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Sample records for 4-dimensional patterning system

  1. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4+D) TechnologyTM, a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4+D TechnologyTMfor nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4+D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4+D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in

  2. Modular lidar systems for high-resolution 4-dimensional measurements of water vapor, temperature, and aerosols

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wagner, Gerd; Petrova, Anna; Shiler, Max; Pal, Sandip; Schaberl, Thorsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Three lidar systems are currently in development at University of Hohenheim. A water vapor lidar based on the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technology working near 815 or 935 nm, a temperature and aerosol lidar employing the rotational Raman technique at 355 nm, and an aerosol lidar working with eye-safe laser radiation near 1.5 μm. The transmitters of these three systems are based on an injection-seeded, diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser with an average power of 100 W at 1064 nm and a repetition rate of 250 Hz. This laser emits a nearly Gaussian-shaped beam which permits frequency-doubling and tripling with high efficiencies. The frequency-doubled 532-nm radiation is employed for pumping a Ti:Sapphire ring-resonator which will be used for DIAL water vapor measurements. In a second branch, a Cr4+:YAG crystal is pumped with the 1064-nm radiation to reach 1400 to 1500 nm for eye-safe monitoring of aerosol particles and clouds. The 532 and 1064 nm radiation are also used for backscatter lidar observations. Frequency tripling gives 355-nm radiation for measurements of temperature with the rotational Raman technique and particle extinction and particle backscattering coefficients in the UV. High transmitter power and effective use of the received signals will allow scanning operation of these three lidar systems. The lidar transmitters and detectors are designed as modules which can be combined for simultaneous measurements with one scanning telescope unit in a ground-based mobile container. Alternatively, they can be connected to different Nd:YAG pump lasers and to telescope units on separate platforms.

  3. Interdependencies of aortic arch secondary flow patterns, geometry, and age analysed by 4-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla

    It was the aim to analyse the impact of age, aortic arch geometry, and size on secondary flow patterns such as helix and vortex flow derived from flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (4D PC-MRI). 62 subjects (age range = 20-80 years) without circumscribed pathologies of the thoracic aorta (ascending aortic (AAo) diameter: 3.2 ± 0.6 cm [range 2.2-5.1]) were examined by 4D PC-MRI after IRB-approval and written informed consent. Blood flow visualisation based on streamlines and time-resolved 3D particle traces was performed. Aortic diameter, shape (gothic, crook-shaped, cubic), angle, and age were correlated with existence and extent of secondary flow patterns (helicity, vortices); statistical modelling was performed. Helical flow was the typical pattern in standard crook-shaped aortic arches. With altered shapes and increasing age, helicity was less common. AAo diameter and age had the highest correlation (r = 0.69 and 0.68, respectively) with number of detected vortices. None of the other arch geometric or demographic variables (for all, P ≥ 0.177) improved statistical modelling. Substantially different secondary flow patterns can be observed in the normal thoracic aorta. Age and the AAo diameter were the parameters correlating best with presence and amount of vortices. Findings underline the importance of age- and geometry-matched control groups for haemodynamic studies. (orig.)

  4. Interdependencies of aortic arch secondary flow patterns, geometry, and age analysed by 4-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla

    Frydrychowicz, Alex [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Berger, Alexander; Russe, Maximilian F.; Bock, Jelena [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Munoz del Rio, Alejandro [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Harloff, Andreas [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    It was the aim to analyse the impact of age, aortic arch geometry, and size on secondary flow patterns such as helix and vortex flow derived from flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (4D PC-MRI). 62 subjects (age range = 20-80 years) without circumscribed pathologies of the thoracic aorta (ascending aortic (AAo) diameter: 3.2 {+-} 0.6 cm [range 2.2-5.1]) were examined by 4D PC-MRI after IRB-approval and written informed consent. Blood flow visualisation based on streamlines and time-resolved 3D particle traces was performed. Aortic diameter, shape (gothic, crook-shaped, cubic), angle, and age were correlated with existence and extent of secondary flow patterns (helicity, vortices); statistical modelling was performed. Helical flow was the typical pattern in standard crook-shaped aortic arches. With altered shapes and increasing age, helicity was less common. AAo diameter and age had the highest correlation (r = 0.69 and 0.68, respectively) with number of detected vortices. None of the other arch geometric or demographic variables (for all, P {>=} 0.177) improved statistical modelling. Substantially different secondary flow patterns can be observed in the normal thoracic aorta. Age and the AAo diameter were the parameters correlating best with presence and amount of vortices. Findings underline the importance of age- and geometry-matched control groups for haemodynamic studies. (orig.)

  5. Patterns and Intelligent Systems

    The recognition and analysis of evolving patterns provides a unifying concept for studying and implementing intelligent information processing for open feedback control systems within the nuclear industry. Control is considered as influence of a large system to achieve the goals of the human (who might or might not be part of an open feedback loop) and is not limited to operation of a component within a nuclear power plant. The intelligent control system includes open logic and can automatically react to new data in an unprogrammed way. This application of evolving patterns integrates current research developments in human cognition and scientific semiotics with traditional feedback control. A preliminary implementation of such a system using existing computational techniques is postulated, and tools that are lacking at this time are identified. Proof-of-concept applications for the nuclear industry are referenced

  6. Understanding Patterns for System of Systems Integration

    Kazman, Rick; Schmid, Klaus; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård;

    2013-01-01

    Architecting systems of systems is well known to be a formidable challenge. A major aspect in this is defining the integration among the systems that constitute the system of systems. In this paper, we aim to support the SoS architect by systematically developing a way to characterize system of...... systems integration patterns. These characteristics at the same time support the architecting process by highlighting important issues a SoS architect needs to consider. We discuss the consolidated template and illustrate it with an example pattern. We also discuss the integration of this novel pattern...

  7. A theory of mass and gravity in 4-dimensional optics

    Almeida, J B

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the concepts of mass and gravity in the formalism of 4-dimensional optics, previously introduced by the author. It is shown that elementary particles can be associated with 4-dimensional standing wave patterns with the Compton wavelength and both inertial and gravitational mass are derived from this concept and shown to be attributable to an waveguide laid along the particle's worldline; the same formalism is shown to accommodate also mass due to binding energy within compact bodies. Momentum exchange with accelerated bodies through gravitons is discussed and shown similar to mode exchange in optical fibers. Reported anomalies on the behaviour of the Foucault pendulum, both periodic and exceptional on the occasion of solar eclipses, are explained not only qualitatively but also on order of magnitude, resorting to graviton exchanges between Earth and the Sun or the Moon. It is argued that these effects provide experimental evidence of gravitons.

  8. Spatial Patterns in Urban Systems

    Huynh, Hoai Nguyen; Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Chew, Lock Yue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the morphology of an urban system is an important step toward unveiling the dynamical processes of its growth and development. At the foundation of every urban system, transportation system is undeniably a crucial component in powering the life of the entire urban system. In this work, we study the spatial pattern of $73$ cities across the globe by analysing the distribution of public transport points within the cities. The analysis reveals that different spatial distributions of points could be classified into four groups with distinct features, indicating whether the points are clustered, dispersed or regularly distributed. From visual inspection, we observe that the cities with regularly distributed patterns do not have apparent centre in contrast to the other two types in which star-node structure, i.e. monocentric, can be clearly observed. Furthermore, the results provide evidence for the existence of two different types of urban system: well-planned and organically grown. We also study the...

  9. Research on Garment Pattern Intelligent Design System

    刘雁; 刘晓刚; 耿兆丰

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the disadvantages of current computer aided garment design system first, and then brings forward the frame of intelligent garment design system. Based on the analysis of the structure of the intelligent system, it is pointed out that the intelligent pattern design system is the most important module of the whole system. The use of an expert system to realize the intelligent pattern design system is then proposed and the key technique of the system is discussed at last.

  10. A generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold

    Euh, Y.; Park, J. H.; Sekigawa, K.

    2010-01-01

    A weakly Einstein manifold is a generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold, which is defined as an application of a curvature identity derived from the generalized Gauss-Bonnet formula for a 4-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold. In this paper, we shall give a characterization of a weakly Einstein manifold.

  11. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  12. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    Bijvank, Ronald; Wiersema, Wiebe; Köppe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that, when applied by software architects, support the work of system administrators: PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API, SINGLE FILE LOCATION, and CENTRALIZED SYSTEM LOGGING. PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API shoul...

  13. Design Patterns of Timed Automotive Systems

    Aghav, Jagannath; Petitpierre, Claude

    2003-01-01

    The functional complexity of hardware and software systems is growing exponentially. This demands an integration of system validation in the design phase to guarantee that a concrete implementation conforms to the modeled requirements. System validation process involves use of advanced systematic techniques and tools. In this report we present design patterns of timed automotive systems and a method for validating the real-time behavioral patterns of control intensive applications. The ...

  14. Degenerate 4-Dimensional Matrices with Semi-Group Structure

    Veko, O; Oana, A; Neagu, M; Balan, V; Red'kov, V

    2014-01-01

    While dealing with the nontrivial task of classifying Mueller matrices, of special interest is the study of the degenerate Mueller matrices (matrices with vanishing determinant, for which the law of multiplication holds, but there exists no inverse elements). Earlier, it was developed a special technique of parameterizing arbitrary 4-dimensional matrices with the use of a four 4-dimensional vector (k,m,l,n). In the following, a classification of degenerate 4-dimensional real matrices of rank 1, 2, and 3 is elaborated. To separate possible classes of degenerate matrices of ranks 1 and 2, we impose linear restrictions on (k,m, l,n), which are compatible with the group multiplication law. All the subsets of matrices obtained by this method, form either subgroups or semi-groups. To obtain singular matrices of rank 3, we specify 16 independent possibilities to get the 4-dimensional matrices with zero determinant

  15. Quaternionic Similar Curves in 4-dimensional Euclidean Space

    Önder, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the quaternionic similar curves in 4-dimensional Euclidean space. We show that the families of quaternionic curves with vanishing curvatures form the families of quaternionic similar curves.

  16. Localized Structures in Pattern-Forming Systems

    Riecke, H

    1998-01-01

    A number of mechanisms that lead to the confinement of patterns to a small part of a translationally symmetric pattern-forming system are reviewed: nonadiabatic locking of fronts, global coupling and conservation laws, dispersion, and coupling to additional slow modes $via$ gradients. Various connections with experimental results are made.

  17. Chaotic Turing pattern formation in spatiotemporal systems

    XIAO Jing-hua; LI Hai-hong; YANG Jun-zhong; HU Gang

    2006-01-01

    The problem of Turing pattern formation has attracted much attention in nonlinear science as well as physics,chemistry and biology.So far spatially ordered Turing patterns have been observed in stationary and oscillatory media only.In this paper we find that spatially ordered Turing patterns exist in chaotic extended systems.And chaotic Turing patterns are strikingly rich and surprisingly beautiful with their space structures.These findings are in sharp contrast with the intuition of pseudo-randomness of chaos.The richness and beauty of the chaotic Turing patterns are attributed to a large variety of symmetry properties realized by various types of self-organizations of partial chaos synchronizations.

  18. Approach Based Patterns for System-of-Systems Reconfiguration

    Petitdemange, Franck; Borne, Isabelle; Buisson, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    International audience Systems-of-systems (SoS) are a particular class of systems that recruit dynamically their constituents to achieve a global goal. To accomodate this approach, the architecture of SoS is usually described by architectural patterns to be instantiated at runtime. Based on the study of an example, we introduce reconfiguration patterns to help reasoning on reconfiguration and maintaining the architectural patterns of the SoS.

  19. Using Reusable Design Patterns in Disributed Systems%Using Reusable Design Patterns in Distributed Systems

    OU Yan; LI Zhan-bo

    2007-01-01

    The article revealed the software design issues for the object-oriented distributed system. By surveying several existed design issues, the solution of common design issues is conducted which is compromised by design patterns. Each pattern is described according to its functionality which could be valuable for objected-oriented distributed system developer.

  20. Design patterns in medical imaging information systems

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Ching, Wan

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and important conceptual framework of software design for the medical imaging community using design patterns. Use cases are created to summarize operational scenarios of clinicians using the system to complete certain tasks such as image segmentation. During design the Unified Modeling Language is used to translate the use cases into modeling diagrams that describe how the system functions. Next, design patterns are applied to build models that describe how software components interoperate to deliver that functionality. The software components are implemented using the Java language, CORBA architecture, and other web technologies. The biomedical image information system is used in epilepsy neurosurgical planning and diagnosis. This article proposes the use of proven software design models for solving medical imaging informatics design problems. Design patterns provide an excellent vehicle to leverage design solutions that have worked in the past to solve the problems we face in building user-friendly, reliable, and efficient information systems. This work introduces this new technology for building increasing complex medical image information systems. The rigorous application of software design techniques is essential in building information systems that are easy to use, rich in functionality, maintainable, reliable, and updatable.

  1. Independent Plaquette Trial Action for 4-Dimensional Lattice Gauge Theory

    LIU Jin-Ming

    2001-01-01

    Based on the explicit expressions of the plaquette formulations, the independent plaquette trial action for 4-dimensional lattice gauge theory is introduced. As an example, the mean plaquette energy EP for the SU(2) lattice gauge theory is calculated by using action variational approach with the independent trial action. The results are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results in the strong coupling and the crossover region, and the curve is smooth in the whole region, which show that 4-dimensional SU(2) theory has only a single, confining phase. The unwanted discontinuity of EP given by the single link trial action, which is used in the earlier variational calculations has been avoided.

  2. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  3. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Lonie, David P.; Hall, Graham S.

    2009-01-01

    A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised) geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification o...

  4. Projective Structure and Holonomy in 4-dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S.; Lonie, David P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the situation when two 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds (that is, space-times) admit the same (unparametrised) geodesics, that is, when they are projectively related. A review of some known results is given and then the problem is considered further by treating each holonomy type in turn for the space-time connection. It transpires that all holonomy possibilities can be dealt with completely except the most general one and that the consequences of two space-times being proje...

  5. DESIGN PATTERNS FOR SELF ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Yousef Abuseta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self adaptation has been proposed to overcome the complexity of today's software systems which results from the uncertainty issue. Aspects of uncertainty include changing systems goals, changing resource availability and dynamic operating conditions. Feedback control loops have been recognized as vital elements for engineering self-adaptive systems. However, despite their importance, there is still a lack of systematic way of the design of the interactions between the different components comprising one particular feedback control loop as well as the interactions between components from different control loops . Most existing approaches are either domain specific or too abstract to be useful. In addition, the issue of multiple control loops is often neglected and consequently self adaptive systems are often designed around a single loop. In this paper we propose a set of design patterns for modeling and designing self adaptive software systems based on MAPE-K. Control loop of IBM architecture blueprint which takes into account the multiple control loops issue. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed design patterns.

  6. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.066

    2009-01-01

    A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised) geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification of the associated curvature tensors. These reviews are provided.

  7. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    David P. Lonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification of the associated curvature tensors. These reviews are provided.

  8. Projective Structure and Holonomy in 4-dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the situation when two 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds (that is, space-times) admit the same (unparametrised) geodesics, that is, when they are projectively related. A review of some known results is given and then the problem is considered further by treating each holonomy type in turn for the space-time connection. It transpires that all holonomy possibilities can be dealt with completely except the most general one and that the consequences of two space-times being projectively related leads, in many cases, to their associated Levi-Civita connections being identical.

  9. Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds

    Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance nε. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z2-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all

  10. Patterns in rational base number systems

    Morgenbesser, Johannes F; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Number systems with a rational number $a/b > 1$ as base have gained interest in recent years. In particular, relations to Mahler's 3/2-problem as well as the Josephus problem have been established. In the present paper we show that the patterns of digits in the representations of positive integers in such a number system are uniformly distributed. We study the sum-of-digits function of number systems with rational base $a/b$ and use representations w.r.t. this base to construct normal numbers in base $a$ in the spirit of Champernowne. The main challenge in our proofs comes from the fact that the language of the representations of integers in these number systems is not context-free. The intricacy of this language makes it impossible to prove our results along classical lines. In particular, we use self-affine tiles that are defined in certain subrings of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$ and Fourier analysis in $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$. With help of these tools we are able to reformulate our results as ...

  11. A Lie based 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present and study a model of 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory, special Chern-Simons (SCS) theory, instances of which have appeared in the string literature, whose symmetry is encoded in a skeletal semistrict Lie 2-algebra constructed from a compact Lie group with non discrete center. The field content of SCS theory consists of a Lie valued 2-connection coupled to a background closed 3-form. SCS theory enjoys a large gauge and gauge for gauge symmetry organized in an infinite dimensional strict Lie 2-group. The partition function of SCS theory is simply related to that of a topological gauge theory localizing on flat connections with degree 3 second characteristic class determined by the background 3-form. Finally, SCS theory is related to a 3-dimensional special gauge theory whose 2-connection space has a natural symplectic structure with respect to which the 1-gauge transformation action is Hamiltonian, the 2-curvature map acting as moment map.

  12. A Lie based 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    We present and study a model of 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory, special Chern-Simons (SCS) theory, instances of which have appeared in the string literature, whose symmetry is encoded in a skeletal semistrict Lie 2-algebra constructed from a compact Lie group with non discrete center. The field content of SCS theory consists of a Lie valued 2-connection coupled to a background closed 3-form. SCS theory enjoys a large gauge and gauge for gauge symmetry organized in an infinite dimensional strict Lie 2-group. The partition function of SCS theory is simply related to that of a topological gauge theory localizing on flat connections with degree 3 second characteristic class determined by the background 3-form. Finally, SCS theory is related to a 3-dimensional special gauge theory whose 2-connection space has a natural symplectic structure with respect to which the 1-gauge transformation action is Hamiltonian, the 2-curvature map acting as moment map.

  13. Electroweak Phase Transition in the MSSM 4-Dimensional Lattice Simulations

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hegedüs, P; Jakovác, A; Katz, S D; Piróth, A

    2000-01-01

    Recent lattice results have shown that there is no Standard Model (SM) electroweak phase transition (EWPT) for Higgs boson masses above \\approx 72 GeV, which is below the present experimental limit. According to perturbation theory and 3-dimensional (3d) lattice simulations there could be an EWPT in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) that is strong enough for baryogenesis up to m_h \\approx 105 GeV. In this letter we present the results of our large scale 4-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations for the MSSM EWPT. We carried out infinite volume and continuum limit extrapolations, which show a somewhat weaker transition than suggested by 3d simulations. The upper bound of the lightest Higgs boson mass for a MSSM baryogenesis scenario is m_h = 97 +/- 4 GeV. We determined the properties of the bubble wall that are important for a successful baryogenesis.

  14. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  15. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  16. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or which patterns are the most common or most important for particular domains. In addition, little is known of how architecture patterns may interact with each other. We studied architecture documentat...

  17. Turing Patterns in a Reaction-Diffusion System

    2006-01-01

    We have further investigated Turing patterns in a reaction-diffusion system by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Simple Turing patterns and complex superlattice structures are observed. We find that the shape and type of Turing patterns depend on dynamical parameters and external periodic forcing, and is independent of effective diffusivity rate σ in the Lengyel-Epstein model. Our numerical results provide additional insight into understanding the mechanism of development of Turing patterns and predicting new pattern formations.

  18. Mining Patterns for Web-based Emergency Management Systems

    Montells, Laura; Montero, Susana; Díaz Pérez, Paloma; Aedo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Design patterns describe problems that occur recurrently, and specify the core of the solution in such a way that we can (re)use it in different contexts and applications. Although, web-based Emergency Management Systems domain is still in its nascent stages, there are design principles, real systems and design patterns from other related areas that can be a valuable source of knowledge to mine design patterns. From these sources we have created a patterns catalogue to assist novice designers...

  19. Experimental Study on Spiral Patterns in Dielectric Barrier Discharge System

    LIU Shu-Hua; DONG Li-Fang; LIU Fu-Cheng; LI Shu-Feng; LI Xue-Chen; WANG Hong-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Spiral patterns are obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge system with water electrodes. The dynamics of spiral formation and transition is investigated. Wavelength characteristic of spiral patterns is also studied. Correlation measurements indicate that the wavelength of spiral pattern increases with the increasing gas gap width and oscillates with the increasing drive frequency.

  20. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or wh

  1. Patterns of information security postures for socio-technical systems and systems-of-systems

    Storer, T.; Renaud, K.; Glisson, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to develop patterns of security postures for computer based socio-technical systems and systems-of-systems. Such systems typically span many organisational boundaries, integrating multiple computer systems, infrastructures and organisational processes. The paper describes the motivation for the proposed work, and our approach to the development, specification, integration and validation of security patterns for socio-technical and system-of-system scale syst...

  2. The Generation system of Textile Pattern draft Based on Quasi-regular Pattern Theory

    Suyi Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-regular patterns generated from hamiltonian has unique balanced symmetry. The patterns are quite suitable for the textile fabric. However the number of patterns just generated from hamiltonian are limited. Therefore in this paper a 110 of functions built by the methods of hamiltonian of superposition, nesting, combination and parameter variations, and it can increase the type and quantity. All of functions can generate fine patterns suited for textile fabric after computer graphics.The system of textile pattern draft is generated by Visual basics for the computer. The system allows individual selection of function and parameters to change the pattern and the color conditioning. In this way, it successfully achieves the purpose.

  3. Pattern-Oriented Reengineering of a Network System

    Chung-Horng Lung

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering is to reorganize and modify existing systems to enhance them or to make them more maintainable. Reengineering is usually necessary as systems evolve due to changes in requirements, technologies, and/or personnel. Design patterns capture recurring structures and dynamics among software participants to facilitate reuse of successful designs. Design patterns are common and well studied in network systems. In this project, we reengineer part of a network system with some design patterns to support future evolution and performance improvement. We start with reverse engineering effort to understand the system and recover its high level architecture. Then we apply concurrent and networked design patterns to restructure the main sub-system. Those patterns include Half-Sync/Half-Async, Monitor Object, and Scoped Locking idiom. The resulting system is more maintainable and has better performance.

  4. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...

  5. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  6. Pattern formations in chaotic spatio-temporal systems

    Ying Zhang; Shihong Wang; Jinhua Xiao; Hilda A Cerdeira; S Chen; Gang Hu

    2005-06-01

    Pattern formations in chaotic spatio-temporal systems modelled by coupled chaotic oscillators are investigated. We focus on various symmetry breakings and different kinds of chaos synchronization–desynchronization transitions, which lead to certain types of spontaneous spatial orderings and the emergence of some typical ordered patterns, such as rotating wave patterns with splay phase ordering (orientational symmetry breaking) and partially synchronous standing wave patterns with in-phase ordering (translational symmetry breaking). General pictures of the global behaviors of pattern formations and transitions in coupled chaotic oscillators are provided.

  7. Segregation patterns in gas-fluidized systems

    Gilbertson, M.A.; Eames, I

    2001-01-01

    The formation of segregation patterns in initially homogeneous, fluidized, binary mixtures of particles has been studied. The adjustment of the bed depends on the proportions of fine and coarse particles in the mixture and the gas flow rate relative to the minimum fluidization velocities of the two components. The particles are immobile until the gas flow rate is sufficiently large to fluidize the mixture of particles. When the gas how rate exceeds this critical value, alternating vertical ba...

  8. Segregation patterns in gas-fluidized systems

    Gilbertson, M. A.; Eames, I.

    2001-04-01

    The formation of segregation patterns in initially homogeneous, fluidized, binary mixtures of particles has been studied. The adjustment of the bed depends on the proportions of fine and coarse particles in the mixture and the gas flow rate relative to the minimum fluidization velocities of the two components. The particles are immobile until the gas flow rate is sufficiently large to fluidize the mixture of particles. When the gas flow rate exceeds this critical value, alternating vertical bands of coarse and fine particles form. At a second critical gas velocity this pattern breaks down and the more familiar pattern of a mixed horizontal band on top of a layer of coarse particles forms. A phase diagram, constructed from experimental observations, shows the conditions for which each of these regimes exists. Its structure is explained in terms of the fluidization and consequent mobility of the mixture components. When horizontal bands are present, the thickness of the lower layer of coarse particles decreases with increasing gas flow rate depending on the proportion of fine particles in the bed. This, and its development, can be understood by analogy with the sedimentation of particles through a turbulent fluid. The experiments imply that the efficiency of mixing by the bubbles in the fluidized bed is very much less than that expected from gas bubbles in a liquid.

  9. Pattern-Oriented Reengineering of a Network System

    Chung-Horng Lung; Qiang Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Reengineering is to reorganize and modify existing systems to enhance them or to make them more maintainable. Reengineering is usually necessary as systems evolve due to changes in requirements, technologies, and/or personnel. Design patterns capture recurring structures and dynamics among software participants to facilitate reuse of successful designs. Design patterns are common and well studied in network systems. In this project, we reengineer part of a network system with some design patt...

  10. Event Pattern Detection for Embedded Systems

    Carlson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Events play an important role in many computer systems, from small reactive embedded applications to large distributed systems. Many applications react to events generated by a graphical user interface or by external sensors that monitor the system environment, and other systems use events for communication and synchronisation between independent subsystems. In some applications, however, individual event occurrences are not the main point of concern. Instead, the system should respond to cer...

  11. Pattern formation in SiSb system

    Csik, A.; Erdelyi, G.; Langer, G A; Daroczi, L.; Beke, D. L.; Nyeki, J.; Erdelyi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal annealing of Si/Si1-xSbx/Si amorphous thin film tri-layer samples (x=18 and 24 at%Sb) under 100 bar Ar pressure results in an interesting pattern formation. In pictures, taken by means of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), stripe-shaped contrast, with three maxima, parallel with the interfaces can be seen. Secondary neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS) measurements revealed that the regions with different contrasts correspond to Sb-rich and Sb-depleted regions. Furthe...

  12. Multiple-pattern stability in a photorefractive feedback system

    Schwab, M.; Denz, C.; Saffman, M.

    1999-01-01

    diffraction lengths. For the same values of the control parameters square, rectangular, or squeezed hexagonal patterns are found alternating in time. Besides these pure states, we found a number of different mixed-pattern states. We review the linear stability analysis for this system and show that the......We report on the observation of a multiple-pattern stability region in a photorefractive single-feedback system. Whereas hexagonal patterns are predominant for feedback with positive diffraction length we show that a variety of stable non-hexagonal patterns are generated for certain negative...... special shape of the threshold curves in the investigated parameter region gives a first explanation for the occurrence of a multiple-pattern region....

  13. Turing pattern formation in the Brusselator system with nonlinear diffusion

    Gambino, G.; Lombardo, M. C.; Sammartino, M.; Sciacca, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of density dependent nonlinear diffusion on pattern formation in the Brusselator system. Through linear stability analysis of the basic solution we determine the Turing and the oscillatory instability boundaries. A comparison with the classical linear diffusion shows how nonlinear diffusion favors the occurrence of Turing pattern formation. We study the process of pattern formation both in 1D and 2D spatial domains. Through a weakly nonlinear multiple sc...

  14. CONVERSION STRATEGY OF A SYSTEM OF COLLABORATING DESIGN PATTERNS INTO UML DIAGRAM FOR DESIGN PATTERN

    Muhazam Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a past publication, a proposal of a new set of UML diagram designed to picture a software system at architectural level by showing which patterns are being used has been presented. Progressing from the proposal, this publication presents an extensive example to precisely show the way to make the conversion. In this paper we present the proof of the ability of the proposed diagram set to professionally and neatly picture the overall high level architecture of a software system. There is also an additional rule added to the one presented in the past publication. This new rule is to cater for the cases where collaborating patterns are not overlapping; rather they are related just because some class in one pattern is using some other class in the other pattern.

  15. Pattern formation in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite system: Spatial bistability, waves, and stationary patterns

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the reaction-diffusion patterns observed in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, operated in open one-side-fed reactors. Besides spatial bistability and spatio-temporal oscillatory dynamics, this proton autoactivated reaction shows stationary patterns, as a result of two back-to-back Turing bifurcations, in the presence of a low-mobility proton binding agent (sodium polyacrylate). This is the third aqueous solution system to produce stationary patterns and the second to do this through a Turing bifurcation. The stationary pattern forming capacities of the reaction are explored through a systematic design method, which is applicable to other bistable and oscillatory reactions. The spatio-temporal dynamics of this reaction is compared with that of the previous ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite mixed Landolt system.

  16. Frequent Trajectory Patterns Mining for Intelligent Visual Surveillance System

    QU Lin; CHEN Yao-wu

    2009-01-01

    A frequent trajectory patterns mining algorithm is proposed to learn the object activities and classify the trajectories in intelligent visual surveillance system. The distribution patterns of the trajectories were generated by an Apriori based frequent patterns mining algorithm and the trajectories were classified by the frequent trajectory patterns generated. In addition, a fuzzy c-mcans (FCM) based learning algorithm and a mean shift based clustering procedure were used to construct the representation of trajectories. The algorithm can be further used to describe activities and identify anomalies. The experiments on two real scenes show that the algorithm is effective.

  17. Chemical morphogenesis: turing patterns in an experimental chemical system.

    Dulos, E; Boissonade, J; Perraud, J J; Rudovics, B; De Kepper, P

    1996-11-01

    Patterns resulting from the sole interplay between reaction and diffusion are probably involved in certain stages of morphogenesis in biological systems, as initially proposed by Alan Turing. Self-organization phenomena of this type can only develop in nonlinear systems (i.e. involving positive and negative feedback loops) maintained far from equilibrium. We present Turing patterns experimentally observed in a chemical system. An oscillating chemical reaction, the CIMA reaction, is operated in an open spatial reactor designed in order to obtain a pure reaction-diffusion system. The two types of Turing patterns observed, hexagonal arrays of spots and parallel stripes, are characterized by an intrinsic wavelength. We identify the origin of the necessary diffusivity between activator and inhibitor. We also describe a pattern growth mechanism by spot splitting that recalls cell division. PMID:8953211

  18. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  19. Making embedded systems design patterns for great software

    White, Elecia

    2011-01-01

    Interested in developing embedded systems? Since they don't tolerate inefficiency, these systems require a disciplined approach to programming. This easy-to-read guide helps you cultivate a host of good development practices, based on classic software design patterns and new patterns unique to embedded programming. Learn how to build system architecture for processors, not operating systems, and discover specific techniques for dealing with hardware difficulties and manufacturing requirements. Written by an expert who's created embedded systems ranging from urban surveillance and DNA scanner

  20. Patterns for Designing Learning Management Systems

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papasalouros, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people. Ev

  1. Wavenumber Locking And Pattern Formation In Spatially Forced Systems

    Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meron, Ehud [BEN-GURION UNIV; Manor, Rotem [BEN-GURION UNIV

    2008-01-01

    We study wavenumber locking and pattern formation resulting from weak spatially periodic one-dimensional forcing of two-dimensional systems. We consider systems that support stationary or traveling stripe patterns in the absence of the forcing, and assume that the one-dimensional forcing is aligned with the direction of the stripe patterns. When the forcing wavenumber is about twice as large as the wavenumber of the unforced system we find that the forcing can either select or stabilize a resonant stripe solution at half the forcing wavenumber, or create a new resonant solution. When the wavenumber mismatch is high we find that the wave-vector component of the pattern in the direction of the forcing can stilI lock at half the forcing wavenumber, but a wave-vector component in the orthogonal direction develops to compensate for the total wavenumber. As a result stationary two-dimensional rectangular and oblique patterns form. When the unforced system supports traveling waves resonant rectangular patterns remain stationary but the oblique patterns travel in a direction orthogonal to the traveling-waves.

  2. Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system. 19 references

  3. Pattern Formation in Spatially Discrete Systems

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei; Horsthemke, Werner

    The preceding chapters have dealt with the spatiotemporal behavior of spatially continuous systems. We now turn our attention to the dynamical behavior and stability properties of spatially discrete systems. A wide variety of phenomena in chemistry, biology, physics, and other fields involve the coupling between nonlinear, discrete units. Examples include arrays of Josephson junctions, chains of coupled diode resonators, coupled chemical or biochemical reactors, myelinated nerve fibers, neuronal networks, and patchy ecosystems. Such networks of coupled nonlinear units often combine dynamical and structural complexity [422]. Cells in living tissues, for example, are arranged in a variety of geometries. One-dimensional rings of cells were already considered by Turing [440]. Other types of lattices, such as open-ended linear arrays, tubes, rectangular and hexagonal arrays, and irregular arrangements in two or three dimensions are also found, see for example [5]. Cells interact with adjacent cells in various distinct ways. For example, signaling between cells may occur via diffusion through gap junctions [352, 230] or by membrane-bound proteins, juxtacrine signaling [339, 340, 471].

  4. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  5. Congruent reduction and mode conversion in 4-dimensional plasmas

    Standard eikonal theory reduces, to N=1, the order of the system of equations underlying wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas. The condition for this remarkable reducibility is that only one eigenvalue of the unreduced NxN dispersion matrix D(k,x) vanishes at a time. If, however, two or more eigenvalues of D become simultaneously small, the geometric optics reduction scheme becomes singular. These regions are associated with linear mode conversion, and are described by higher order systems. A new reduction scheme based on congruent transformations of D is developed, and it is shown that, in ''degenerate'' plasma regions, a partial reduction of order is possible. The method comprises a constructive step-by-step procedure, which, in the most frequent (doubly) degenerate case, yields a second order system, describing the pairwise mode conversion problems, the solution of which in general geometry has been found recently

  6. Eliciting design patterns for e-learning systems

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-06-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through the use of appropriate, authentic scenarios. However, an iterative pattern process is proposed that takes advantage of multiple data sources, thus emphasizing a holistic view of the teaching learning processes. The proposed schema of pattern mining has been extensively validated for Asynchronous Network Supported Collaborative Learning (ANSCL) systems, as well as for other types of tools in a variety of scenarios, with promising results.

  7. Observation of Vortex Patterns in a Magnetized Dusty Plasma System

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long; LIU Yanhong

    2007-01-01

    Vortex patterns of dust particles have been observed in a magnetized dusty plasma system. The formation mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) vortex patterns has been investigated by analysing the forces acting on dust particles and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in a 2D confined magnetized dusty plasma. It has been found that with a weak confining electric field and a strong magnetic field, the particles' trajectories will form a vortex shape. The simulation results agree with our experimental observations. In our experiments, vortex patterns can be induced via circular rotation of particles by changing the rf (radio-frequency) power in a magnetized dusty plasma.

  8. Urban Regional Traffic State Analysis Software System Emphasizing Pattern Transition

    Longfei Wang; Yang Li; Song Zhang; Qing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic state evolution analysis is very significant and constructive for traffic guidance and control. In this paper, firstly, a quantitative method for analyzing regional traffic state evolution was proposed by constructing traffic state pattern transition network to mine regional traffic state information and state pattern transition characteristics from massive data. Secondly, a GIS-based urban regional traffic state analysis soft ware system URTSAS based on the method was designed ...

  9. A new mechanism for dendritic pattern formation in dense systems

    Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-06-01

    Patterns are often formed when particles cluster: Since patterns reflect the connectivity of different types of material, the emergence of patterns affects the physical and chemical properties of systems and shares a close relationship to their macroscopic functions. A radial dendritic pattern (RDP) is observed in many systems such as snow crystals, polymer crystals and biological systems. Although most of these systems are considered as dense particle suspensions, the mechanism of RDP formation in dense particle systems is not yet understood. It should be noted that the diffusion limited aggregation model is not applicable to RDP formation in dense systems, but in dilute particle systems. Here, we propose a simple model that exhibits RDP formation in a dense particle system. The model potential for the inter-particle interaction is composed of two parts, a repulsive and an attractive force. The repulsive force is applied to all the particles all the time and the attractive force is exerted only among particles inside a circular domain, which expands at a certain speed as a wave front propagating from a preselected centre. It is found that an RDP is formed if the velocity of the wave front that triggers the attractive interaction is of the same order of magnitude as the time scale defined by the aggregation speed.

  10. A selection criterion for patterns in reaction–diffusion systems

    2014-01-01

    Background Alan Turing’s work in Morphogenesis has received wide attention during the past 60 years. The central idea behind his theory is that two chemically interacting diffusible substances are able to generate stable spatial patterns, provided certain conditions are met. Ever since, extensive work on several kinds of pattern-generating reaction diffusion systems has been done. Nevertheless, prediction of specific patterns is far from being straightforward, and a great deal of interest in deciphering how to generate specific patterns under controlled conditions prevails. Results Techniques allowing one to predict what kind of spatial structure will emerge from reaction–diffusion systems remain unknown. In response to this need, we consider a generalized reaction diffusion system on a planar domain and provide an analytic criterion to determine whether spots or stripes will be formed. Our criterion is motivated by the existence of an associated energy function that allows bringing in the intuition provided by phase transitions phenomena. Conclusions Our criterion is proved rigorously in some situations, generalizing well-known results for the scalar equation where the pattern selection process can be understood in terms of a potential. In more complex settings it is investigated numerically. Our work constitutes a first step towards rigorous pattern prediction in arbitrary geometries/conditions. Advances in this direction are highly applicable to the efficient design of Biotechnology and Developmental Biology experiments, as well as in simplifying the analysis of morphogenetic models. PMID:24476200

  11. Hawking Radiation of Vector Particles via Tunneling From 4-Dimensional And 5-Dimensional Black Holes

    Feng, Zhongwen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-01-01

    Using Proca equation and WKB approximation, we investigate Hawking radiation of vector particles via tunneling from 4-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black hole and 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The results show that the tunneling rates and Hawking temperatures are depended on the properties of spacetime (event horizon, mass and angular momentum). Besides, our results are the same as scalars and fermions tunneling from 4-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black hole and 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole.

  12. Quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry

    Quantum electrodynamics is discussed within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. A possible and crucial experimental test of the new 4-dimensional symmetry is discussed

  13. On the physical basis of pattern formation in nonlinear systems

    Spatial, respectively spatiotemporal patterns appear in a gaseous conductor (plasma) when an external constraint produces a local gradient of electron kinetic energy. Under such conditions, collective quantum effects related to the spatial separation of the excitation and ionization cross-sections determine the appearance of adjacent opposite space charges. The state of the resulting space charge configuration depends on the self-enhancement process of positive ions production, which destabilizes the system. Thus, a spatial pattern in the form of a stable double layer appears after self-organization when the above gradient is smaller than that for which the double layer transits into a moving phase (spatiotemporal pattern). The proposed explanation, based on investigations performed on self-organization phenomena observed in gaseous conductors, suggests a new possibility to clarify the challenging problems concerning the actual physical basis of pattern formation in semiconductors

  14. Optical patterns in spatially coupled phase-conjugate systems

    Various pattern evolutions are presented in one- and two-dimensional spatially coupled phase-conjugate systems (SCPCSs). As the system parameters change, different patterns are obtained from the period-doubling of kink-antikinks in space to the spatiotemporal chaos in a one-dimensional SCPCS. The homogeneous symmetric states induce symmetry breaking from the four corners and the boundaries, finally leading to spatiotemporal chaos with the increase of the iteration time in a two-dimensional SCPCS. Numerical simulations are very helpful for understanding the complex optical phenomena

  15. Mathematical aspects of pattern formation in biological systems

    Wei, Juncheng

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mathematical analysis of patterns which are encountered in biological systems. It summarises, expands and relates results obtained in the field during the last fifteen years. It also links the results to biological applications and highlights their relevance to phenomena in nature. Of particular concern are large-amplitude patterns far from equilibrium in biologically relevant models.The approach adopted in the monograph is based on the following paradigms:• Examine the existence of spiky steady states in reaction-diffusion systems and select as observabl

  16. Reproducibility of target volumes generated using uncoached 4-dimensional CT scans for peripheral lung cancer

    4-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans are increasingly used to account for mobility during radiotherapy planning. As variations in respiratory patterns can alter observed motion, with consequent changes in the generated target volumes, we evaluated the reproducibility of 4D target volumes generated during repeat uncoached quiet respiration. A retrospective analysis was performed on two successive scans (4DCT1 and 4DCT2) generated at the same scanning session for 26 patients with peripheral lung cancer treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). The volume and position of planning target volumes (PTV4DCT1 and PTV4DCT2) contoured on both scans were compared, and a dosimetric analysis performed. A SRT plan optimized for each PTV was sequentially applied to the other PTV, and coverage by the 80% isodose was evaluated. Color intensity projections (CIP) were used to evaluate regions of underdosage. No significant volumetric differences were observed between the two PTVs (t-Test p = 0.60). The average displacement of the center of mass between corresponding PTVs was 1.4 ± 1.0 mm, but differences in position were 2.0 mm or greater in 5 cases (19%). Coverage of both PTVs by the 80% prescription isodose exceeded 90% for all but one patient. For the latter, the prescription isodose covered only 82.5% of PTV4DCT1. CIP analysis revealed that the region of underdosage was an end-inspiratory position occupied by the tumor for only 10–20% of the respiratory cycle. In nearly all patients with stage I lung cancer, the PTV derived from a single uncoached 4DCT achieves dosimetric coverage that is similar to that achieved using two such consecutive scans

  17. Understanding Patterns for System-of-Systems Integration

    Kazman, Rick; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård; Schmid, Klaus

    Creating a successful system of systems—one that meets the needs of its stakeholders today and can evolve and scale to sustain those stakeholders into the future—is a very complex engineering challenge. In a system of systems (SoS), one of the biggest challenges is in achieving cooperation and...... interoperation among systems through some form of system integration. Previous work has approached the information system integration challenge in a generic way, not specific to a SoS context, or has provided only a limited range of solutions. This technical report discusses how an IT architect can address the...

  18. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  19. Exchange bias of patterned systems: Model and numerical simulation

    The magnitude of the exchange bias field of patterned systems exhibits a notable increase in relation to the usual bilayer systems, where a continuous ferromagnetic film is deposited on an antiferromagnet insulator. Here we develop a model, and implement a Monte Carlo calculation, to interpret the experimental observations which is consistent with experimental results, on the basis of assuming a small fraction of spins pinned ferromagnetically in the antiferromagnetic interface layer.

  20. Exchange bias of patterned systems: Model and numerical simulation

    Garcia, Griselda [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: mkiwi@puc.c [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Mejia-Lopez, Jose; Ramirez, Ricardo [Facultad de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    The magnitude of the exchange bias field of patterned systems exhibits a notable increase in relation to the usual bilayer systems, where a continuous ferromagnetic film is deposited on an antiferromagnet insulator. Here we develop a model, and implement a Monte Carlo calculation, to interpret the experimental observations which is consistent with experimental results, on the basis of assuming a small fraction of spins pinned ferromagnetically in the antiferromagnetic interface layer.

  1. Design patterns for safety-critical embedded systems

    Armoush, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, embedded systems have been increasingly used in safety-critical applications where failure can have serious consequences. The design of these systems is a complex process, which is requiring the integration of common design methods both in hardware and software to fulfill functional and non-functional requirements for these safety-critical applications. Design patterns, which give abstract solutions to commonly recurring design problems, have been widely used in the s...

  2. Development of an expert system for interpreting electron diffraction patterns

    A laboratory prototype of the expert system Electron for the automatic interpretation of electron diffraction patterns has been described. A high-level language providing storage and processing of knowledge is developed as well as user's interface for work with images. The Electron expert system can play the part of a consultant and also serve as a text-book on electron diffraction in teaching crystallography

  3. Iris Recognition System Using Fractal Dimensions of Haar Patterns

    Patnala S. R. Chandra Murty

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification of iris templates based on their texture patterns is one of the most effective methods in iris recognition systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for automatic iris classification based on fractal dimensions of Haar wavelet transforms is presented. Fractal dimensions obtained from multiple scale features are used to characterize the textures completely. Haar wavelet is applied in order to extract the multiple scale features at different resolutions from the iris image. Fractal dimensions are estimated from these patterns and a classifier is used to recognize the given image from a data base. Performance comparison was made among different classifiers.

  4. Experimental spatial rogue patterns in an optical feedback system

    V. Odent

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We study pattern formation in an optical system composed of a Kerr medium subjected to optical feedback but in a regime very far from the modulational instability threshold. In this highly nonlinear regime, the dynamics is turbulent and the associated one-dimensional patterns depict rare and intense localized optical peaks. We analyse numerically and experimentally the statistics and features of these intense optical peaks and show that their probability density functions (PDF have a long tail indicating the occurrence of rogue events.

  5. A performance measure for Markov system with stochastic supply patterns and stochastic demand patterns

    A system consisting of supply and demand is considered in this paper. Both the supply patterns and demand patterns are random. Thus, both the supply and the demand are modeled by Markov processes. The performance measure considered here is the probability that the demand is met by the supply during given time interval [0,t]. A close form expression for the performance measure is obtained by using aggregated stochastic process theory and Kronecker matrix operations. In the meanwhile, the performance measures in a general interval [a,b] and multiple intervals [a1,b1],[a2,b2],…,[am,bm] have also been given. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the results obtained in this paper

  6. Chemical Pattern Formation in Far-From Systems.

    Pearson, John Evan

    The diffusive instability was proposed as a mechanism for pattern formation in chemical systems, in the context of biological morphogenesis, by Alan Turing in 1952. The instability gives rise to a chemical pattern with an intrinsic "chemical wavelength" that is independent of the system size. Since 1952, the diffusive instability, or Turing bifurcation, has been invoked to explain pattern formation in a variety of fields. To date there has been no unambiguous observation of such an instability. Model studies of the instability are usually carried out on systems containing two variables. Such works do not address issues that are of fundamental importance in experimental studies. How does one go about finding Turing bifurcations in systems with many parameters and for which the chemical kinetics are only partially known? What is the chemical wavelength? Turing bifurcations cannot occur in systems with all diffusion coefficients exactly equal. How unequal must the diffusion coefficients be for a system to undergo a Turing bifurcation?. Reacting and diffusing systems obey a partial -differential equation which is a sum of a diffusion term and a reaction term. Dropping the diffusion term results in an ordinary differential equation describing the reaction kinetics in a well-mixed system. In this dissertation it is shown that, for systems with an arbitrary number of variables, Turing bifurcations can occur with diffusion coefficients arbitrarily close to equal, provided the corresponding well-mixed system is sufficiently close to a point of coalescence of Hopf and saddle-node bifurcations. Since the bifurcation set can be obtained directly from experiments, one does not need a detailed microscopic theory of the reaction kinetics. Similarly, the chemical wavelength can be estimated from experimental measurements without knowledge of the reaction kinetics.

  7. A pattern recognition system for JPEG steganography detection

    Chen, C. L. Philip; Chen, Mei-Ching; Agaian, Sos; Zhou, Yicong; Roy, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2012-10-01

    This paper builds up a pattern recognition system to detect anomalies in JPEG images, especially steganographic content. The system consists of feature generation, feature ranking and selection, feature extraction, and pattern classification. These processes tend to capture image characteristics, reduce the problem dimensionality, eliminate the noise inferences between features, and further improve classification accuracies on clean and steganography JPEG images. Based on the discussion and analysis of six popular JPEG steganography methods, the entire recognition system results in higher classification accuracies between clean and steganography classes compared to merely using individual feature subset for JPEG steganography detection. The strength of feature combination and preprocessing has been integrated even when a small amount of information is embedded. The work demonstrated in this paper is extensible and can be improved by integrating various new and current techniques.

  8. An analysis of sweep patterns for a handheld demining system

    Wilson, J. N.; Gader, P. D.; Ho, K. C.; Mazhar, R.

    2006-05-01

    Handheld sensors are commonly used to assist in landmine location and removal. A number of computer systems aimed at assisting humans in discriminating between buried mines and other objects have been developed. Each such system requires some protocol that involves sweeping the sensor over a region of ground using some set of patterns to search for objects (detection) and determine the nature of those objects (discrimination). The work reported here is an effort to determine an acceptable sweep pattern for mine/nonmine discrimination that provides good performance while still being simple for the operator to use. The paper describes a series of data collections and case studies employing a combined radar and metal detection sensor. The system was evaluated first using a robotic operator and later human operators. We discuss the application of a supervised learning system discriminator to each data set, and evaluate discrimination performance. We found that using a relatively simple sweep pattern, computer algorithms can achieve better discrimination performance than an expert human operator, and that (at least up to ten sweeps) our computer algorithm performs better with more sweeps over target.

  9. Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Ying; Ding, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios. PMID:27092512

  10. Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

    Levers, Christian; Müller, Daniel; Erb, Karlheinz;

    2016-01-01

    -system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as characteristic patterns of land-use extent and...... intensity, and (2) archetypical change trajectories, defined as characteristic changes in these indicators between 1990 and 2006. Our analysis identified 15 land-system archetypes, with low-intensity archetypes dominating (ca. 55 % coverage) followed by high-intensity archetypes (ca. 26 %). In terms of...... change, we identified 17 archetypical change trajectories, clustered in four broad categories. Stable land systems were most widespread (ca. 40 % of the EU27), followed by land systems characterised by land-use conversions (ca. 26 %), de-intensification trends (ca. 18 %), and intensification trends (ca...

  11. Expert system for analysis of complicated fringe patterns

    Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    1993-02-01

    The review of the advantages and disadvantages of analytical phase measurement methods of automatic fringe pattern analysis is given. The pros and cons for their applications due to the complexity of an interferogram, the accuracies required, and the type of a quantity measured are considered. The architecture of the system which enables the proper choice between Fourier transform method, temporal and spatial phase-shifting methods is described. The error considerations for these errors are given. The philosophy of the expert system which should apply the various image processing and phase-measuring possibilities in the most efficient way is presented.

  12. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  13. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    Teng, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  14. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    Du, Dongsu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hu, Yanle, E-mail: Hu.Yanle@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm{sup 3} could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications.

  15. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm3 could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications

  16. Collocation and Pattern Recognition Effects on System Failure Remediation

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Press, Hayes N.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research found that operators prefer to have status, alerts, and controls located on the same screen. Unfortunately, that research was done with displays that were not designed specifically for collocation. In this experiment, twelve subjects evaluated two displays specifically designed for collocating system information against a baseline that consisted of dial status displays, a separate alert area, and a controls panel. These displays differed in the amount of collocation, pattern matching, and parameter movement compared to display size. During the data runs, subjects kept a randomly moving target centered on a display using a left-handed joystick and they scanned system displays to find a problem in order to correct it using the provided checklist. Results indicate that large parameter movement aided detection and then pattern recognition is needed for diagnosis but the collocated displays centralized all the information subjects needed, which reduced workload. Therefore, the collocated display with large parameter movement may be an acceptable display after familiarization because of the possible pattern recognition developed with training and its use.

  17. Development of the fill pattern control system using an oscilloscope

    We have developed a new injection control system to generate and maintain the arbitrary fill patterns at the Photon Factory storage ring. The heart of the control system is a general-purpose oscilloscope connected across the output of a wall current monitor. In this oscilloscope, an analytical program that can select out the RF bucket with the largest deviation from the nominal bunch current is running. Since the oscilloscope also functions as an EPICS-IOC, the bucket address obtained from the analysis is transferred to the Linac timing system via the network immediately. This feedback process on the bunch current allows the top-up injection controlled so that the deviation between the actual and nominal bunch currents becomes small. Our new injection system has been used in the user operation since March 2010. It has contributed not only to the smoothing of the multibunch fill but also to the rapid recovery from the critical beam loss. (author)

  18. Visual Field Screening System by Using Overlapped Fixation Patterns

    Kotani, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Ryota; Tamura, Toshiki; Asao, Takafumi; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ueki, Mari; Kojima, Shota; Shibata, Maho; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    This study introduces a novel technique for estimating visual field by using overlapped fixation patterns obtained by amounts of displacement in voluntary eye movements during searching-tracking trials, as an alternative screening medical device for visual field examination. Proposed system was evaluated by glaucoma patients, in order to study whether or not the proposed system can be used as a visual field detection device for screening. As a result, the proposed system detected the visual field abnormality to a certain extent. However, there were some cases that detection of Mariotte blind spots was inaccurately performed. The experimental results revealed that there was room to reconsider our understanding regarding the effect of ptosis, overlapped with eye sight as well as calibration of the display position to the correct location to be examined. Results of the evaluation experiment indicated that this proposed system has a potential to be used as a visual field examination device for screening.

  19. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip

    2003-01-01

    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  20. Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the

  1. A nanocontact printing system for sub-100 nm aligned patterning

    Though many aspects of contact printing have been explored extensively since its invention, there are still hurdles to overcome for multilayer printing in the nanometer regime. Here we report on an aligned nanocontact printing (nCP) system that has demonstrated a sub-100 nm alignment capability by means of moire fringes and microspacers. To address issues in the stamp inking, we have devised a microfluidic apparatus based on the gradient capillary force for transport of ink solutions. The nCP system has been tested by printing nucleoside phosphoramidites on a nanopillar arrayed substrate. Although the nCP system was designed primarily for use in the fabrication of high density DNA nanoarrays, it has the potential to be applied to other fields of nanotechnology for nanoscale patterning.

  2. Radiological evaluation of swallowing and clinical patterns of systemic sclerosis

    Fifty-one patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) were studied by means of videofluoroscopy in order to evaluate the abnormalities in the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition and to correlate the radiological patterns with the clinical features of the disease. Thirteen patients (25.5%) exhibited swallowing disorders such as oral leakage, retention, penetration, mild or moderate aspiration and abnormal upper esophageal sphincter behavior. These dysfunctions were more evident in patients with esophageal motility abnormalities. A normal radiological pattern in the esophagus was not associated with swallowing alterations. Remarkably, patients with oral-pharyngeal disorders had a higher incidence of lung diseases. Forty-five patients (88%) exhibited disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition, such as mild or severe motility abnormalities or hiatal hernia, gastro-esophageal reflux, reflux esophagitis, and stricture. Radiological findings in the esophagus can be abnormal in the early stages of the disease. On the other hand, the radiological pattern of esophageal motility can be occasionally negative in advanced or extensive disease. This indicates a discrepancy between clinical symptoms and radiological picture of the esophagus. The radiological examination of the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition is important in patients with scleroderma in order to evaluate visceral involvement, motility disorders, and risk of aspiration. Such radiological information can be useful in preventing esophagitis and pulmonary complications

  3. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach

    Krithika; Rangarajan; Chandan; J; Das; Atin; Kumar; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist.Imaging plays a vital role,the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling.The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly re-warding,given the availability of excellent pharmaco-logical regimen.The availability of numerous magnetic resonance(MR)sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist.However,the plethora of se-quences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating,and often confusing as well as time con-suming.While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection,we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics.In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences(T1,T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium),and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences(Diffusion,Perfusion,Susceptibili-ty imaging,MR Spectroscopy).This patterned approachis intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge.The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference.

  4. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach.

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Das, Chandan J; Kumar, Atin; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2014-09-28

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist. Imaging plays a vital role, the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling. The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly rewarding, given the availability of excellent pharmacological regimen. The availability of numerous magnetic resonance (MR) sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist. However, the plethora of sequences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating, and often confusing as well as time consuming. While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection, we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics. In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences (T1, T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium), and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences (Diffusion, Perfusion, Susceptibility imaging, MR Spectroscopy). This patterned approach is intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge. The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference. PMID:25276314

  5. Propagating wave patterns for the 'resonant' Davey-Stewartson system

    The resonant nonlinear Schroedinger (RNLS) equation exhibits the usual cubic nonlinearity present in the classical nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation together with an additional nonlinear term involving the modulus of the wave envelope. It arises in the context of the propagation of long magneto-acoustic waves in cold, collisionless plasma and in capillarity theory. Here, a natural (2 + 1) (2 spatial and 1 temporal)-dimensional version of the RNLS equation is introduced, termed the 'resonant' Davey-Stewartson system. The multi-linear variable separation approach is used to generate a class of exact solutions, which will describe propagating, doubly periodic wave patterns.

  6. Substitute and Communication Pattern for an Internet Banking System

    A. Meiappane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The design patterns are the reusable component used in the development of the software, which delivers enhanced quality software to the end users. The design patterns are available for user interface, mobile applications, text classification and so on. There are no design patterns for internet banking applications. This motivated to mine the design patterns for internet banking application from the document of Business Process Management (BPM by using the qualitative research technique. The nonfunctional quality attribute of software architecture is enhanced by using the design patterns. In this paper the mined two patterns are presented namely substitute pattern and communication pattern for internet banking application.

  7. Hybrid expert system implementation to determine core reload patterns

    Determining reactor reload fuel patterns is a computationally intensive problem solving process for which automation can be of significant benefit. Often much effort is expended in the search for an optimal loading. While any modern programming language could be used to automate solution, the specialized tools of artificial intelligence (AI) are the most efficient means of introducing the fuel management expert's knowledge into the search for an optimum reload pattern. Prior research in pressurized water reactor refueling strategies developed FORTRAN programs that automated an expert's basic knowledge to direct a search for an acceptable minimum peak power loading. The dissatisfaction with maintenance of compiled knowledge in FORTRAN programs has served as the motivation for the development of the SHUFFLE expert system. SHUFFLE is written in Smalltalk, an object-oriented programming language, and evaluates loadings as it generates them using a two-group, two-dimensional nodal power calculation compiled in a personal computer-based FORTRAN. This paper reviews the object-oriented representation developed to solve the core reload problem with an expert system tool and its operating prototype, SHUFFLE

  8. Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    Nakao, Hiroya; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2010-07-01

    Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors.

  9. Directional pattern measurement of the BRAMS beacon antenna system

    Martínez Picar, A.; Marqué, C.; Anciaux, M.; Lamy, H.

    2015-01-01

    The typical methods for measuring antenna characteristics are mostly based on the use of remote transmitters or receivers. For antennas used in radio communications, calibrations are usually done on an antenna test stand using transmitters with known power output. In order to minimize the ground effects while performing measurements, it is necessary to place the transmitter or receiver high above ground with the aid of aircrafts. It is, however, necessary to determine precisely the coordinates of the airborne devices as well as to maintain high stability. This used to be excessively difficult to carry out, but recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies have brought a feasible option. In this paper, the results of using a low-cost system for measuring the directional pattern of BRAMS beacon antenna system based on an UAV are presented.

  10. On the compatibility of Lorentz-metrics with linear connections on 4-dimensional manifolds

    Hall, G S

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers 4-dimensional manifolds upon which there is a Lorentz metric, h, and a symmetric connection and which are originally assumed unrelated. It then derives sufficient conditions on the metric and connection (expressed through the curvature tensor) for the connection to be the Levi-Civita connection of some (local) Lorentz metric, g, and calculates the relationship between g and h. Some examples are provided which help to assess the strength of the sufficient conditions derived.

  11. On the compatibility of Lorentz-metrics with linear connections on 4-dimensional manifolds

    Hall, G. S.; Lonie, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers 4-dimensional manifolds upon which there is a Lorentz metric, h, and a symmetric connection and which are originally assumed unrelated. It then derives sufficient conditions on the metric and connection (expressed through the curvature tensor) for the connection to be the Levi-Civita connection of some (local) Lorentz metric, g, and calculates the relationship between g and h. Some examples are provided which help to assess the strength of the sufficient conditions derived.

  12. Future electron-positron colliders and the 4-dimensional composite Higgs model

    Barducci, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Curtis, S. De [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Pruna, G.M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-03

    In this note we analyse the prospects of a future electron-positron collider in testing a particular realisation of a composite Higgs model encompassing partial compositeness, namely, the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model. We study the main Higgs production channels for three possible energy stages and different luminosity options of such a machine and confront our results to the expected experimental accuracies in the various Higgs decay channels accessible herein and, for comparison, also at the Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Future Electron-Positron Colliders and the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model

    Barducci, D.; De Curtis, S.; Moretti, S; Pruna, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this note we analyse the prospects of a future electron-positron collider in testing a particular realisation of a composite Higgs model encompassing partial compositeness, namely, the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model. We study the main Higgs production channels for three possible energy stages and different luminosity options of such a machine and confront our results to the expected experimental accuracies in the various Higgs decay channels accessible herein and, for comparison, also...

  14. We live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2015-01-01

    We try to define "our world" by stating that "we live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time with the force-fields gauge group $SU_c(3) \\times SU_L(2) \\times U(1) \\times SU_f(3)$ built-in from the outset". We begin by explaining what "space" and "time" are meaning for us - the 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time, then proceeding to the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time. In our world, there are fields, or, point-like particles. Particle physics is described by the so-called Standard Model. Maybe I should explain why, how, and what my Standard Model would be everybody's "Standard Model" some day. Following the thinking underlying the minimal Standard Model and based on the gauge group $SU_c(3) \\times SU_L(2) \\times U(1) \\times SU_f(3)$, the extension, which is rather unique, derives from the family concept that there are three generations of quarks, on (123), and of leptons, on another (123). It yields neutrino oscillations in a natural manner. It also predicts a variety of lepton-flavor-viol...

  15. Request and notification Pattern for an internet banking System

    Meiappane, A.; Venkataesan, Dr. V. Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The quality of software is enhanced by using the design patterns. The design patterns are the reusable component used in the development of the software, which delivers improved quality software to the end users. The researchers have developed design patterns for user interface, e-commerce applications, mobile applications, text classification and so on. There are no design patterns for internet banking applications, but there is analysis pattern for banking. This motivated to mine the design...

  16. Extended 4-Dimensional OpenGL e-book associated with electric material

    Kazu-masa YAMADA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a kind of 4 Dimensional electronic textbook (4D-Text regarding a typical dielectrics material structure of Perovskit crystalline formations of Barium Titanate where 4D means a combined 1D direction-freely-viewing and 3D animation-ing is continuously extracting while being changed and scaled viewpoint as user chosen continuously. It is specific issue that e.g. Barium Titanium (IV Oxide which crystallography 4D structural animation is discussed and relevantly addressing to virtual learning environments, e-learning tools, educational systems design and e-learning organizational issues. Additionally it should be an actually-expected theme that crystalline Perovskite structure with a chemical formula ABX3 is constructed as follows; the type of anion spheres are X atoms (usually oxygens as O[2-], the another type of spheres are B-atoms (a smaller metal cation, such as Ti[4+] and the third type of spheres are the A-atoms (a larger metal cation, such as Ba[2+]. Then thermal transformation between lower temperature ferroelectorode and higher temperature paraelectorode would be discussed. Meanwhile, crystallographic pictured 4D-Text is as follows among these structures; the undistorted isometric-regular cubic, on the other hand, the symmetry lowered orthorhombic, tetragonal and trigonal in each Perovskites. It has been concluded that free OpenGL assisted 4D animation approach technique should be good way to achieve the organization for free 4D-Text e-learning using Free 3D viewing and manipulating the 4D animation data file created via MGF (MicroAVS Geometry File approached. Additionally crystallography numerical data processing methods in Perovskit structure are to be using Freeware AWK language data-processing and extracting how to prepare the 4D with MGF. Therefore 4D-OpenGL Free e-Text is a possible guidance that enables studying Perovskit structure while changing a viewpoint directly to the instructor's guidance

  17. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  18. Patterns of Programmers' Use of Computer-Mediated Communications Systems

    Chatpong Tangmanee

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication behavior of programmers plays an essential role in success of software development. Computer-mediated communication (CMC system, such as e-mail, or the World Wide Web (WWW, have substantial implications for coordinating work of programmers. Yet, no studies have dealt systematically with CMC behaviors of programmers. Drawing upon theories in organizational studies, information science, computer-mediated communication and software engineering, this research examines what programmers accomplish through CMC systems. Data were gathered from survey questionnaires mailed to 730 programmers, who are members of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM and are involved in a variety of programming work. Based on factor analysis, the study found that programmers use CMC systems (1 to achieve progress in work-related tasks (i.e., task-related purposes, (2 to satisfy their social and emotional needs (i.e., socio-emotional purposes, and (3 to explore for information (i.e., exploring purposes. The findings of this research extend an insight into important patterns for which programmers use CMC systems. This insight has advanced theories of computer-mediated communication in the context of computer programmers. Also, practitioners, especially in software development, may use the results as guidelines in fostering a firm’s feasible network policy that fits with what their programming staff accomplish through computer-mediated communication.

  19. Application of Refactoring and Design Pattern in Land Information System Development

    CHEN Luyao; YUE Jianwei; JIANG Weiguo; LI Jing; CHEN Yunhao

    2007-01-01

    The unceasing change problem of land information systems can be resolved through the refactoring and design pattern. To promote the implementation of design pattern and refactoring methods in developing land information systems reusing software design, applying refactoring methods to the abstract factory and decorator design patterns in land information system development is discussed.

  20. Network Intrusion Detection Evading System using Frequent Pattern Matching

    N. B. Dhurpate#1 , L.M.R.J. Lobo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Signature based NIDS are efficient at detecting attacks for what they are prepared for. This makes an intruderto focus on the new evasion technique to remain undetected. Emergence of new evasion technique may cause NIDS to fail. Unfortunately, most of these techniques are based on network protocols ambiguities, so NIDS designers must take them into account when updating their tools. This paper presents a framework for evading network intrusion detection system and detection over NIDS using frequent element pattern matching. The core of the framework is to model the NIDS using Adaboost algorithm that allows the understanding of how the NIDS classifies network data. We look for some way of evading the NIDS detection by changing some of the fields of the packets. We use publicly available dataset (KDD-99 for showing the proof of our concept. For real time evasion detection NIDS is build with Apriori algorithm to analyze NIDS robustness with high detection rate accuracy

  1. Substitute and Communication Pattern for an Internet Banking System

    Meiappane, A.; V. Prasanna Venkataesan

    2014-01-01

    The design patterns are the reusable component used in the development of the software, which delivers enhanced quality software to the end users. The design patterns are available for user interface, mobile applications, text classification and so on. There are no design patterns for internet banking applications. This motivated to mine the design patterns for internet banking application from the document of Business Process Management (BPM) by using the qualitative research technique. The ...

  2. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    Lindner, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Zipfel, J.; Richtering, W. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    A technologically important extension of `classical` scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author). 5 refs.

  3. Suppression of fixed pattern noise for infrared image system

    Park, Changhan; Han, Jungsoo; Bae, Kyung-Hoon

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose suppression of fixed pattern noise (FPN) and compensation of soft defect for improvement of object tracking in cooled staring infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) imaging system. FPN appears an observable image which applies to non-uniformity compensation (NUC) by temperature. Soft defect appears glittering black and white point by characteristics of non-uniformity for IR detector by time. This problem is very important because it happen serious problem for object tracking as well as degradation for image quality. Signal processing architecture in cooled staring IRFPA imaging system consists of three tables: low, normal, high temperature for reference gain and offset values. Proposed method operates two offset tables for each table. This is method which operates six term of temperature on the whole. Proposed method of soft defect compensation consists of three stages: (1) separates sub-image for an image, (2) decides a motion distribution of object between each sub-image, (3) analyzes for statistical characteristic from each stationary fixed pixel. Based on experimental results, the proposed method shows an improved image which suppresses FPN by change of temperature distribution from an observational image in real-time.

  4. Butterfly patterns in a sheared lamellar-system

    A technologically important extension of 'classical' scattering techniques is to investigate soft-matter systems under non-equilibrium conditions. Shear flow is known to have a profound influence on the structure and orientation of complex fluids like thermotropic or lyotropic liquid-crystals, colloidal and polymeric solutions. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the microscopic structure and dynamics of such complex fluids as the macroscopic material properties might change with the application of an external perturbation like shear. The following example illustrates a recent study of the influence of shear on the structure of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Results using a cone-and-plate and the ILL Couette type shear-cell were obtained by rheo-small-angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at D11. Because of the broad range of momentum transfer Q available at D11 a characteristic butterfly-pattern with a scattering peak revealing both the structure and the supramolecular structure of the system could be detected at very low Q. (author)

  5. Managing Environmental Interests: Decision Patterns within the Italian Legal System

    The article deals with the main patterns established by the Italian legal system with respect to the decisions regarding environmental issues. After outlining the most important theories related to the problem of the juridical definition of the environment, as well as the constitutional context, which assigns the environmental protection to the competence of the State, the analysis singles out five different models. The first one is the result of the application of the environmental principles established by the European sources and enforced by the Italian Law; in this regard, in particular, the precautionary principle interferes with the usual way through which the Public Entities take their final decisions. The second pattern embodies the idea according to which the environment is a prominent value, capable of prevailing over other values and interests. The third one, starting from the same assertion (the environmental interest must win), adds that it must only be assessed by technical bodies with a specific competence. The fourth model is based upon the premise that the environmental proceedings cannot be simplified, so that some legal tools such as 'Conferenza di Servizi', silence and so on, cannot be applied in this field. The last pattern considers the possibility for Bodies different from the State (such as the Regions) to regulate the environmental issues, thus introducing stricter levels of protection of the environment. The article underlines that the size of this competence strictly depends on the notion of protection of the environment that is used (in any case, the Constitutional Court, since the fundamental decision n. 407 of 26 July 2002, considering the environment as a sort of transversal matter, has ruled that important room for regional legislative power does exist). Very often there is a sort of subsidiarity, since in the first place the technical bodies have the competence to take care of the environmental interest, while the bureaucracy or the

  6. Scaling Limits and Critical Behaviour of the 4 -Dimensional n -Component |\\varphi |^4 Spin Model

    Bauerschmidt, Roland; Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    We consider the n -component |\\varphi |^4 spin model on {mathbb {Z}}^4 , for all n ge 1 , with small coupling constant. We prove that the susceptibility has a logarithmic correction to mean field scaling, with exponent n+2/n+8 for the logarithm. We also analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the pressure as the critical point is approached, and prove that the specific heat has fractional logarithmic scaling for n =1,2,3 ; double logarithmic scaling for n=4 ; and is bounded when n>4 . In addition, for the model defined on the 4 -dimensional discrete torus, we prove that the scaling limit as the critical point is approached is a multiple of a Gaussian free field on the continuum torus, whereas, in the subcritical regime, the scaling limit is Gaussian white noise with intensity given by the susceptibility. The proofs are based on a rigorous renormalisation group method in the spirit of Wilson, developed in a companion series of papers to study the 4-dimensional weakly self-avoiding walk, and adapted here to the |\\varphi |^4 model.

  7. Pattern recognition for the anti PANDA forward tacking systems

    The anti PANDA experiment is planned to start operation in 2017 as part of the future FAIR facility, which will be built at the site of GSI in Darmstadt. It will utilize antiproton beams with beam momentum resolutions of Δ p/p ≤ 2 . 10-5. anti PANDA is particularly suited to perform resonance scans of exclusively produced charmonium(-like) states, and thus provide absolute measurements of resonance widths. As it is a fixed target experiment a large fraction of final state particles will be boosted toward forward angles in aforementioned reactions facilitating the importance of forward tracking for the success of the experiment. The key challenges for forward tracking arise from the beam momentum dependent magnetic fields: anti PANDA is comprised of a barrel part with a solenoid field of Bz = 2 T and a forward detector with a dipole field of B . L = 2 Tm. The interference of the aforementioned magnetic fields leads to complex particle tracks making accurate matching of hits challenging. A Hough Transform algorithm for pattern recognition in the Forward Tracking System based upon a parabola track model was developed. The performance of a proof-of-concept implementation was studied with detailed PandaRoot simulations. The algorithm is presented in the poster alongside results for momentum resolution, efficiency and ghost rate. Alternative approaches are discussed. Results for momentum resolution, efficiency and ghost rate are discussed.

  8. Sterol Ring System Oxidation Pattern in Marine Sponges

    S. Ramakrishna Rao

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The marine sponges (Porifera are a unique group of sedentary organisms from which several novel natural products are reported, many of which have useful biological activities. In producing unusual sterols, they occupy a preeminent position among the various groups of organisms. The polar sterols of sponges reported as at the end of the year 2002 number about 250; their ring structure changing a hundred times. The oxidation pattern in the sterol ring system, from the point of view of biogenesis seems to be mainly of four types. Each sponge species is able to produce sterols fitting into one of the four main biogenetic pathways viz., (i 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-sterol pathway, (ii 3β-hydroxy-Δ7-sterol pathway, (iii 3β-hydroxy-Δ5,7-sterol pathway, and (iv 3α-hydroxy sterol pathway.

  9. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning [1]. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system [2] that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-(micro)m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator [3] on an SOI membrane is also presented

  10. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning[1]. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system[2] that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-(micro)m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator[3] on an SOI membrane is also presented

  11. The Technology of Individual and Digital Pattern-making in the MTM System

    YANG Zitian; XU Lian; ZHANG Wenbin; ZHANG Weiyuan

    2006-01-01

    The Garment MTM enables to realize the individual and quick manufacture to meet the development of the perfectly popular and various garment industry, whose core technology is to produce the individual and digital pattern, that is, getting the individual pattern-making according to the body information. It is relatively correct and wise to get the individual pattern by modifying the basic pattern and the experts in this field do their researches on this way. One vital and unsolved problem is that how to find the very pattern which is the closest to the customers in the pattern-database which determines the validity of the final pattern. We conclude a technology methods from body information to digital pattern, design the rule of seeking yards and pattern-modification, build the B-P system(the system of the quick manufacture technology of body information -digital pattern), set up the style database, yarn database, pattern database, the rule databases of seeking yards and pattern-modification. It is confirmed that the B-P system is available, the setting-up of all the databases in the system is reasonable and the final pattern is correct.

  12. Evaluation of 4-dimensional Computed Tomography to 4-dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Deformable Image Registration for Lung Cancer Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To evaluate 2 deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for the purpose of contour mapping to support image-guided adaptive radiation therapy with 4-dimensional cone-beam CT (4DCBCT). Methods and Materials: One planning 4D fan-beam CT (4DFBCT) and 7 weekly 4DCBCT scans were acquired for 10 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. The gross tumor volume was delineated by a physician in all 4D images. End-of-inspiration phase planning 4DFBCT was registered to the corresponding phase in weekly 4DCBCT images for day-to-day registrations. For phase-to-phase registration, the end-of-inspiration phase from each 4D image was registered to the end-of-expiration phase. Two DIR algorithms—small deformation inverse consistent linear elastic (SICLE) and Insight Toolkit diffeomorphic demons (DEMONS)—were evaluated. Physician-delineated contours were compared with the warped contours by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), average symmetric distance, and false-positive and false-negative indices. The DIR results are compared with rigid registration of tumor. Results: For day-to-day registrations, the mean DSC was 0.75 ± 0.09 with SICLE, 0.70 ± 0.12 with DEMONS, 0.66 ± 0.12 with rigid-tumor registration, and 0.60 ± 0.14 with rigid-bone registration. Results were comparable to intraobserver variability calculated from phase-to-phase registrations as well as measured interobserver variation for 1 patient. SICLE and DEMONS, when compared with rigid-bone (4.1 mm) and rigid-tumor (3.6 mm) registration, respectively reduced the average symmetric distance to 2.6 and 3.3 mm. On average, SICLE and DEMONS increased the DSC to 0.80 and 0.79, respectively, compared with rigid-tumor (0.78) registrations for 4DCBCT phase-to-phase registrations. Conclusions: Deformable image registration achieved comparable accuracy to reported interobserver delineation variability and higher accuracy than rigid-tumor registration. Deformable image registration

  13. Direction Adaptation Nature of Coulomb's Force and Gravitational Force in 4-Dimensional Space-time

    Cui, H Y

    2001-01-01

    It was found that the Coulomb's force and gravitational force on a particle always act in the direction perpendicular to the 4-velocity of the particle in 4-dimensional space-time, rather than along the line joining a couple of particles. This inference is obviously supported from the fact that the magnitude of the 4-velocity is kept constant. It indicates there is a new nature here named as direction adaptation nature. This formulation has significant influence on who to teach physics taday, for example, we always say to students that the sun's gravitational force directs at the sun, but this sentence is uncorrect according to the direction adaptation nature of gravitational force.

  14. Eating patterns and food systems: critical knowledge requirements for policy design and implementation

    Guyomard Hervé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. This paper begins by presenting the main features of eating patterns worldwide. These eating patterns include the relative convergence of diets, more rapid food transition in emerging and developing countries, development of a more complex food chain, and substantial food losses and waste at distribution and final consumption stages. These patterns have negative consequences on health and the environment. The drivers of these patterns are examined to identify knowledge gaps, the filling of which should facilitate the design and implementation of actions and policies aimed at making food systems more sustainable.

  15. Eating patterns and food systems: critical knowledge requirements for policy design and implementation

    Guyomard Hervé; Darcy-Vrillon Béatrice; Esnouf Catherine; Marin Michèle; Russel Marie; Guillou Marion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. This paper begins by presenting the main features of eating patterns worldwide. These eating patterns include the relative convergence of diets, more rapid food transition in emerging and developing countries, development of a more complex food chain, and substantial food losses and waste at distribution and final consumption stages. These patterns have negative consequences on health and the enviro...

  16. A catalogue of functional software requirement patterns for the domain of content management systems

    Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer Bosor, Maria Carme; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier; Renault, Samuel; Guerlain, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as an artifact for fostering requirements reuse. When we define these patterns forthe functional part of a software system, we realize that most of patterns are specific of a software domain. This paper presents and analyzes a catalogue of functional software requirement patterns for the domain of content management, and gives an overview of how this catalogue has been constructed from the systematic analysis of 6 existing software sp...

  17. BUCS: Patterns and Robustness: Experimentation with Safety Patterns in Safety-Critical Software Systems

    Ljosland, Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    In modern society, we rely on safely working software systems. This is the final report in a masters degree project to reveal key issues in the science field of computer software architecture and design of safety-critical software systems. A pre-study of a navigation system implied that functionality related problems and safety-critical problems do not stack one to one, but rather is a case of solving these aspects in different layers. This means that changes in software systems functionalit...

  18. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Benjamin Blonder

    Full Text Available Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects', these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'. These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  19. [Impact of the Infrared Monitor Signal Pattern on Accuracy of Target Imaging in 4-dimensional Cone-beam Computed Tomography].

    Usui, Keisuke; Hara, Naoya; Isobe, Akira; Inoue, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Sasai, Keisuke; Ogawa, Kouichi

    2016-06-01

    To realize the high precision radiotherapy, localized radiation field of the moving target is very important, and visualization of a temporal location of the target can help to improve the accuracy of the target localization. However, conditions of the breathing and the patient's own motion differ from the situation of the treatment planning. Therefore, positions of the tumor are affected by these changes. In this study, we implemented a method to reconstruct target motions obtained with the 4D CBCT using the sorted projection data according to the phase and displacement of the extracorporeal infrared monitor signal, and evaluated the proposed method with a moving phantom. In this method, motion cycles and positions of the marker were sorted to reconstruct the image, and evaluated the image quality affected by changes in the cycle, phase, and positions of the marker. As a result, we realized the visualization of the moving target using the sorted projection data according to the infrared monitor signal. This method was based on the projection binning, in which the signal of the infrared monitor was surrogate of the tumor motion. Thus, further major efforts are needed to ensure the accuracy of the infrared monitor signal. PMID:27320150

  20. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  1. Impact of different Agricultural Systems and Patterns of Consumption on Greenhouse-Gas Emissions in Austria

    Freyer, B.; Weik, S.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural systems as well as consumer patterns influence the green house gas emissions. Therefore, we analysed different farming systems, consumption patterns and seasonal oriented food consumption. Whereas conventional production and the current meat oriented nutrition patterns lead to high green house gas emissions, there is a tremendous reduction potential, if products are organically produced and if there is a shift to vegetarian-based diets.. Nevertheless, there is a need for research...

  2. Career Patterns of State Directors: Federal and State Level Leadership for Community College Systems

    Britt, Kimberly Flowers

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is four-fold. First, this study identifies defining characteristics, skills, and overarching career patterns of state directors of two-year college systems. Second, the study investigates whether those career patterns differ by college system governance model. Third, the study expands current knowledge of the professional…

  3. Pattern-based software architecture for service-oriented software systems

    Barrett Ronan; Pahl Claus

    2010-01-01

    Service-oriented architecture is a recent conceptual framework for service-oriented software platforms. Architectures are of great importance for the evolution of software systems. We present a modelling and transformation technique for service-centric distributed software systems. Architectural configurations, expressed through hierarchical architectural patterns, form the core of a specification and transformation technique. Patterns on different levels of abstraction form transformation...

  4. An Automated System for Discovering Neighborhood Patterns in Ego Networks

    Muhammad, Syed Agha; Van Laerhoven, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Generally, social network analysis has often focused on the topology of the network without considering the characteristics of individuals involved in them. Less attention is given to study the behavior of individuals, considering they are the basic entity of a graph. Given a mobile social network graph, what are good features to extract key information from the nodes?How many distinct neighborhood patterns exist for ego nodes? What clues does such information provide to study nodes over a lo...

  5. Effects of quenched disorder on critical transitions in pattern-forming systems

    Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan

    2016-02-01

    Critical transitions are of great interest to scientists in many fields. Most knowledge about these transitions comes from systems exhibiting the multistability of spatially uniform states. In spatially extended and, particularly, in pattern-forming systems, there are many possible scenarios for transitions between alternative states. Quenched disorder may affect the dynamics, bifurcation diagrams and critical transitions in nonlinear systems. However, only a few studies have explored the effects of quenched disorder on pattern-forming systems, either experimentally or by using theoretical models. Here, we use a fundamental model describing pattern formation, the Swift-Hohenberg model and a well-explored mathematical model describing the dynamics of vegetation in drylands to study the effects of quenched disorder on critical transitions in pattern-forming systems. We find that the disorder affects the patterns formed by introducing an interplay between the imposed pattern and the self-organized one. We show that, in both systems considered here, the disorder significantly increases the durability of the patterned state and makes the transition between the patterned state and the uniform state more gradual. In addition, the disorder induces hysteresis in the response of the system to changes in the bifurcation parameter well before the critical transition occurs. We also show that the cross-correlation between the disordered parameter and the dynamical variable can serve as an early indicator for an imminent critical transition.

  6. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Stemkens, Bjorn, E-mail: b.stemkens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tijssen, Rob H.N. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, Baudouin D. de [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); L' Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5251, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Heerkens, Hanne D.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Berg, Cornelis A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  7. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients

  8. PATTERNS OF DELIVERY, FINANCING AND CONTROL FOR HEALTH SYSTEMS

    Cristina TOMESCU

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse different types of health systems, in terms of funding, control, supply schemes and level of social redistribution. I show that the state plays a central role in determining the coverage and the nature of benefits, choices of financing the health systemand the structure of servicesin every European health system. Two major types are ideal in terms of funding, supply and control in Europe: Health insurance system (German type) and The National Health System (British ...

  9. Pattern recognition receptors and central nervous system repair

    Kigerl, Kristina A.; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are part of the innate immune response and were originally discovered for their role in recognizing pathogens by ligating specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by microbes. Now the role of PRRs in sterile inflammation is also appreciated, responding to endogenous stimuli referred to as “damage associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) instead of PAMPs. The main families of PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), and C-type lectin receptors. Broad expression of these PRRs in the CNS and the release of DAMPs in and around sites of injury suggest an important role for these receptor families in mediating post-injury inflammation. Considerable data now show that PRRs are among the first responders to CNS injury and activation of these receptors on microglia, neurons, and astrocytes triggers an innate immune response in the brain and spinal cord. Here we discuss how the various PRR families are activated and can influence injury and repair processes following CNS injury. PMID:25017883

  10. Model-Driven Security based on A Unified System of Security Design Patterns

    Nguyen, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with multiple security concerns system- atically. Besides, catalogs of security patterns which can address multiple security concerns have not been applied efficiently. This paper presents an MDS approach based on a unified System of Security design Patterns (SoSPa). In SoSPa, security design patt...

  11. Safe-Guarded Agent Design Pattern for Mechatronic Systems

    Phong, Dao Ba; Vries, de Theo J.A.; Amerongen, van Job

    2010-01-01

    To support the application of real-time Multi-Agent Control Systems (MACS) for mechatronic systems, a combination between the MACS design approach and OROCOS framework has been implemented: the OROCOS-based Implementation Framework for MACS (OROMACS). This paper presents our research results to make

  12. CHANGING PATTERN OF JOINT FAMILY SYSTEM IN KURUBA COMMUNITY

    Sanjay Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    As man undergone the process of evolution he began to develop from one stage to another as he began to lead a systematic life on the resource that are available around him. Among this family system has developed only after the establishment of agricultural process. By the development of family, the tradition culture, economic dependence developed. So the joint family system came into existence.

  13. Tidal Inlet Systems: bottom pattern formation and outer delta development

    Leeuwen, Sonja Maria van

    2002-01-01

    Tidal inlet systems are found around the world’s coastline. They consist of a backbarrier lagoon or basin which is connected to the adjacent sea by means of a narrow strait. The basin is bounded by land and/or tidal watersheds. The motion in these systems is predominantly driven by tides (compared t

  14. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  15. Management of Respiration-Induced Motion With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) for Pancreas Irradiation

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to quantify respiration-induced organ motions for pancreatic cancer patients and to explore strategies to account for these motions. Methods and Materials: Both 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans were acquired sequentially for 15 pancreatic cancer patients, including 10 randomly selected patients and 5 patients selected from a subgroup of patients with large tumor respiratory motions. 3DCTs were fused with 2 sets of 4DCT data at the end of exhale phase (50%) and the end of inhale phase (0%). The target was delineated on the 50% and 0% phase CT sets, and the organs at risk were drawn on the 3DCT. These contours were populated to the CT sets at other respiratory phases based on deformable image registration. Internal target volumes (ITV) were generated by tracing the target contours of all phases (ITV10), 3 phases of 0%, 20% and 50% (ITV3), and 2 phases of 0% and 50% (ITV2). ITVs generated from phase images were compared using percentage of volume overlap, Dice coefficient, geometric centers, and average surface distance. Results: Volume variations of pancreas, kidneys, and liver as a function of respiratory phases were small (10 and ITV2 and 96% ± 1% and 98% ± 1% between ITV10 and ITV3, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap between ITV10 and ITV3 was 93.6 ± 1.1 for patients with tumor motion >8 mm. Conclusions: Appropriate motion management strategies are proposed for radiation treatment planning of pancreatic tumors based on magnitudes of tumor respiratory motions

  16. Effect of TIPS placement on portal and splanchnic arterial blood flow in 4-dimensional flow MRI

    Stankovic, Zoran [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Roessle, Martin; Schultheiss, Michael [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Gastroenterology, Freiburg (Germany); Euringer, Wulf; Langer, Mathias [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Salem, Riad; Barker, Alex; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy D. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To assess changes in portal and splanchnic arterial haemodynamics in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a non-invasive, non-contrast imaging technique. Eleven patients undergoing TIPS implantation were enrolled. K-t GRAPPA accelerated non-contrast 4D flow MRI of the liver vasculature was applied with acceleration factor R = 5 at 3Tesla. Flow analysis included three-dimensional (3D) blood flow visualization using time-resolved 3D particle traces and semi-quantitative flow pattern grading. Quantitative evaluation entailed peak velocities and net flows throughout the arterial and portal venous (PV) systems. MRI measurements were taken within 24 h before and 4 weeks after TIPS placement. Three-dimensional flow visualization with 4D flow MRI revealed good image quality with minor limitations in PV flow. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in PV flow (562 ± 373 ml/min before vs. 1831 ± 965 ml/min after TIPS), in the hepatic artery (176 ± 132 ml/min vs. 354 ± 140 ml/min) and combined flow in splenic and superior mesenteric arteries (770 ml/min vs. 1064 ml/min). Shunt-flow assessment demonstrated stenoses in two patients confirmed and treated at TIPS revision. Four-dimensional flow MRI might have the potential to give new information about the effect of TIPS placement on hepatic perfusion. It may explain some unexpected findings in clinical observation studies. (orig.)

  17. Effect of TIPS placement on portal and splanchnic arterial blood flow in 4-dimensional flow MRI

    To assess changes in portal and splanchnic arterial haemodynamics in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a non-invasive, non-contrast imaging technique. Eleven patients undergoing TIPS implantation were enrolled. K-t GRAPPA accelerated non-contrast 4D flow MRI of the liver vasculature was applied with acceleration factor R = 5 at 3Tesla. Flow analysis included three-dimensional (3D) blood flow visualization using time-resolved 3D particle traces and semi-quantitative flow pattern grading. Quantitative evaluation entailed peak velocities and net flows throughout the arterial and portal venous (PV) systems. MRI measurements were taken within 24 h before and 4 weeks after TIPS placement. Three-dimensional flow visualization with 4D flow MRI revealed good image quality with minor limitations in PV flow. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in PV flow (562 ± 373 ml/min before vs. 1831 ± 965 ml/min after TIPS), in the hepatic artery (176 ± 132 ml/min vs. 354 ± 140 ml/min) and combined flow in splenic and superior mesenteric arteries (770 ml/min vs. 1064 ml/min). Shunt-flow assessment demonstrated stenoses in two patients confirmed and treated at TIPS revision. Four-dimensional flow MRI might have the potential to give new information about the effect of TIPS placement on hepatic perfusion. It may explain some unexpected findings in clinical observation studies. (orig.)

  18. Analytical derivation of traffic patterns in cache-coherent shared-memory systems

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to derive the worst-case traffic pattern caused by a task graph mapped to a cache-coherent shared-memory system. Our analysis allows designers to rapidly evaluate the impact of different mappings of tasks to IP cores on the traffic pattern. The accuracy va...

  19. Neuro-parity pattern recognition system and method

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Van Alstine, Rollin G.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Yue, Yong

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring a process and determining its condition. Initial data is sensed, a first set of virtual data is produced by applying a system state analyzation to the initial data, a second set of virtual data is produced by applying a neural network analyzation to the initial data and a parity space analyzation is applied to the first and second set of virtual data and also to the initial data to provide a parity space decision about the condition of the process. A logic test can further be applied to produce a further system decision about the state of the process.

  20. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela;

    2010-01-01

    in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of...... civil war. Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  1. A pattern recognition based esophageal speech enhancement system

    A.Mantilla‐Caeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A system for improving the intelligibility and quality of alaryngeal speech based on the replacement of voiced segments ofalaryngeal speech with the equivalent segments of normal speech is proposed. To this end, the system proposed identifies thevoiced segments of the alaryngeal speech signal by using isolate speech recognition methods, and replaces them by theirequivalent voiced segments of normal speech, keeping the silence and unvoiced segments without change. Evaluation resultsusing objective and subjective evaluation methods show that the proposed system proposed provides a fairly goodimprovement of the quality and intelligibility of alaryngeal speech signals.

  2. Data management in pattern recognition and image processing systems

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data management considerations are important to any system which handles large volumes of data or where the manipulation of data is technically sophisticated. A particular problem is the introduction of image-formatted files into the mainstream of data processing application. This report describes a comprehensive system for the manipulation of image, tabular, and graphical data sets which involve conversions between the various data types. A key characteristic is the use of image processing technology to accomplish data management tasks. Because of this, the term 'image-based information system' has been adopted.

  3. Square Turing patterns in reaction-diffusion systems with coupled layers

    Square Turing patterns are usually unstable in reaction-diffusion systems and are rarely observed in corresponding experiments and simulations. We report here an example of spontaneous formation of square Turing patterns with the Lengyel-Epstein model of two coupled layers. The squares are found to be a result of the resonance between two supercritical Turing modes with an appropriate ratio. Besides, the spatiotemporal resonance of Turing modes resembles to the mode-locking phenomenon. Analysis of the general amplitude equations for square patterns reveals that the fixed point corresponding to square Turing patterns is stationary when the parameters adopt appropriate values

  4. Square Turing patterns in reaction-diffusion systems with coupled layers

    Li, Jing [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongli, E-mail: hlwang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qi@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ouyang, Qi, E-mail: hlwang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qi@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); The Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Square Turing patterns are usually unstable in reaction-diffusion systems and are rarely observed in corresponding experiments and simulations. We report here an example of spontaneous formation of square Turing patterns with the Lengyel-Epstein model of two coupled layers. The squares are found to be a result of the resonance between two supercritical Turing modes with an appropriate ratio. Besides, the spatiotemporal resonance of Turing modes resembles to the mode-locking phenomenon. Analysis of the general amplitude equations for square patterns reveals that the fixed point corresponding to square Turing patterns is stationary when the parameters adopt appropriate values.

  5. DXplain: Patterns of Use of a Mature Expert System

    Hoffer, Edward P.; Feldman, Mitchell J.; Kim, Richard J.; Famiglietti, Kathleen T.; Barnett, G. Octo

    2005-01-01

    DXplain is an expert system designed to suggest a list of diseases that are associated with a set of clinical findings entered by a health profession student or practitioner. It has been widely used for almost 20 years, during which time many new functions and capabilities have been added. We discuss the ways in which different classes of user interact with the system and which functions are most commonly used.

  6. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    Ackman, James B.; Burbridge, Timothy J.; Crair, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The morphologic and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to demonstrate in...

  7. Towards a Pattern Language for Learning Management Systems

    Symeon Retalis; Andreas Papasalouros; Paris Avgeriou; Manolis Skordalakis

    2003-01-01

    Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people. Even though the construction of such systems has been taking place for many years, they are still designed and developed from scratch. The reason is that experience from previous Learning Management ...

  8. Pattern formation in particle systems driven by color field

    2008-01-01

    The structural evolution of systems with two kinds of particles driven in opposite directions, i.e., driven by a color field, is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Gaussian thermostat,a common treatment to restrict the thermal velocity of the particles in the systems, has been used so as to account for the dissipation of heat and allow the system to reach a steady state. It has been found that with the increase of the strngth of driving force (F), the system undergoes an obvious structural transition from an initially random mixing state to a state characterized by separate lanes and in each lane only one kind of particles exists. The analysis shows that the reason for the formation of lane structure is not only the increase of F but also the variation of particle friction coefficient. While using Ganssian thermostat the particle friction coefficient becomes a function of F. Increasing F leads to high particle friction coefficient and inevitably results in lane formation for strong enough driving force. When lifting the effect of F on friction coefficient and choosing a constant friction coefficient,our results show that for a given F there always exists a critical value of friction coefficient higher than which the system will develop into lane structure.

  9. Developing Autonomic Properties for Distributed Pattern-Recognition Systems with ASSL: A Distributed MARF Case Study

    Vassev, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our research towards developing special properties that introduce autonomic behavior in pattern-recognition systems. In our approach we use ASSL (Autonomic System Specification Language) to formally develop such properties for DMARF (Distributed Modular Audio Recognition Framework). These properties enhance DMARF with an autonomic middleware that manages the four stages of the framework's pattern-recognition pipeline. DMARF is a biologically inspired system employing pattern recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing helping us process audio, textual, or imagery data needed by a variety of scientific applications, e.g., biometric applications. In that context, the notion go autonomic DMARF (ADMARF) can be employed by autonomous and robotic systems that theoretically require less-to-none human intervention other than data collection for pattern analysis and observing the results. In this article, we explain the ASSL specification models for the autonomic propertie...

  10. Towards a Pattern Language for Learning Management Systems

    Avgeriou, Paris; Papasalouros, Andreas; Retalis, Symeon; Skordalakis, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people. Ev

  11. Genetic fuzzy system predicting contractile reactivity patterns of small arteries

    Tang, J; Sheykhzade, Majid; Clausen, B F;

    2014-01-01

    strategies. Results show that optimized fuzzy systems (OFSs) predict contractile reactivity of arteries accurately. In addition, OFSs identified significant differences that were undetectable using conventional analysis in the responses of arteries between groups. We concluded that OFSs may be used in...

  12. Foundations for a syntatic pattern recognition system for genomic DNA sequences

    Searles, D.B.

    1993-03-01

    The goal of the proposed work is the creation of a software system that will perform sophisticated pattern recognition and related functions at a level of abstraction and with expressive power beyond current general-purpose pattern-matching systems for biological sequences; and with a more uniform language, environment, and graphical user interface, and with greater flexibility, extensibility, embeddability, and ability to incorporate other algorithms, than current special-purpose analytic software.

  13. A decision-support system for the analysis of clinical practice patterns.

    Balas, E A; Li, Z. R.; Mitchell, J. A.; Spencer, D. C.; Brent, E; Ewigman, B G

    1994-01-01

    Several studies documented substantial variation in medical practice patterns, but physicians often do not have adequate information on the cumulative clinical and financial effects of their decisions. The purpose of developing an expert system for the analysis of clinical practice patterns was to assist providers in analyzing and improving the process and outcome of patient care. The developed QFES (Quality Feedback Expert System) helps users in the definition and evaluation of measurable qu...

  14. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order.

    2016-05-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27236873

  15. Global feedback control of Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    Hata, S.; Nakao, H.; Mikhailov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Results of the first systematic study on feedback control of nonequilibrium pattern formation in networks are reported. Effects of global feedback control on Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor system have been investigated. The feedback signal was introduced into one of the parameters of the system and was proportional to the amplitude of the developing Turing pattern. Without the control, the Turing instability corresponded to a subcritical bifurcation and hysteresis effects were observed. Sufficiently strong feedback control rendered, however, the bifurcation supercritical and eliminated the hysteresis effects.

  16. Pattern formation induced by cross-diffusion in a predator-prey system

    Sun Gui-Quan; Jin Zhen; Liu Quan-Xing; Li Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the Holling-Tanner model for predator-prey with self and cross-diffusion.From the Turing theory,it is believed that there is no Turing pattern formation for the equal self-diffusion coefficients.However,combined with cross-diffusion,it shows that the system will exhibit spotted pattern by both mathematical analysis and numerical simulations.Furthermore,nsynchrony of the predator and the prey in the space.The obtained results show that cross-diffusion plays an important role on the pattern formation of the predator-prey system.

  17. Measuring logic complexity can guide pattern discovery in empirical systems

    Gherardi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We explore a definition of complexity based on logic functions, which are widely used as compact descriptions of rules in diverse fields of contemporary science. Detailed numerical analysis shows that (i) logic complexity is effective in discriminating between classes of functions commonly employed in modelling contexts; (ii) it extends the notion of canalisation, used in the study of genetic regulation, to a more general and detailed measure; (iii) it is tightly linked to the resilience of a function's output to noise affecting its inputs. We demonstrate its utility by measuring it in empirical data on gene regulation, digital circuitry, and propositional calculus. Logic complexity is exceptionally low in these systems. The asymmetry between "on" and "off" states in the data correlates with the complexity in a non-null way; a model of random Boolean networks clarifies this trend and indicates a common hierarchical architecture in the three systems.

  18. Algorithmic acquisition of diagnostic patterns in district heating billing system

    An application of algorithmic exploration of billing data is examined for fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) based on evaluation of present state and detection of unexpected changes in energy efficiency of buildings. Large data sets from district heating (DH) billing systems are used for construction of feature space, diagnostic rules and classification of the buildings according to their energy efficiency properties. The algorithmic approach automates discovering knowledge about common, thus accepted changes in buildings’ properties, in equipment and in habitants’ behavior reflecting progress in technology and life style. In this article implementation of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (DMKD) method in supervision system with exemplary results based on real data is presented. Crucial steps of data processing influencing diagnostic results are described in details.

  19. Regeneration patterns of Quercus suber according to montado management systems

    Simões, M. Paula; Belo, Anabela F.; Fernandes, Mariana; Madeira, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Traditional management of montado (dehesa) is an example of integration of sustainable land-use and biodiversity conservation. The whole system sustainability is currently threatened by the intensification of soil tilling to control shrub invasion and promote pastureland, the absence of tree natural regeneration being one of the most outstanding threats. A study to assess effects of management on tree regeneration at early stages was developed in a cork oak montado grazed by cattle, in southe...

  20. Single cell deposition and patterning with a robotic system.

    Zhe Lu

    Full Text Available Integrating single-cell manipulation techniques in traditional and emerging biological culture systems is challenging. Microfabricated devices for single cell studies in particular often require cells to be spatially positioned at specific culture sites on the device surface. This paper presents a robotic micromanipulation system for pick-and-place positioning of single cells. By integrating computer vision and motion control algorithms, the system visually tracks a cell in real time and controls multiple positioning devices simultaneously to accurately pick up a single cell, transfer it to a desired substrate, and deposit it at a specified location. A traditional glass micropipette is used, and whole- and partial-cell aspiration techniques are investigated to manipulate single cells. Partially aspirating cells resulted in an operation speed of 15 seconds per cell and a 95% success rate. In contrast, the whole-cell aspiration method required 30 seconds per cell and achieved a success rate of 80%. The broad applicability of this robotic manipulation technique is demonstrated using multiple cell types on traditional substrates and on open-top microfabricated devices, without requiring modifications to device designs. Furthermore, we used this serial deposition process in conjunction with an established parallel cell manipulation technique to improve the efficiency of single cell capture from ∼80% to 100%. Using a robotic micromanipulation system to position single cells on a substrate is demonstrated as an effective stand-alone or bolstering technology for single-cell studies, eliminating some of the drawbacks associated with standard single-cell handling and manipulation techniques.

  1. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  2. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela; Schneider, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by violent opposition groups in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 103 countries for the period of 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-ec...

  3. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  4. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  5. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    Brennan, Douglas [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  6. Management of Respiration-Induced Motion With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) for Pancreas Irradiation

    Tai, An, E-mail: atai@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Liang, Zhiwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Radiation Oncology Center, Wuhan Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to quantify respiration-induced organ motions for pancreatic cancer patients and to explore strategies to account for these motions. Methods and Materials: Both 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans were acquired sequentially for 15 pancreatic cancer patients, including 10 randomly selected patients and 5 patients selected from a subgroup of patients with large tumor respiratory motions. 3DCTs were fused with 2 sets of 4DCT data at the end of exhale phase (50%) and the end of inhale phase (0%). The target was delineated on the 50% and 0% phase CT sets, and the organs at risk were drawn on the 3DCT. These contours were populated to the CT sets at other respiratory phases based on deformable image registration. Internal target volumes (ITV) were generated by tracing the target contours of all phases (ITV{sub 10}), 3 phases of 0%, 20% and 50% (ITV{sub 3}), and 2 phases of 0% and 50% (ITV{sub 2}). ITVs generated from phase images were compared using percentage of volume overlap, Dice coefficient, geometric centers, and average surface distance. Results: Volume variations of pancreas, kidneys, and liver as a function of respiratory phases were small (<5%) during respiration. For the 10 randomly selected patients, peak-to-peak amplitudes of liver, left kidney, right kidney, and the target along the superior-inferior (SI) direction were 7.9 ± 3.2 mm, 7.1 ± 3.1 mm, 5.7 ± 3.2 mm, and 5.9 ± 2.8 mm, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap and Dice coefficient were 92% ± 1% and 96% ± 1% between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 2} and 96% ± 1% and 98% ± 1% between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 3}, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 3} was 93.6 ± 1.1 for patients with tumor motion >8 mm. Conclusions: Appropriate motion management strategies are proposed for radiation treatment planning of pancreatic tumors based on magnitudes of tumor

  7. Modeling Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Surrogate Markers

    Purpose: To assess intrafractional positional variations of pancreatic tumors using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), their impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage, the reliability of biliary stent, fiducial seeds, and the real-time position management (RPM) external marker as tumor surrogates for setup of respiratory gated treatment, and to build a correlative model of tumor motion. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the respiration-correlated 4D-CT images acquired during simulation of 36 patients with either a biliary stent (n=16) or implanted fiducials (n=20) who were treated with RPM respiratory gated intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Respiratory displacement relative to end-exhalation was measured for the GTV, the biliary stent, or fiducial seeds, and the RPM marker. The results were compared between the full respiratory cycle and the gating interval. Linear mixed model was used to assess the correlation of GTV motion with the potential surrogate markers. Results: The average ± SD GTV excursions were 0.3 ± 0.2 cm in the left-right direction, 0.6 ± 0.3 cm in the anterior-posterior direction, and 1.3 ± 0.7 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Gating around end-exhalation reduced GTV motion by 46% to 60%. D95% was at least the prescribed 56 Gy in 76% of patients. GTV displacement was associated with the RPM marker, the biliary stent, and the fiducial seeds. The correlation was better with fiducial seeds and with biliary stent. Conclusions: Respiratory gating reduced the margin necessary for radiation therapy for pancreatic tumors. GTV motion was well correlated with biliary stent or fiducial seed displacements, validating their use as surrogates for daily assessment of GTV position during treatment. A patient-specific internal target volume based on 4D-CT is recommended both for gated and not-gated treatment; otherwise, our model can be used to predict the degree of GTV motion

  8. Modeling Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Surrogate Markers

    Huguet, Florence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Est, Hôpital Tenon, University Paris VI, Paris (France); Yorke, Ellen D.; Davidson, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew; Mageras, Gig S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: GoodmanK@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafractional positional variations of pancreatic tumors using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), their impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage, the reliability of biliary stent, fiducial seeds, and the real-time position management (RPM) external marker as tumor surrogates for setup of respiratory gated treatment, and to build a correlative model of tumor motion. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the respiration-correlated 4D-CT images acquired during simulation of 36 patients with either a biliary stent (n=16) or implanted fiducials (n=20) who were treated with RPM respiratory gated intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Respiratory displacement relative to end-exhalation was measured for the GTV, the biliary stent, or fiducial seeds, and the RPM marker. The results were compared between the full respiratory cycle and the gating interval. Linear mixed model was used to assess the correlation of GTV motion with the potential surrogate markers. Results: The average ± SD GTV excursions were 0.3 ± 0.2 cm in the left-right direction, 0.6 ± 0.3 cm in the anterior-posterior direction, and 1.3 ± 0.7 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Gating around end-exhalation reduced GTV motion by 46% to 60%. D95% was at least the prescribed 56 Gy in 76% of patients. GTV displacement was associated with the RPM marker, the biliary stent, and the fiducial seeds. The correlation was better with fiducial seeds and with biliary stent. Conclusions: Respiratory gating reduced the margin necessary for radiation therapy for pancreatic tumors. GTV motion was well correlated with biliary stent or fiducial seed displacements, validating their use as surrogates for daily assessment of GTV position during treatment. A patient-specific internal target volume based on 4D-CT is recommended both for gated and not-gated treatment; otherwise, our model can be used to predict the degree of GTV motion.

  9. Identifying behaviour patterns of construction safety using system archetypes.

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2015-07-01

    Construction safety management involves complex issues (e.g., different trades, multi-organizational project structure, constantly changing work environment, and transient workforce). Systems thinking is widely considered as an effective approach to understanding and managing the complexity. This paper aims to better understand dynamic complexity of construction safety management by exploring archetypes of construction safety. To achieve this, this paper adopted the ground theory method (GTM) and 22 interviews were conducted with participants in various positions (government safety inspector, client, health and safety manager, safety consultant, safety auditor, and safety researcher). Eight archetypes were emerged from the collected data: (1) safety regulations, (2) incentive programs, (3) procurement and safety, (4) safety management in small businesses (5) production and safety, (6) workers' conflicting goals, (7) blame on workers, and (8) reactive and proactive learning. These archetypes capture the interactions between a wide range of factors within various hierarchical levels and subsystems. As a free-standing tool, they advance the understanding of dynamic complexity of construction safety management and provide systemic insights into dealing with the complexity. They also can facilitate system dynamics modelling of construction safety process. PMID:25909389

  10. Demographic patterns and outcomes of patients in level I trauma centers in three international trauma systems

    Gunning, Amy C.; Lansink, K. W. W.; van Wessem, Karlijn J. P.; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Maier, Ronald V.; Leenen, Luke P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Trauma systems were developed to improve the care for the injured. The designation and elements comprising these systems vary across countries. In this study, we have compared the demographic patterns and patient outcomes of Level I trauma centers in three international trauma systems.

  11. The architecture of a multipurpose fringe pattern analysis system

    Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    A review of the advantages and disadvantages of analytical phase measurement methods of automatic fringe patterm analysis is given. The pros and cons for their applications due to the complexity of an interferogram, the accuracies required and the type of quantity measured are considered. The architecture of the system which enables a proper choice between the Fourier transform method, temporal and spatial phase-shifting methods is described. The modular structure of the software gives the possibility of getting the results in the most efficient way.

  12. Chaotic Patterns in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    Lacitignola, D.; Tebaldi, C.

    2006-03-01

    We study the properties of a n2-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system describing competition among species with behaviorally adaptive abilities, in which one species is made ecologically differentiated with respect to the others by carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate. The case in which one species has a carrying capacity higher than the others is considered here. Stability of equilibria and time-dependent regimes have been investigated in the case of four species: an interesting example of chaotic window and period-adding sequences is presented and discussed.

  13. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus onset patterns in Vietnamese children

    Dung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Loan, Huynh Thoai; Nielsen, Susan;

    2013-01-01

    have systemic lupus erythematosus (f/m = 4/1) were referred to the Ho Chi Minh City Children's Hospital No.1 during a 12-month period in 2009. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 12.8 years (SD = 2.5). Thirty-seven (82%) fulfilled criteria for lupus nephritis (LN). At diagnosis, impressively high...... No. 1 during a16 month period from 2008-2009. These patients had a strikingly high prevalence of Coombs positive anaemia, a high prevalence of lupus nephritis, and very high SLEDAI and ECLAM scores at the time of diagnosis. While there may be referral biases, our Vietnamese SLE patients appear to...

  14. Assessment of Human Respiration Patterns via Noncontact Sensing Using Doppler Multi-Radar System

    Changzhan Gu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  15. The Turing bifurcation in network systems: Collective patterns and single differentiated nodes

    Wolfrum, Matthias

    2012-08-01

    We study the emergence of patterns in a diffusively coupled network that undergoes a Turing instability. Our main focus is the emergence of stable solutions with a single differentiated node in systems with large and possibly irregular network topology. Based on a mean-field approach, we study the bifurcations of such solutions for varying system parameters and varying degree of the differentiated node. Such solutions appear typically before the onset of Turing instability and provide the basis for the complex scenario of multistability and hysteresis that can be observed in such systems. Moreover, we discuss the appearance of stable collective patterns and present a codimension-two bifurcation that organizes the interplay between collective patterns and patterns with single differentiated nodes.

  16. Modular Neural Networks and Type-2 Fuzzy Systems for Pattern Recognition

    Melin, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book describes hybrid intelligent systems using type-2 fuzzy logic and modular neural networks for pattern recognition applications. Hybrid intelligent systems combine several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful pattern recognition systems. Type-2 fuzzy logic is an extension of traditional type-1 fuzzy logic that enables managing higher levels of uncertainty in complex real world problems, which are of particular importance in the area of pattern recognition. The book is organized in three main parts, each containing a group of chapters built around a similar subject. The first part consists of chapters with the main theme of theory and design algorithms, which are basically chapters that propose new models and concepts, which are the basis for achieving intelligent pattern recognition. The second part contains chapters with the main theme of using type-2 fuzzy models and modular neural ne...

  17. Pattern formation in the iodate-sulfite-thiosulfate reaction-diffusion system.

    Liu, Haimiao; Pojman, John A; Zhao, Yuemin; Pan, Changwei; Zheng, Juhua; Yuan, Ling; Horváth, Attila K; Gao, Qingyu

    2012-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate-induced pH pattern formation and starch-induced iodine pattern formation were investigated in the iodate-sulfite-thiosulfate (IST) reaction in a one-side fed disc gel reactor (OSFR). As binding agents of the autocatalyst of hydrogen ions or iodide ions, different content of sodium polyacrylate or starch has induced various types of pattern formation. We observed pH pulses, striped patterns, mixed spots and stripes, and hexagonal spots upon increasing the content of sodium polyacrylate and observed iodine pulses, branched patterns, and labyrinthine patterns upon increasing the starch content in the system. Coexistence of a pH front and an iodine front was also studied in a batch IST reaction-diffusion system. Both pH and iodine front instabilities were observed in the presence of sodium polyacrylate, i.e., cellular fronts and transient Turing structures resulting from the decrease in diffusion coefficients of activators. The mechanism of multiple feedback may explain the different patterns in the IST reaction-diffusion system. PMID:22068976

  18. Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system

    Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

    2013-07-01

    The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

  19. The theory of spatiotemporal pattern in nonequilibrium systems

    Olemskoi, Alexander I.; Klepikov, Vyacheslav F.

    2000-11-01

    Stationary states and evolution of the spatially periodic and self-similar structures arising in the course of phase transformations are considered. Stationary inhomogeneous structures are studied in the framework of the thermodynamic approach, investigation of the dynamics of their formation is based on the field representation which makes it possible to describe behavior of the most probable values of stochastic variables. In the framework of unified conceptions, peculiarities of the behavior of thermodynamic, self-organizing and stochastic systems with multiplicative noise are studied. The concepts of the fractional integral and derivative are introduced which allow one to write the equation of evolution of an arbitrary system in a general form. Investigation of stationary inhomogeneous distributions is carried out by using the two- and one-component representations of the order parameter. A qualitative analysis based on the method of phase plane shows that under the transition from the disordered phase into the ordered one the harmonic distribution with a short period transforms into the step-like distribution with a long period. In the framework of the η4-model the stationary distribution of the order parameter reduces to the elliptic cosine and passing to the more complicated η6-model results in the fact that the (approximate) solutions will be the elliptic sine, cosine and delta of amplitude. The first of them describes the order parameter distribution, the second describes the antiphase boundaries and the form of the last one is defined by the two first ones. Creation of incommensurate long-period structures in ordered alloys is connected with the attraction of antiphase boundaries via the optical waves of atomic displacements. On the basis of the synergetic approach it is shown that, with increasing the concentration of the antiphase boundaries the optical-phonon exchange leads to stabilization of the long-period structure. The value of the force of the

  20. Transduction patterns of pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in the nervous system.

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Azzouz, Mimoun; Walmsley, Lucy E; Askham, Zoe; Wilkes, Fraser J; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a non-primate-based lentiviral vector based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) for efficient gene transfer to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously we have demonstrated that pseudotyping lentiviral vectors with the rabies virus glycoprotein confers retrograde axonal transport to these vectors. In the present study we have successfully produced high-titer EIAV vectors pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins from Rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotypes (Indiana and Chandipura strains); rabies virus [various Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth ERA strains and challenge virus standard (CVS)]; Lyssavirus Mokola virus, a rabies-related virus; and Arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These vectors were delivered to the striatum or spinal cord of adult rats or muscle of neonatal mice by direct injection. We report that the lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with envelopes from the VSV Indiana strain, wild-type ERA, and CVS strains resulted in strong transduction in the striatum, while Mokola- and LCMV-pseudotyped vectors exhibited moderate and weak transduction, respectively. Furthermore ERA- and CVS-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors demonstrated retrograde transport and expression in distal neurons after injection in brain, spinal cord, and muscle. The differences in transduction efficiencies and retrograde transport conferred by these envelope glycoproteins present novel opportunities in designing therapeutic strategies for different neurological diseases. PMID:14741783

  1. Controlling elastic wave propagation in a soft bilayer system via wrinkling-induced stress patterns.

    Li, Guo-Yang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Zhang, Wanyu

    2016-05-14

    Compression of a film/substrate bilayer system with different surface/interfacial structures can lead to diverse buckling patterns including sinusoidal wrinkles, ridges, folds, creases and tilted sawteeth wrinkles. In this paper, we show that elastic wave band gaps in the film/substrate bilayer system largely depend on the wrinkling patterns. More interestingly, we find that different wrinkling patterns investigated here can coexist and evolve in one bilayer system and the elastic wave propagation behaviors can be controlled by manipulating the hybrid wrinkling patterns. Our analysis also reveals that the periodic stress pattern plays a dominant role in tuning the bandgap structures in comparison to geometrical patterns caused by surface instability. A careful investigation of the transmission spectra of the composite systems has validated the main findings given by the analysis based on the Bloch wave theory. Potential use of the method and materials reported here to gain wide attenuation frequency ranges and the design of nesting Fibonacci superlattices have been demonstrated. PMID:27074161

  2. Generalization of susceptibility of RF systems through far-field pattern superposition

    Verdin, B.; Debroux, P.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to perform an analysis of RF (Radio Frequency) communication systems in a large electromagnetic environment to identify its susceptibility to jamming systems. We propose a new method that incorporates the use of reciprocity and superposition of the far-field radiation pattern of the RF system and the far-field radiation pattern of the jammer system. By using this method we can find the susceptibility pattern of RF systems with respect to the elevation and azimuth angles. A scenario was modeled with HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) where the radiation pattern of the jammer was simulated as a cylindrical horn antenna. The RF jamming entry point used was a half-wave dipole inside a cavity with apertures that approximates a land-mobile vehicle, the dipole approximates a leaky coax cable. Because of the limitation of the simulation method, electrically large electromagnetic environments cannot be quickly simulated using HFSS's finite element method (FEM). Therefore, the combination of the transmit antenna radiation pattern (horn) superimposed onto the receive antenna pattern (dipole) was performed in MATLAB. A 2D or 3D susceptibility pattern is obtained with respect to the azimuth and elevation angles. In addition, by incorporating the jamming equation into this algorithm, the received jamming power as a function of distance at the RF receiver Pr(Φr, θr) can be calculated. The received power depends on antenna properties, propagation factor and system losses. Test cases include: a cavity with four apertures, a cavity above an infinite ground plane, and a land-mobile vehicle approximation. By using the proposed algorithm a susceptibility analysis of RF systems in electromagnetic environments can be performed.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns in reaction-diffusion system and in a vibrated granular bed

    Swinney, H.L.; Lee, K.J.; McCormick, W.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on a quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system reveal transitions from a uniform state to stationary hexagonal, striped, and rhombic spatial patterns. For other reactor conditions lamellae and self-replicating spot patterns are observed. These patterns form in continuously fed thin gel reactors that can be maintained indefinitely in well-defined nonequilibrium states. Reaction-diffusion models with two chemical species yield patterns similar to those observed in the experiments. Pattern formation is also being examined in vertically oscillated thin granular layers (typically 3-30 particle diameters deep). For small acceleration amplitudes, a granular layer is flat, but above a well-defined critical acceleration amplitude, spatial patterns spontaneously form. Disordered time-dependent granular patterns are observed as well as regular patterns of squares, stripes, and hexagons. A one-dimensional model consisting of a completely inelastic ball colliding with a sinusoidally oscillating platform provides a semi-quantitative description of most of the observed bifurcations between the different spatiotemporal regimes.

  4. Identification of the Control Chart Patterns Using the Optimized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Abdolhakim Nikpey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Unnatural patterns in the control charts can be associated with a specific set of assignable causes for process variation. Hence pattern recognition is very useful in identifying process problem. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for recognition of common types of control chart patterns (CCPs. The proposed method includes three main modules: the feature extraction module, the classifier module and the optimization module. In the feature extraction module, a proper set of the shape features and statistical features is proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is investigated. In ANFIS training, the vector of radius has very important role for its recognition accuracy. Therefore, in the optimization module, cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA is proposed for finding of optimum vector of radius. Simulation results show that the proposed system has high recognition accuracy.

  5. Note: Experimental observation of nano-channel pattern in light sheet laser interference nanolithography system

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally observed nano-channel-like pattern in a light-sheet based interference nanolithography system. The optical system created nano-channel-like patterned illumination. Coherent counter-propagating light sheets are made to interfere at and near geometrical focus along the propagation z-axis. This results in the formation of nano-channel-like pattern (of size ≈ 300 nm and inter-channel periodicity of ≈337.5 nm) inside the sample due to constructive and destructive interference. In addition, the technique has the ability to generate large area patterning using larger light-sheets. Exciting applications are in the broad field of nanotechnology (nano-electronics and nano-fluidics).

  6. Reaction-diffusion-ODE systems: de-novo formation of irregular patterns and model reduction

    Härting, Steffen Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Classical models of pattern formation in systems of reaction-diffusion equations are based on diffusion-driven instability (DDI) of constant stationary solutions. The destabilisation may lead to emergence of stable, regular Turing patterns formed around the destabilised equilibrium. In this thesis it is shown that coupling reaction-diffusion equations with ordinary differential equations may lead to de-novo formation of far from equilibrium steady states. In particular, conditions for so call...

  7. Expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III during the development of the peripheral nervous system

    Liang-liang Huang; Zhong-yang Liu; Jing-hui Huang; Zhuo-jing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 type III is a key regulator in Schwann cell proliferation, committing to a myelinating fate and regulating myelin sheath thickness. However, the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in the peripheral nervous system during developmental periods (such as the premyelinating stage, myelinating stage and postmyelinating stage) has rarely been studied. In this study, dorsal root ganglia were isolated from rats between postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 56. The expression pattern ...

  8. Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System

    Hancao Li; Haddad, Wassim M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential e...

  9. PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA

    An empirical rule-based pattern recognition/expert system for classifying, estimating molecular weights and identifying low resolution mass spectra of toxic and other organic compounds has been developed and evaluated. he system was designed to accommodate low concentration spect...

  10. On the reaction-diffusion replicator systems: Spatial patterns and asymptotic behavior

    Novozhilov, Artem S.; Posvyanskii, Vladimir P.; Bratus', Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    The replicator equation is ubiquitous for many areas of mathematical biology. One of major shortcomings of this equation is that it does not allow for an explicit spatial structure. Here we review analytical approaches to include spatial variables to the system. We also provide a concise exposition of the results concerning the appearance of spatial patterns in replicator reaction-diffusion systems.

  11. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  12. A bidimensional fluid system with competing interactions: spontaneous and induced pattern formation

    In this paper we present a study of pattern formation in bidimensional systems with competing short-range attractive and long-range repulsive interactions. The interaction parameters are chosen in such a way as to allow us to analyse two different situations: the spontaneous pattern formation due to the presence of strong competing interactions on different length scales and the pattern formation as a response to an external modulating potential when the system is close to its Lifshitz point. We compare different Monte Carlo techniques showing that the parallel tempering technique represents a promising approach for the study of such systems and we present detailed results for the specific heat and the structural properties. We also present random phase approximation predictions concerning spontaneous pattern formation (or microphase separation), as well as linear response theory predictions concerning the induced pattern formation due to the presence of an external modulating field. In particular we observe that the response of our systems to external fields is much stronger than the response of a Lennard-Jones fluid

  13. Pattern formation in liquid-vapor systems under periodic potential and shear.

    Coclite, A; Gonnella, G; Lamura, A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the phase behavior and pattern formation in a sheared nonideal fluid under a periodic potential is studied. An isothermal two-dimensional formulation of a lattice Boltzmann scheme for a liquid-vapor system with the van der Waals equation of state is presented and validated. Shear is applied by moving walls and the periodic potential varies along the flow direction. A region of the parameter space, where in the absence of flow a striped phase with oscillating density is stable, will be considered. At low shear rates the periodic patterns are preserved and slightly distorted by the flow. At high shear rates the striped phase loses its stability and traveling waves on the interface between the liquid and vapor regions are observed. These waves spread over the whole system with wavelength only depending on the length of the system. Velocity field patterns, characterized by a single vortex, will also be shown. PMID:25019908

  14. Turing Patterns in a Predator-Prey System with Self-Diffusion

    Hongwei Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a predator-prey system, cross-diffusion has been confirmed to emerge Turing patterns. However, in the real world, the tendency for prey and predators moving along the direction of lower density of their own species, called self-diffusion, should be considered. For this, we investigate Turing instability for a predator-prey system with nonlinear diffusion terms including the normal diffusion, cross-diffusion, and self-diffusion. A sufficient condition of Turing instability for this system is obtained by analyzing the linear stability of spatial homogeneous equilibrium state of this model. A series of numerical simulations reveal Turing parameter regions of the interaction of diffusion parameters. According to these regions, we further demonstrate dispersion relations and spatial patterns. Our results indicate that self-diffusion plays an important role in the spatial patterns.

  15. Detection Combustion Data Pattern on Gasoline Fuel Motorcycle with Carburetor System

    Andrizal Andrizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tune up combustion motorcycle engine made in order to obtain a perfect engine combustion category with maximum engine performance and fuel efficiency. Motorcycles with 4-stroke petrol injection system has facilities to process tune up in the form of engine control unit and engine scanner tool. While petrol 4 stroke motorcycle carburetor system is not equipped with facilities such as a motorcycle injection system, consequently, tune up the engine combustion process is done manually. Category of the combustion engine can be determined based on the levels of emissions of HC, CO, CO2 and O2 contained in the exhaust gases of vehicles. This study aims to create a system to detect and display patterns of data categories motorcycle combustion gasoline engine carburetor system through the detection of exhaust emissions. This system is made using four gas sensors are integrated with the system FPGA (Field Progrmable Gate Array as the main system and a display system using a PC or Laptop. Tests performed on a number of motorcycles with the brand, manufacturer and year of manufacture are different. Detection results shown in graphical form a pattern data categories perfect combustion engine and the data pattern of incomplete combustion category with a response time to 10 seconds. This system is expected to be used as an alternative tool for mechanics in performing tune up combustion motorcycle engine.

  16. Meta-algorithmics patterns for robust, low cost, high quality systems

    Simske, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The confluence of cloud computing, parallelism and advanced machine intelligence approaches has created a world in which the optimum knowledge system will usually be architected from the combination of two or more knowledge-generating systems. There is a need, then, to provide a reusable, broadly-applicable set of design patterns to empower the intelligent system architect to take advantage of this opportunity. This book explains how to design and build intelligent systems that are optimized for changing system requirements (adaptability), optimized for changing system input (robustness), an

  17. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  18. Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation crystal pattern formation in a reactive microemulsion system

    Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) crystal pattern formation in microemulsion consisting of water, styrene, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), potassium persulphate and an oscillating Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactant is reported. A variety of spatiotemporal patterns like concentric wave, spatial (stripe) and chaotic patterns appear. A colloidal phase composed of numerous nano-sized particles has been observed. The solid phase nucleation has been found to occur in the colloidal phase and has been found to grow in a symmetric crystal pattern with the progress of the reaction finally exhibiting DLA structures. We show that the formation of a nanostructured DLA crystal pattern is governed by spatial structures emerging in the BZ microemulsion system. Without any spatial structure in the microemulsion system only hydrogel of high viscosity is formed. A nano-sized branched crystal pattern was formed with a particle diameter in the range of 60–100 nm, as evident by transmission electron microscope, powder x-ray diffraction and particle size analyser studies. (paper)

  19. Application of a Pattern-based Classification System for Invasive Endocervical Adenocarcinoma in Cervical Biopsy, Cone and Loop Electrosurgical Excision (LEEP) Material: Pattern on Cone and LEEP is Predictive of Pattern in the Overall Tumor.

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    A pattern-based classification system has been recently proposed for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma, which is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases. Identifying cases at risk of nodal involvement is most relevant at the time of biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) to allow for optimal surgical planning, and, most importantly, consideration of lymphadenectomy. This study aims to determine the topography of patterns of stromal invasion in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma with emphasis on patterns in biopsy, cone, and LEEP. Invasive pattern was assessed following the pattern-based classification (Patterns A, B, and C) in 47 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas treated with hysterectomy or trachelectomy and correlated with pattern of invasion at the tumor surface (2 mm of tumor depth) and on preoperative biopsy and cone/LEEP. Patterns A, B, and C were present in 21.3%, 36.2%, and 42.5% of cases, respectively. Most pattern A cases were Stage IA (90%), whereas most Pattern B and C cases were Stage IB (76.5% and 80%, respectively). Horizontal spread was on average larger in Pattern C (24.1 mm) than in Patterns A and B (7.7 and 12.3 mm, respectively). Pattern at the tumor surface correlated with the overall pattern in 95.7% of cases. Concordance between patterns at cone/LEEP and hysterectomy was 92.8%; the only discrepant case was upgraded from Pattern A on LEEP to C on final excision. Agreement between patterns in biopsy and the overall tumor, however, was only 37.5%. In all discrepant cases, biopsy failed to reveal destructive invasion, which was evident on excision. All discrepant biopsies with pattern A showed glandular complexity resembling exophytic papillary growth but did not meet criteria for destructive invasion. On excision, marked gland confluence with papillary architecture was evident. We conclude that the pattern of invasion on cone/LEEP is a good predictor of pattern of invasion on hysterectomy, particularly if there is

  20. Patterns for election of active computing nodes in high availability distributed data acquisition systems

    Computer based systems for power plant and research reactors are expected to have high availability. Redundancy is a common approach to improve the availability of a system. In redundant configuration the challenge is to select one node as active, and in case of failure of current active node provide automatic fast switchover by electing another node to function as active and restore normal operation. Additional constraints include: exactly one node should be elected as active in an n-way redundant architecture. This paper discusses various high availability configurations developed by Electronics Division and deployed in power and research reactors and patterns followed to elect active nodes of distributed data acquisition systems. The systems are categorized into two: Active/Passive where changeover takes effect only on the failure of Active node, and Active/Active, where changeover is effective in alternate cycles. A novel concept of priority driven state based Active (Master) node election pattern is described for Active/Passive systems which allows multiple redundancy and dynamic election of single master. The paper also discusses the Active/Active pattern, which uncovers failure early by activating all the nodes alternatively in a redundant system. This pattern can be extended to multiple redundant nodes. (author)

  1. How do Interruptions Impact Nurses’ Visual Scanning Patterns When Using Barcode Medication Administration Systems?

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses’ visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of...

  2. Fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems considering the whole set of packed patterns

    Borges, Pedro Manuel F. C.; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fixed channel assignment in cellular communication systems with nonuniform traffic distribution. The objective of the channel assignment is to minimise the average blocking probability. Methods for finding a good allocation can be based on first building a number...... of sets of cochannel cells or allocation patterns and then assigning them to channels. This usually implies that only a subset of the feasible region is attainable. The approach suggested in this paper uses the concept of packed pattern, since all patterns in an optimal solution will be of that kind....... With a constructive method, the entire set of packed patterns is built and used in the optimisation process. The complexity (large-scale and nonlinearity) of the resulting problem suggested the use of general search procedures (local search, tabu search, simulated annealing, etc.), which have the...

  3. Formation mechanism of ordered stress-relief patterns in a free sustained Cu film system

    A nearly free sustained copper (Cu) film system has been successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation deposition of Cu atoms on silicone oil surfaces, and a characteristic ordered pattern has been systematically studied. The ordered pattern, namely, band, is composed of a large number of parallel key-formed domains with different width w but nearly uniform length L; its characteristic values of w and L are very susceptible to the growth period, deposition rate and nominal film thickness. The formation mechanism of the ordered patterns is well explained in terms of the relaxation of the internal stress in the films, which is related to the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid interface. By using a two-time deposition method, it is confirmed that the ordered patterns really form in the vacuum chamber

  4. Formation mechanism of ordered stress-relief patterns in a free sustained Cu film system

    Chen Miao-Gen; Xie Jian-Ping; Jin Jin-Sheng; Xia A-Gen; Ye Gao-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    A nearly free sustained copper (Cu) film system has been successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation deposition of Cu atoms on silicone oil surfaces,and a characteristic ordered pattern has been systematically studied.The ordered pattern,namely,band,is composed of a large number of parallel key-formed domains with different width w but nearly uniform length L;its characteristic values of ω and L are very susceptible to the growth period,deposition rate and nominal film thickness.The formation mechanism of the ordered patterns is well explained in terms of the relaxation of the internal stress in the films,which is related to the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid interface.By using a two-time deposition method,it is confirmed that the ordered patterns really form in the vacuum chamber.

  5. Fingerprint attendance system based on hypersphere covering of biomimetic pattern recognition

    Li, Li; Yin, Ye; Cui, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Hypersphere covering of biomimetic pattern recognition method has the features of fast identification,low rate of false recognition,easy implementation,and so on.It is particularly suitable for a number of strong practical applications.In this paper,we study a biomimetic pattern recognition method based on the hypersphere string covering and apply it in a fingerprint attendance system.On the basis of analyzing actual teaching needs,we design a complete hardware and software system for the fin...

  6. Development of Fractal Pattern Making Application using L-System for Enhanced Machine Controller

    Gunawan Alexander A S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One big issue facing the industry today is an automated machine lack of flexibility for customization because it is designed by the manufacturers based on certain standards. In this research, it is developed customized application software for CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled machines using open source platform. The application is enable us to create designs by means of fractal patterns using L-System, developed by turtle geometry interpretation and Python programming languages. The result of the application is the G-Code of fractal pattern formed by the method of L-System. In the experiment on the CNC machine, the G-Code of fractal pattern which involving the branching structure has been able to run well.

  7. Development of Fractal Pattern Making Application using L-System for Enhanced Machine Controller

    Gunawan, Alexander A. S.; Linggarjati, Jimmy; Wijaya, Yandi

    2014-03-01

    One big issue facing the industry today is an automated machine lack of flexibility for customization because it is designed by the manufacturers based on certain standards. In this research, it is developed customized application software for CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) machines using open source platform. The application is enable us to create designs by means of fractal patterns using L-System, developed by turtle geometry interpretation and Python programming languages. The result of the application is the G-Code of fractal pattern formed by the method of L-System. In the experiment on the CNC machine, the G-Code of fractal pattern which involving the branching structure has been able to run well.

  8. Identification of statistical patterns in complex systems via symbolic time series analysis.

    Gupta, Shalabh; Khatkhate, Amol; Ray, Asok; Keller, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Identification of statistical patterns from observed time series of spatially distributed sensor data is critical for performance monitoring and decision making in human-engineered complex systems, such as electric power generation, petrochemical, and networked transportation. This paper presents an information-theoretic approach to identification of statistical patterns in such systems, where the main objective is to enhance structural integrity and operation reliability. The core concept of pattern identification is built upon the principles of Symbolic Dynamics, Automata Theory, and Information Theory. To this end, a symbolic time series analysis method has been formulated and experimentally validated on a special-purpose test apparatus that is designed for data acquisition and real-time analysis of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys. PMID:17063932

  9. Constructing universal pattern formation processes governed by reaction-diffusion systems

    Sen-Zhong Huang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available For a given connected compact subset $K$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ we construct a smooth map $F$ on $mathbb{R}^{1+n}$ in such a way that the corresponding reaction-diffusion system $u_t=DDelta u+F(u$ of $n+1$ components $u=(u_0,u_1,dots ,u_n$, accompanying with the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, has an attractor which is isomorphic to $K$. This implies the following universality: The make-up of a pattern with arbitrary complexity (e.g., a fractal pattern can be realized by a reaction-diffusion system once the vector supply term $F$ has been previously properly constructed. Submitted August 28, 2002. Published October 4, 2002. Math Subject Classifications: 35B40, 70G60, 35Q99 Key Words: Attractor; pattern formation.

  10. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  11. Huitzoctli: A system to design Control Rod Pattern for BWR's using a hybrid method

    Highlights: → The system was developed to design Control Rod Patterns for Boiling Water Reactors. → The critical reactor core and the thermal limits were fulfilled in all tested cases. → The Fuel Loading Pattern remains without changes during the iterative process. → The system uses the heuristics techniques: Scatter Search and Tabu Search. → The effective multiplication factor keff at the EOC was improved in all tested cases. - Abstract: Huitzoctli system was developed to design Control Rod Patterns for Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The main idea is to obtain a Control Rod Pattern under the following considerations: (a) the critical reactor core state is satisfied, (b) the axial power distribution must be adjusted to a target axial power distribution proposal, and (c) the maximum Fraction of Critical Power Ratio (MFLCPR), the maximum Fraction of Linear Power Density (FLPD) and the maximum Fraction of Average Planar Power Density (MPGR) must be fulfilled. Those parameters were obtained using the 3D CM-PRESTO code. In order to decrease the problem complexity, Control Cell Core load strategy was implemented; in the same way, intermediate axial positions and core eighth symmetry were took into account. In this work, the cycle length was divided in 12 burnup steps. The Fuel Loading Pattern is an input data and it remains without changes during the iterative process. The Huitzoctli system was developed to use the combinatorial heuristics techniques Scatter Search and Tabu Search. The first one was used as a global search method and the second one as a local search method. The Control Rod Patterns obtained with the Huitzoctli system were compared to other Control Rod Patterns designs obtained with other optimization techniques, under the same operating conditions. The results show a good performance of the system. In all cases the thermal limits were satisfied, and the axial power distribution was adjusted to the target axial power distribution almost

  12. Pattern-generating travelling waves in a discrete multicellular system with lateral inhibition

    Plahte, Erik; Øyehaug, Leiv

    2007-02-01

    On a one-dimensional string of cells, the juxtacrine signalling model for Delta-Notch lateral inhibition by Collier et al. [J.R. Collier, N.A.M. Monk, P.K. Maini, J.H. Lewis, Pattern formation by lateral inhibition with feedback: A mathematical model of Delta-Notch intercellular interaction, J. Theoret. Biol. 183 (1996) 429-446] exhibits a predominant alternating pattern of cells expressing either Delta or Notch, as well as many aperiodic patterns. Despite this multistationarity, in the idealised situation of no noise, travelling waves invading the unstable, homogeneous state only generate the predominant alternating pattern in their wake all over the lattice. However, this robustness is totally lost in the presence of stochastic noise because the invaded, initial state is unstable. Using linear approximations around the initial, homogeneous state and around the final, patterned state, we are able to derive analytically all essential properties of the wave: the shape of the wave front, the unique, alternating pattern generated by the wave, and the asymptotic speed of the wave front. We show that the asymptotic wave speed equals the theoretical minimum wave speed. The latter agrees extremely well with the value estimated from numerical simulations. Thus, in this system travelling waves are pulled by the leading edge of the front.

  13. Application of the new pattern recognition system in the new e-nose to detecting Chinese spirits

    We present a new pattern recognition system based on moving average and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which can be used to process the original signal of the new polymer quartz piezoelectric crystal air-sensitive sensor system we designed, called the new e-nose. Using the new e-nose, we obtain the template datum of Chinese spirits via a new pattern recognition system. To verify the effectiveness of the new pattern recognition system, we select three kinds of Chinese spirits to test, our results confirm that the new pattern recognition system can perfectly identify and distinguish between the Chinese spirits. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu;

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  15. Control Patterns in Dyadic Systems: Marital Group Psychotherapy as Change Agent.

    McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…

  16. The application of MVC design pattern in Daya bay reactor neutrino experiments online safety training system

    The article made an introduction to MVC, which is an architectural pattern used in software engineering. It specified the advantages and disadvantages of MVC and also the application of MVC in Daya Bay nuclear reactor neutrino experiment online safety training system. (authors)

  17. The Effective Radiation Pattern Concept for Realistic Performance Estimation of LTE Wireless Systems

    Dimitra Zarbouti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio channels induce distortions to the radiation pattern of beamforming systems such as beam broadening as well as sidelobe level and null rising. If these effects are ignored, the system performance is overestimated. This paper proposes the simple concept of an effective radiation pattern (ERP calculated by optimally fitting the “real-world” radiation pattern to the ERP. The proposed ERP method is incorporated into a multicell bad urban 4G LTE operational scenario which employs beamforming for both the BSs and the RNs. The performed simulations provide evidence that the ideal instead of the real radiation pattern overestimates the SIR and capacity by almost 3 dB and 13 Mbps, respectively, for the reference scenario without RNs. It also proves that the ERP method produces almost identical performance results with the real radiation pattern, and hence it is a simple and viable option for realistic performance analysis. Finally, the network performance is studied as a function of the number of RNs with the help of the ERP method. Results show that a beamforming LTE network with RNs that also employ beamforming provides 3 dB SIR gain with the addition of 1 RN per cell and 15 dB gain with 4 RNs per cell.

  18. Thermal motion of a nonlinear localized pattern in a quasi-one-dimensional system

    Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamics of localized nonlinear patterns in a quasi-one-dimensional many-particle system near a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. The normal form at the bifurcation is given and we show that these patterns can be described as solitary-wave envelopes. They are stable in a large temperature range and can diffuse along the chain of interacting particles. During their displacements the particles are continually redistributed on the envelope. This change of particle location induces a small modulation of the potential energy of the system, with an amplitude that depends on the transverse confinement. At high temperature, this modulation is irrelevant and the thermal motion of the localized patterns displays all the characteristics of a free quasiparticle diffusion with a diffusion coefficient that may be deduced from the normal form. At low temperature, significant physical effects are induced by the modulated potential. In particular, the localized pattern may be trapped at very low temperature. We also exhibit a series of confinement values for which the modulation amplitudes vanishes. For these peculiar confinements, the mean-square displacement of the localized patterns also evidences free-diffusion behavior at low temperature.

  19. A rule-based expert system for automatic control rod pattern generation for boiling water reactors

    This paper reports on an expert system for generating control rod patterns that has been developed. The knowledge is transformed into IF-THEN rules. The inference engine uses the Rete pattern matching algorithm to match facts, and rule premises and conflict resolution strategies to make the system function intelligently. A forward-chaining mechanism is adopted in the inference engine. The system is implemented in the Common Lisp programming language. The three-dimensional core simulation model performs the core status and burnup calculations. The system is successfully demonstrated by generating control rod programming for the 2894-MW (thermal) Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The computing time is tremendously reduced compared to programs using mathematical methods

  20. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  1. AN APPROACH TO E-WORKFLOW SYSTEMS WITH THE USE OF PATTERNS

    John Ndeta; Stamatia A. Katriou; Siakas, Kerstin V.

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive and rapidly changing environment, e-businesses constantly have to modify their business processes, i.e. the flow of documents and tasks in a business also known as workflow. More flexible Workflow Management Systems are required to support these constantly changing processes. In this research a platform independent architecture for the design of e-workflow systems is illustrated. The architecture includes an information pool, namely a Workflow Pattern Repository,...

  2. Active Control Of Oscillation Patterns In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems And Their Mathematical Modelling

    Šutová Zuzana; Vrábeľ Róbert

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the active control of oscillation patterns in nonlinear dynamical systems and its possible use. The purpose of the research is to prove the possibility of oscillations frequency control based on a change of value of singular perturbation parameter placed into a mathematical model of a nonlinear dynamical system at the highest derivative. This parameter is in singular perturbation theory often called small parameter, as ε → 0+. Oscillation frequency change caused by a di...

  3. Nanostructured zinc oxide systems with gold nanoparticle pattern for efficient light trapping

    In this work we describe the design of a system consisting of a zinc oxide nanowire array and ITO glass nanostructured with gold NPs. Our goal was to create a more efficient system that could be used in various optical applications, such as photovoltaics or photodetectors. The impact of gold NPs of different shapes, single as well as arranged in a pattern, on the optical properties of the system was studied by using a finite integration technique. The absorptance and transmittance spectra of individual components of the system were calculated. Finally, the integrated spectral enhancement factors of the photons absorbed and transmitted by the electrode were estimated using the different geometrical parameters of the electrode. The results suggested that the most effective absorber of light should include zinc oxide nanowires (NWs), with smaller diameters and cylindrical shapes of single gold NPs, as well as in a pattern, while the highest transmittance is obtained for greater diameter of NWs and conical shapes of gold NPs in a pattern. Based on these results, the absorption current density (derived from the generation and collection of light-generated charge carriers) was calculated for the ZnO-CdTe core-shell NWs nanostructured with gold NPs arranged into a pattern. The results suggest that the most efficient electrode contains ZnO NWs with gold NPs in a conical shaped pattern. Our results confirm the importance of computational simulation in the design of the photonic and photovoltaic devices, making it possible to predict the most efficient systems. These results could be useful to further optimize photonic or photovoltaic devices based on plasmonic NPs and semiconductor nanostructures. (paper)

  4. Nanostructured zinc oxide systems with gold nanoparticle pattern for efficient light trapping

    Robak, Elżbieta; Kotkowiak, Michał; Drozdowski, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    In this work we describe the design of a system consisting of a zinc oxide nanowire array and ITO glass nanostructured with gold NPs. Our goal was to create a more efficient system that could be used in various optical applications, such as photovoltaics or photodetectors. The impact of gold NPs of different shapes, single as well as arranged in a pattern, on the optical properties of the system was studied by using a finite integration technique. The absorptance and transmittance spectra of individual components of the system were calculated. Finally, the integrated spectral enhancement factors of the photons absorbed and transmitted by the electrode were estimated using the different geometrical parameters of the electrode. The results suggested that the most effective absorber of light should include zinc oxide nanowires (NWs), with smaller diameters and cylindrical shapes of single gold NPs, as well as in a pattern, while the highest transmittance is obtained for greater diameter of NWs and conical shapes of gold NPs in a pattern. Based on these results, the absorption current density (derived from the generation and collection of light-generated charge carriers) was calculated for the ZnO-CdTe core-shell NWs nanostructured with gold NPs arranged into a pattern. The results suggest that the most efficient electrode contains ZnO NWs with gold NPs in a conical shaped pattern. Our results confirm the importance of computational simulation in the design of the photonic and photovoltaic devices, making it possible to predict the most efficient systems. These results could be useful to further optimize photonic or photovoltaic devices based on plasmonic NPs and semiconductor nanostructures.

  5. The use of ISPAHAN: interactive system for statistical pattern recognition and analysis.

    Gelsema, E S; Landeweerd, G H

    1981-09-01

    ISPAHAN, the interactive system for statistical pattern recognition and analysis, was developed at the Department of Medical Information at the Free University of Amsterdam. It has been used in many pattern recognition problems, such as white blood cell recognition, typification of wave forms in ECG analysis, segmentation of ECG signals and resonance detection in high-energy particle physics. The structure and capabilities of ISPAHAN are presented along with an example of its use in the field of white blood cell recognition. PMID:7294538

  6. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    Golovin, Alexander A.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.

    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale -- one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004.

  7. Phase dynamics of nearly stationary patterns in activator-inhibitor systems

    The slow dynamics of nearly stationary patterns in a FitzHugh-Nagumo model are studied using a phase dynamics approach. A Cross-Newell phase equation describing slow and weak modulations of periodic stationary solutions is derived. The derivation applies to the bistable, excitable, and Turing unstable regimes. In the bistable case stability thresholds are obtained for the Eckhaus and zigzag instabilities and for the transition to traveling waves. Neutral stability curves demonstrate the destabilization of stationary planar patterns at low wave numbers to zigzag and traveling modes. Numerical solutions of the model system support the theoretical findings. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. A three-dimensional spatio-temporal EEG pattern analyzing system

    LIU Hesheng; GAO Xiaorong; YANG Fusheng

    2003-01-01

    Spatio-temporal pattern analysis of EEG is an important tool in brain research. An EEG pattern analysis system based on a hierarchical multi-method approach is proposed here. The system consists of multiple steps including extraction of target signal, acquisition of intracranial electric activity distribution, adaptive segmentation of EEG and spatio-temporal pattern recognition. Some modern signal processing methods such as common spatial subspace decomposition, hidden Markov model are adopted. This paper also proposes an algorithm named LORETA-FOCUSS to estimate the current density inside the brain with a high spatial resolution. Microstate analysis of EEG is extended to the 3-D situation. The system was applied to the brain computer interface problem and achieved the highest accuracy of 88.89% with an average accuracy of 81.48% when classifying two imaginary movement tasks, while the data were not manually pre-selected. The result has proved spatio-temporal EEG pattern analysis is an efficient way in brain research.

  9. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  10. On the control and prediction of the heating patterns of the annular phased array hyperthermia system

    In previous publications the authors examined the electromagnetic (EM) power deposition and heating of the Annular Phased Array (APA) system developed by BSD Medical Corporation, using numerical EM and thermodynamics modeling. In this paper the results of recent efforts to vary and control the heating patterns produced by this system are described. in particular, data from several numerical simulations and experimental measurements are presented which illustrate the effect on the heating patterns achieved by varying the phase difference between the different ports of the APA system. Other heating patterns, produced by inactivating some of the APA ports, are also discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the feasibility of predicting the EM power depositions patterns of the APA solely through monitoring the E-field in the water bolus around the patient's body. In particular, it is shown that this E-field distribution depends primarily upon the outer geometry of the human body and is largely insensitive to the detailed distribution of inner tissues. Specific suggestions regarding the types, number, and location of E-field probes that can be used for such measurements are also given