefore aimed at delivering the same irradiation in young rats and comparing results with those previously obtained in old rats. Thirty-three 4-month old rats were included into the study. Eighteen received whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days), and 18 were given sham irradiation. Sequential behavior studies were done before irradiation and during the 7 months following irradiation. Significant decrease in memory function was observed in irradiated rats 1 month (p<0.001), 3 months (p<0.013), and 6 months (p=0.007) post-irradiation. This was accompanied by learning deficit 1 month (p=0.01), 4.5 months (p=0.003), and 7 months (p=0.009) post-irradiation. Response to radiation therapy observed in young rats differed from that observed in old rats. Young rats showed earlier decrease in memory function than old rats, but this deficit also arose earlier in young rats than in old rats. In two cases this deficit was permanent. (authors)

  7. Temperament and Conflict-Management Style for Residence Life Directors.

    Dickson, Gary L.; Thayer, Jerome D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between temperament and conflict-management style in college residence life directors. Results only partially and minimally support the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between temperament and conflict-management style for residence life directors and supervisors. Age and experience are believed to intervene…

  8. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  9. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  10. Conceptual Relations between Anxiety Disorder and Fearful Temperament

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…

  11. Temperament and Communicative Competence as Predictors of Young Children's Humor.

    Carson, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relations between temperament, communicative competence, and humor expression among four- and five-year-old nursery school children. Shows that ratings of communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament account for a significant proportion of the variance in the reported frequency of children's laughter and verbal and…

  12. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  13. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Palestinian and US Children

    Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…

  14. Factor structure of the inventory of adult temperament styles

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperament refers to stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and stimuli. Temperament can be defined by four bipolar styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. These four styles provide the theoretical structure for the group administered Inventory of Adult Temperament Styles (IATS.Validity evidences are reported on 853 middle class adults (43% female, ages 15 through 54 (M = 26.5, SD = 8.6, who were studying at universities or working in Sao Paulo state (Brazil. The degree items are consistent with the four temperament styles was examined through item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results confirm the proposed theoretical structure. Invariance testing suggests that scores reflecting temperament styles have similar meanings for men and women. Implications as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  15. Premature infant

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  16. O impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade e das práticas educativas maternas nos problemas de externalização e na competência social da criança The impact of infant temperament, responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou o impacto do temperamento infantil, da responsividade materna e das práticas educativas maternas, nos problemas de externalização e na competência social de crianças. Participaram 23 díades mãe-criança de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. No 3º mês de vida do bebê avaliou-se o temperamento da criança e a responsividade materna. No 30º mês de vida da criança foram investigadas as práticas educativas maternas, os problemas de externalização e a competência social das crianças. Análise de regressão linear múltipla revelou que somente as práticas educativas foram fatores significativos para explicar a variância nos problemas de externalização e na competência social. Discute-se a relevância das práticas parentais e as limitações da avaliação do temperamento e responsividade materna como preditores para a compreensão do desenvolvimento social.The study aimed at investigating the impact of children temperament, maternal responsiveness and maternal childrearing practices on children externalizing behavior problems and social competence. The study involved 23 child-mother dyads from different socio-economical backgrounds. In the baby's third month after birth, child temperament and maternal responsiveness were evaluated. In the child's thirteenth month after birth, maternal childrearing practices, externalizing behavior problems and child social competence were investigated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only maternal childrearing practices were significant to explain the variance in the externalizing behaviors and social competence. The work discusses the relevance of parental practices and the limitations of the evaluation of temperament and maternal responsiveness as predictors for the comprehension of social development.

  17. Temperament vs. chronic fatigue in police officers

    Ewa Stępka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801

  18. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  19. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  20. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies—observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences. PMID:20388694

  1. Temperament-based learning styles as moderators of academic achievement.

    Horton, C B; Oakland, T

    1997-01-01

    Considerable interest in applications of temperament theory has led to proposals of four temperament-related learning styles. The hypothesis that achievement is higher when instructional strategies utilize methods consistent with students' preferred learning styles was tested using 417 seventh graders, the majority of whom were from minority and low SES families. The hypothesis was not supported; instead, student achievement was significantly higher with instructional strategies designed to promote personalized learning. The need to extend temperament-based learning styles by considering additional qualities that are important to learning is discussed. PMID:9105497

  2. Influence of Selected Child Characteristics on Stress in Families of Handicapped Infants.

    Beckman, Paula J.

    1983-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 31 handicapped infants revealed that the child's responsiveness, temperament, repetitive behavior patterns, and demands for additional/unusual caregiving were related to stress reported by mothers. Child's rate of progress was not related. Single mothers reported more stress than mothers in two-parent homes. (Author/CL)

  3. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J;

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  4. Exploring the Physics of Music with Temperament Studio

    Durfee, Dallin; Colton, John

    2016-03-01

    The physics of waves, resonance, harmonics, and beats has determined how musical instruments are tuned, and has even affected the kinds of music written in different time periods. The laws of physics make it impossible for any fixed scale to have perfect consonance for all chords in all keys, and as a result, various musical scales, or temperaments, have been developed and used throughout history. The study of musical temperament is a rich application of wave physics. It ties several principles together in a context which can be very motivating for students. Furthermore, the topic is accessible to students in introductory classes. We have developed an open source application called Temperament Studio which allows students to explore musical temperament and to hear and measure the effects predicted by wave physics.

  5. Temperament types: midlife death concerns, demographics, and intensity of crisis.

    Waskel, S A

    1995-03-01

    Individuals (N = 331) between the ages 35 and 55 completed a death concern scale and a temperament type sorter and provided information relative to the intensity of and their ability to identify a midlife crisis event. Participants were classified within temperament types by gender, education level, crisis intensity, and ability to identify the crisis event. Five temperament types (ESTJ [extrovert, sensing, thinking, judging], ESFJ [extrovert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISFJ [introvert, sensing, feeling, judging], ISTJ [introvert, sensing, thinking, judging], and ENFP [extrovert, intuitive, feeling, perceiving]) significantly correlated with thinking about and anxiety about death. Gender and education level, as well as crisis intensity, also correlated significantly with death concerns. Temperament type characteristics that may have relevancy to the findings are discussed. PMID:7760296

  6. Association of Child Temperament with Early Childhood Caries

    Jabin, Zohra; Chaudhary, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychological variable may affect early childhood caries (ECC), but this aspect has not been explored satisfactorily. This study evaluates the child temperament as a risk predictor for ECC.

  7. Neural Responses to Infants linked with Behavioral Interactions and Testosterone in Fathers

    Kuo, Patty X.; Carp, Joshua; Light, Kathleen C.; Grewen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Few fMRI studies have investigated the brain-behavioral basis of parenting in human fathers. Ten fathers were videotaped and gave salivary testosterone samples while interacting with their 2–4 month old infants, and viewed video clips of their own infant and an unfamiliar age-, ethnicity- and sex-matched other infant during an fMRI protocol. Infant stimuli activated a network of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions. Furthermore, a subset of these regions activated significantly more to ow...

  8. Temperament alters susceptibility to negative peer influence in early adolescence

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents’ temperament and youth repo...

  9. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three tim...

  10. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  11. Are early maladaptive schemas, temperament and character dimensions correlated?

    Hakan Atalay; Naz Berfu Akbaş; Oğuzhan Zahmacıoğlu; Emine Zinnur Kılıç; Zeynep Göktuna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the study is to examine the relationships between early maladaptive schemas and the character and temperament aspects of personality, which are known as two approaches to the understanding of personality structure. Methods: We conducted the study using the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) and the Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 122 university students from different schools. Results and Conclusion: Results demonstrated that there are h...

  12. Mother's Personality And Feature Temperament Of The Child

    Aytar, Abide Güngör; Aksoy, F. Abide Güngör Aytar Ayşe B.

    2014-01-01

    In the researches was aimed to be examined of the relationship between the mother's personality and temperament of children and determining variables which affect personality characteristics of mothers and temperament of the children’s. Mothers of children between the ages 4-5 in the private nursery school located in the county Sincan of Ankara were included in the study(n:110). As data collection tool was used to determine socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and children "General I...

  13. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general...

  14. TEMPERAMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT AND CONVERSION DISORDERS

    Malhotra, Savita

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY In a comparative study of temperament profiles of groups of 30 children each diagnosed as conduct disorders, conversion disorder, emotional disorders (according to DSM-III) and normal control, it was found that the children diagnosed as conduct disorders showed high activity and intensity of emotional response as well as negative mood, those diagnosed as conversion disorder exhibited low distractibility. The significance of various temperament variables in differing clinical outcomes ...

  15. Neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse: a population-based study in Japan

    Fujiwara, Takeo; YAMAOKA, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of “social capital”) as well as the availability of support from their p...

  16. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  17. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    Abassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods The research method was descriptive and correlational. The study sample consisted of 120 morphine addicts referred to drug addiction treatment centers in Ardabil city in 2013. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method from 5 centers. We used impulsivity scale as well as temperament and character inventory to collect data. Results The results showed that significant relationship existed between impulsivity and characteristics such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness, while no significant relationship between impulsivity and self-transcendence was observed. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that 47% of the impulsivity variance was explained by temperament and character dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest that temperament and character dimensions are associated with impulsivity. The findings also have important implications for prevention, pathology, and treatment in the morphine addicts.

  18. SCHOOL RATING AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEENAGER TEMPERAMENT

    Fokin V.F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In puberty the active process of a formation of basic psychophysiological characteristics of temperament takes place. The investigation of this process has high priority because the teaching during this period is quite difficult and in this work the fundamental psychophysiological characteristics of process of education are studied. It is known that the development of temperament affects the significant characteristics of brain activity and interhemispheric relationships, and our hypothesis connects a formation of temperament and education progress. We examined 118 adolescents of both sexes (11-15 years old and 58 students of both sexes (mean age 23,5+/-1,2 years old. Analysis of temperament in Eysenk model (introversion – neurotism showed that the characteristics undergo significant changes in puberty. It has been shown that the increase of the emotional instability (neurotism in the girls, which leads to a change in the distribution of types of temperament in the period of 11 to 15 years, persists among young women. Education progress, measured by the level of school rating, is depended on the types of temperament. Extraverts and adolescents with high emotional stability have better school ratings. Emotional stability is connected with interhemispheric relationships. Adolescents with high level of DC potential in the left hemisphere are more stable.

  19. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 366-381, 2016. PMID:26517573

  20. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  1. The Relation among Temperament, Age, and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    Research on preschoolers' friendships has focused on superficial similarities but has not examined whether similarities exist between friends in personality characteristics such as temperament. This study examined the hypothesis that friends would have similar temperaments and that the relationship between temperament and friendship would be…

  2. Temperament, Personality and Developmental Psychopathology: A Review Based on the Conceptual Dimensions Underlying Childhood Traits

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The numerous temperament and personality constructs in childhood impede the systematic integration of findings on how these individual differences relate to developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews the main temperament and personality theories and proposes a theoretical taxonomy representing the common structure of both temperament and…

  3. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  4. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  5. The Reliability and Validity of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised was examined in a sample of 6 month old infants and their parents. One hundred and fifteen mothers and 79 fathers completed the IBQ-R and a measure of depression and 98 infants participated in a laboratory assessment of temperament. Internal consistency reliability was adequate for all 14 IBQ-R subscales for both mothers and fathers and inter-rater reliability of mother and father reports was demonstrated for 11 of 14 s...

  6. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  7. Emotion regulation profiles, temperament, and adjustment problems in preadolescents.

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935

  8. Cardiac catheterization in infants and children

    Cardiac catheterization in infants and children allows a unique opportunity to study physiologic effects of simple and complex lesions in a population with almost invariably normal coronary arteries. While morbidity from catherization is low and mortality is almost negligible in older infants and children, the risks are higher among infants under the age of 4 months, many of whom are seriously ill at the time of the study. In recent years there has been an increase in therapeutic procedures undertaken in the catheterization laboratory such as dilatation of stenotic valves and vessels. There has also been an increase in the use of such diagnostic techniques as electrophysiological studies and endomyocardial biopsies. Catheterization and these newer techniques, particularly in the young infant, should be undertaken only by physicians and technicians experienced in this field, using the best equipment available

  9. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  10. Validity and Reliability and of Nine Types Temperament Scale

    Yılmaz, Enver Demirel; Bezmialem Vakıf Üniversitesi Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Başakşehir Devlet Hastanesi; Aydemir, Ömer; Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı; Yılmaz, Ayşe; Haseki Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Nöroloji Kliniği; Kesebir, Sermin; Erenköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Psikiyatri Kliniği; Ünal, Özge; İstanbul Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Nöroloji Kliniği; Örek, Alp; İstanbul Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi; Bilici, Mustafa; Medipol Üniversitesi Psikiyatri Anabilim Dalı

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale compatible with the Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), which did not have any prior measurement tools to scientifically prove its reliability and validity. NTTM is created by re-evaluating the Enneagram System –a system that defines nine personality types- used for analyzing and comprehending ego mechanisms. Nine Types Temperament Scale (NTTS) which is a self-rated instrument composed of 91 items with three-point Likert type was developed from thi...

  11. Progressive and Extensive Ulcerations in a Girl Since 4 Months of Age: The Difficulty in Diagnosis of Pyoderma Gangrenosum

    Nilendu Sarma; Syamal Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Anup Kumar Boler; Medhatithi Barman

    2012-01-01

    A female child developed multiple, progressive, therapy-resistant, painful large ulcers, vesicles, and pustules since her 4 months of age. The ulcers were large, some even measured more than 8 cm; most had violaceous undermined margin with surrounding erythematous halo, raw and crusted surface and were distributed extensively over scalp, face, ear, trunk, buttocks, thigh, legs, dorsum of hands, and feet without any mucosal involvement. After detail clinical examination and investigation, it w...

  12. Infant Mortality

    ... Activities Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Depression Among Women Depression Treatment Resources Publications Maternal and Infant Health Pregnancy Complications Severe Maternal Morbidity Weight Gain During Pregnancy ...

  13. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  14. Trajectories of regulatory behaviors in early infancy: Determinants of infant self-distraction and self-comforting

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively regulate emotions is an important marker for early socioemotional development. The uses of self-comforting behaviors and self-distraction have been empirically supported as effective regulatory strategies for infants, though research on determinants of such behaviors is scarce. Thus, a more thorough examination of the development of regulatory behaviors is needed. For the current study, 135 mothers, fathers, and their infants participated in laboratory visits at 3-, 5-, and 7-months of age where parent sensitivity and infant regulatory strategies were coded from the Still Face Paradigm. Parents also filled out questionnaires about infant temperament and parental involvement. Using multi-level modeling to examine levels and trajectories of self-comforting and self-distraction, the current study found: 1) infants higher in temperamental surgency used more self-distraction and self-comforting, 2) infants lower in surgency with highly involved parents increased in self-distraction at a faster rate, particularly with highly involved fathers, and 3) infants used self-comforting more than average with fathers when the infant was also lower in temperamental regulation. In addition, we examined trajectories of parent involvement and temperament in relation to infant regulatory strategy. PMID:25685094

  15. Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review

    Qasem, Wafaa; Fenton, Tanis; Friel, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of all full-term infants to 6 months of age, it is not clear what the health implications may be. Breast milk alone may not meet the nutrition needs for all growing infants, leaving them at risk for deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate (4 months) versus late (6 months) introduction of complementary foods to the full-term breastfed infant on iron s...

  16. Oesophageal foreign body in four month old infant

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Asruddin; Yadav, Rohtas K.; Singh, Jagat; Gathwala, Geeta

    2003-01-01

    A 4 month old male infant was brought with only strong suspicion of foreign body ingestion without any symptomatology. X-ray examination revealed foreign body at cricopharyngeus, which was managed successfully emphasizing the fact that a strong suspicion and relevant radiography is the key to early and successful management.

  17. Teacher Temperament: Correlates with Teacher Caring, Burnout, and Organizational Outcomes

    Teven, Jason J.

    2007-01-01

    This study utilized the Big Five personality measure to assess the relationships among teacher temperament, caring orientation, and dimensions of teacher burnout. Perceptions of supervisor caring, job satisfaction, and teacher motivation were assessed. Respondents in this study were 48 college faculty teaching a variety of classes at a…

  18. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire

    Bishop, David I.; Hertenstein, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factor structure of scores on the English-language version of the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire. Scores from 300 college students were subjected to maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). A first-order model consisting of eight correlated factors and a second-order model consisting of two…

  19. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  20. Age, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Temperament, Creative Drama, and Preschoolers' Creativity

    Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…

  1. Associations between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of…

  2. Temperament and psychopathological syndromes specific susceptibility for rubber hand illusion.

    Kállai, János; Hegedüs, Gábor; Feldmann, Ádám; Rózsa, Sándor; Darnai, Gergely; Herold, Róbert; Dorn, Krisztina; Kincses, Péter; Csathó, Árpád; Szolcsányi, Tibor

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study is to explore individual capacity for self-integration, susceptibility to the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and the role of temperament factors in the emergence of body schema and body image dissociation. The RHI factors, proprioceptive drift, body ownership and body disownership were assessed in 48 university students. Personality and psychiatric vulnerability were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). Our study pointed to the fact that the extent of behaviourally defined proprioceptive drift was associated with temperament factors, especially with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance. Further, the ownership was associated with Symptom Checklist factors, especially with elevated Interpersonal Sensitivity and vulnerability to Schizotypy and Paranoid Ideation and elevated disownership score was found in the case of elevated Schizotypy, including a depersonalisation feeling when the RHI was induced. The RHI may be considered as a conflicting situation, in which a way to cope with incongruent multimodal, visual, haptic and proprioceptive stimulation provides an opportunity to test body integration and embodiment processes in healthy participants and patients without disadvantageous outcomes. The results support and replenish the two opposite processing models of the RHI with a third, temperament-based procedural mechanism. PMID:26160198

  3. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  4. Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and lifespan development

    Hřebíčková, Martina; McCrae, R.; Costa, P.; Ostendorf, F.; Angleitner, A.; Avia, M. D.; Sanz, J.; Sánchez-Bernardos, M.; Kusdil, E.; Woodfield, R.; Saunders, P.; Smith, P.

    Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002, s. 725-745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/99/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : temperament * personality * five-factor theory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  6. Can child temperament be related to early childhood caries?

    Aminabadi, N A; Ghoreishizadeh, A; Ghoreishizadeh, M; Oskouei, S G; Ghojazadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the biological risk factors of early childhood caries (ECC) is child temperament. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of ECC to different traits of child temperament, directly and indirectly through the nutritional and oral hygiene habits. Through a multi-stage sampling, 373 kindergarten children aged 18-36 months participated in this study. The primary caregivers filled in the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (ECBQ) and a checklist containing demographic data and the dietary and oral hygiene habits of the children. Children were examined for dental caries. The frequency of ECC was 41.14%. With 18 aspects of a child's temperament under consideration, attentional shifting, fear, frustration, low-intensity pleasure, sadness and shyness were significantly higher in the ECC group. Cuddliness, perceptual sensitivity, positive anticipation and soothability were significantly higher in caries-free children. Attentional shifting (p = 0.02), frustration (p = 0.02) and shyness (p = 0.03) were risk factors and cuddliness (p nutritional and oral hygiene habits, easily soothable children were 0.69 times less likely to use sweetened liquids frequently [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03], while sad children were 0.58 times less likely to brush (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.02). Considering temperament traits along with socioeconomic status, positive anticipation was the most significant determinant of ECC (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). However, considering temperament, socioeconomic measures and child habits among ECC risk factors, the most significant was the initiation of brushing habits (OR 5.41, 95% CI 2.81-12.98, p = 0.002). PMID:24216506

  7. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment

    DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  8. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    Ak Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80 and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17 participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases.

  9. Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program

    Stachoń, Aleksandra; Burdukiewicz, Anna; Pietraszewska, Jadwiga; Andrzejewska, Justyna; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Stachoń Aleksandra, Burdukiewicz Anna, Pietraszewska Jadwiga, Andrzejewska Justyna, Stefaniak Tadeusz. Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):445-458. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.56131 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3617   The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education param...

  10. Progressive and extensive ulcerations in a girl since 4 months of age: The difficulty in diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum

    Nilendu Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A female child developed multiple, progressive, therapy-resistant, painful large ulcers, vesicles, and pustules since her 4 months of age. The ulcers were large, some even measured more than 8 cm; most had violaceous undermined margin with surrounding erythematous halo, raw and crusted surface and were distributed extensively over scalp, face, ear, trunk, buttocks, thigh, legs, dorsum of hands, and feet without any mucosal involvement. After detail clinical examination and investigation, it was diagnosed as a case of pyoderma gangrenosum. Extensive search did not reveal any systemic abnormality or detect any infective etiology. The case highlights the problems of diagnosis of multiple ulcers at very early age.

  11. Capnography Guided Awake Nasal Intubation in a 4 Month Infant with Pierre Robin Syndrome for Cleft Lip Repair-A Better Technique

    Pramod Patra

    2009-01-01

    Summary This four-month-old Pierre Robin child was admitted for cleft lip repair with history of two failed attempts at intubation and subsequent cancellation of surgery. The capnography guided awake nasal intubation was considered as the child's parents were desperate to get the surgery done. A modified cuffless endotracheal tube was used with a capnography sampling tube placed within it. With the capnograph guidance the expiratory gas flow was followed to successfully intubate the child.Thi...

  12. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  13. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  14. Premature infant

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the ... baby is classified as one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 ...

  15. CPR: Infant

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  16. Neutropenia - infants

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  17. Pneumothorax - infants

    ... around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. Causes A pneumothorax occurs when some of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in a baby's lung become overinflated and burst. ...

  18. No Moderating Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Associations Between Antenatal Anxiety and Infant Behavior

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C.; Ramchandani, Paul G.; O'Connor, Thomas G; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Glover, Vivette; Netsi, Elena; Evans, Jonathan; Meaney, Michael J.; Murphy, Susannah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal anxiety is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances in offspring. Recent work has suggested that the effect of maternal antenatal anxiety on infant temperament at 6 months is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR, with carriers of the short allele more susceptible to the adverse behavioral outcomes of maternal antenatal anxiety. These findings, however, are yet to be replicated and extended beyond infancy. The aim of the ...

  19. Relationship between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses

    Yoko Kikuchi; Makoto Nakaya; Miki Ikeda; Shoko Okuzumi; Mihoko Takeda; Miyoko Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of...

  20. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Paolo Iliceto; Maurizio Pompili; David Lester; Xenia Gonda; Cinzia Niolu; Nicoletta Girardi; Zoltán Rihmer; Gabriella Candilera; Paolo Girardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI) and hopelessness (BHS). The final structural mo...

  1. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  2. Nature over nurture: temperament, personality, and life span development.

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T; Ostendorf, F; Angleitner, A; Hrebícková, M; Avia, M D; Sanz, J; Sánchez-Bernardos, M L; Kusdil, M E; Woodfield, R; Saunders, P R; Smith, P B

    2000-01-01

    Temperaments are often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. It is argued that this definition applies to the personality traits of the five-factor model. Evidence for the endogenous nature of traits is summarized from studies of behavior genetics, parent-child relations, personality structure, animal personality, and the longitudinal stability of individual differences. New evidence for intrinsic maturation is offered from analyses of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores for men and women age 14 and over in German, British, Spanish, Czech, and Turkish samples (N = 5,085). These data support strong conceptual links to child temperament despite modest empirical associations. The intrinsic maturation of personality is complemented by the culturally conditioned development of characteristic adaptations that express personality; interventions in human development are best addressed to these. PMID:10653513

  3. Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

    Elżbieta Chwalibóg

    2011-01-01

    The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) S. Reto...

  4. A temperament for learning: The limbic system and myelomeningocele

    Vachha Behroze

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was the winner of the triennial Casey Holter Memorial Prize awarded by the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, 2004. Abstract This essay explores the link between the limbic/hypothalamic systems within the complex conditions of hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele. Acknowledging the neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine risks inherent in the developing brains of these individuals, we focus on the converging components of temperament, cognition, and language.

  5. Nature and nurturing: parenting in the context of child temperament.

    Kiff, Cara J; Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-09-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681

  6. Associations of child temperament with child weight and breakfast habits: A population study in five-year-olds

    Skogheim, Thea Steen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate potential associations of child temperament with child weight and breakfast habits. It was hypothesised that children with externalising temperament were more likely to be overweight/obese, and that externalising temperament was associated with not eating daily breakfast. Temperament was controlled for by various child and parental covariates. The sample consisted of 18,047 five-year-olds from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study...

  7. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised. (orig.)

  8. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    Arthur, R.J.; Ziervogel, M.A.; Azmy, A.F.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised.

  9. Mother’s and Father’s Reports on Their Child’s Temperament: Does Gender Matter?

    Bayly, Benjamin; Gartstein, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Temperament ratings were obtained from 56 pairs of parents throughout the child’s first year to examine similarities and discrepancies in their report. Age, gender, stress, depression, and mother’s temperament were considered as factors possibly contributing to differences in the parents’ ratings of their child’s temperament.

  10. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable, li

  11. The Relation of Cumulative Demographic Risk to Mothers' Responsivity and Control: Examining the Role of Toddler Temperament

    Popp, Tierney K.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The relations of cumulative demographic risk and children's temperament to mothers' parenting behaviors were examined when children were 18 (T1, n = 247) and 30 (T2, n = 216) months of age. Mothers, nonparental caregivers (e.g., child care providers), and observers reported on children's temperament to create a temperament composite, and mothers…

  12. Cross-National Study of Children's Temperament: Structural Validity of the Student Styles Questionnaire

    Callueng, Carmelo M.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…

  13. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Yasuhiko Deguchi

    Full Text Available The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  14. Stress-sensitivity and reciprocal associations between stressful events and adolescent temperament

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan; Nederhof, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the longitudinal, bidirectional associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and adolescent temperament. Subsequently, the study investigated whether the effects of SLEs on future temperament were moderated by (a) a cumulative sensitivity gene index (b) the 5-HTTLP

  15. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

  16. Temperament as a moderator of the relation between neighborhood and children's adjustment☆

    Bush, Nicole R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Although proposed by bioecological models, there has been minimal empirical examination of whether children's individual differences moderate neighborhood effects on development. We used an urban community sample (8–12 years, N = 316) to examine interactions among neighborhood characteristics (problems and social organization) and children's temperament (fear, irritability and impulsivity) in predicting psychosocial adjustment. The main effects of neighborhood and temperament on outcomes were...

  17. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  18. Stressful Events and Temperament Change during Early and Middle Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    Laceulle, O. M.; Nederhof, E.; Karreman, A.; Ormel, J.; Van Aken, M. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates how stressful events are related to deviations from normative temperament development during adolescence. Temperament traits were assessed at ages 11 and 16?years. Life-event data was captured using an interview (total n?=?1197). Normative changes were found in all traits.

  19. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26649858

  20. Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: Existing Research and Future Directions

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, research has been examining the role of temperament in education. In particular, academic achievement and school adjustment were among the first variables to be examined. Subsequently, several studies have documented associations between temperament and either academic achievement or school adjustment. However, no review of this…

  1. Temperament and School-Based Mental Health Practice: A Case Study of Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Aeby, Victor G.; Boyd, Jane S.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the application of temperament styles to school-based mental health practice in an alternative school and illustrates how a multidisciplinary team consisting of a special education teacher, health educator, and social worker used temperament to maximize effective interactions with a student who had been placed in the school…

  2. Affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions of personality in bipolar and cyclothymic patients.

    Harnic, Désirée; Pompili, Maurizio; Mazza, Marianna; Innamorati, Marco; Di Nicola, Marco; Catalano, Valeria; Bruschi, Angelo; Del Bono, Diletta; Forte, Alberto; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to study possible associations between temperament, personality dimensions, and psychopathological variables in a clinical sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and cyclothymia; and (2) to assess how Cloninger's temperament and personality dimensions were associated with affective temperaments. Participants, consisting of 60 patients with BD (type I or II) and cyclothymia in the euthymic phase, completed Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-revised version (TCI-R). The diagnostic groups differed in past hospitalization, for age at onset of the disorder, and on two affective temperaments: the TEMPS-A Hyperthymia, and the TEMPS-A Irritability. There were six significant associations between affective temperaments and Cloninger's personality dimensions, ranging from 0.26 to 0.54. The measures of Akiskal and of Cloninger tap common behavioral features in patients with bipolar disorder and cyclothymia, yet the differences indicate that the two measures are not redundant. BD and cyclothymic patients differed significantly in temperament and personality, differences that may have important implications for treatment. PMID:23398272

  3. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  4. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  5. Temperament Styles of Children from South Africa and the United States

    Oakland, Thomas; Pretorius, Jenny D.; Lee, Dong Hun

    2008-01-01

    Four bipolar temperament qualities (i.e. extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible) of 800 South African children, ages 9-10, 11-12, 13-14 and 15-17, first are described and then compared to temperament qualities of 800 US children of the same ages. South African children do not differ in their…

  6. Temperament Styles of Children in South Korea and the United States

    Lee, Dong Hun; Oakland, Thomas; Ahn, Changgu

    2010-01-01

    Temperament styles of 4,628 South Korean children, ages 9-17, are described in reference to possible gender and age differences and compared with those of 3,200 US age peers in the light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs, one that highlights four bipolar qualities: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative,…

  7. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti, T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P=0.56. At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants (P<0.001. Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P=0.001. Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract fewer infections than other healthy infants. This finding along with fewer infections in exclusively breastfed infants compared to formula-fed infants supports the beneficial effect of human milk on the immune system. We suggest, when breastfeeding is not possible, that providing human donor milk to vulnerable groups of infants will be beneficial for their maturing immune system.

  8. CPR: Infant

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  9. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase transforming into acute leukemia under treatment with dasatinib 4 months after diagnosis.

    Nakamura, Yukitsugu; Tokita, Katsuya; Nagasawa, Fusako; Takahashi, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Sasaki, Ko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Mitani, Kinuko

    2016-03-01

    We report a 64-year-old woman morphologically diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase. Despite having achieved a complete hematological response following treatment with dasatinib, she developed lymphoblastic crisis 4 months later. Blastic cells were in a CD45-negative and SSC-low fraction, and positive for CD10, CD19, CD34, and HLA-DR expression and rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Chemotherapy using the HyperCVAD/MA regimen led to a complete cytogenetic response, and after cord blood transplantation, she obtained a complete molecular remission. However, the crisis recurred 6 months later. Another salvage therapy using L-AdVP regimen followed by nilotinib led to a complete molecular remission. Retrospective analyses using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction revealed a minimal blastic crisis clone present in the initial marrow in chronic phase. This case is informative as it suggests that sudden blastic crisis may occur from an undetectable blastic clone present at initial diagnosis and that leukemic stem cells may survive cytotoxic chemotherapy that eliminates most of the blastic cells. PMID:26662559

  10. Subchronic 4-month oral toxicity study of dried Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) roots as a diet supplement in rats.

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Grau, Alfredo; Sánchez, Sara S

    2005-11-01

    Yacon roots are a rich source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and have a long use tradition as food in the Andean region. However, there are no published reports regarding their toxicology and use safety. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of subchronic (4-months) oral consumption of dried yacon root flour as a diet supplement using normal Wistar rats. Two daily intake levels were used, equivalent to 340 mg and 6800 mgFOS/body weight, respectively. Yacon administered as a diet supplement was well tolerated and did not produce any negative response, toxicity or adverse nutritional effect at both intake levels used. Yacon root consumption showed no hypoglycemic activity in normal rats and resulted in significantly reduced post-prandial serum triacylglycerol levels in both doses assayed. Conversely, serum cholesterol reduction was not statistically significant. Cecal hypertrophy was observed in rats fed only the high dose. Our results indicating lack of toxicity and a certain beneficial metabolic activity in normal rats warrant further experiments with normal subjects and patients suffering metabolic disorders. They should also be considered when establishing the regulatory framework of this natural product by national health authorities and international trade agencies. PMID:15979774

  11. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of solid food. Supplementary analyses of interactions between the predictors showed that the association of maternal perceived infant temperament on early introduction was restricted to primiparae, that the mother's pre-pregnancy BMI had no impact if the infant was fully breastfed at week five......BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...... Danish mothers filled in a self-administered questionnaire approximately six months after birth. The questionnaire included questions about factors related to the infant, the mother, attachment and feeding known to influence time for introduction of solid food. The study population consisted of 4503...

  12. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA. PMID:26589536

  13. Temperament as a moderator of the relation between neighborhood and children's adjustment.

    Bush, Nicole R; Lengua, Liliana J; Colder, Craig R

    2010-09-01

    Although proposed by bioecological models, there has been minimal empirical examination of whether children's individual differences moderate neighborhood effects on development. We used an urban community sample (8-12 years, N = 316) to examine interactions among neighborhood characteristics (problems and social organization) and children's temperament (fear, irritability and impulsivity) in predicting psychosocial adjustment. The main effects of neighborhood and temperament on outcomes were consistent with previous research. Findings show that development is challenging in disadvantaged neighborhoods whatever one's temperament, however, some effects of neighborhood were conditioned by temperament, particularly children's fear and irritability. Neighborhood problems were more strongly related to lower social competence for fearful and for less irritable children. Neighborhood problems were more strongly related to higher internalizing problems for low-fear children. Neighborhood social organization was more strongly related to greater social competence for low-fear children. Findings are discussed in relation to "diathesis-stress" and "differential responsiveness" models of temperament. PMID:20948973

  14. Relationship between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contri­bute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.

  15. Nutrition, growth, and allergic diseases among very preterm infants after hospital discharge

    Zachariassen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    with breastfeeding among very preterm infants at hospital discharge. 3. To describe possible feeding-problems during the intervention-period, and allergic diseases during the first year of life, among very preterm infants related to their nutrition after hospital discharge. 4. To describe the content...... until August 2008 of whom 157 were excluded due to diseases or circumstances influencing nutrition. Further 156 refused participation in the interventional part of the study, but data on breastfeeding, weight, and some epidemiological data until discharge were available. Results on breastfeeding rate at...... fortification (group B) until 4 months CA. Infants (n = 113) who were bottle-fed at discharge (group C) were given a preterm formula (PF) until 4 months CA. Infants were examined at the outpatient clinics at term, and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months CA, where parameters on growth, allergic diseases, possible feeding...

  16. Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament.

    Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J

    2016-02-01

    Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective. PMID:26353877

  17. Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

    Elżbieta Chwalibóg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to present the results of studies on the relationship of temperament, personality and organizational climate with the occurrence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB in the organization. The study was qualitative, and correlational. The study group consisted of 42 activists in voluntary organizations aged from 18 to 19 years old, 15 men and 27 women. The following questionnaires were used: The scale measuring Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB S. Retowski, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Questionnaire (FCZ-KT B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau, Personality Inventory NEO-PI-Costa Jr. and Mc'Crae Polish Adaptation and Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel – K. Durniat Adaptation. The study revealed a clear positive correlation with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a component of Agreeableness - Trust (A1, with Extraversion (E and its components: Warmth (E1, Excitement Seeking (E5 Activity (E4 and Gregariousness (E2 and the component of Conscientiousness – Self-Discipline (C5, component of Openness to Experience – Actions (O4, and also negative correlations with Neuroticism (N and its components: Vulnerability (N6, Self-Consciousness (N4 and Anxiety (N1. The study also revealed a clear positive correlations Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with Activity (AK, Endurance (WT and Briskness (ŻW and a clear negative correlation with Perseveration (PE, Emotional Reactivity (RE. In the group of volunteers there were also showed positive correlations of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB with a Career (Assessment and Promotion (OA and the Communication and Information (KI. Regression model developed using multiple regression (stepwise regression method takes into account the following variables: Activity (AK - Temperament, Agreeableness component of the Personality - Straightforwardness (A2, and the component of Neuroticism – Self

  18. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas; Paola Moretti Rueda; Tiago da Silva Valente; Luísa Cunha Carneiro; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  19. Prediction of return-to-work of low back pain patients sicklisted for 3-4 months.

    van der Giezen, A M; Bouter, L M; Nijhuis, F J

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Dutch prospective population-based study was to identify prognostic factors for return-to-work of employees with 3-4 months sick leave due to low back pain (LBP). A cohort of 328 employees was formed and baseline data were collected. One year after the first day of the sick leave, 91% of the original cohort participated in a second interview (n=298). During the baseline measurement, information was collected about health status, history of LBP, occupational variables, job characteristics and social economic variables. At the second interview, 66% of the employees had returned to work (n=198). Return-to-work was independently predicted by having a better general health status (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.30-1.80), having better job satisfaction (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1. 44), being a bread winner (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.37-4.40), having a lower age (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52-0.93) and reporting less pain (OR 0. 85; 95% CI 0.73-0.99) all measured at cohort entry. This study shows that psycho-social aspects of health and work in combination with economic aspects have a significantly larger impact on return-to-work when compared to relatively more physical aspects of disability and physical requirements of the job. This suggests that interventions aimed at return-to-work of employees sicklisted with LBP should predominantly be focused on these psycho-social aspects such as health behavior and job satisfaction, and on the (lack of) economic incentives for return-to-work. PMID:10963908

  20. Maternal prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity in Mexican Americans.

    Lin, Betty; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2014-11-01

    The early postpartum period lays important groundwork for later self-regulation as infants' dispositional traits interact with caregivers' co-regulatory behaviors to produce the earliest forms of self-regulation. Although emerging literature suggests that fetal exposure to maternal stress may be integral in determining child self-regulatory capacity, the complex pathways that characterize these early developmental processes remain unclear. The current study considers these complex, transactional processes in a low income, Mexican American sample. Data were collected from 295 Mexican American infants and their mothers during prenatal, 6- and 12-week postpartum home interviews. Mother reports of stress were obtained prenatally, and mother reports of infant temperament were obtained at 6 weeks. Observer ratings of maternal sensitivity and infant regulatory behaviors were obtained at the 6- and 12-week time points. Study results indicate that prenatal stress predicts higher levels of infant negativity and surgency, both of which directly or interactively predict later engagement in regulatory behaviors. Unexpectedly, prenatal stress also predicted more engagement in orienting, but not self-comforting behaviors. Advancing understandings about the nature of these developmental pathways may have significant implications for targets of early intervention in this high risk population. PMID:25113917

  1. Maternal Self-Regulation, Relationship Adjustment, and Home Chaos: Contributions to Infant Negative Emotionality

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Laake, Lauren M.; Oddi, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the direct and indirect effects of parental self-regulation on children’s outcomes. In the present investigation, the effects of maternal self-regulation, home chaos, and inter-parental relationship adjustment on broad and specific indicators of infant negative emotionality (NE) were examined. A sample of maternal caregivers and their 4-month-old infants (N = 85) from a rural community participated. Results demonstrated that better maternal self-regulatio...

  2. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability wi...

  3. The shared signal hypothesis and neural responses to expressions and gaze in infants and adults

    Rigato, Silvia; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded from adults and 4-month-old infants while they watched pictures of faces that varied in emotional expression (happy and fearful) and in gaze direction (direct or averted). Results indicate that emotional expression is temporally independent of gaze direction processing at early stages of processing, and only become integrated at later latencies. Facial expressions affected the face-sensitive ERP components in both adults (N170) and infants (N290 and P400...

  4. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, ...

  5. Rumination Mediates the Relationship between Infant Temperament and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Amy H. Mezulis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined prospective associations between negative emotionality, rumination, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 301 youths (158 females followed longitudinally from birth to adolescence. Mothers reported on youths' negative emotionality (NE at age 1, and youths self-reported rumination at age 13 and depressive symptoms at ages 13 and 15. Linear regression analyses indicated that greater NE in infancy was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 15, even after controlling for child gender and depressive symptoms at age 13. Moreover, analyses indicated that rumination significantly mediated the association between infancy NE and age 15 depressive symptoms in the full sample. When analyzed separately by gender, however, rumination mediated the relationship between NE and depressive symptoms for girls but not for boys. The results confirm and extend previous findings on the association between affective and cognitive vulnerability factors in predicting depressive symptoms and the gender difference in depression in adolescence, and suggest that clinical interventions designed to reduce negative emotionality may be useful supplements to traditional cognitive interventions for reducing cognitive vulnerability to depression.

  6. Rumination Mediates the Relationship between Infant Temperament and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Mezulis, Amy H; Priess, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    This study examined prospective associations between negative emotionality, rumination, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 301 youths (158 females) followed longitudinally from birth to adolescence. Mothers reported on youths' negative emotionality (NE) at age 1, and youths self-reported rumination at age 13 and depressive symptoms at ages 13 and 15. Linear regression analyses indicated that greater NE in infancy was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 15, even after controlling for child gender and depressive symptoms at age 13. Moreover, analyses indicated that rumination significantly mediated the association between infancy NE and age 15 depressive symptoms in the full sample. When analyzed separately by gender, however, rumination mediated the relationship between NE and depressive symptoms for girls but not for boys. The results confirm and extend previous findings on the association between affective and cognitive vulnerability factors in predicting depressive symptoms and the gender difference in depression in adolescence, and suggest that clinical interventions designed to reduce negative emotionality may be useful supplements to traditional cognitive interventions for reducing cognitive vulnerability to depression. PMID:21151502

  7. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

  8. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... so that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  10. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...