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Sample records for 4-dimensional calculations

  1. Independent Plaquette Trial Action for 4-Dimensional Lattice Gauge Theory

    LIU Jin-Ming

    2001-01-01

    Based on the explicit expressions of the plaquette formulations, the independent plaquette trial action for 4-dimensional lattice gauge theory is introduced. As an example, the mean plaquette energy EP for the SU(2) lattice gauge theory is calculated by using action variational approach with the independent trial action. The results are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results in the strong coupling and the crossover region, and the curve is smooth in the whole region, which show that 4-dimensional SU(2) theory has only a single, confining phase. The unwanted discontinuity of EP given by the single link trial action, which is used in the earlier variational calculations has been avoided.

  2. A generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold

    Euh, Y.; Park, J. H.; Sekigawa, K.

    2010-01-01

    A weakly Einstein manifold is a generalization of a 4-dimensional Einstein manifold, which is defined as an application of a curvature identity derived from the generalized Gauss-Bonnet formula for a 4-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold. In this paper, we shall give a characterization of a weakly Einstein manifold.

  3. Degenerate 4-Dimensional Matrices with Semi-Group Structure

    Veko, O; Oana, A; Neagu, M; Balan, V; Red'kov, V

    2014-01-01

    While dealing with the nontrivial task of classifying Mueller matrices, of special interest is the study of the degenerate Mueller matrices (matrices with vanishing determinant, for which the law of multiplication holds, but there exists no inverse elements). Earlier, it was developed a special technique of parameterizing arbitrary 4-dimensional matrices with the use of a four 4-dimensional vector (k,m,l,n). In the following, a classification of degenerate 4-dimensional real matrices of rank 1, 2, and 3 is elaborated. To separate possible classes of degenerate matrices of ranks 1 and 2, we impose linear restrictions on (k,m, l,n), which are compatible with the group multiplication law. All the subsets of matrices obtained by this method, form either subgroups or semi-groups. To obtain singular matrices of rank 3, we specify 16 independent possibilities to get the 4-dimensional matrices with zero determinant

  4. Quaternionic Similar Curves in 4-dimensional Euclidean Space

    Önder, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the quaternionic similar curves in 4-dimensional Euclidean space. We show that the families of quaternionic curves with vanishing curvatures form the families of quaternionic similar curves.

  5. On the compatibility of Lorentz-metrics with linear connections on 4-dimensional manifolds

    Hall, G S

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers 4-dimensional manifolds upon which there is a Lorentz metric, h, and a symmetric connection and which are originally assumed unrelated. It then derives sufficient conditions on the metric and connection (expressed through the curvature tensor) for the connection to be the Levi-Civita connection of some (local) Lorentz metric, g, and calculates the relationship between g and h. Some examples are provided which help to assess the strength of the sufficient conditions derived.

  6. On the compatibility of Lorentz-metrics with linear connections on 4-dimensional manifolds

    Hall, G. S.; Lonie, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers 4-dimensional manifolds upon which there is a Lorentz metric, h, and a symmetric connection and which are originally assumed unrelated. It then derives sufficient conditions on the metric and connection (expressed through the curvature tensor) for the connection to be the Levi-Civita connection of some (local) Lorentz metric, g, and calculates the relationship between g and h. Some examples are provided which help to assess the strength of the sufficient conditions derived.

  7. A theory of mass and gravity in 4-dimensional optics

    Almeida, J B

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the concepts of mass and gravity in the formalism of 4-dimensional optics, previously introduced by the author. It is shown that elementary particles can be associated with 4-dimensional standing wave patterns with the Compton wavelength and both inertial and gravitational mass are derived from this concept and shown to be attributable to an waveguide laid along the particle's worldline; the same formalism is shown to accommodate also mass due to binding energy within compact bodies. Momentum exchange with accelerated bodies through gravitons is discussed and shown similar to mode exchange in optical fibers. Reported anomalies on the behaviour of the Foucault pendulum, both periodic and exceptional on the occasion of solar eclipses, are explained not only qualitatively but also on order of magnitude, resorting to graviton exchanges between Earth and the Sun or the Moon. It is argued that these effects provide experimental evidence of gravitons.

  8. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Lonie, David P.; Hall, Graham S.

    2009-01-01

    A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised) geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification o...

  9. Projective Structure and Holonomy in 4-dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S.; Lonie, David P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the situation when two 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds (that is, space-times) admit the same (unparametrised) geodesics, that is, when they are projectively related. A review of some known results is given and then the problem is considered further by treating each holonomy type in turn for the space-time connection. It transpires that all holonomy possibilities can be dealt with completely except the most general one and that the consequences of two space-times being proje...

  10. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.066

    2009-01-01

    A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised) geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification of the associated curvature tensors. These reviews are provided.

  11. Holonomy and Projective Equivalence in 4-Dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    David P. Lonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds which are projectively related, that is, whose Levi-Civita connections give rise to the same (unparameterised geodesics. A brief review of some relevant recent work is provided and a list of new results connecting projective relatedness and the holonomy type of the Lorentz manifold in question is given. This necessitates a review of the possible holonomy groups for such manifolds which, in turn, requires a certain convenient classification of the associated curvature tensors. These reviews are provided.

  12. Projective Structure and Holonomy in 4-dimensional Lorentz Manifolds

    Hall, Graham S

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the situation when two 4-dimensional Lorentz manifolds (that is, space-times) admit the same (unparametrised) geodesics, that is, when they are projectively related. A review of some known results is given and then the problem is considered further by treating each holonomy type in turn for the space-time connection. It transpires that all holonomy possibilities can be dealt with completely except the most general one and that the consequences of two space-times being projectively related leads, in many cases, to their associated Levi-Civita connections being identical.

  13. Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds

    Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance nε. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z2-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all

  14. A Lie based 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present and study a model of 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory, special Chern-Simons (SCS) theory, instances of which have appeared in the string literature, whose symmetry is encoded in a skeletal semistrict Lie 2-algebra constructed from a compact Lie group with non discrete center. The field content of SCS theory consists of a Lie valued 2-connection coupled to a background closed 3-form. SCS theory enjoys a large gauge and gauge for gauge symmetry organized in an infinite dimensional strict Lie 2-group. The partition function of SCS theory is simply related to that of a topological gauge theory localizing on flat connections with degree 3 second characteristic class determined by the background 3-form. Finally, SCS theory is related to a 3-dimensional special gauge theory whose 2-connection space has a natural symplectic structure with respect to which the 1-gauge transformation action is Hamiltonian, the 2-curvature map acting as moment map.

  15. A Lie based 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    We present and study a model of 4-dimensional higher Chern-Simons theory, special Chern-Simons (SCS) theory, instances of which have appeared in the string literature, whose symmetry is encoded in a skeletal semistrict Lie 2-algebra constructed from a compact Lie group with non discrete center. The field content of SCS theory consists of a Lie valued 2-connection coupled to a background closed 3-form. SCS theory enjoys a large gauge and gauge for gauge symmetry organized in an infinite dimensional strict Lie 2-group. The partition function of SCS theory is simply related to that of a topological gauge theory localizing on flat connections with degree 3 second characteristic class determined by the background 3-form. Finally, SCS theory is related to a 3-dimensional special gauge theory whose 2-connection space has a natural symplectic structure with respect to which the 1-gauge transformation action is Hamiltonian, the 2-curvature map acting as moment map.

  16. Electroweak Phase Transition in the MSSM 4-Dimensional Lattice Simulations

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hegedüs, P; Jakovác, A; Katz, S D; Piróth, A

    2000-01-01

    Recent lattice results have shown that there is no Standard Model (SM) electroweak phase transition (EWPT) for Higgs boson masses above \\approx 72 GeV, which is below the present experimental limit. According to perturbation theory and 3-dimensional (3d) lattice simulations there could be an EWPT in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) that is strong enough for baryogenesis up to m_h \\approx 105 GeV. In this letter we present the results of our large scale 4-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations for the MSSM EWPT. We carried out infinite volume and continuum limit extrapolations, which show a somewhat weaker transition than suggested by 3d simulations. The upper bound of the lightest Higgs boson mass for a MSSM baryogenesis scenario is m_h = 97 +/- 4 GeV. We determined the properties of the bubble wall that are important for a successful baryogenesis.

  17. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Stemkens, Bjorn, E-mail: b.stemkens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tijssen, Rob H.N. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, Baudouin D. de [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); L' Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5251, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Heerkens, Hanne D.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Berg, Cornelis A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  18. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients

  19. Hawking Radiation of Vector Particles via Tunneling From 4-Dimensional And 5-Dimensional Black Holes

    Feng, Zhongwen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-01-01

    Using Proca equation and WKB approximation, we investigate Hawking radiation of vector particles via tunneling from 4-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black hole and 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The results show that the tunneling rates and Hawking temperatures are depended on the properties of spacetime (event horizon, mass and angular momentum). Besides, our results are the same as scalars and fermions tunneling from 4-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black hole and 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole.

  20. Quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry

    Quantum electrodynamics is discussed within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. A possible and crucial experimental test of the new 4-dimensional symmetry is discussed

  1. Evaluation of 4-dimensional Computed Tomography to 4-dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Deformable Image Registration for Lung Cancer Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To evaluate 2 deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for the purpose of contour mapping to support image-guided adaptive radiation therapy with 4-dimensional cone-beam CT (4DCBCT). Methods and Materials: One planning 4D fan-beam CT (4DFBCT) and 7 weekly 4DCBCT scans were acquired for 10 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. The gross tumor volume was delineated by a physician in all 4D images. End-of-inspiration phase planning 4DFBCT was registered to the corresponding phase in weekly 4DCBCT images for day-to-day registrations. For phase-to-phase registration, the end-of-inspiration phase from each 4D image was registered to the end-of-expiration phase. Two DIR algorithms—small deformation inverse consistent linear elastic (SICLE) and Insight Toolkit diffeomorphic demons (DEMONS)—were evaluated. Physician-delineated contours were compared with the warped contours by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), average symmetric distance, and false-positive and false-negative indices. The DIR results are compared with rigid registration of tumor. Results: For day-to-day registrations, the mean DSC was 0.75 ± 0.09 with SICLE, 0.70 ± 0.12 with DEMONS, 0.66 ± 0.12 with rigid-tumor registration, and 0.60 ± 0.14 with rigid-bone registration. Results were comparable to intraobserver variability calculated from phase-to-phase registrations as well as measured interobserver variation for 1 patient. SICLE and DEMONS, when compared with rigid-bone (4.1 mm) and rigid-tumor (3.6 mm) registration, respectively reduced the average symmetric distance to 2.6 and 3.3 mm. On average, SICLE and DEMONS increased the DSC to 0.80 and 0.79, respectively, compared with rigid-tumor (0.78) registrations for 4DCBCT phase-to-phase registrations. Conclusions: Deformable image registration achieved comparable accuracy to reported interobserver delineation variability and higher accuracy than rigid-tumor registration. Deformable image registration

  2. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    Brennan, Douglas [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  3. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT

  4. Future Electron-Positron Colliders and the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model

    Barducci, D.; De Curtis, S.; Moretti, S; Pruna, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this note we analyse the prospects of a future electron-positron collider in testing a particular realisation of a composite Higgs model encompassing partial compositeness, namely, the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model. We study the main Higgs production channels for three possible energy stages and different luminosity options of such a machine and confront our results to the expected experimental accuracies in the various Higgs decay channels accessible herein and, for comparison, also...

  5. Future electron-positron colliders and the 4-dimensional composite Higgs model

    Barducci, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Curtis, S. De [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Pruna, G.M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-03

    In this note we analyse the prospects of a future electron-positron collider in testing a particular realisation of a composite Higgs model encompassing partial compositeness, namely, the 4-Dimensional Composite Higgs Model. We study the main Higgs production channels for three possible energy stages and different luminosity options of such a machine and confront our results to the expected experimental accuracies in the various Higgs decay channels accessible herein and, for comparison, also at the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. We live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2015-01-01

    We try to define "our world" by stating that "we live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time with the force-fields gauge group $SU_c(3) \\times SU_L(2) \\times U(1) \\times SU_f(3)$ built-in from the outset". We begin by explaining what "space" and "time" are meaning for us - the 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time, then proceeding to the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time. In our world, there are fields, or, point-like particles. Particle physics is described by the so-called Standard Model. Maybe I should explain why, how, and what my Standard Model would be everybody's "Standard Model" some day. Following the thinking underlying the minimal Standard Model and based on the gauge group $SU_c(3) \\times SU_L(2) \\times U(1) \\times SU_f(3)$, the extension, which is rather unique, derives from the family concept that there are three generations of quarks, on (123), and of leptons, on another (123). It yields neutrino oscillations in a natural manner. It also predicts a variety of lepton-flavor-viol...

  7. Scaling Limits and Critical Behaviour of the 4 -Dimensional n -Component |\\varphi |^4 Spin Model

    Bauerschmidt, Roland; Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    We consider the n -component |\\varphi |^4 spin model on {mathbb {Z}}^4 , for all n ge 1 , with small coupling constant. We prove that the susceptibility has a logarithmic correction to mean field scaling, with exponent n+2/n+8 for the logarithm. We also analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the pressure as the critical point is approached, and prove that the specific heat has fractional logarithmic scaling for n =1,2,3 ; double logarithmic scaling for n=4 ; and is bounded when n>4 . In addition, for the model defined on the 4 -dimensional discrete torus, we prove that the scaling limit as the critical point is approached is a multiple of a Gaussian free field on the continuum torus, whereas, in the subcritical regime, the scaling limit is Gaussian white noise with intensity given by the susceptibility. The proofs are based on a rigorous renormalisation group method in the spirit of Wilson, developed in a companion series of papers to study the 4-dimensional weakly self-avoiding walk, and adapted here to the |\\varphi |^4 model.

  8. Direction Adaptation Nature of Coulomb's Force and Gravitational Force in 4-Dimensional Space-time

    Cui, H Y

    2001-01-01

    It was found that the Coulomb's force and gravitational force on a particle always act in the direction perpendicular to the 4-velocity of the particle in 4-dimensional space-time, rather than along the line joining a couple of particles. This inference is obviously supported from the fact that the magnitude of the 4-velocity is kept constant. It indicates there is a new nature here named as direction adaptation nature. This formulation has significant influence on who to teach physics taday, for example, we always say to students that the sun's gravitational force directs at the sun, but this sentence is uncorrect according to the direction adaptation nature of gravitational force.

  9. Management of Respiration-Induced Motion With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) for Pancreas Irradiation

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to quantify respiration-induced organ motions for pancreatic cancer patients and to explore strategies to account for these motions. Methods and Materials: Both 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans were acquired sequentially for 15 pancreatic cancer patients, including 10 randomly selected patients and 5 patients selected from a subgroup of patients with large tumor respiratory motions. 3DCTs were fused with 2 sets of 4DCT data at the end of exhale phase (50%) and the end of inhale phase (0%). The target was delineated on the 50% and 0% phase CT sets, and the organs at risk were drawn on the 3DCT. These contours were populated to the CT sets at other respiratory phases based on deformable image registration. Internal target volumes (ITV) were generated by tracing the target contours of all phases (ITV10), 3 phases of 0%, 20% and 50% (ITV3), and 2 phases of 0% and 50% (ITV2). ITVs generated from phase images were compared using percentage of volume overlap, Dice coefficient, geometric centers, and average surface distance. Results: Volume variations of pancreas, kidneys, and liver as a function of respiratory phases were small (10 and ITV2 and 96% ± 1% and 98% ± 1% between ITV10 and ITV3, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap between ITV10 and ITV3 was 93.6 ± 1.1 for patients with tumor motion >8 mm. Conclusions: Appropriate motion management strategies are proposed for radiation treatment planning of pancreatic tumors based on magnitudes of tumor respiratory motions

  10. Reproducibility of target volumes generated using uncoached 4-dimensional CT scans for peripheral lung cancer

    4-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans are increasingly used to account for mobility during radiotherapy planning. As variations in respiratory patterns can alter observed motion, with consequent changes in the generated target volumes, we evaluated the reproducibility of 4D target volumes generated during repeat uncoached quiet respiration. A retrospective analysis was performed on two successive scans (4DCT1 and 4DCT2) generated at the same scanning session for 26 patients with peripheral lung cancer treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). The volume and position of planning target volumes (PTV4DCT1 and PTV4DCT2) contoured on both scans were compared, and a dosimetric analysis performed. A SRT plan optimized for each PTV was sequentially applied to the other PTV, and coverage by the 80% isodose was evaluated. Color intensity projections (CIP) were used to evaluate regions of underdosage. No significant volumetric differences were observed between the two PTVs (t-Test p = 0.60). The average displacement of the center of mass between corresponding PTVs was 1.4 ± 1.0 mm, but differences in position were 2.0 mm or greater in 5 cases (19%). Coverage of both PTVs by the 80% prescription isodose exceeded 90% for all but one patient. For the latter, the prescription isodose covered only 82.5% of PTV4DCT1. CIP analysis revealed that the region of underdosage was an end-inspiratory position occupied by the tumor for only 10–20% of the respiratory cycle. In nearly all patients with stage I lung cancer, the PTV derived from a single uncoached 4DCT achieves dosimetric coverage that is similar to that achieved using two such consecutive scans

  11. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V4DCT) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V4DCT defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V4DCT was also compared with SPECT ventilation (VSPECT) to (1) test whether V4DCT in VSPECT defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V4DCT and VSPECT defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V4DCT defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V4DCTHU defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV1/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V4DCT in VSPECT defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V4DCTHU 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V4DCTHU0.39 ± 0.11). Furthermore, ventral-to-dorsal gradients of V4DCT were strong (V4DCTHU R2 = 0.69, P

  12. On Darboux's approach to R-separability of variables. Classification of conformally flat 4-dimensional binary metrics

    -class of isothermic metrics are binary metrics. In this paper we solve the following problem: to classify all conformally flat (of arbitrary signature) 4-dimensional binary metrics. Among them there are 1) those that are separable in the sense of SRE metrics Kalnins–Miller (1978 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 244 241–61; 1982 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 15 2699–709; 1984 Adv. Math. 51 91–106; 1983 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 14 126–37) and 2) new examples of non-Stäckel R-separability in 4 dimensions. (paper)

  13. On Darboux's approach to R-separability of variables. Classification of conformally flat 4-dimensional binary metrics

    Szereszewski, A.; Sym, A.

    2015-09-01

    are binary metrics. In this paper we solve the following problem: to classify all conformally flat (of arbitrary signature) 4-dimensional binary metrics. Among them there are 1) those that are separable in the sense of SRE metrics Kalnins-Miller (1978 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 244 241-61 1982 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 15 2699-709 1984 Adv. Math. 51 91-106 1983 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 14 126-37) and 2) new examples of non-Stäckel R-separability in 4 dimensions.

  14. Extended 4-Dimensional OpenGL e-book associated with electric material

    Kazu-masa YAMADA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a kind of 4 Dimensional electronic textbook (4D-Text regarding a typical dielectrics material structure of Perovskit crystalline formations of Barium Titanate where 4D means a combined 1D direction-freely-viewing and 3D animation-ing is continuously extracting while being changed and scaled viewpoint as user chosen continuously. It is specific issue that e.g. Barium Titanium (IV Oxide which crystallography 4D structural animation is discussed and relevantly addressing to virtual learning environments, e-learning tools, educational systems design and e-learning organizational issues. Additionally it should be an actually-expected theme that crystalline Perovskite structure with a chemical formula ABX3 is constructed as follows; the type of anion spheres are X atoms (usually oxygens as O[2-], the another type of spheres are B-atoms (a smaller metal cation, such as Ti[4+] and the third type of spheres are the A-atoms (a larger metal cation, such as Ba[2+]. Then thermal transformation between lower temperature ferroelectorode and higher temperature paraelectorode would be discussed. Meanwhile, crystallographic pictured 4D-Text is as follows among these structures; the undistorted isometric-regular cubic, on the other hand, the symmetry lowered orthorhombic, tetragonal and trigonal in each Perovskites. It has been concluded that free OpenGL assisted 4D animation approach technique should be good way to achieve the organization for free 4D-Text e-learning using Free 3D viewing and manipulating the 4D animation data file created via MGF (MicroAVS Geometry File approached. Additionally crystallography numerical data processing methods in Perovskit structure are to be using Freeware AWK language data-processing and extracting how to prepare the 4D with MGF. Therefore 4D-OpenGL Free e-Text is a possible guidance that enables studying Perovskit structure while changing a viewpoint directly to the instructor's guidance

  15. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    Du, Dongsu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hu, Yanle, E-mail: Hu.Yanle@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm{sup 3} could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications.

  16. Modeling Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Surrogate Markers

    Huguet, Florence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Est, Hôpital Tenon, University Paris VI, Paris (France); Yorke, Ellen D.; Davidson, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew; Mageras, Gig S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: GoodmanK@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafractional positional variations of pancreatic tumors using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), their impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage, the reliability of biliary stent, fiducial seeds, and the real-time position management (RPM) external marker as tumor surrogates for setup of respiratory gated treatment, and to build a correlative model of tumor motion. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the respiration-correlated 4D-CT images acquired during simulation of 36 patients with either a biliary stent (n=16) or implanted fiducials (n=20) who were treated with RPM respiratory gated intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Respiratory displacement relative to end-exhalation was measured for the GTV, the biliary stent, or fiducial seeds, and the RPM marker. The results were compared between the full respiratory cycle and the gating interval. Linear mixed model was used to assess the correlation of GTV motion with the potential surrogate markers. Results: The average ± SD GTV excursions were 0.3 ± 0.2 cm in the left-right direction, 0.6 ± 0.3 cm in the anterior-posterior direction, and 1.3 ± 0.7 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Gating around end-exhalation reduced GTV motion by 46% to 60%. D95% was at least the prescribed 56 Gy in 76% of patients. GTV displacement was associated with the RPM marker, the biliary stent, and the fiducial seeds. The correlation was better with fiducial seeds and with biliary stent. Conclusions: Respiratory gating reduced the margin necessary for radiation therapy for pancreatic tumors. GTV motion was well correlated with biliary stent or fiducial seed displacements, validating their use as surrogates for daily assessment of GTV position during treatment. A patient-specific internal target volume based on 4D-CT is recommended both for gated and not-gated treatment; otherwise, our model can be used to predict the degree of GTV motion.

  17. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm3 could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications

  18. Management of Respiration-Induced Motion With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) for Pancreas Irradiation

    Tai, An, E-mail: atai@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Liang, Zhiwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Radiation Oncology Center, Wuhan Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to quantify respiration-induced organ motions for pancreatic cancer patients and to explore strategies to account for these motions. Methods and Materials: Both 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans were acquired sequentially for 15 pancreatic cancer patients, including 10 randomly selected patients and 5 patients selected from a subgroup of patients with large tumor respiratory motions. 3DCTs were fused with 2 sets of 4DCT data at the end of exhale phase (50%) and the end of inhale phase (0%). The target was delineated on the 50% and 0% phase CT sets, and the organs at risk were drawn on the 3DCT. These contours were populated to the CT sets at other respiratory phases based on deformable image registration. Internal target volumes (ITV) were generated by tracing the target contours of all phases (ITV{sub 10}), 3 phases of 0%, 20% and 50% (ITV{sub 3}), and 2 phases of 0% and 50% (ITV{sub 2}). ITVs generated from phase images were compared using percentage of volume overlap, Dice coefficient, geometric centers, and average surface distance. Results: Volume variations of pancreas, kidneys, and liver as a function of respiratory phases were small (<5%) during respiration. For the 10 randomly selected patients, peak-to-peak amplitudes of liver, left kidney, right kidney, and the target along the superior-inferior (SI) direction were 7.9 ± 3.2 mm, 7.1 ± 3.1 mm, 5.7 ± 3.2 mm, and 5.9 ± 2.8 mm, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap and Dice coefficient were 92% ± 1% and 96% ± 1% between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 2} and 96% ± 1% and 98% ± 1% between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 3}, respectively. The percentage of volume overlap between ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub 3} was 93.6 ± 1.1 for patients with tumor motion >8 mm. Conclusions: Appropriate motion management strategies are proposed for radiation treatment planning of pancreatic tumors based on magnitudes of tumor

  19. Modeling Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Surrogate Markers

    Purpose: To assess intrafractional positional variations of pancreatic tumors using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), their impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage, the reliability of biliary stent, fiducial seeds, and the real-time position management (RPM) external marker as tumor surrogates for setup of respiratory gated treatment, and to build a correlative model of tumor motion. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the respiration-correlated 4D-CT images acquired during simulation of 36 patients with either a biliary stent (n=16) or implanted fiducials (n=20) who were treated with RPM respiratory gated intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Respiratory displacement relative to end-exhalation was measured for the GTV, the biliary stent, or fiducial seeds, and the RPM marker. The results were compared between the full respiratory cycle and the gating interval. Linear mixed model was used to assess the correlation of GTV motion with the potential surrogate markers. Results: The average ± SD GTV excursions were 0.3 ± 0.2 cm in the left-right direction, 0.6 ± 0.3 cm in the anterior-posterior direction, and 1.3 ± 0.7 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Gating around end-exhalation reduced GTV motion by 46% to 60%. D95% was at least the prescribed 56 Gy in 76% of patients. GTV displacement was associated with the RPM marker, the biliary stent, and the fiducial seeds. The correlation was better with fiducial seeds and with biliary stent. Conclusions: Respiratory gating reduced the margin necessary for radiation therapy for pancreatic tumors. GTV motion was well correlated with biliary stent or fiducial seed displacements, validating their use as surrogates for daily assessment of GTV position during treatment. A patient-specific internal target volume based on 4D-CT is recommended both for gated and not-gated treatment; otherwise, our model can be used to predict the degree of GTV motion

  20. Quasinormal modes and Stability Analysis for 4-dimensional Topological Lifshitz Black Hole

    Gonzalez, P A; Vasquez, Yerko

    2012-01-01

    We study the Topological Lifshitz black hole in 4-dimensions and we calculate analytically the quasinormal modes of scalar perturbations and from these quasinormal modes we study the stability of Topological Lifshitz black hole.

  1. Complex brackets and balanced complex 1st-order difference polynomials in 4-dimensional Minkowski space

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates complex brackets and balanced complex 1st-order di?erence (BCD) polynomials. Then we propose an algorithm of O(n log n) complexity to check the equality of brackets. It substitutes exponential algorithms before. Also, BCD polynomials have some usages in geometric calculation.

  2. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: toyamamoto@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian [Department of Digital Imaging, Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Mittra, Erik [Departments of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V

  3. Critical Two-Point Function of the 4-Dimensional Weakly Self-Avoiding Walk

    Bauerschmidt, Roland; Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2015-08-01

    We prove decay of the critical two-point function for the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk on , in the upper critical dimension d = 4. This is a statement that the critical exponent exists and is equal to zero. Results of this nature have been proved previously for dimensions using the lace expansion, but the lace expansion does not apply when d = 4. The proof is based on a rigorous renormalisation group analysis of an exact representation of the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk as a supersymmetric field theory. Much of the analysis applies more widely and has been carried out in a previous paper, where an asymptotic formula for the susceptibility is obtained. Here, we show how observables can be incorporated into the analysis to obtain a pointwise asymptotic formula for the critical two-point function. This involves perturbative calculations similar to those familiar in the physics literature, but with error terms controlled rigorously.

  4. Utilization of 4-Dimensional Data Visualization Modeling to Evaluate Burial Ground Contaminants at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    This paper describes how 4-Dimensional (4D) Data Visualization Modeling was used to evaluate historical data and to help guide the decisions for the sampling necessary to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the burial ground sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). DOE at the Paducah Site is primarily involved in environmental cleanup and landlord activities. The scope of this project was to prepare a work plan for identifying the data available and the data required to conduct an RI/FS for the Burial Ground Operable Unit (BGOU) located within and near PGDP. The work plan focuses on collecting existing information about contamination in and around the burial grounds and determining what additional data are required to support an assessment of risks to human health and the environment and to support future decisions regarding actions to reduce these risks. (authors)

  5. Carbon-ion scanning lung treatment planning with respiratory-gated phase-controlled rescanning: simulation study using 4-dimensional CT data

    To moving lung tumors, we applied a respiratory-gated strategy to carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with multiple phase-controlled rescanning (PCR). In this simulation study, we quantitatively evaluated dose distributions based on 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) treatment planning. Volumetric 4DCTs were acquired for 14 patients with lung tumors. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated. Field-specific target volumes (FTVs) were calculated, and 48Gy(RBE) in a single fraction was prescribed to the FTVs delivered from four beam angles. The dose assessment metrics were quantified by changing the number of PCR and the results for the ungated and gated scenarios were then compared. For the ungated strategy, the mean dose delivered to 95% of the volume of the CTV (CTV-D95) was in average 45.3 ± 0.9 Gy(RBE) even with a single rescanning (1 × PCR). Using 4 × PCR or more achieved adequate target coverage (CTV-D95 = 46.6 ± 0.3 Gy(RBE) for ungated 4 × PCR) and excellent dose homogeneity (homogeneity index =1.0 ± 0.2% for ungated 4 × PCR). Applying respiratory gating, percentage of lung receiving at least 20 Gy(RBE) (lung-V20) and heart maximal dose, averaged over all patients, significantly decreased by 12% (p < 0.05) and 13% (p < 0.05), respectively. Four or more PCR during PBS-CIRT improved dose conformation to moving lung tumors without gating. The use of a respiratory-gated strategy in combination with PCR reduced excessive doses to OARs

  6. Critical Correlation Functions for the 4-Dimensional Weakly Self-Avoiding Walk and n-Component {|\\varphi|^4} Model

    Slade, Gordon; Tomberg, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    We extend and apply a rigorous renormalisation group method to study critical correlation functions, on the 4-dimensional lattice Z4, for the weakly coupled n-component {|\\varphi|4} spin model for all {n ≥ 1}, and for the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk. For the {|\\varphi|4} model, we prove that the critical two-point function has | x|-2 (Gaussian) decay asymptotically, for {n ≥ 1}. We also determine the asymptotic decay of the critical correlations of the squares of components of {\\varphi}, including the logarithmic corrections to Gaussian scaling, for {n ≥ 1}. The above extends previously known results for n = 1 to all {n ≥ 1}, and also observes new phenomena for n > 1, all with a new method of proof. For the continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk, we determine the decay of the critical generating function for the "watermelon" network consisting of p weakly mutually- and self-avoiding walks, for all {p ≥ 1}, including the logarithmic corrections. This extends a previously known result for p = 1, for which there is no logarithmic correction, to a much more general setting. In addition, for both models, we study the approach to the critical point and prove the existence of logarithmic corrections to scaling for certain correlation functions. Our method gives a rigorous analysis of the weakly self-avoiding walk as the n = 0 case of the {|\\varphi|4} model, and provides a unified treatment of both models, and of all the above results.

  7. Improving target delineation on 4-dimensional CT scans in stage I NSCLC using a deformable registration tool

    Introduction: Correct target definition is crucial in stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors. We evaluated use of deformable registration (DR) for target contouring on 4-dimensional (4D) CT scans. Materials and methods: Three clinicians contoured gross tumor volume (GTV) in an end-inspiration phase of 4DCT of 6 patients on two occasions. Two clinicians contoured GTVs in all phases of 4DCT and on maximum intensity projections (MIP). The initial GTV was auto-propagated to 9 other phases using a B-spline algorithm (VelocityAI). Internal target volumes (ITVs) generated were (i) ITV10manual encompassing all physician-contoured GTVs, (ii) ITV-MIPoptimized from MIP after review of individual 4DCT phases, (iii) ITV10deformed encompassing auto-propagated GTVs using DR, and (iv) ITV10deformed-optimized, from an ITV10deformed target that was modified to form a 'clinically optimal' ITV. Volume-overlaps were scored using Dice's Similarity Coefficients (DSCs). Results: Intra-clinician GTV reproducibility was greater than inter-clinician reproducibility (mean DSC 0.93 vs. 0.88, p optimized differed from the ITV10deformed-optimized. In all patients, the DSC between ITV10deformed-optimized and ITV10deformed was higher than that between ITV10deformed-optimized and ITV-MIPoptimized (p < 0.02 T-test). Conclusion: ITVs created in stage I tumors using DR were closer to 'clinically optimal' ITVs than was the case with a MIP-modified approach.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Liver Tumor Motion Using Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    Fernandes, Annemarie T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Apisarnthanarax, Smith [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Yin, Lingshu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zou, Wei [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rosen, Mark [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Teo, Boon-Keng, E-mail: kevin.teo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the extent of tumor motion between 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cine-MRI in patients with hepatic tumors treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with liver tumors who underwent 4DCT and 2-dimensional biplanar cine-MRI scans during simulation were retrospectively reviewed to determine the extent of target motion in the superior–inferior, anterior–posterior, and lateral directions. Cine-MRI was performed over 5 minutes. Tumor motion from MRI was determined by tracking the centroid of the gross tumor volume using deformable image registration. Motion estimates from 4DCT were performed by evaluation of the fiducial, residual contrast (or liver contour) positions in each CT phase. Results: Sixteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=11), cholangiocarcinoma (n=3), and liver metastasis (n=2) were reviewed. Cine-MRI motion was larger than 4DCT for the superior–inferior direction in 50% of patients by a median of 3.0 mm (range, 1.5-7 mm), the anterior–posterior direction in 44% of patients by a median of 2.5 mm (range, 1-5.5 mm), and laterally in 63% of patients by a median of 1.1 mm (range, 0.2-4.5 mm). Conclusions: Cine-MRI frequently detects larger differences in hepatic intrafraction tumor motion when compared with 4DCT most notably in the superior–inferior direction, and may be useful when assessing the need for or treating without respiratory management, particularly in patients with unreliable 4DCT imaging. Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study.

  9. Non-linear spatio-temporal filtering of dynamic PET data using a 4-dimensional Gaussian filter and expectation-maximization deconvolution

    Floberg, J M; Holden, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method for denoising dynamic PET data, spatio-temporal expectation-maximization (STEM) filtering, that combines 4-dimensional Gaussian filtering with EM deconvolution. The initial Gaussian filter suppresses noise at a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies and EM deconvolution quickly restores the frequencies most important to the signal. We aim to demonstrate that STEM filtering can improve variance in both individual time frames and in parametric images without intro...

  10. MEMS Calculator

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  11. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Koo, Phillip J. [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were

  12. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist’s assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  13. Impacts of a 4-dimensional variational data assimilation in a coastal ocean model of southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Iermano, I.; Moore, A. M.; Zambianchi, E.

    2016-02-01

    is found that correcting for uncertainties in the initial conditions and only secondarily in the boundary conditions has the largest impact on the analysis increments in alongshore transport. Finally, we note that both the control vector and the observation impact calculations are a useful way for monitoring the performance of the data assimilation system, as well as quantifying the impact of the observations on the circulation estimates.

  14. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were

  15. Reliability Calculations

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis...... of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested....

  16. Relativistic analysis of magnetoelectric crystals: extracting a new 4-dimensional P odd and T odd pseudoscalar from Cr_2 O_3 data

    Hehl, Friedrich W; Rivera, Jean-Pierre; Schmid, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Earlier, the linear magnetoelectric effect of chromium sesquioxide Cr_2 O_3 has been determined experimentally as a function of temperature. One measures the electric field-induced magnetization on Cr_2 O_3 crystals or the magnetic field-induced polarization. From the magnetoelectric moduli of Cr_2 O_3 we extract a 4-dimensional relativistic invariant pseudoscalar \\tilde\\alpha. It is temperature dependent and of the order of ~ 10^{-4} Y_0, with Y_0 as vacuum admittance. We show that the new pseudoscalar \\tilde\\alpha is odd under parity transformation and odd under time inversion. Moreover, \\tilde\\alpha is for Cr_2 O_3 what Tellegen's gyrator is for two port theory, the axion field for axion electrodynamics, and the PEMC (perfect electromagnetic conductor) for electrical engineering.

  17. Relativistic analysis of magnetoelectric crystals: Extracting a new 4-dimensional P odd and T odd pseudoscalar from Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} data

    Hehl, Friedrich W. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: hehl@thp.uni-koeln.de; Obukhov, Yuri N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de; Rivera, Jean-Pierre [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Jean-Pierre.Rivera@chiam.unige.ch; Schmid, Hans [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Hans.Schmid@chiam.unige.ch

    2008-02-18

    Earlier, the linear magnetoelectric effect of chromium sesquioxide Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been determined experimentally as a function of temperature. One measures the electric field-induced magnetization on Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals or the magnetic field-induced polarization. From the magnetoelectric moduli of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} we extract a 4-dimensional relativistic invariant pseudoscalar {alpha}{sup -tilde}. It is temperature dependent and of the order of {approx}10{sup -4}Y{sub 0}, with Y{sub 0} as vacuum admittance. We show that the new pseudoscalar {alpha}{sup -tilde} is odd under parity transformation and odd under time inversion. Moreover, {alpha}{sup -tilde} is for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} what Tellegen's gyrator is for two port theory, the axion field for axion electrodynamics, and the PEMC (perfect electromagnetic conductor) for electrical engineering.

  18. Relativistic analysis of magnetoelectric crystals: Extracting a new 4-dimensional P odd and T odd pseudoscalar from Cr2O3 data

    Earlier, the linear magnetoelectric effect of chromium sesquioxide Cr2O3 has been determined experimentally as a function of temperature. One measures the electric field-induced magnetization on Cr2O3 crystals or the magnetic field-induced polarization. From the magnetoelectric moduli of Cr2O3 we extract a 4-dimensional relativistic invariant pseudoscalar α-tilde. It is temperature dependent and of the order of ∼10-4Y0, with Y0 as vacuum admittance. We show that the new pseudoscalar α-tilde is odd under parity transformation and odd under time inversion. Moreover, α-tilde is for Cr2O3 what Tellegen's gyrator is for two port theory, the axion field for axion electrodynamics, and the PEMC (perfect electromagnetic conductor) for electrical engineering

  19. SPEI Calculator

    Beguería, Santiago; Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.

    2009-01-01

    [EN] *Objectives: The program calculates time series of the Standardised Precipitation-Evapotransporation Index (SPEI). *Technical Characteristics: The program is executed from the Windows console. From an input data file containing monthly time series of precipitation and mean temperature, plus the geographic coordinates of the observatory, the program computes the SPEI accumulated at the time interval specified by the user, and generates a new data file with the SPEI time serie...

  20. Burnout calculation

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended

  1. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4+D) TechnologyTM, a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4+D TechnologyTMfor nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4+D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4+D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in productivity. VENUS applies the virtual reality (VR) technology in nuclear industry.VR provides an interactive real time motion with sound and tactile and other forms of feedback. Therefore, management and workers are able to comprehend the work process better by visualizing precisely how activities relate to one another, thus reducing conflicting interpretations and communication problems. VENUS comfortably familiarize the public with existing or planned systems. INUUS provides with effective information management and methodology of expression. Information is offered in such varieties as real time data on the spot, result of computational analysis in the process of plant design and information of documents for drawing, just to name the few. INUUS resorts to 3D object oriented methods to efficaciously manage voluminous information with. For example, INUUS can be used as a 3D pre processor for a NPP system analysis code. JANUS extracts the geometric data directly from the CAD files to import to multidimensional computational fluid and structural dynamics codes. JANUS uses these joint CAD analysis methods to eliminate the necessity of any pre- and post processors. EURUS combines the VR technology with a wide spectrum of high precision, high resolution analysis techniques and virtual design development environment so that a system can be designed and analysed in the cyber space. EURUS realizes cyber experimentation with which the behaviour of such complex structures as NPP can be simulated and reflected onto the design. The 4+D TechnologyTM is slated to bring about revolutionary change in improving the NPP life cycle starting from the conceptual design all the way to the final decommissioning. It will also eventually lead to paperless design and paperless plants in the foreseeable future

  2. Calculator calculus

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  3. Reliability calculations

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  4. Time-Adjusted Internal Target Volume: A Novel Approach Focusing on Heterogeneity of Tumor Motion Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Imaging for Radiation Therapy Planning of Lung Cancer

    Purpose: To consider nonuniform tumor motion within the internal target volume (ITV) by defining time-adjusted ITV (TTV), a volume designed to include heterogeneity of tumor existence on the basis of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Methods and Materials: We evaluated 30 lung cancer patients. Breath-hold CT (BH-CT) and free-breathing 4D-CT scans were acquired for each patient. The tumors were manually delineated using a lung CT window setting (window, 1600 HU; level, −300 HU). Tumor in BH-CT images was defined as gross tumor volume (GTV), and the sum of tumors in 4D-CT images was defined as ITV-4D. The TTV images were generated from the 4D-CT datasets, and the tumor existence probability within ITV-4D was calculated. We calculated the TTV80 value, which is the percentage of the volume with a tumor existence probability that exceeded 80% on ITV-4D. Several factors that affected the TTV80 value, such as the ITV-4D/GTV ratio or tumor centroid deviation, were evaluated. Results: Time-adjusted ITV images were acquired for all patients, and tumor respiratory motion heterogeneity was visualized. The median (range) ITV-4D/GTV ratio and median tumor centroid deviation were 1.6 (1.0-4.1) and 6.3 mm (0.1-30.3 mm), respectively. The median TTV80 value was 43.3% (2.9-98.7%). Strong correlations were observed between the TTV80 value and the ITV-4D/GTV ratio (R=−0.71) and tumor centroid deviation (R=−0.72). The TTV images revealed the tumor motion pattern features within ITV. Conclusions: The TTV images reflected nonuniform tumor motion, and they revealed the tumor motion pattern features, suggesting that the TTV concept may facilitate various aspects of radiation therapy planning of lung cancer while incorporating respiratory motion in the future

  5. Audio-Visual Biofeedback Does Not Improve the Reliability of Target Delineation Using Maximum Intensity Projection in 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Radiation Therapy Planning

    Purpose: To investigate whether coaching patients' breathing would improve the match between ITVMIP (internal target volume generated by contouring in the maximum intensity projection scan) and ITV10 (generated by combining the gross tumor volumes contoured in 10 phases of a 4-dimensional CT [4DCT] scan). Methods and Materials: Eight patients with a thoracic tumor and 5 patients with an abdominal tumor were included in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. Patients underwent 3 4DCT scans with: (1) free breathing (FB); (2) coaching using audio-visual (AV) biofeedback via the Real-Time Position Management system; and (3) coaching via a spirometer system (Active Breathing Coordinator or ABC). One physician contoured all scans to generate the ITV10 and ITVMIP. The match between ITVMIP and ITV10 was quantitatively assessed with volume ratio, centroid distance, root mean squared distance, and overlap/Dice coefficient. We investigated whether coaching (AV or ABC) or uniform expansions (1, 2, 3, or 5 mm) of ITVMIP improved the match. Results: Although both AV and ABC coaching techniques improved frequency reproducibility and ABC improved displacement regularity, neither improved the match between ITVMIP and ITV10 over FB. On average, ITVMIP underestimated ITV10 by 19%, 19%, and 21%, with centroid distance of 1.9, 2.3, and 1.7 mm and Dice coefficient of 0.87, 0.86, and 0.88 for FB, AV, and ABC, respectively. Separate analyses indicated a better match for lung cancers or tumors not adjacent to high-intensity tissues. Uniform expansions of ITVMIP did not correct for the mismatch between ITVMIP and ITV10. Conclusions: In this pilot study, audio-visual biofeedback did not improve the match between ITVMIP and ITV10. In general, ITVMIP should be limited to lung cancers, and modification of ITVMIP in each phase of the 4DCT data set is recommended

  6. Use of combined maximum and minimum intensity projections to determine internal target volume in 4-dimensional CT scans for hepatic malignancies

    Liu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the accuracy of the combined maximum and minimum intensity projection-based internal target volume (ITV delineation in 4-dimensional (4D CT scans for liver malignancies. Methods 4D CT with synchronized IV contrast data were acquired from 15 liver cancer patients (4 hepatocellular carcinomas; 11 hepatic metastases. We used five approaches to determine ITVs: (1. ITVAllPhases: contouring gross tumor volume (GTV on each of 10 respiratory phases of 4D CT data set and combining these GTVs; (2. ITV2Phase: contouring GTV on CT of the peak inhale phase (0% phase and the peak exhale phase (50% and then combining the two; (3. ITVMIP: contouring GTV on MIP with modifications based on physician's visual verification of contours in each respiratory phase; (4. ITVMinIP: contouring GTV on MinIP with modification by physician; (5. ITV2M: combining ITVMIP and ITVMinIP. ITVAllPhases was taken as the reference ITV, and the metrics used for comparison were: matching index (MI, under- and over-estimated volume (Vunder and Vover. Results 4D CT images were successfully acquired from 15 patients and tumor margins were clearly discernable in all patients. There were 9 cases of low density and 6, mixed on CT images. After comparisons of metrics, the tool of ITV2M was the most appropriate to contour ITV for liver malignancies with the highest MI of 0.93 ± 0.04 and the lowest proportion of Vunder (0.07 ± 0.04. Moreover, tumor volume, target motion three-dimensionally and ratio of tumor vertical diameter over tumor motion magnitude in cranio-caudal direction did not significantly influence the values of MI and proportion of Vunder. Conclusion The tool of ITV2M is recommended as a reliable method for generating ITVs from 4D CT data sets in liver cancer.

  7. Use of combined maximum and minimum intensity projections to determine internal target volume in 4-dimensional CT scans for hepatic malignancies

    To evaluate the accuracy of the combined maximum and minimum intensity projection-based internal target volume (ITV) delineation in 4-dimensional (4D) CT scans for liver malignancies. 4D CT with synchronized IV contrast data were acquired from 15 liver cancer patients (4 hepatocellular carcinomas; 11 hepatic metastases). We used five approaches to determine ITVs: (1). ITVAllPhases: contouring gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of 10 respiratory phases of 4D CT data set and combining these GTVs; (2). ITV2Phase: contouring GTV on CT of the peak inhale phase (0% phase) and the peak exhale phase (50%) and then combining the two; (3). ITVMIP: contouring GTV on MIP with modifications based on physician's visual verification of contours in each respiratory phase; (4). ITVMinIP: contouring GTV on MinIP with modification by physician; (5). ITV2M: combining ITVMIP and ITVMinIP. ITVAllPhases was taken as the reference ITV, and the metrics used for comparison were: matching index (MI), under- and over-estimated volume (Vunder and Vover). 4D CT images were successfully acquired from 15 patients and tumor margins were clearly discernable in all patients. There were 9 cases of low density and 6, mixed on CT images. After comparisons of metrics, the tool of ITV2M was the most appropriate to contour ITV for liver malignancies with the highest MI of 0.93 ± 0.04 and the lowest proportion of Vunder (0.07 ± 0.04). Moreover, tumor volume, target motion three-dimensionally and ratio of tumor vertical diameter over tumor motion magnitude in cranio-caudal direction did not significantly influence the values of MI and proportion of Vunder. The tool of ITV2M is recommended as a reliable method for generating ITVs from 4D CT data sets in liver cancer

  8. A Pilot Evaluation of a 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Scheme Based on Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Image Reconstruction

    Dang, Jun; Gu, Xuejun [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a 4-dimensional (4-D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) reconstruction scheme based on simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) through patient studies. Methods and Materials: The SMEIR algorithm contains 2 alternating steps: (1) motion-compensated CBCT reconstruction using projections from all phases to reconstruct a reference phase 4D-CBCT by explicitly considering the motion models between each different phase and (2) estimation of motion models directly from projections by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase 4D-CBCT. Four lung cancer patients were scanned for 4 to 6 minutes to obtain approximately 2000 projections for each patient. To evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm on a conventional 1-minute CBCT scan, the number of projections at each phase was reduced by a factor of 5, 8, or 10 for each patient. Then, 4D-CBCTs were reconstructed from the down-sampled projections using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, total variation (TV) minimization, prior image constrained compressive sensing (PICCS), and SMEIR. Using the 4D-CBCT reconstructed from the fully sampled projections as a reference, the relative error (RE) of reconstructed images, root mean square error (RMSE), and maximum error (MaxE) of estimated tumor positions were analyzed to quantify the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: The SMEIR algorithm can achieve results consistent with the reference 4D-CBCT reconstructed with many more projections per phase. With an average of 30 to 40 projections per phase, the MaxE in tumor position detection is less than 1 mm in SMEIR for all 4 patients. Conclusion: The results from a limited number of patients show that SMEIR is a promising tool for high-quality 4D-CBCT reconstruction and tumor motion modeling.

  9. Audio-Visual Biofeedback Does Not Improve the Reliability of Target Delineation Using Maximum Intensity Projection in 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Radiation Therapy Planning

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: wlu@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Neuner, Geoffrey A.; George, Rohini; Wang, Zhendong; Sasor, Sarah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Huang, Xuan [Research and Development, Care Management Department, Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, Maryland (United States); Regine, William F.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; D' Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether coaching patients' breathing would improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} (internal target volume generated by contouring in the maximum intensity projection scan) and ITV{sub 10} (generated by combining the gross tumor volumes contoured in 10 phases of a 4-dimensional CT [4DCT] scan). Methods and Materials: Eight patients with a thoracic tumor and 5 patients with an abdominal tumor were included in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. Patients underwent 3 4DCT scans with: (1) free breathing (FB); (2) coaching using audio-visual (AV) biofeedback via the Real-Time Position Management system; and (3) coaching via a spirometer system (Active Breathing Coordinator or ABC). One physician contoured all scans to generate the ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub MIP}. The match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} was quantitatively assessed with volume ratio, centroid distance, root mean squared distance, and overlap/Dice coefficient. We investigated whether coaching (AV or ABC) or uniform expansions (1, 2, 3, or 5 mm) of ITV{sub MIP} improved the match. Results: Although both AV and ABC coaching techniques improved frequency reproducibility and ABC improved displacement regularity, neither improved the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} over FB. On average, ITV{sub MIP} underestimated ITV{sub 10} by 19%, 19%, and 21%, with centroid distance of 1.9, 2.3, and 1.7 mm and Dice coefficient of 0.87, 0.86, and 0.88 for FB, AV, and ABC, respectively. Separate analyses indicated a better match for lung cancers or tumors not adjacent to high-intensity tissues. Uniform expansions of ITV{sub MIP} did not correct for the mismatch between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. Conclusions: In this pilot study, audio-visual biofeedback did not improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. In general, ITV{sub MIP} should be limited to lung cancers, and modification of ITV{sub MIP} in each phase of the 4DCT data set is recommended.

  10. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS

  11. Accuracy of Routine Treatment Planning 4-Dimensional and Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Computed Tomography Delineation of the Left Anterior Descending Artery in Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) CT to accurately contour the left anterior descending artery (LAD), a primary indicator of radiation-induced cardiac toxicity for patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten subjects were prospectively imaged with a cardiac-gated MRI protocol to determine cardiac motion effects, including the displacement of a region of interest comprising the LAD. A series of planar views were obtained and resampled to create a 3-dimensional (3D) volume. A 3D optical flow deformable image registration algorithm determined tissue displacement during the cardiac cycle. The measured motion was then used as a spatial boundary to characterize motion blurring of the radiologist-delineated LAD structure for a cohort of 10 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively on a breast study including 4DCT and DIBH scans. Coronary motion–induced blurring artifacts were quantified by applying an unsharp filter to accentuate the LAD structure despite the presence of motion blurring. The 4DCT maximum inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases were coregistered to determine the LAD displacement during tidal respiration, as visualized in 4DCT. Results: The average 90th percentile heart motion for the region of interest was 0.7 ± 0.1 mm (left–right [LR]), 1.3 ± 0.6 mm (superior–inferior [SI]), and 0.6 ± 0.2 mm (anterior–posterior [AP]) in the cardiac-gated MRI cohort. The average relative increase in the number of voxels comprising the LAD contour was 69.4% ± 4.5% for the DIBH. The LAD volume overestimation had the dosimetric impact of decreasing the reported mean LAD dose by 23% ± 9% on average in the DIBH. During tidal respiration the average relative LAD contour increase was 69.3% ± 5.9% and 67.9% ± 4.6% for inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases, respectively. The average 90th

  12. Accuracy of Routine Treatment Planning 4-Dimensional and Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Computed Tomography Delineation of the Left Anterior Descending Artery in Radiation Therapy

    White, Benjamin M., E-mail: benjamin.white@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vennarini, Sabina [L' Unità Operativa di Protonterapia, Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari, Trento (Italy); Lin, Lilie; Freedman, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Santhanam, Anand; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of radiation therapy treatment planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) CT to accurately contour the left anterior descending artery (LAD), a primary indicator of radiation-induced cardiac toxicity for patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten subjects were prospectively imaged with a cardiac-gated MRI protocol to determine cardiac motion effects, including the displacement of a region of interest comprising the LAD. A series of planar views were obtained and resampled to create a 3-dimensional (3D) volume. A 3D optical flow deformable image registration algorithm determined tissue displacement during the cardiac cycle. The measured motion was then used as a spatial boundary to characterize motion blurring of the radiologist-delineated LAD structure for a cohort of 10 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively on a breast study including 4DCT and DIBH scans. Coronary motion–induced blurring artifacts were quantified by applying an unsharp filter to accentuate the LAD structure despite the presence of motion blurring. The 4DCT maximum inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases were coregistered to determine the LAD displacement during tidal respiration, as visualized in 4DCT. Results: The average 90th percentile heart motion for the region of interest was 0.7 ± 0.1 mm (left–right [LR]), 1.3 ± 0.6 mm (superior–inferior [SI]), and 0.6 ± 0.2 mm (anterior–posterior [AP]) in the cardiac-gated MRI cohort. The average relative increase in the number of voxels comprising the LAD contour was 69.4% ± 4.5% for the DIBH. The LAD volume overestimation had the dosimetric impact of decreasing the reported mean LAD dose by 23% ± 9% on average in the DIBH. During tidal respiration the average relative LAD contour increase was 69.3% ± 5.9% and 67.9% ± 4.6% for inhalation and exhalation respiratory phases, respectively. The average 90th

  13. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  14. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  15. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  16. TH-E-17A-08: Estimation of Image Quality of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Via Fourier Analysis of Corresponding 1D Breathing Surrogate

    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient 4DCT, leading to an illdefined tumor volume with variation up to 110% or setting up a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for tumor motion study. We developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of corresponding 1D respiratory wave-function (1DRW) surrogate used for 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity, defined as the sum of the 5 largest Fourier coefficients, ranging in 0–1. Distortional motion artifacts of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couchposition scans around the diaphragm were identified in 3 categories: incomplete, overlapping and duplicate. To quantify these artifacts, the discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along 6 directions in 3 orthogonal views. Mean and sum artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase. To make the APJ inter-patient comparable, patientspecific motion was removed from APJ by dividing patient-specific diaphragmatic velocity (displacement divided by the mean period, from FFT analysis of the 1DRW) and the normalized APJ was defined as motion artifact severity (MAS). Twenty-five patients with free-breathing 10-phase 4DCT and corresponding 1DRW surrogate datasets were studied. Results: A mild correlation of 0.56 was found between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity. Higher MAS tends to appear around mid inhalation and mid exhalation and the lowest MAS tends to be around full exhalation. The breathing periodicity of >0.8 possesses minimal motion artifacts. Conclusion: The 1D-4D correlation provides a fast means to estimate 4DCT image quality. Using 1DRW signal, we can retrospectively screen out high-quality 4DCT images for clinical research (periodicity>0.8) and prospectively identify poor

  17. TH-E-17A-08: Estimation of Image Quality of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Via Fourier Analysis of Corresponding 1D Breathing Surrogate

    Caraveo, M; McNamara, J; Rimner, A; Yorke, E; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient 4DCT, leading to an illdefined tumor volume with variation up to 110% or setting up a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for tumor motion study. We developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of corresponding 1D respiratory wave-function (1DRW) surrogate used for 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity, defined as the sum of the 5 largest Fourier coefficients, ranging in 0–1. Distortional motion artifacts of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couchposition scans around the diaphragm were identified in 3 categories: incomplete, overlapping and duplicate. To quantify these artifacts, the discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along 6 directions in 3 orthogonal views. Mean and sum artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase. To make the APJ inter-patient comparable, patientspecific motion was removed from APJ by dividing patient-specific diaphragmatic velocity (displacement divided by the mean period, from FFT analysis of the 1DRW) and the normalized APJ was defined as motion artifact severity (MAS). Twenty-five patients with free-breathing 10-phase 4DCT and corresponding 1DRW surrogate datasets were studied. Results: A mild correlation of 0.56 was found between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity. Higher MAS tends to appear around mid inhalation and mid exhalation and the lowest MAS tends to be around full exhalation. The breathing periodicity of >0.8 possesses minimal motion artifacts. Conclusion: The 1D-4D correlation provides a fast means to estimate 4DCT image quality. Using 1DRW signal, we can retrospectively screen out high-quality 4DCT images for clinical research (periodicity>0.8) and prospectively identify poor

  18. Heterogeneous Calculation of ε

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer

  19. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  20. Consolidated fuel shielding calculations

    Irradiated fuel radiation dose rate and radiation shielding requirements are calculated using a validated ISOSHLD-II model. Comparisons are made to experimental measurements. ISOSHLD-11 calculations are documented

  1. Calculating Clearances for Manipulators

    Copeland, E. L.; Peticolas, J. D.; Ray, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Set of algorithms rapidly calculates minimum safe clearances for remote manipulators. Such calculations are used in design of trajectories for manipulators to ensure they do not accidentally strike surrounding objects. Structural parts are considered as cylindrical shells having circular plane areas for ends. Clearance calculation method offers special benefits in industrial robotics, particularly in automated machining.

  2. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  3. Core calculations of JMTR

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  4. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  5. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  6. Electrical installation calculations basic

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  7. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  8. On 4-dimensional gradient shrinking solitons

    Ni, Lei; Wallach, Nolan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we classify the four dimensional gradient shrinking solitons under certain curvature conditions satisfied by all solitons arising from finite time singularities of Ricci flow on compact four manifolds with positive isotropic curvature. As a corollary we generalize a result of Perelman on three dimensional gradient shrinking solitons to dimension four.

  9. Toward solvable 4-dimensional conformal theories

    The Symanzik representation, based on the Mellin transform, is explored to analyze the asymptotic behaviour of conformal invariant n-point functions, constructed through a generalization to arbitrary (even) space-time dimension of the two-dimensional Coulomb gas representation

  10. Detection of negative energy: 4-dimensional examples

    We study the response of switched particle detectors to static negative energy densities and negative energy fluxes. It is demonstrated how the switching leads to excitation even in the vacuum and how negative energy can lead to a suppression of this excitation. We obtain quantum inequalities on the detection similar to those obtained for the energy density by Ford and co-workers and in an 'operational' context by Helfer. We reexamine the question 'Is there a quantum equivalence principle?' in terms of our model. Finally, we briefly address the issue of negative energy and the second law of thermodynamics

  11. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  12. Collection of CASIM calculations

    Monte Carlo calculations of hadronic cascades at Fermilab have usually been done using the code CASIM written by A. Van Ginneken. These calculations are often performed to determine the quantity of shielding required for radiation protection purposes. A number of examples of such calculations have been presented previously. Several years of practical experience have led the author to develop the collection of additional cases included in the present report. These results along with those given earlier will serve as a useful reference. No attempt was made here to consider all possibilities; rather, the purpose was to develop a useful set of examples. Exceptionally intricate cases should, of course, receive individualized attention as appropriate

  13. Large scale GW calculations

    We present GW calculations of molecules, ordered and disordered solids and interfaces, which employ an efficient contour deformation technique for frequency integration and do not require the explicit evaluation of virtual electronic states nor the inversion of dielectric matrices. We also present a parallel implementation of the algorithm, which takes advantage of separable expressions of both the single particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The method can be used starting from density functional theory calculations performed with semilocal or hybrid functionals. The newly developed technique was applied to GW calculations of systems of unprecedented size, including water/semiconductor interfaces with thousands of electrons

  14. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  15. Geogebra: Calculation of Centroid

    Qamil Kllogjeri; Pellumb Kllogjeri

    2012-01-01

    Our paper is result of the research done in a special direction for solving problems of physics by using GeoGebra programme: calculation of centroid. Lots of simulations of physical phenomena from the class of Mechanics can be performed and computational problems can be solved with GeoGebra. GeoGebra offers many commands and one of them is the command “centroid” to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a polygon but, we have created a new tool to calculate the coordinates of the centr...

  16. nuclear reactor design calculations

    In this work , the sensitivity of different reactor calculation methods, and the effect of different assumptions and/or approximation are evaluated . A new concept named error map is developed to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the accuracy of calculations. To achieve this goal a generalized, multigroup, multi dimension code UAR-DEPLETION is developed to calculate the spatial distribution of neutron flux, effective multiplication factor and the spatial composition of a reactor core for a period of time and for specified reactor operating conditions. The code also investigates the fuel management strategies and policies for the entire fuel cycle to meet the constraints of material and operating limitations

  17. A Simple Calculator Algorithm.

    Cook, Lyle; McWilliam, James

    1983-01-01

    The problem of finding cube roots when limited to a calculator with only square root capability is discussed. An algorithm is demonstrated and explained which should always produce a good approximation within a few iterations. (MP)

  18. Calculativeness and trust

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs to...... take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  19. Handout on shielding calculation

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  20. IRIS core criticality calculations

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  1. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  2. Shielding calculations for SSC

    Monte Carlo calculations of hadron and muon shielding for SSC are reviewed with emphasis on their application to radiation safety and environmental protection. Models and algorithms for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic showers, and for production and transport of muons in the TeV regime are briefly discussed. Capabilities and limitations of these calculations are described and illustrated with a few examples. 12 refs., 3 figs

  3. Current interruption transients calculation

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  4. Reactor lattice transport calculations

    The present lecture is a continuation of the lecture on Introduction to the Neutron Transport Phenomena. It comprises three aspects of lattice calculations. First the idea of a reactor lattice is introduced. Then the main definitions used in reactor lattice analysis are given, and finally two basic methods applied for solution of the transport equations are defined. Several remarks on secondary results from lattice transport calculations are added. (author)

  5. Electrical installation calculations

    Watkins, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Designed to provide a step by step guide to successful application of the electrical installation calculations required in day to day electrical engineering practice, the Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike.Now in its seventh edition, Volume 1 has been fully updated to meet the requirements of the 2330 Level 2 Certificate in Electrotechnical Technology from City & Guilds, and will also prove a vi

  6. Geometric unsharpness calculations

    Anderson, D.J. [International Training and Education Group (INTEG), Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    The majority of radiographers' geometric unsharpness calculations are normally performed with a mathematical formula. However, a majority of codes and standards refer to the use of a nomograph for this calculation. Upon first review, the use of a nomograph appears more complicated but with a few minutes of study and practice it can be just as effective. A review of this article should provide enlightenment. (author)

  7. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    Hogenbirk, A.

    1994-07-01

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL).

  8. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)

  9. Progress on theoretical calculation

    The calculation program NPPD-2 of neutron reaction data in the energy region from 10-11 to 20 MeV has been researched with extending the energy from 5 to 20 MeV. In this program, the cascade γ-de-excitations of the compound nucleus and residual nucleus are described by means of the Troubetzkoy's statistical model and the conservation relations of angular momentum and parity are are considered. This program may be used for the calculations of the natural element, with the number of isotopes less than 10. The program has been finished and the calculations for oxygen are being done in order to test the program. The reaction channels in n + 40Ca, which considered in NPPD-2, are presented

  10. Daylight calculations in practice

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette;

    The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Experience has shown that results for the same room, obtained from two daylight simulation...... programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were to be...

  11. Geogebra: Calculation of Centroid

    Qamil Kllogjeri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is result of the research done in a special direction for solving problems of physics by using GeoGebra programme: calculation of centroid. Lots of simulations of physical phenomena from the class of Mechanics can be performed and computational problems can be solved with GeoGebra. GeoGebra offers many commands and one of them is the command “centroid” to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a polygon but, we have created a new tool to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a plane region bounded by curves. Our work is part of the passionate work of many GeoGebra users which will result with a very rich fund of GeoGebra virtual tools, examples and experiences that will be worldwidely available for many teachers and practioners.

  12. Population dose calculation technique

    An original method is suggested for calculating the population doses from gas and aerosol radioactive releases. The method is based on the assumption of uniform population and arable land distribution. The validity of this assumption has been proved for a rather large condition range. Though, some modified formulae are given to take into account the non-uniformity of population distribution, connected with large cities, on the one hand, and with woods, shores, regional borders, on the other hand. Employment of the suggested method results in an apriciable calculation accuracy rise for the long-living slowly precipitating radionuclides as compared with the existing methods

  13. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Calculation

    Kurki-Suonio, H

    2001-01-01

    I review standard big bang nucleosynthesis and some versions of nonstandard BBN. The abundances of the primordial isotopes D, He-3, and Li-7 produced in standard BBN can be calculated as a function of the baryon density with an accuracy of about 10%. For He-4 the accuracy is better than 1%. The calculated abundances agree fairly well with observations, but the baryon density of the universe cannot be determined with high precision. Possibilities for nonstandard BBN include inhomogeneous and antimatter BBN and nonzero neutrino chemical potentials.

  14. Electrical installation calculations

    Watkins, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Designed to provide a step by step guide to successful application of the electrical installation calculations required in day to day electrical engineering practice, the Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both Foundation and Modern Apprentices, and professional electrical installation engineers alike.Now in its sixth edition, Volume 2 has been fully updated to meet the requirements of the 2330 Level 3 Certificate in Electrotechnical Technology from City & Guilds, and will also prove a vital purchase for students of Level 3

  15. SUSY Calculation Tools

    Djouadi, Abdelhak

    2002-01-01

    I discuss the various available tools for the study of the properties of the new particles predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Emphasis will be put on the codes for the determination of the sparticle and Higgs boson spectrum. Codes for the calculation of production cross sections, decay widths and branching ratios, Dark Matter relic density and detection rates, as well as codes for automatic analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo event generators for Supersymmetric processes will be briefly discussed.

  16. Three recent TDHF calculations

    Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision 40Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for 16O + 24Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of 86Kr + 139La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed

  17. Sample Size Calculations

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for inves...

  18. Dynamics Calculation of Spoke

    2011-01-01

    Compared with ellipse cavity, the spoke cavity has many advantages, especially for the low and medium beam energy. It will be used in the superconductor accelerator popular in the future. Based on the spoke cavity, we design and calculate an accelerator

  19. Water vapor pressure calculation.

    Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G

    1985-06-01

    Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425

  20. Languages for structural calculations

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed

  1. Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.

    O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)

  2. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator

    Tina, KG; Bhadra, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bo...

  3. Web日本语虚拟教师4维导学模型的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Web Japanese Virtual Teacher 4-Dimensional Study Guide Model

    丁海燕; 李辰; 侬玮; 李蒙; 刘松; 丁怀东

    2013-01-01

    Information technology applied in education field provides possibility for individual study,breaking the unity of study content, schedule,starting point,goal,requirement and so on. This research explored a kind of Japanese virtual teacher guide model that can simu-late partial functions of the actual teacher. Research method is to simulate actual Japanese study guide model by using computer simulation technology and intelligent mathematic model. This research has implemented Web Japanese virtual teacher 4-dimensional study guide model based on the tenet of one-to-one education in accordance with individual differences and their needs. This model can simulate real teacher guide function and formulate individual study plan for students who has any foundation and any study goal.%信息技术在教育领域中的应用,为学生的个性化学习提供了可能,打破了学习内容、进度、起点、目标、要求等的统一性。该研究的目的是探索一种具有一定模拟实际教师部分机能的日本语虚拟教师导学模型。研究方法是通过计算机模拟技术及智能数学模型对实际日本语教师的导学功能进行近似仿真表达。该研究已完成该Web日本语虚拟教师一对一因材施教和因需施教为学员制定学习方案的4维导学功能模型。利用该模型可以模拟真实日本语教师导学功能,完成对任意基础和任意学习目标的日本语学员制定个性化学习方案。

  4. Calculations in furnace technology

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  5. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  6. Linewidth calculations and simulations

    Strandberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We are currently developing a new technique to further enhance the sensitivity of collinear laser spectroscopy in order to study the most exotic nuclides available at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as ISOLDE at CERN. The overall goal is to evaluate the feasibility of the new method. This report will focus on the determination of the expected linewidth (hence resolution) of this approach. Different effects which could lead to a broadening of the linewidth, e.g. the ions' energy spread and their trajectories inside the trap, are studied with theoretical calculations as well as simulations.

  7. Matlab numerical calculations

    Lopez, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. This book is designed for use as a scientific/business calculator so that you can get numerical solutions to problems involving a wide array of mathematics using MATLAB. Just look up the function y

  8. Core physics calculations

    In this paper, excerpts of the 'Core Design', 'Computational Chains' and 'Qualification of Computational Chains' lectures are presented. Nuclear reactor design basic concepts as power distribution and reactivity are defined and analyzed both from the theoretical and the computational point of view. Emphasis is put on the physical meaning and sensitivity of both 'observables' to design parameters. Computational aspects, mainly as regards the effects of the heterogeneity in space and energy in reactor calculations, are afforded too. Structure and qualification of computational code packages are discussed and a practical application to the FRAMATOME SCIENCE advanced computational chain is supplied. (author)

  9. Deep penetration calculations

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 900 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  10. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  11. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  12. Multilayer optical calculations

    Byrnes, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...

  13. Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    1996-01-01

    The development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics is very important in the history of physics, and it underlines the difficulty in dealing with systems involving many bodies, even if those bodies are identical. Macroscopic systems of atoms typically contain so many particles that it would be virtually impossible to follow the behavior of all of the particles involved. Therefore, the behavior of a complete system can only be described or predicted in statistical ways. Under a grant to the NASA Lewis Research Center, scientists at the Case Western Reserve University have been examining the use of modern computing techniques that may be able to investigate and find the behavior of complete systems that have a large number of particles by tracking each particle individually. This is the study of molecular dynamics. In contrast to Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporate uncertainty from the outset, molecular dynamics calculations are fully deterministic. Although it is still impossible to track, even on high-speed computers, each particle in a system of a trillion trillion particles, it has been found that such systems can be well simulated by calculating the trajectories of a few thousand particles. Modern computers and efficient computing strategies have been used to calculate the behavior of a few physical systems and are now being employed to study important problems such as supersonic flows in the laboratory and in space. In particular, an animated video (available in mpeg format--4.4 MB) was produced by Dr. M.J. Woo, now a National Research Council fellow at Lewis, and the G-VIS laboratory at Lewis. This video shows the behavior of supersonic shocks produced by pistons in enclosed cylinders by following exactly the behavior of thousands of particles. The major assumptions made were that the particles involved were hard spheres and that all collisions with the walls and with other particles were fully elastic. The animated video was voted one of two

  14. Some calculations for TRISTAN

    I took only few topics to investigate, some on which I had some personal interest, and others that I felt rather crucial for the design. In this document I report my calculations on these various subjects. Therefore this document represents my tangible contribution to TRISTAN design. I give in the following the list of the topics which are discussed in this document. 1. Increase of the vertical betatron emmitance by skew quadrupoles in the electron storage ring. 2. Bremsstrahlung. 3. Dipole correcting system for electron ring. 4. Wigglers at low energies 5. Steady state compensation of beam loading in the single beam mode in the electron storage ring. 6. Coupled bunch longitudinal instability for electron ring. 7. Ion production and trapping in the electron storage ring for TRISTAN. 8. Estimate of the longitudinal impedance for the TRISTAN electron storage ring. (author)

  15. Exoplanet Equilibrium Chemistry Calculations

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, J.; Bowman, M.; Blecic, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently, Agundez et al. (2012, A&A 548, A73) used a chemical kinetics code to study a model HD 209458b (equilibrium temperature of 1450 K, assuming full redistribution and 0 albedo). They found that thermochemistry dominates most of the dayside, but that significant compositional gradients may exist across the dayside. We calculate equilibrium-chemistry molecular abundances for several model exoplanets, using NASA's open-source Chemical Equilibrium Abundances code (McBride and Gordon 1996). We vary the degree of radiation redistribution to the dark side, ranging from total redistribution to instantaneous reradiation. Atomically, both the solar abundance multiple and the carbon fraction vary. Planet substellar temperatures range from just above 1200 K, where photochemistry should no longer be important, to those of hot planets (3000 K). We present synthetic abundance images for the key spectroscopic molecules CO, CH4, and H2O for several hot-Jupiter model planets. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  16. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  17. Parallel nearest neighbor calculations

    Trease, Harold

    We are just starting to parallelize the nearest neighbor portion of our free-Lagrange code. Our implementation of the nearest neighbor reconnection algorithm has not been parallelizable (i.e., we just flip one connection at a time). In this paper we consider what sort of nearest neighbor algorithms lend themselves to being parallelized. For example, the construction of the Voronoi mesh can be parallelized, but the construction of the Delaunay mesh (dual to the Voronoi mesh) cannot because of degenerate connections. We will show our most recent attempt to tessellate space with triangles or tetrahedrons with a new nearest neighbor construction algorithm called DAM (Dial-A-Mesh). This method has the characteristics of a parallel algorithm and produces a better tessellation of space than the Delaunay mesh. Parallel processing is becoming an everyday reality for us at Los Alamos. Our current production machines are Cray YMPs with 8 processors that can run independently or combined to work on one job. We are also exploring massive parallelism through the use of two 64K processor Connection Machines (CM2), where all the processors run in lock step mode. The effective application of 3-D computer models requires the use of parallel processing to achieve reasonable "turn around" times for our calculations.

  18. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  19. Calculation of uncertainties

    One of the most important aspects in relation to the quality assurance in any analytical activity is the estimation of measurement uncertainty. There is general agreement that 'the expression of the result of a measurement is not complete without specifying its associated uncertainty'. An analytical process is the mechanism for obtaining methodological information (measurand) of a material system (population). This implies the need for the definition of the problem, the choice of methods for sampling and measurement and proper execution of these activities for obtaining information. The result of a measurement is only an approximation or estimate of the value of the measurand, which is complete only when accompanied by an estimate of the uncertainty of the analytical process. According to the 'Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology' measurement uncertainty' is the parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand (or magnitude). This parameter could be a standard deviation or a confidence interval. The uncertainty evaluation requires detailed look at all possible sources, but not disproportionately. We can make a good estimate of the uncertainty concentrating efforts on the largest contributions. The key steps of the process of determining the uncertainty in the measurements are: - the specification of the measurand; - identification of the sources of uncertainty - the quantification of individual components of uncertainty, - calculate the combined standard uncertainty; - report of uncertainty.

  20. Relativistic few body calculations

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ5γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  1. Impact Cratering Calculations

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the von Mises and Mohr-Coulomb strength models with and without damage effects and developed a model for dilatancy. The models and results are given in O'Keefe et al. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting with the bolide in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements. These features included a central uplift, an inner ring, circular terracing and faulting. This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths of approximately 0.1 GPa and at depth strengths of approximately 1.0 GPa. We modeled the damage in geologic materials using a phenomenological approach, which coupled the Johnson-Cook damage model with the CTH code geologic strength model. The objective here was not to determine the distribution of fragment sizes, but rather to determine the effect of brecciated and comminuted material on the crater evolution, fault production, ejecta distribution, and final crater morphology.

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. Surface retention capacity calculation

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  4. Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes

    Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.

  5. HEU benchmark calculations and LEU preliminary calculations for IRR-1

    We performed neutronics calculations for the Soreq Research Reactor, IRR-1. The calculations were done for the purpose of upgrading and benchmarking our codes and methods. The codes used were mainly WIMS-D/4 for cell calculations and the three dimensional diffusion code CITATION for full core calculations. The experimental flux was obtained by gold wire activation methods and compared with our calculated flux profile. The IRR-1 is loaded with highly enriched uranium fuel assemblies, of the plate type. In the framework of preparation for conversion to low enrichment fuel, additional calculations were done assuming the presence of LEU fresh fuel. In these preliminary calculations we investigated the effect on the criticality and flux distributions of the increase of U-238 loading, and the corresponding uranium density.(author)

  6. A comparison of carbon calculators

    International attention to carbon dioxide emissions is turning to an individual's contribution, or 'carbon footprint.' Calculators that estimate an individual's CO2 emissions have become more prevalent on the internet. Even with similar inputs, however, these calculators can generate varying results, often by as much as several metric tons per annum per individual activity. This paper examines the similarities and differences among ten US-based calculators. Overall, the calculators lack consistency, especially for estimates of CO2 emissions from household electricity consumption. In addition, most calculators lack information about their methods and estimates, which impedes comparison and validation. Although carbon calculators can promote public awareness of carbon emissions from individual behavior, this paper reveals the need for improved consistency and transparency in the calculators

  7. Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m · K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations

  8. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε2 and ε4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  9. Measurement and calculation of evaporation

    Plesničar, Leja

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents three selected methods of measurement and calculation of the evapotranspiration on research plot at Hajdrihova 28 in Ljubljana. First method is measurement by evaporation pan type A and the other two methods are empirical equations for potential evapotranspiration calculation: FAO Penman-Monteith equation and Thornthwait equation. The results obtained for all three methods are compared with each other. Calculated results according to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation wer...

  10. Calculation of Spectra of Solids:

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The Gilat-Raubenheimer method simplified to tetrahedron division is used to calculate the real and imaginary part of the dynamical response function for electrons. A frequency expansion for the real part is discussed. The Lindhard function is calculated as a test for numerical accuracy....... The conduction electron susceptibility is calculated for Gd, Tb and Dy using the RAPW energy bands by Keeton and Louks....

  11. CAVEAT calculations of shock interactions

    CAVEAT is a computer code for calculating the time-varying fluid dynamics of several adjacent materials in two or three space dimensions. Using an extended Godunov technique and adaptive meshing, the code allows for large slippage at material interfaces. To exhibit the capability for calculating strong distortions we have performed a variety of calculations describing the interaction of shocks with rigid wedges, cylinders, and spheres and deformable cylindrical, spherical, and conical shells in two space dimensions. Comparison of the results with experimental data and analytical solutions demonstrates the considerable accuracy that can be expected from calculations with this code

  12. Spherically Symmetric Solution in (1+4)-Dimensional f(T) Gravity Theories

    2014-01-01

    A nondiagonal spherically symmetric tetrad field, involving four unknown functions of radial coordinate r plus an angle Φ , which is a generalization of the azimuthal angle ϕ , is applied to the field equations of (1+4)-dimensional f(T) gravity theory. A special vacuum solution with one constant of integration is derived. The physical meaning of this constant is shown to be related to the gravitational mass of the system and the associated metric represents Schwarzschild in (1+4)-dimension. T...

  13. Calculations of effective atomic number

    Kaliman, Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: norlic@ffri.hr; Jelovica, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    We present and discuss effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) obtained by different methods of calculations. There is no unique relation between the computed values. This observation led us to the conclusion that any Z{sub eff} is valid only for given process. We illustrate calculations for different subshells of atom Z=72 and for M3 subshell of several other atoms.

  14. Calculation of two Belyi pairs

    Dremov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate two Belyi pairs using the properties of Mulase-Penkava differential. Details are provided including accurate construction of coordinates, variables and equations. The calculation is a part of the work which results in a catalogue arXiv:0710.2658

  15. CELSS scenario analysis: Breakeven calculations

    Mason, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the relative mass requirements of food production components in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) based on regenerative concepts is described. Included are a discussion of model scope, structure, and example calculations. Computer programs for cultivar and breakeven calculations are also included.

  16. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  17. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post

  18. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  19. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  20. Calculation of thermal diffuse scattering

    Wakabayashi, N.; Nicklow, R. M.; Katano, S.; Ishii, Y.; Child, H. R.; Smith, H. G.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.

    We have developed a computer program to calculate the thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) intensity distribution for single-crystal specimens in a diffractometer with no energy analysis. We assumed that the phonon frequencies are approximated by those of elastic waves and that the elastic constants, density and lattice parameters of the system under study are known. The results of the calculations were compared to experimental data obtain for single crystals of Si, diamond and NiAl at the wide-angle neutron diffractometer (WAND) at the HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Excellent agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental observations.

  1. Calculation of thermal diffuse scattering

    The authors developed a computer program to calculate the thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) intensity distribution for single crystal specimens in a diffractometer with no energy analysis. They assumed that the phonon frequencies are approximated by those of elastic waves and that the elastic constants, density and lattice parameters of the system under study are known. The results of the calculations were compared to experimental data obtained for single crystals of Si, diamond and NiAl at the Wide Angle neutron Diffractometer at the HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Excellent agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental observations

  2. Relativistic calculations of atomic structure

    Fricke, Burkhard

    1984-01-01

    A review of relativistic atomic structure calculations is given with a emphasis on the Multiconfigurational-Dirac-Fock method. Its problems and deficiencies are discussed together with the contributions which go beyond the Dirac-Fock procedure.

  3. Calculations of turbulent separated flows

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of incompressible turbulent separated flows is carried out by using two-equation turbulence models of the K-epsilon type. On the basis of realizability analysis, a new formulation of the eddy-viscosity is proposed which ensures the positiveness of turbulent normal stresses - a realizability condition that most existing two-equation turbulence models are unable to satisfy. The present model is applied to calculate two backward-facing step flows. Calculations with the standard K-epsilon model and a recently developed RNG-based K-epsilon model are also made for comparison. The calculations are performed with a finite-volume method. A second-order accurate differencing scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to ensure the numerical accuracy of solutions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for both mean and turbulent quantities. The comparison shows that the present model performs quite well for separated flows.

  4. Calculation method of Tesla coil

    Коломієць, Роман Олександрович

    2015-01-01

    Tesla coil, despite the simplicity of its design may be called one of the least studied electronic devices. The article is an attempt to bring in various experimental results of general theoretical framework, which is the basis of exact calculation method of Tesla coils. Such calculation should be the starting point to create devices based on it. In order to develop such methods were considered the general principles of designing Tesla coil, reviewed the most famous mathematical models of its...

  5. Hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes

    Mikhalev, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present time there is only one classic method for hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes. In it fluid flow velocity and pipeline diameter are considered as given values.The paper proposes a procedure for physical modeling and hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes, based on the theory of similarity. Methods for obtaining similarity criteria from combinations of similarity numbers were discussed. Similarity numbers and criteria and criteria equations were defined.

  6. Multifragmentation calculated with relativistic forces

    A saturating hamiltonian is presented in a relativistically covariant formalism. The interaction is described by scalar and vector mesons, with coupling strengths adjusted to the nuclear matter. No explicit density dependence is assumed. The hamiltonian is applied in a QMD calculation to determine the fragment distribution in O + Br collision at different energies (50 - 200 MeV/u) to test the applicability of the model at low energies. The results are compared with experiment and with previous non-relativistic calculations. (orig.)

  7. The calculation of pressure vessels

    The calculation guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehaelter (task group for pressure vessels) have been revised with the following objective: conversion to international standards (SI), adaption to the latest state of guidelines for production and testing, revision of the contents of individual regulations. Another target of the cooperating interest groups of producers, operators, and supervisory bodies was a harmonization of the approaches for calculation with other German guidelines, in particular the Technische Regeln fuer Dampfkessel (technical regulations for steam boilers). (orig./RW)

  8. Methods of core neutronic calculation

    Core neutronic calculations lead to the determination of geometry, composition, controls systems and to the core exploitation limits in agreement with the expected performances, with safety rules, technological choices and fuel management methods. Neutronic calculations object are described with physics justifications of hypothesis and approximations. A description and a definition of reactivity and power distribution are also given. A panorama of calculation methods used in the conception of fast breeder and pressure water reactors, are described with numerical aspects and general interest considerations related to the field of these methods and to the industrial options chosen. A complete industrial uses panorama of methods derived from the classical or generalized perturbation theory is followed by the qualification and the definition of the validity field of numerical codes.(A.B.). 88 refs., 6 figs

  9. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  10. PHEBUS-FPTO Benchmark calculations

    This report summarizes a set of pre-test predictions made for the first Phebus-FP test, FPT-O. There were many different calculations, performed by various organizations and they represent the first attempt to calculate the whole experimental sequence, from bundle to containment. Quantitative agreement between the various calculations was not good but the particular models in the code responsible for disagreements were mostly identified. A consensus view was formed as to how the test would proceed. It was found that a successful execution of the test will require a different operating procedure than had been assumed here. Critical areas which require close attention are the need to devize a strategy for the power and flow in the bundle that takes account of uncertainties in the modelling and the shroud conductivity and the necessity to develop a reliable method to achieve the desired thermalhydraulic conditions in the containment

  11. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author)

  12. Canister Transfer Facility Criticality Calculations

    J.E. Monroe-Rammsy

    2000-10-13

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the criticality risk in the surface facility for design basis events (DBE) involving Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) standardized canisters (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 2000a). Since some of the canisters will be stored in the surface facility before they are loaded in the waste package (WP), this calculation supports the demonstration of concept viability related to the Surface Facility environment. The scope of this calculation is limited to the consideration of three DOE SNF fuels, specifically Enrico Fermi SNF, Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA) SNF, and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF.

  13. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stable...... with anO-V-O angle of 72.5 degrees . The calculated spectrum shows bands in reasonable agreement with anexperimental spectrum which has been attributed to (VO2SO4)-. The geometry and the electron density fortwo binuclear vanadium complexes proposed as intermediates in the vanadium catalyzed SO2...

  14. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B;

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation.......In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  15. Design basis accident calculation problems

    Sudden failures of the primary circuit is the design basis accident of pressurized water reactors, being liable to affect the other two barriers separating the fission products from the environment. The calculation of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core and primary circuit is at present based, for the CEA, on the RELAP 4 code. However a second-generation code, POSEIDON, is being developed by the CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME to obtain a better description of the physical phenomena and a better estimate of safety margins. Other difficult problems arise in connection with the calculation of structural stresses and the behavior of the vessel during decompression

  16. Friction and wear calculation methods

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  17. Molecular calculations with B functions

    Steinborn, E O; Ema, I; López, R; Ramírez, G

    1998-01-01

    A program for molecular calculations with B functions is reported and its performance is analyzed. All the one- and two-center integrals, and the three-center nuclear attraction integrals are computed by direct procedures, using previously developed algorithms. The three- and four-center electron repulsion integrals are computed by means of Gaussian expansions of the B functions. A new procedure for obtaining these expansions is also reported. Some results on full molecular calculations are included to show the capabilities of the program and the quality of the B functions to represent the electronic functions in molecules.

  18. ITER Port Interspace Pressure Calculations

    Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Van Hove, Walter A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is equipped with 54 access ports. Each of these ports has an opening in the bioshield that communicates with a dedicated port cell. During Tokamak operation, the bioshield opening must be closed with a concrete plug to shield the radiation coming from the plasma. This port plug separates the port cell into a Port Interspace (between VV closure lid and Port Plug) on the inner side and the Port Cell on the outer side. This paper presents calculations of pressures and temperatures in the ITER (Ref. 1) Port Interspace after a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a pipe of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) with high temperature water. It is assumed that this DEGB occurs during the worst possible conditions, which are during water baking operation, with water at a temperature of 523 K (250 C) and at a pressure of 4.4 MPa. These conditions are more severe than during normal Tokamak operation, with the water at 398 K (125 C) and 2 MPa. Two computer codes are employed in these calculations: RELAP5-3D Version 4.2.1 (Ref. 2) to calculate the blowdown releases from the pipe break, and MELCOR, Version 1.8.6 (Ref. 3) to calculate the pressures and temperatures in the Port Interspace. A sensitivity study has been performed to optimize some flow areas.

  19. On calculation of photoneutron yields

    A simple analytical expression has been obtained for the photon track lengths in the region of nuclei giant resonance by summing the cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung from thin layers. The photoneutron yields from thick Cu and Pb targets calculated for verifying this expression are in a good agreement with the experimental results obtained by other authors

  20. Dead reckoning calculating without instruments

    Doerfler, Ronald W

    1993-01-01

    No author has gone as far as Doerfler in covering methods of mental calculation beyond simple arithmetic. Even if you have no interest in competing with computers you'll learn a great deal about number theory and the art of efficient computer programming. -Martin Gardner

  1. Sparsifying preconditioner for soliton calculations

    Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing

    2016-06-01

    We develop a robust and efficient method for soliton calculations for nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The method is based on the recently developed sparsifying preconditioner combined with Newton's iterative method. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical examples of gap solitons in the context of nonlinear optics.

  2. Relativistic multiple scattering Xα calculations

    A one component relativistic theory has recently been developed and tested on isolated atoms and on molecules through the molecular scattered-wave formalism of Johnson, while its application to energy-band calculations (through a relativistic augmented-plane-wave program) has also been considered

  3. CALCULATION OF MAGNETIC OIL CLARIFIER

    Puzik, S. O.; National Aviation University; Shevchuk, V. S.; National Aviation University; Baranivskiy, Y. O.; National Aviation University; Mykhailenko, O. O.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    Technology of oil cleaning from iron-containing impurities that shows the feasibility of magnetic cleaners applying was investigated. Comparative analysis of the types of magnetic clarifier was carried out. Procedure of calculating the dimension type of oil clarifier, which makes it possible to obtain high purity grade oil, was offered.

  4. Sparsifying preconditioner for soliton calculations

    Lu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    We develop a robust and efficient method for soliton calculations for nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations. The method is based on the recently developed sparsifying preconditioner combined with Newton's iterative method. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical examples of gap solitons in the context of nonlinear optics.

  5. Sous le signe du calcul

    Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Reichenmann, François

    2012-01-01

    Alan Turing a non seulement défini l'objet d'étude de l'informatique, le calcul, mais aussi révolutionné notre rapport aux machines. Il a fondé l'informatique comme un domaine scientifique autonome et a ouvert le chemin vers un nouveau continent à explorer et à habiter.

  6. Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator" helps school systems quantify all current spending aimed at improving teaching effectiveness. Part I provides worksheets to analyze total investment. Part II provides a system for evaluating investments based on purpose, target group, and delivery. In this Spending Calculator…

  7. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  8. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  9. Calculation of potassium critical temperature

    The paper describes the algorithm of the functional prediction which is based on the selforganization of nonlinear algebraic models. The calculation procedure includes the module for the recognition of the dependence type hitch allows to restrict the number of choice of the prediction functions at the each step of the model building. The characteristic property of this algorithm is bootstrap method application as the external criteria of the selforganization. The calculation module is built using APL*PLUS and the user-friendly interface is implemented using Clipper 5.01 under Windows control. When using the algorithm and the programs, the critical point of potassium has been predicted on the base of the solubility curves of liquid and steam. 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  11. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Consolidated fuel decay heat calculations

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1994-06-24

    The radiological decay heat generated from all irradiated fuel presently in K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins was calculated in support of consolidated fuel storage. There are four sources of heat inflow into the fuel storage basins: (1) radiological decay heat from irradiated fuel; (2) mechanical heat from operating machinery (e.g., pumps); (3) heat flow from surroundings (mainly the ground through the concrete walls into the basin water if it is maintained below ambient); and (4) exothermic chemical reactions of uranium oxidation (although at basin temperatures this reaction rate is slow). This report details the radiological decay heat from irradiated fuel source in the K basins. Decay heat calculations using ORIGEN2 (Wittekind 1994 and Schmittroth 1993) for irradiated fuel presently (April 1994) in KE and KW Basins gave results for January 31 of each year.

  13. Calculation of Hilbert Borcherds Products

    Mayer, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In Brunier and Bundschuh, “On Borcherds Products Associated with Lattices of Prime Discriminant.” Ramanujan Journal 7 (2003), 49–61, the authors use Borcherds lifts to obtain Hilbert modular forms. Another approach is to calculate Hilbert modular forms using the Jacquet--Langlands correspondence, which was implemented by Lassina Dembele in "Magma". In Mayer, "Rings of Hilbert Modular Forms for the Fields $\\Q(\\sqrt{13})$ and $\\Q(\\sqrt{17})$,'' To appear, 2009, we use Brunier and...

  14. Numerical calculation of Casimir forces

    Kilen, Isak Ragnvald

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis a set of regularized boundary integral equation are introduced that can be used to calculate the Casimir force induced by a two dimensional scalar field. The boundary integral method is compared to the functional integral method and mode summation where possible. Comparisons are done for the case of two parallel plates, two concentric circles and two adjacent circles. The results indicate that the boundary integral method correctly predicts the geometry dependence of the C...

  15. Calculations of the Wigner angle

    Two new methods to determine Wigner's angle in special relativity are presented. The first one consists in calculating the angle between the compositions u-bar x ν-bar and ν-bar x u-bar of the two non-collinear velocities u-bar and ν-bar. In another method we introduce a generalization in the complex plane of Einstein's addition law of parallel velocities. (author)

  16. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    Davies, E B

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  17. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated

  18. Decay heat calculations for reactors

    Estimation of release of energy (decay heat) over an extended period of time after termination of neutron induced fission is necessary for determining the heat removal requirements when the reactor is shutdown, and for fuel storage and transport facilities as well as for accident studies. The method of decay heat estimation relies on the measurements over practical time intervals as well as on calculation for predictions over very long time intervals. Neutron cross-sections, fission yields and decay data together with operational history are the basic inputs to such. A code used to calculate decay heat would require to generate isotopic inventory that would be present at the shutdown based on operational history of the reactor and follow up the decay over an extended period of time. Aspects of decay heat estimation based on standards like ANS 5.1 and by fuel cycle analysis codes shall be discussed. A Fuel Cycle Analysis Code, ADWITA (Activation, Decay, Waste Incineration and Transmutation Analysis) which can generate inventory based on irradiation history and calculate radioactivity and decay heat for extended period of cooling, has been written. The method and data involved in Fuel Cycle Analysis Code ADWITA and some results obtained shall also be presented. (author)

  19. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  20. [IOL calculation for high ametropia].

    Haigis, W

    2008-11-01

    Long and short eyes are connected with high ametropia and constitute special problems for biometry and IOL calculations. Ultrasound measurements on these eyes, which often have altered geometries, are frequently more difficult than in normal eyes. This holds especially for long eyes, which significantly benefit from optical biometry. Measurement errors, IOL manufacturing tolerances and uncertainties regarding the effective lens position affect short eyes much more than normal eyes. The selection of a suitable IOL formula is of special importance for the refractive outcome. For short eyes, Holladay-2, HofferQ and Haigis are recommended, for long eyes Holladay-1, Holladay-2 and Haigis. In each case, optimized IOL constants must be used. If minus lenses for extremely long eyes are calculated with the same constants as plus lenses, a hyperopic refractive error is created, which can be avoided by a separate set of constants for minus lenses. For extremely short eyes the commonly used approximation of thinner lenses fails necessitating a thick lens calculation or raytracing. PMID:18998145

  1. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the

  2. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  3. Calculation of Thermal Scattering Kernels

    A long-standing programme at General Atomic has been the development of physical models to describe the scattering of slow neutrons from the various moderators and the numerical methods necessary for the computation of thermal neutron cross-sections and scattering kernels. This paper contains a review of the recent developments and improvements in the scattering descriptions and subsequent kernels for the moderators Be, C, H2O, D2O, CH2, H2 and D2. In particular for the moderators Be and C accurate phonon spectra, obtained by the root sampling technique, are presented along with comparisons to demonstrate how well the scattering models can predict the results of cross-section and spectral measurements. While the treatment of H2O is essentially that of Nelkin, curves of calculated and experimental neutron spectra are shown, which demonstrate that the inclusion of anisotropic effects for the molecular vibrations improve the agreement between theory and experiment. Following Butler's description of neutron scattering by D2O, a scattering kernel has been obtained which predicts quite accurately integral quantities such as neutron spectra and angular as well as total scattering cross-sections. An interesting result of the curves shown is that the inter- and intramolecular interference effects tend to cancel so that an incoherent approximation is quite adequate to calculate neutron spectra in D2O for the case of infinite media or weakly space-dependent problems. By utilizing the treatment by Lin and Koenig of the vibrational modes of infinite CH2 chains, a scattering kernel has been obtained which results in very good agreement between the predicted and experimental total cross-section and neutron spectra. Curves are presented to demonstrate this agreement between theory and experiment. Neutron spectra have been calculated for liquid hydrogen at boiling using a very accurate scattering description. These spectra are shown in the paper to be very sensitive both to

  4. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  5. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    Tarnow, Viggo

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  6. Atomic physics: computer calculations and theoretical analysis

    Drukarev, E. G.

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated, how the theoretical analysis preceding the numerical calculations helps to calculate the energy of the ground state of helium atom, and enables to avoid qualitative errors in the calculations of the characteristics of the double photoionization.

  7. The Dental Trauma Internet Calculator

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg;

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Prediction tools are increasingly used to inform patients about the future dental health outcome. Advanced statistical methods are required to arrive at unbiased predictions based on follow-up studies. Material and Methods The Internet risk calculator at the Dental Trauma Guide...... provides prognoses for teeth with traumatic injuries based on the Copenhagen trauma database: http://www.dentaltraumaguide.org The database includes 2191 traumatized permanent teeth from 1282 patients that were treated at the dental trauma unit at the University Hospital in Copenhagen (Denmark...

  8. Three-dimensional cavity calculations

    The existence of a code that solves for the resonant electromagnetic modes of oscillation in arbitrarily-shaped three-dimensional cavities opens new possibilities in rf-structure analysis and research. The URMEL-3D code, the product of a multi-year collaboration between DESY, KFA-Juelich, and Los Alamos, has been used in some exploratory studies to determine the feasibility of using a 3-D code to calculate the properties of several practical rf structures. The results are reported here for three cases: the jungle gym, two coupled cavities, and a waveguide-cavity coupling problem

  9. Optimization calculations at TR-2

    Full text: The main objective of the optimization calculations at TR-2 is to increase the radioisotope production (Tc-99m, I-131). Irradiation time and location were optimized separately. A second objective of this study is to obtain similar activities in the irradiated samples irrespective of the irradiation positions. This study also includes the maximization of the discharge burnup levels of the HEU elements in a mixed HEU-LEU core, so both safe and economical usage of the reactor is attained. Five group structure is used for the burnup dependent cross-section libraries that are generated by EPRI-CELL code. The RABANL integral transport option of MC2-2 code was used to accurately account for the resonance self-shielding of U-238. Transport corrected effective cross sections were used for the control rod regions. The data for Mo, Tc and Te isotopes were not available in this library, so new data were generated using GGC-4 and ANISN codes. In order to have a better understanding of the neutronic interactions, especially in the epithermal energy range, 9 group structure for the cross-section libraries of all the isotopes in the core have been generated with the fore mentioned codes. 2D diffusion-depletion code GEREBUS is used for the reactivity and burnup calculations. The 9 group calculations gave higher activity values then 5 group results, but the relative variations between different core positions remained the same, as could be expected. Many new core designs and various irradiation positions have been investigated for the above mentioned purposes. The reactor core was designed as compact as possible, in order to have higher fluxes for the irradiation samples. New graphite and Be reflectors have been added to the periphery of the core to enhance the reactivity and the discharge burnup levels. The water boxes which are used for the irradiation purposes have been moved from periphery to the inside of the reactor core. These modifications have yielded higher

  10. Calculation of transonic aileron buzz

    Steger, J. L.; Bailey, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference computer code that uses a two-layer algebraic eddy viscosity model and exact geometric specification of the airfoil has been used to simulate transonic aileron buzz. The calculated results, which were performed on both the Illiac IV parallel computer processor and the Control Data 7600 computer, are in essential agreement with the original expository wind-tunnel data taken in the Ames 16-Foot Wind Tunnel just after World War II. These results and a description of the pertinent numerical techniques are included.

  11. Rate calculation with colored noise

    Bartsch, Thomas; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-01-01

    The usual identification of reactive trajectories for the calculation of reaction rates requires very time-consuming simulations, particularly if the environment presents memory effects. In this paper, we develop a new method that permits the identification of reactive trajectories in a system under the action of a stochastic colored driving. This method is based on the perturbative computation of the invariant structures that act as separatrices for reactivity. Furthermore, using this perturbative scheme, we have obtained a formally exact expression for the reaction rate in multidimensional systems coupled to colored noisy environments.

  12. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  13. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  14. Perturbation calculations with Wilson loop

    We present perturbative calculations with the Wilson loop (WL). The dimensional regularization method is used with a special attention concerning to the problem of divergences in the WL expansion in second and fourth orders, in three and four dimensions. We show that the residue in the pole, in 4d, of the fourth order graphs contribution sum is important for the charge renormalization. We compute up to second order the exact expression of the WL, in three-dimensional gauge theories with topological mass as well as its assimptotic behaviour for small and large distances. the author

  15. The "intelligence" of calendrical calculators.

    Young, R L; Nettelbeck, T

    1994-09-01

    Strategies of 4 men (WAIS-R range 65 to 76) when making calendar calculations were investigated. Each subject completed a battery of standardized psychological tests. Results suggested that subjects were aware of rules and regularities associated with the calendar, including knowledge of the 14 different calendar templates, one of which describes any calendar year. Their strategies were rigidly applied and could not be modified easily, even when doing so would have facilitated performance. The involvement of practice, memory, anchor dates, eidetic imagery, and mathematical algorithms were discussed. We concluded that these savants relied heavily on memory, with little manipulation of cognitive input, as opposed to transforming stimuli. PMID:7803035

  16. Congruent reduction and mode conversion in 4-dimensional plasmas

    Standard eikonal theory reduces, to N=1, the order of the system of equations underlying wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas. The condition for this remarkable reducibility is that only one eigenvalue of the unreduced NxN dispersion matrix D(k,x) vanishes at a time. If, however, two or more eigenvalues of D become simultaneously small, the geometric optics reduction scheme becomes singular. These regions are associated with linear mode conversion, and are described by higher order systems. A new reduction scheme based on congruent transformations of D is developed, and it is shown that, in ''degenerate'' plasma regions, a partial reduction of order is possible. The method comprises a constructive step-by-step procedure, which, in the most frequent (doubly) degenerate case, yields a second order system, describing the pairwise mode conversion problems, the solution of which in general geometry has been found recently

  17. Semiclassical limit of 4-dimensional spin foam models

    We study the semiclassical properties of the Riemannian spin foam models with Immirzi parameter that are constructed via coherent states. We show that, in the semiclassical limit, the quantum spin foam amplitudes of an arbitrary triangulation are exponentially suppressed if the face spins do not correspond to a discrete geometry. When they do arise from a geometry, the amplitudes reduce to the exponential of i times the Regge action. Remarkably, the dependence on the Immirzi parameter disappears in this limit.

  18. Time dependent electromagnetic fields and 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem

    Andosca, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Stokes' theorem is central to many aspects of physics -- electromagnetism, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and Wilson loops to name a few. However, the pedagogical examples and research work almost exclusively focus on situations where the fields are time-independent so that one need only deal with purely spatial line integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\oint {\\bf A} \\cdot d{\\bf x}$) and purely spatial area integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\int (\

  19. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  20. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  1. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  2. FLAG-SGH Sedov calculations

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).

  3. Langage C++ et calcul scientifique

    Saramito, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    La simulation numérique est devenue essentielle dans de nombreux domaines tels que la mécanique des fluides et des solides, la météo, l'évolution du climat, la biologie ou les semi-conducteurs. Elle permet de comprendre, de prévoir, d'accéder là où les instruments de mesures s'arrêtent. Ce livre présente des méthodes performantes du calcul scientifique : matrices creuses, résolution efficace des grands systèmes linéaires, ainsi que de nombreuses applications à la résolution par éléments fini...

  4. On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics

    Karplyuk, Kostyantyn; Zhmudsky, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.

  5. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  6. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  7. Benchmark calculations for EGS5

    In the past few years, EGS4 has undergone an extensive upgrade to EGS5, in particularly in the areas of low-energy electron physics, low-energy photon physics, PEGS cross section generation, and the coding from Mortran to Fortran programming. Benchmark calculations have been made to assure the accuracy, reliability and high quality of the EGS5 code system. This study reports three benchmark examples that show the successful upgrade from EGS4 to EGS5 based on the excellent agreements among EGS4, EGS5 and measurements. The first benchmark example is the 1969 Crannell Experiment to measure the three-dimensional distribution of energy deposition for 1-GeV electrons shower in water and aluminum tanks. The second example is the 1995 Compton-scattered spectra measurements for 20-40 keV, linearly polarized photon by Namito et. al., in KEK, which was a main part of the low-energy photon expansion work for both EGS4 and EGS5. The third example is the 1986 heterogeneity benchmark experiment by Shortt et. al., who used a monoenergetic 20-MeV electron beam to hit the front face of a water tank containing both air and aluminum cylinders and measured spatial depth dose distribution using a small solid-state detector. (author)

  8. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  9. Selfconsistent calculations for hyperdeformed nuclei

    Molique, H.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Luo, W.D. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    Properties of the hyperdeformed nuclei in the A {approximately} 170 mass range are re-examined using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the SOP parametrization. A comparison with the previous predictions that were based on a non-selfconsistent approach is made. The existence of the {open_quotes}hyper-deformed shell closures{close_quotes} at the proton and neutron numbers Z=70 and N=100 and their very weak dependence on the rotational frequency is suggested; the corresponding single-particle energy gaps are predicted to play a role similar to that of the Z=66 and N=86 gaps in the super-deformed nuclei of the A {approximately} 150 mass range. Selfconsistent calculations suggest also that the A {approximately} 170 hyperdeformed structures have neglegible mass asymmetry in their shapes. Very importantly for the experimental studies, both the fission barriers and the {open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} barriers (that separate the hyperdeformed structures from those with smaller deformations) are predicted to be relatively high, up to the factor of {approximately}2 higher than the corresponding ones in the {sup 152}Dy superdeformed nucleus used as a reference.

  10. Calculation Methods for Wallenius’ Noncentral Hypergeometric Distribution

    Fog, Agner

    2008-01-01

    conditional distribution of independent binomial variates given their sum. No reliable calculation method for Wallenius' noncentral hypergeometric distribution has hitherto been described in the literature. Several new methods for calculating probabilities from Wallenius' noncentral hypergeometric...

  11. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil...

  12. Dynamics Calculation of Travel Wave Tube

    2011-01-01

    During the dynamics calculating of the travel tube, we must obtain the field map in the tube. The field map can be affected by not only the beam loading, but also the attenuation coefficient. The calculation of the attenuation coefficient

  13. A New Approach for Calculating Vacuum Susceptibility

    宗红石; 平加伦; 顾建中

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, we propose a new method for calculating vacuum susceptibilities. As an example, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is presented.

  14. Carbon cycle modeling calculations for the IPCC

    We carried out essentially all the carbon cycle modeling calculations that were required by the IPCC Working Group 1. Specifically, IPCC required two types of calculations, namely, ''inverse calculations'' (input was CO2 concentrations and the output was CO2 emissions), and the ''forward calculations'' (input was CO2 emissions and output was CO2 concentrations). In particular, we have derived carbon dioxide concentrations and/or emissions for several scenarios using our coupled climate-carbon cycle modelling system

  15. Lattice Dynamics Calculation in MGB2

    In Present report, We have introduced a new theoretical results for MgB2 by using home design programme Lattice Dynamics. we have calculated partial and total density of states (PDOS, TDOS), infrared and Raman spectrums and specific heat capacity. Dispersion curves in different symmetry points are calculated and found that there is agreement with other calculations. Also we have tried to investigate the Boron Isotope effect on the calculated properties

  16. CORRECTED CALCULATION OF HORIZONTAL GATING SYSTEMS

    I. A. Zayatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the course of fulfillment of work the specified calculations of horizontal gating systems for various parts produced in dispensable molds were carried out. The results of work showed that the weight removal value in gating systems fluctuates in big intervals and the specified calculation of horizontal gating systems enables to calculate precisely their weight that allows to calculate quantity of metal in metal charge.

  17. Final disposal room structural response calculations

    Finite element calculations have been performed to determine the structural response of waste-filled disposal rooms at the WIPP for a period of 10,000 years after emplacement of the waste. The calculations were performed to generate the porosity surface data for the final set of compliance calculations. The most recent reference data for the stratigraphy, waste characterization, gas generation potential, and nonlinear material response have been brought together for this final set of calculations

  18. Thermohydraulic calculation of WWER-type NPP

    Technique of thermohydraulic calculation of the WWER-type NPP in unsteady processes is described. Effective algorithm for solving hydrodynamics equations without regard for acoustic effects permitting to use enough large time integration step is given. Calculation of two-dimensional temperature fields in fuel element is considered. Method for calculating a pressurizer, steam generators and pumps is described as well

  19. Quantum Transport Calculations Using Periodic Boundary Conditions

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-01-01

    An efficient new method is presented to calculate the quantum transports using periodic boundary conditions. This method allows the use of conventional ground state ab initio programs without big changes. The computational effort is only a few times of a normal ground state calculations, thus is makes accurate quantum transport calculations for large systems possible.

  20. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...

  1. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy... ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a) Calculation of Domestic Utilities' Annual Assessment Ratio to the Fund. Domestic utilities shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 760.1106 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.1106 Section 760.1106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Payment calculation. (a) Preliminary, unadjusted LCP payments are calculated for a producer by...

  3. 7 CFR 1416.104 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.104 Section 1416.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.104 Payment calculation. (a) LCP payments are calculated...

  4. 7 CFR 1416.504 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.504 Section 1416.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.504 Payment calculation. (a) Payments are calculated...

  5. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs

  6. 40 CFR 89.207 - Credit calculation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 89.207 Section 89... Trading Provisions § 89.207 Credit calculation. (a) Requirements for calculating NO X credits from Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive...

  7. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  8. Microscopic Calculations of 240Pu Fission

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2007-09-11

    Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations have been performed with the Gogny finite-range effective interaction for {sup 240}Pu out to scission, using a new code developed at LLNL. A first set of calculations was performed with constrained quadrupole moment along the path of most probable fission, assuming axial symmetry but allowing for the spontaneous breaking of reflection symmetry of the nucleus. At a quadrupole moment of 345 b, the nucleus was found to spontaneously scission into two fragments. A second set of calculations, with all nuclear moments up to hexadecapole constrained, was performed to approach the scission configuration in a controlled manner. Calculated energies, moments, and representative plots of the total nuclear density are shown. The present calculations serve as a proof-of-principle, a blueprint, and starting-point solutions for a planned series of more comprehensive calculations to map out a large set of scission configurations, and the associated fission-fragment properties.

  9. Argosy 4 - A programme for lattice calculations

    This report contains a detailed description of the methods of calculation used in the Argosy 4 computer programme, and of the input requirements and printed results produced by the programme. An outline of the physics of the Argosy method is given. Section 2 describes the lattice calculation, including the burn up calculation, section 3 describes the control rod calculation and section 4 the reflector calculation. In these sections the detailed equations solved by the programme are given. In section 5 input requirements are given, and in section 6 the printed output obtained from an Argosy calculation is described. In section 7 are noted the principal differences between Argosy 4 and earlier versions of the Argosy programme

  10. Methodology of shielding calculation for nuclear reactors

    A methodology of calculation that coupling a serie of computer codes in a net that make the possibility to calculate the radiation, neutron and gamma transport, is described, for deep penetration problems, typical of nuclear reactor shielding. This net of calculation begining with the generation of constant multigroups, for neutrons and gamma, by the AMPX system, coupled to ENDF/B-IV data library, the transport calculation of these radiations by ANISN, DOT 3.5 and Morse computer codes, up to the calculation of absorbed doses and/or equivalents buy SPACETRAN code. As examples of the calculation method, results from benchmark n0 6 of Shielding Benchmark Problems - ORNL - RSIC - 25, namely Neutron and Secondary Gamma Ray fluence transmitted through a Slab of Borated Polyethylene, are presented. (Author)

  11. GPU-based calculations in digital holography

    Madrigal, R.; Acebal, P.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Fimia, A.; Serrano, F.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we are going to apply GPU (Graphical Processing Units) with CUDA environment for scientific calculations, concretely high cost computations on the field of digital holography. For this, we have studied three typical problems in digital holography such as Fourier transforms, Fresnel reconstruction of the hologram and the calculation of vectorial diffraction integral. In all cases the runtime at different image size and the corresponding accuracy were compared to the obtained by traditional calculation systems. The programs have been carried out on a computer with a graphic card of last generation, Nvidia GTX 680, which is optimized for integer calculations. As a result a large reduction of runtime has been obtained which allows a significant improvement. Concretely, 15 fold shorter times for Fresnel approximation calculations and 600 times for the vectorial diffraction integral. These initial results, open the possibility for applying such kind of calculations in real time digital holography.

  12. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    X. H. Zhong; Li, L.; Ning, P. Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  13. Reactor calculation benchmark PCA blind test results

    Further improvement in calculational procedures or a combination of calculations and measurements is necessary to attain 10 to 15% (1 sigma) accuracy for neutron exposure parameters (flux greater than 0.1 MeV, flux greater than 1.0 MeV, and dpa). The calculational modeling of power reactors should be benchmarked in an actual LWR plant to provide final uncertainty estimates for end-of-life predictions and limitations for plant operations. 26 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  14. Comparison of methods for calculating water erosion

    Svobodová, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis presents a comparison of methods for calculating water erosion. The aim is to summarize available evidence concerning the problems of water erosion. There are presented some methods how to calculate average annual erosion of soils, and selected models for calculating the erosion immediately. There are also listed possible erosion control measures through which we can at least slow the effects of erosion, rather than stop completely.

  15. Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections

    This note constitutes the first edition of a Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections. This handbook makes it possible to calculate simply the different neutron and gamma fluxes and consequently, to fix the minimum quantities of materials necessary under general safety conditions both for the personnel and for the installations. It contains a certain amount of nuclear data, calculation methods, and constants corresponding to the present state of our knowledge. (authors)

  16. First principles phonon calculations in materials science

    Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Phonon plays essential roles in dynamical behaviors and thermal properties, which are central topics in fundamental issues of materials science. The importance of first principles phonon calculations cannot be overly emphasized. Phonopy is an open source code for such calculations launched by the present authors, which has been world-widely used. Here we demonstrate phonon properties with fundamental equations and show examples how the phonon calculations are applied in materials science.

  17. Dynamic calculations of pressurized water reactor internals

    A mathematical model is briefly described for the calculation of oscillations in the WWER-440 reactor internals. The model was developed for improved safety of the type of reactors. It allows calculating vibrations resistance of reactor components, mainly during accidents, such as loss of coolant accidents. Some results are given of the calculation of forces acting in the rupture of the reactor inlet and outlet pipes. (Z.M.)

  18. How to Calculate Sample Size and Why

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Seo, Bong Soo

    2013-01-01

    Why Calculating the sample size is essential to reduce the cost of a study and to prove the hypothesis effectively. How Referring to pilot studies and previous research studies, we can choose a proper hypothesis and simplify the studies by using a website or Microsoft Excel sheet that contains formulas for calculating sample size in the beginning stage of the study. More There are numerous formulas for calculating the sample size for complicated statistics and studies, but most studies can us...

  19. Benchmark calculations on simple reactor systems

    The development of some calculation methods is described. Tests of these and other methods on benchmark problems are reported. The following items are treated: 1) Criticality of spheres and slabs for monoenergetic neutrons with Carlviks method. 2) High precision S sub (n) calculations on critical slabs. 3) Comparison of angular quadrature methods in S sub (n) calculations. 4) Tests of a standard ANISN program. 5) Presence of complex time eigenvalues in a fundamental problem. (Author)

  20. Large scale calculations for hadron spectroscopy

    The talk reviews some recent Monte Carlo calculations for Quantum Chromodynamics, performed on Euclidean lattices of rather large extent. Purpose of the calculations is to provide accurate determinations of quantities, such as interquark potentials or mass eigenvalues, which are relevant for hadronic spectroscopy. Results obtained in quenched QCD on 163 x 32 lattices are illustrated, and a discussion of computational resources and techniques required for the calculations is presented. 18 refs.,3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Calculation of plasma characteristics of the sun

    Muhammad Abbas Bari; Zhong Jia-Yong; Chen Miu; Zhao Jing; Zhang Jie

    2006-01-01

    The ionization level and free electron density of most abundant elements (C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Fe) in the sun are calculated from the centre of the sun to the surface of the photosphere. The model and computations are made under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The Saha equation has been used to calculate the ionization level of elements and the electron density. Temperature values for calculations along the solar radius are taken from referebces.

  2. Evaluating Energy Sector Investments: Calculating Volatility

    Edson de Oliveira Pamplona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A major task in assessing risks of investment projects is defining the approach to calculating the project’s volatility. Looking at assorted estimation techniques, this paper calculates their volatilities. The techniques originate from authors in the area and involve project-specific variables of uncertainty. These techniques are applied to a case of electricity distribution through real options. Results are then compared. The difference between the calculated volatilities was low, leaving, in the case of the project evaluated here, the decision unchanged. The paper’s contribution consists of providing a detailed presentation of calculating volatility by the methods cited and by comparing the results obtained by its application.

  3. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  4. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  5. Do young calendrical calculators improve with age?

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1992-07-01

    The calendrical calculation performance of two 10-year-old children of the same intelligence level (IQ 90) but different calendrical ability, was compared with the performance of eight adult idiot-savant calculators. The calculating speeds of the two 10-year olds fell within the range of the reaction times of the adult savants. No improvement was detectable in a series of successive trials over time, either in speed or accuracy. It is concluded that the young calculators have already inferred rules about calendrical structure and that their performance cannot be accounted for by practice alone, but these savants use cognitive strategies to aid their performance. PMID:1634593

  6. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... are found in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  7. ASME Code Calculations for the CC Cryostat

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    This engineering note contains the ASHE Code calculations for the CC Cryostat prepared by the manufacturer, Richmond-Lox Equipment Company. Most of these were taken from calculations initially prepared by Fermilab personne1and pub1ished in Eng. Note 68.

  8. Atomic Structure Calculations for Neutral Oxygen

    Alonizan, Norah; Qindeel, Rabia; Ben Nessib, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels and oscillator strengths for neutral oxygen have been calculated using the Cowan (CW), SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS), and AUTOSTRUCTURE (AS) atomic structure codes. The results obtained with these atomic codes have been compared with MCHF calculations and experimental values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database.

  9. Stability Test for Transient-Temperature Calculations

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Graphical test helps assure numerical stability of calculations of transient temperature or diffusion in composite medium. Rectangular grid forms basis of two-dimensional finite-difference model for heat conduction or other diffusion like phenomena. Model enables calculation of transient heat transfer among up to four different materials that meet at grid point.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.650 - Emission calculations.

    2010-07-01

    ... following sequence of preliminary calculations on recorded concentrations: (i) Correct all THC and CH4.... (iii) Calculate all THC and NMHC concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, as... NMHC to background corrected mass of THC. If the background corrected mass of NMHC is greater than...

  11. 7 CFR 760.406 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.406 Section 760.406 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) Under this subpart, separate payment rates for eligible livestock owners and...

  12. CO2 calculator

    Nielsen, Claus Werner; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are in the process of mapping their national CO2 emissions, but only few have managed to produce an overall report at municipal level yet. Denmark, however, has succeeded in such a project. Using a new national IT-based calculation model, municipalities can calculate the extent of...

  13. 7 CFR 760.909 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.909 Section 760.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Payment calculation. (a) Under this subpart separate payment rates are established for eligible...

  14. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  15. 7 CFR 1416.704 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.704 Section 1416.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.704 Payment calculation. (a) An approved...

  16. 7 CFR 760.307 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.307 Section 760.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) An eligible livestock producer will be eligible to receive payments for grazing losses...

  17. 7 CFR 760.1203 - Payment calculation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.1203 Section 760.1203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) Producers must be paid for feed losses of higher costs only for one of the three years,...

  18. 30 CFR 5.30 - Fee calculation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee calculation. 5.30 Section 5.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.30 Fee calculation....

  19. 47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...

  20. Calculating the Greeks by Cubature formulas

    Teichmann, Josef

    2004-01-01

    We provide cubature formulas for the calculation of derivatives of expected values in the spririt of Terry Lyons and Nicolas Victoir. In financial mathematics derivatives of option prices with respect to initial values, so called Greeks, are of particular importance as hedging parameters. Cubature formulas allow to calculate these quantities very quickly. Simple examples are added to the theoretical exposition.

  1. Data base to compare calculations and observations

    Meteorological and climatological data bases were compared with known tritium release points and diffusion calculations to determine if calculated concentrations could replace measure concentrations at the monitoring stations. Daily tritium concentrations were monitored at 8 stations and 16 possible receptors. Automated data retrieval strategies are listed

  2. Investment Return Calculations and Senior School Mathematics

    Fitzherbert, Richard M.; Pitt, David G. W.

    2010-01-01

    The methods for calculating returns on investments are taught to undergraduate level business students. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how such calculations are within the scope of senior school students of mathematics. In providing this demonstration the authors hope to give teachers and students alike an illustration of the power and the…

  3. Hyperspherical calculations for four-nucleon systems

    We develop hyperspherical calculations on the bound states of four-nucleon systems and particularly the fundamental level and the first 0+ excited states. With neglect of the Coulomb effect, we analyze the convergence of the optimal subset expansion for the binding energies calculated for central or realistic potentials. 35 refs

  4. Statistics review 4: Sample size calculations

    Whitley, Elise; Ball, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The present review introduces the notion of statistical power and the hazard of under-powered studies. The problem of how to calculate an ideal sample size is also discussed within the context of factors that affect power, and specific methods for the calculation of sample size are presented for two common scenarios, along with extensions to the simplest case.

  5. Calculation of resonance integral for fuel cluster

    The procedure for calculating the shielding correction, formulated in the previous paper [6], was broadened and applied for a cluster of cylindrical rods. The sam analytical method as in the previous paper was applied. A combination of Gauss method with the method of Almgren and Porn used for solving the same type of integral was used to calculate the geometry functions. CLUSTER code was written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer to calculate the shielding corrections for pairs of fuel rods in the cluster. Computing time for one pair of fuel rods depends on the number of closely placed rod, and for two closely placed rods it is about 3 hours. Calculations were done for clusters containing 7 and 19 UO2 rods. results show that calculated values of resonance integrals are somewhat higher than the values obtained by Helstrand empirical formula. Taking into account the results for two rods from the previous paper it can be noted that the calculated and empirical values for clusters with 2 and 7 rods are in agreement since the deviations do not exceed the limits of experimental error (±2%). In case of larger cluster with 19 rods deviations are higher than the experimental error. Most probably the calculated values exceed the experimental ones result from the fact that in this paper the shielding correction is calculated only in the region up to 1 keV

  6. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    . We develop three methods for the direct calculation of the tip loss. The first is the computationally expensive calculation of the velocities induced by the helicoidal wake which requires the evaluation of infinite sums of products of Bessel functions. The second uses the asymptotic evaluation of...

  7. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry.

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  8. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  9. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on 3H, 4He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed

  11. Calculation of neutron kerma in tissues

    Neutron kerma of normal and tumor tissues has been calculated using the tissues elemental concentration. A program developed in Math cad contains the kerma factors of C, H, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, etc. that are in normal and tumor human tissues. Having the elemental composition of any human tissue the neutron kerma can be calculated. The program was tested using the elemental composition of tumor tissues such as sarcoma, melanoma, carcinoma and adenoid cystic, also neutron kerma for adipose and muscle tissue for normal adult was calculated. The results are in agreement with those published in literature. The neutron kerma for water was also calculated because in some dosimetric calculations water is used to describe normal and tumor tissues. From this comparison was found that at larger energies kerma factors are approximately the same, but energies less than 100 eV the differences are large. (Author)

  12. Calculation of neutron kerma in tissues

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Ing. Electrica y Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvega@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2004-07-01

    Neutron kerma of normal and tumor tissues has been calculated using the tissues elemental concentration. A program developed in Math cad contains the kerma factors of C, H, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, etc. that are in normal and tumor human tissues. Having the elemental composition of any human tissue the neutron kerma can be calculated. The program was tested using the elemental composition of tumor tissues such as sarcoma, melanoma, carcinoma and adenoid cystic, also neutron kerma for adipose and muscle tissue for normal adult was calculated. The results are in agreement with those published in literature. The neutron kerma for water was also calculated because in some dosimetric calculations water is used to describe normal and tumor tissues. From this comparison was found that at larger energies kerma factors are approximately the same, but energies less than 100 eV the differences are large. (Author)

  13. Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word

    Liqiang Pan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing. Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing. This method not only overcomes the problem that it’s not specific enough merely using LDA to calculate semantic similarity of word, but also solves the problems such as new words (haven’t been added in dictionary and without considering specific context when calculating semantic similarity based on semantic dictionary "HowNet". By experimental comparison, this thesis proves feasibility,availability and advantages of the calculation method.

  14. Tools for calculations in color space

    Sjodahl, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Both the higher energy and the initial state colored partons contribute to making exact calculations in QCD color space more important at the LHC than at its predecessors. This is applicable whether the method of assessing QCD is fixed order calculation, resummation, or parton showers. In this talk we discuss tools for tackling the problem of performing exact color summed calculations. We start with theoretical tools in the form of the (standard) trace bases and the orthogonal multiplet bases (for which a general method of construction was recently presented). Following this, we focus on two new packages for performing color structure calculations: one easy to use Mathematica package, ColorMath, and one C++ package, ColorFull, which is suitable for more demanding calculations, and for interfacing with event generators.

  15. Modeling tire deformation for power loss calculations

    Whicker, D.; Rohde, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A combined thermo-mechanical model for calculating tire power loss has been developed at GMR. This paper presents the techniques for developing the realistic finite element models needed in both the thermal and deformation portions of the combined model. It also describes the techniques used in calculating deformed tire shapes. First, procedures are outlined for automatically generating a finite element discretization of a tire. Then, this discretization, together with information about the properties of tire materials, is used to develop a finite element model of the tire. This model is used in MSC NASTRAN to calculate compliances, i.e., the response of the tire to inflation and to unit loads applied at points on the tire surface. These compliances are then used in an algorithm which calculates the deformed shape of a tire loaded against the pavement surface. Sample results are presented to show the agreement between calculated and measured tire deformation.

  16. Dose calculation system for remotely supporting radiotherapy

    The dose calculation system IMAGINE is being developed keeping in mind remotely supporting external radiation therapy using photon beams. The system is expected to provide an accurate picture of the dose distribution in a patient body, using a Monte Carlo calculation that employs precise models of the patient body and irradiation head. The dose calculation will be performed utilising super-parallel computing at the dose calculation centre, which is equipped with the ITBL computer, and the calculated results will be transferred through a network. The system is intended to support the quality assurance of current, widely carried out radiotherapy and, further, to promote the prevalence of advanced radiotherapy. Prototypes of the modules constituting the system have already been constructed and used to obtain basic data that are necessary in order to decide on the concrete design of the system. The final system will be completed in 2007. (authors)

  17. Processed evaluated nuclear data for reactor calculations

    The neutron multiplication factor and the neutron flux distribution are calculated repeatedly in nuclear reactor core design calculations. Most of the other parameters of interest are derived from them. A long chain of calculations needs to be performed, which requires a set of input group constants, and the accuracy of the calculations depends on them. Basic data, such as the measured cross sections and other nuclear parameters, are too voluminous to be used for such calculations directly in routine applications, Techniques have been developed to reduce the amount of information in several steps. In the lecture notes the data reduction techniques are briefly described, with emphasis on the classifications of the data resulting from individual steps. (author)

  18. Accuracy of calculation of neutron detection efficiency

    The problems of the accuracy for the scintillator spectrometer calculation of neutron recording efficiency value are discussed. The calculation is performed by the method of direct simulation of neutron interaction with the scintillator substance. The preliminary calculations show that a contribution to efficiency of neutron recording in the range of energies of 10 through 50 MeV due to interaction of neutrons with carbon is mostly determined by reactions 12(in n' 2α)4He and 12(n, n' p)11B. The effciency calculation results are given for the cylindrical crystal of stilbene. Measurements of the neutron recording efficiency in the range of energies from 10 MeV indicate a good agreement between the calculation and the experiment

  19. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation: perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  20. Benchmark calculations of sodium fast critical experiments

    The high expectations from fast critical experiments impose the additional requirements on reliability of final reconstructed values, obtained in experiments at critical facility. Benchmark calculations of critical experiments are characterized by impossibility of complete experiment reconstruction, the large amounts of input data (dependent and independent) with very different reliability. It should also take into account different sensitivity of the measured and appropriate calculated characteristics to the identical changes of geometry parameters, temperature, and isotopic composition of individual materials. The calculations of critical facility experiments are produced for the benchmark models, generated by the specific reconstructing codes with its features when adjusting model parameters, and using the nuclear data library. The generated benchmark model, providing the agreed calculated and experimental values for one or more neutronic characteristics can lead to considerable differences for other key characteristics. The sensitivity of key neutronic characteristics to the extra steel allocation in the core, and ENDF/B nuclear data sources is performed using a few calculated models of BFS-62-3A and BFS1-97 critical assemblies. The comparative analysis of the calculated effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, sodium void reactivity, and radial fission-rate distributions leads to quite different models, providing the best agreement the calculated and experimental neutronic characteristics. This fact should be considered during the refinement of computational models and code-verification purpose. (author)

  1. Simulation of fires based on flow calculation

    The fire simulation based on flow calculation is described in the publication, and the calculated result is compared with the results obtained from fire tests. The tests have been made in Germany in a nuclear power plant removed from service. The simulation describes the flow field of the entire building, the main features of the construction effecting on it and the edge conditions. The fire is described as a given source, the value of which varies as a function of time. Heat transfer into the constructions is described using a separate heat transfer program. The result obtained from calculation describes the flow and temperature fields formed in a fire generally correctly. Due to the used sparse calculation network the results contain locally large deviations. The discrete-transfer radiation calculation method used for calculation of burning and heat transfer, and testing of it are described in the appendix. The method describes the heat radiation propagating diagonally to the calculation network better than the six-flux method used before

  2. Development of Fast running DNBR Calculation Code

    Kwon, Hyuk; Seo, K. W.; Kim, S. J.; Hwang, D. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SMART core adopted a core protection(SCOPS) and a supervising system(SCOMS) to satisfy the SAFDL for AOO and normal operation. Generally, the criteria is limited to the DNBR limit so that the DNBR calculation module is required in the protection and the supervising system of core. There are CPU time limit and calculation robustness as some requirements of the DNBR calculation module in SCOPS and SCOMS caused by hardware limitations. The non-iterative few channel methods are needed to satisfy the requirements. Non-iterative numerical method is similar to the CETOP algorithm originated from ref. 1. The method is known as the non-iterative prediction and correction method. An optimum number of channels for core lumping model is selected as 4- channel which is same channel number of CETOP model. A compensation model of lumped channel is needed to ensure that the 4-channel thermal hydraulic field is nearly equivalent to that field of 1/8-core model that is calculated by MATRA-S. The code called FAST that is fast running DNBR calculation is developed to satisfy the requirements of CPU time and calculation robustness. Present paper is described of characteristics and calculation results of developed FAST code

  3. Neutron shielding calculation for VVER NPP

    There are two methods for neutron transport (shielding) calculation used in Energoproject, Prague, the method of discrete ordinates (code TORT-DORT) and the Monte Carlo method (codes MCNP and module within the code SCALE). The task concerning neutron dose rates calculation near casks with VVER spent fuel are presented as an example. Measured neutron dose rates of real loaded C-30 casks for VVER spent fuel assemblies are compared with calculated values in the frame of the international benchmark calculation task. A part of the task realized by the Atomic Energy Research (AER) organization concerning neutron shielding is calculated. The cask C-30 is used in Slovak Jaslovske Bohunice NPP for transport of spent fuel assemblies to the storage facility. The benchmark task has been calculated by the two-dimensional code DORT originated from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The code solves transport problems using the method of discrete ordinates (SN - method). Calculated neutron dose rates in azimuth and vertical directions show good agreement with the experiment within the range of the measurement errors. In comparison with the other codes the results of DORT are approximately 20% lower. There have been analysed differences between one- and two- dimensional approach and influence of the flux-to-dose rate conversion factors set

  4. Upper Subcritical Calculations Based on Correlated Data

    Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute and American Nuclear Society standard for Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations defines the upper subcritical limit (USL) as “a limit on the calculated k-effective value established to ensure that conditions calculated to be subcritical will actually be subcritical.” Often, USL calculations are based on statistical techniques that infer information about a nuclear system of interest from a set of known/well-characterized similar systems. The work in this paper is part of an active area of research to investigate the way traditional trending analysis is used in the nuclear industry, and in particular, the research is assessing the impact of the underlying assumption that the experimental data being analyzed for USL calculations are statistically independent. In contrast, the multiple experiments typically used for USL calculations can be correlated because they are often performed at the same facilities using the same materials and measurement techniques. This paper addresses this issue by providing a set of statistical inference methods to calculate the bias and bias uncertainty based on the underlying assumption that the experimental data are correlated. Methods to quantify these correlations are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. The newly proposed USL methodology is based on the assumption that the integral experiments selected for use in the establishment of the USL are sufficiently applicable and that experimental correlations are known. Under the assumption of uncorrelated data, the new methods collapse directly to familiar USL equations currently used. We will demonstrate our proposed methods on real data and compare them to calculations of currently used methods such as USLSTATS and NUREG/CR-6698. Lastly, we will also demonstrate the effect experiment correlations can have on USL calculations.

  5. Energy of plate tectonics calculation and projection

    N. H. Swedan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics and observations suggest that the energy of the geological activities resulting from plate tectonics is equal to the latent heat of melting, calculated at mantle's pressure, of the new ocean crust created at midocean ridges following sea floor spreading. This energy varies with the temperature of ocean floor, which is correlated with surface temperature. The objective of this manuscript is to calculate the force that drives plate tectonics, estimate the energy released, verify the calculations based on experiments and observations, and project the increase of geological activities with surface temperature rise caused by climate change.

  6. Stopping-power calculations for semiconductors

    The method developed by Brandt and Reinheimer which explicitly includes the effect of the semiconductor gap has been used to calculate the proton and α-particle stopping powers of the valence-electron gas of C (diamond), ZnTe, and U. These values, as well as those existing for Si and Ge, have been combined with the stopping contribution of the electronic core obtained from the statistical atomic model of Bonderup. Stopping powers have also been calculated using the statistical model alone. The calculated curves, which are valid for all incident projectile energies, reproduce the overall features of the semiempirical slowing-down curves, but not always the absolute values

  7. The WFIRST Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the exposure time calculator for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey. The calculator works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and SN determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The source code is made available for public use.

  8. Calculation of external dose from distributed source

    This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail

  9. Neutronic parameters calculations of a CANDU reactor

    Neutronic calculations that reproduce in a simplified way some aspects of a CANDU reactor design were performed. Starting from some prefixed reactor parameters, cylindrical and uniform iron adjuster rods were designed. An appropriate refueling scheme was established, defininig in a 2 zones model their dimensions and exit burnups. The calculations have been done using the codes WIMS-D4 (cell), SNOD (reactivity device simulations) and PUMA (reactor). Comparing with similar calculations done with codes and models usually employed for CANDU design, it is concluded that the models and methods used are appropriate. (Author)

  10. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Fluidization calculation on nuclear fuel kernel coating

    The fluidization of nuclear fuel kernel coating was calculated. The bottom of the reactor was in the from of cone on top of the cone there was a cylinder, the diameter of the cylinder for fluidization was 2 cm and at the upper part of the cylinder was 3 cm. Fluidization took place in the cone and the first cylinder. The maximum and the minimum velocity of the gas of varied kernel diameter, the porosity and bed height of varied stream gas velocity were calculated. The calculation was done by basic program

  12. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  13. The WFIRST Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator

    Hirata, Christopher M; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the exposure time calculator for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey. The calculator works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and S/N determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The source code is made available for public use.

  14. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas

    2014-06-15

    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  15. Ti-84 Plus graphing calculator for dummies

    McCalla

    2013-01-01

    Get up-to-speed on the functionality of your TI-84 Plus calculator Completely revised to cover the latest updates to the TI-84 Plus calculators, this bestselling guide will help you become the most savvy TI-84 Plus user in the classroom! Exploring the standard device, the updated device with USB plug and upgraded memory (the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition), and the upcoming color screen device, this book provides you with clear, understandable coverage of the TI-84's updated operating system. Details the new apps that are available for download to the calculator via the USB cabl

  16. Using Inverted Indices for Accelerating LINGO Calculations

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2011-01-01

    The ever growing size of chemical data bases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating the...... queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialised hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices it is possible to calculate LINGOsim...

  17. Equivalent-spherical-shield neutron dose calculations

    Neutron doses through 162-cm-thick spherical shields were calculated to be 1090 and 448 mrem/h for regular and magnetite concrete, respectively. These results bracket the measured data, for reinforced regular concrete, of /approximately/600 mrem/h. The calculated fraction of the high-energy (>20 MeV) dose component also bracketed the experimental data. The measured and calculated doses were for a graphite beam stop bombarded with 100 nA of 800-MeV protons. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h5, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Pairing schemes for HFB calculations of nuclei

    Duguet, T; Bonche, P

    2005-01-01

    Several pairing schemes currently used to describe superfluid nuclei through Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) calculations are briefly reviewed. We put a particular emphasis on the regularization recipes used in connection with zero-range forces and on the density dependence which usually complement their definition. Regarding the chosen regularization process, the goal is not only to identify the impact it may or may not have on pairing properties of nuclei through spherical 1D HFB calculations but also to assess its tractability for systematic axial 2D and 3D mean-field and beyond-mean-field calculations.

  1. RA-0 reactor. New neutronic calculations

    An updating of the neutronic calculations performed at the RA-0 reactor, located at the Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences Faculty of Cordoba National University, are herein described. The techniques used for the calculation of a reactor like the RA-0 allows prediction in detail of the flux behaviour in the core's interior and in the reflector, which will be helpful for experiments design. In particular, the use of WIMSD4 code to make calculations on the reactor implies a novelty in the possible applications of this code to solve the problems that arise in practice. (Author)

  2. Semidirect algorithms in electron propagator calculations

    Zakrzewski, V.G.; Ortiz, J.V. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Electron propagator calculations have been executed with a semi-direct algorithm that generates only a subset of transformed electron repulsion integrals and that takes advantage of Abelian point group symmetry. Diagonal self-energy expressions that are advantageous for large molecules are employed. Illustrative calculations with basis sets in excess of 200 functions include evaluations of the ionization energies of C{sup 2{minus}}{sub 7} and Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}. In the former application, a bound dianion is obtained for a D{sub 3h} structure. In the latter, many final states of the same symmetry are calculated without difficulty.

  3. Calculation of profitability in computer tomography (CT)

    The comments do not refer to a specific type of whole body computer tomography which made it necessary to base the calculations on mean values with regard to both initial costs and operating costs. The calculation of the receipts was based on the resulting costs, mean long-term utilization of the unit and on a reasonable period of amortization. The model calculation indicates that the break-even point is reached with 1,920 annual examinations and a five-year amortization period. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  4. Importance iteration in MORSE Monte Carlo calculations

    An expression to calculate point values (the expected detector response of a particle emerging from a collision or the source) is derived and implemented in the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo code. It is outlined how these point values can be smoothed as a function of energy and as a function of the optical thickness between the detector and the source. The smoothed point values are subsequently used to calculate the biasing parameters of the Monte Carlo runs to follow. The method is illustrated by an example, which shows that the obtained biasing parameters lead to a more efficient Monte Carlo calculation. (orig.)

  5. Resonance integral calculations for high temperature reactors

    Methods of calculation of resonance integrals of finite dilution and temperature are given for both, homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries, together with results obtained from these methods as applied to the design of high temperature reactors. (author)

  6. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  7. Calculation models for a nuclear reactor

    Determination of different parameters of nuclear reactors requires neutron transport calculations. Due to complicity of geometry and material composition of the reactor core, neutron calculations were performed for simplified models of the real arrangement. In frame of the present work two models were used for calculations. First, an elementary cell model was used to prepare cross section data set for a homogenized-core reactor model. The homogenized-core reactor model was then used to perform neutron transport calculation. The nuclear reactor is a tank-shaped thermal reactor. The semi-cylindrical core arrangement consists of aluminum made fuel bundles immersed in water which acts as a moderator as well as a coolant. Each fuel bundle consists of aluminum cladded fuel rods arranged in square lattices. (author)

  8. Multigrid Methods in Electronic Structure Calculations

    Briggs, E L; Bernholc, J

    1996-01-01

    We describe a set of techniques for performing large scale ab initio calculations using multigrid accelerations and a real-space grid as a basis. The multigrid methods provide effective convergence acceleration and preconditioning on all length scales, thereby permitting efficient calculations for ill-conditioned systems with long length scales or high energy cut-offs. We discuss specific implementations of multigrid and real-space algorithms for electronic structure calculations, including an efficient multigrid-accelerated solver for Kohn-Sham equations, compact yet accurate discretization schemes for the Kohn-Sham and Poisson equations, optimized pseudo\\-potentials for real-space calculations, efficacious computation of ionic forces, and a complex-wavefunction implementation for arbitrary sampling of the Brillioun zone. A particular strength of a real-space multigrid approach is its ready adaptability to massively parallel computer architectures, and we present an implementation for the Cray-T3D with essen...

  9. Representation and calculation of economic uncertainties

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Management and decision making when certain information is available may be a matter of rationally choosing the optimal alternative by calculation of the utility function. When only uncertain information is available (which is most often the case) decision-making calls for more complex methods of...... representation and calculation and the basis for choosing the optimal alternative may become obscured by uncertainties of the utility function. In practice, several sources of uncertainties of the required information impede optimal decision making in the classical sense. In order to be able to better handle the...... uncertain economic numbers are discussed. When solving economic models for decision-making purposes calculation of uncertain functions will have to be carried out in addition to the basic arithmetical operations. This is a challenging numerical problem since improper methods of calculation may introduce...

  10. Nuclear structure calculations for astrophysical applications

    Here we present calculated results on such diverse properties as nuclear energy levels, ground-state masses and shapes, β-decay properties and fission-barrier heights. Our approach to these calculations is to use a unified theoretical framework within which the above properties can all be studied. The results are obtained in the macroscopic-microscopic approach in which a microscopic nuclear-structure single-particle model with extensions is combined with a macroscopic model, such as the liquid drop model. In this model the total potential energy of the nucleus may be calculated as a function of shape. The maxima and minima in this function correspond to such features as the ground state, fission saddle points and shape-isomeric states. Various transition rate matrix elements are determined from wave-functions calculated in the single-particle model with pairing and other relevant residual interactions taken into account

  11. Benchmark calculations of power distribution within assemblies

    The main objective of this Benchmark is to compare different techniques for fine flux prediction based upon coarse mesh diffusion or transport calculations. We proposed 5 ''core'' configurations including different assembly types (17 x 17 pins, ''uranium'', ''absorber'' or ''MOX'' assemblies), with different boundary conditions. The specification required results in terms of reactivity, pin by pin fluxes and production rate distributions. The proposal for these Benchmark calculations was made by J.C. LEFEBVRE, J. MONDOT, J.P. WEST and the specification (with nuclear data, assembly types, core configurations for 2D geometry and results presentation) was distributed to correspondents of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 11 countries and 19 companies answered the exercise proposed by this Benchmark. Heterogeneous calculations and homogeneous calculations were made. Various methods were used to produce the results: diffusion (finite differences, nodal...), transport (Pij, Sn, Monte Carlo). This report presents an analysis and intercomparisons of all the results received

  12. A novel algorithmic method for piezoresistance calculation

    A novel algorithmic method, based on the different stress distribution on the surface of thin film in an SOI microstructure, is put forward to calculate the value of the silicon piezoresistance on the sensitive film. In the proposed method, we take the Ritz method as an initial theoretical model to calculate the rate of piezoresistance ΔR/R through an integral (the closed area Ω where the surface piezoresistance of the film lies as the integral area and the product of stress σ and piezoresistive coefficient π as the integral object) and compare the theoretical values with the experimental results. Compared with the traditional method, this novel calculation method is more accurate when applied to calculating the value of the silicon piezoresistance on the sensitive film of an SOI pieoresistive pressure sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author)

  14. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS's, EID'S, SAR'S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants

  15. Reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries

    The seventh biennial meeting on reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries was arranged by VTT Energy on May 8-9, 1995. 26 papers on different subjects in the field of reactor physics were presented by 45 participants representing research establishments, technical universities, utilities, consultants and suppliers. Resent development and verification of the program systems of ABB Atom, Risoe, Scandpower, Studsvik and VTT Energy were the main topic of the meeting. Benchmarking of the two assembly codes CASMO-4 and HELIOS is proceeding. Cross section data calculated with CASMO-HEX have been validated for the Loviisa reactors. On core analysis ABB atom gives a description on its latest core simulator version POLCA7 with the calculation Core Master 2 and the BWR core supervision system Core Watch. Transient calculations with HEXTRAN, HEXTRAN- PLIM, TRAB, RAMONA, SIMULATE-3K and a code based on PRESTO II/POLCA7 were also presented

  16. Program package for 2D burnup calculation

    The program package for 2 dimension burnup calculation was developed for TRIGA Mark III reactor. The package consists of 3 modules: PRESIX, SIXTUS-2, and BURN; 1 library, and 2 input files. PRESIX module prepared cross sections for diffusion calculation. SIXTUS-2 module, a two dimensional diffusion code in hexagonal geometry, calculates keff, neutron fluxes and power distributions. BURN module performs the burnup of fuel elements and stored the result in the ELEM.DAT file. PRESIX.LIB is two group cross section library for major reactor core components prepared using WIMS-D4 code. PRES.INP, the first input file, reads information on reactor power and core loading pattern. ELEM.DAT, the second input file, is prepared for specific TRIGA reactor and dependent on operation history. To verify the reactor model and computational methods, the calculated excess reactivities were compared to the measurement. The results are in good agreement. (author)

  17. Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules

    Heater, Don

    1995-01-01

    Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.

  18. Calculation of eigenfunction fluxes in nuclear systems

    A new Monte Carlo method is being developed to calculate eigenfunction fluxes in critical or near-critical nuclear systems. The correct estimation of fluxes is essential for radiation protection and shielding near these systems, in addition to isotope production, isotope depletion, nuclear criticality and other applications. The proposed method applies to Monte Carlo criticality eigenvalue calculations in which the fission sites in one generation are used as fission sources in subsequent generations. The usual Monte Carlo power iteration method for such problems often calculates fluxes (eigenfunctions) that are inaccurate and very different in symmetric parts of a problem geometry. The proposed method calculates flux distributions by estimating an approximate fission matrix. The way the fission matrix is estimated and used differs from other recent works. Preliminary results are promising. (authors)

  19. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift

  20. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  1. Numerical calculations in quantum field theories

    Four lecture notes are included: (1) motivation for numerical calculations in Quantum Field Theory; (2) numerical simulation methods; (3) Monte Carlo studies of Quantum Chromo Dynamics; and (4) systems with fermions. 23 references

  2. Numerical Calculation of Model Rocket Trajectories.

    Keeports, David

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the use of model rocketry to teach the principles of Newtonian mechanics. Included are forces involved; calculations for vertical launches; two-dimensional trajectories; and variations in mass, drag, and launch angle. (CW)

  3. Thermal calculations for water cooled research reactors

    The formulae and the more important numerical data necessary for thermic calculations on the core of a research reactor, cooled with low pressure water, are presented. Most of the problems met by the designer and the operator are dealt with (calculations margins, cooling after shut-down). Particular cases are considered (gas release, rough walls, asymmetric cooling slabs etc.), which are not generally envisaged in works on general thermics

  4. Molecular transport calculations with Wannier functions

    Thygesen, K. S.; Jacobsen, K. W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating coherent electron transport in atomic-scale contacts. The method combines a formally exact Green's function formalism with a mean-field description of the electronic structure based on the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory. We use an accurate plane-wave electronic structure method to calculate the eigenstates which are subsequently transformed into a set of localized Wannier functions (WFs). The WFs provide a highly efficient basis set which at ...

  5. Software Metrics: Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds

    Abhishek Kumar Maheswari

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a algorithmic method for the calculation of thresholds (the starting point for a new state) for a software metric set. To this aim, machine learning and data mining techniques are utilized. We define a data-driven methodology that can be used for efficiency optimization of existing metric sets, for the simplification of complex classification models, and for the calculation of thresholds for a metric set in an environment where no metric set yet exists. The methodo...

  6. Energy of plate tectonics calculation and projection

    N. H. Swedan

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and observations suggest that the energy of the geological activities resulting from plate tectonics is equal to the latent heat of melting, calculated at mantle's pressure, of the new ocean crust created at midocean ridges following sea floor spreading. This energy varies with the temperature of ocean floor, which is correlated with surface temperature. The objective of this manuscript is to calculate the force that drives plate tectonics, estimate the energy released, verify the...

  7. Validation of fluorescence transition probability calculations

    M. G. PiaINFN, Sezione di Genova; P. Saracco(INFN, Sezione di Genova); Manju Sudhaka(INFN, Sezione di Genova)

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and quantitative validation of the K and L shell X-ray transition probability calculations according to different theoretical methods has been performed against experimental data. This study is relevant to the optimization of data libraries used by software systems, namely Monte Carlo codes, dealing with X-ray fluorescence. The results support the adoption of transition probabilities calculated according to the Hartree-Fock approach, which manifest better agreement with experimen...

  8. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  9. A calculational model for the NRU reactor

    A new computer model to calculate neutronic properties of the NRU research reactor is being implemented at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The model is founded on numerous theoretical studies, on analysis of NRU support experiments done in a zero power reactor, and on comparison with measurements in the NRU reactor. This paper examines the elements of the new calculational model, concentrating on the unique features of NRU and their influences on neutron behaviour

  10. A calculational model for the NRU reactor

    A new computer model to calculate neutronic properties of the NRU research reactor is being implemented at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The model is founded on numerous theoretical studies, on analysis of NRU support experiments done in a zero power reactor, and on comparison with measurement in the NRU reactor. This paper examines the elements of the new calculational model, concentrating on the unique features of NRU and their influences on neutron behaviour

  11. Calculation of the resonant ionization of helium

    Autoionizing resonances in the compound system of an electron and a helium ion are observed in kinematically-complete ionization experiments for electrons on helium atoms. The differential cross section is calculated for comparison with these experiments in an equivalent-local form of the distorted-wave impulse approximation. Resonant scattering amplitudes are calculated by a six-state momentum-space coupled-channels method. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Making calculated energy certificate for choosen building

    Hafner, Rok

    2015-01-01

    The graduation thesis addresses four given energy efficiency certificates for the preschool in Škofja Loka, calculated according to the valid legislation and work methodology. The building in question was built in the seventies of last century and had it's efficiency improved in 2014. The state of the building before improvements has both measured and calculated efficiency certificates made using the KI Energija 2014 program, while the two energy efficiency certificates for the...

  13. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  14. Full CI benchmark calculations on CH3

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    Full CI calculations have been performed on the CH3 radical. The full CI results are compared to those obtained using CASSCF/multireference CI and coupled-pair functional methods, both at the equilibrium CH distance and at geometries with the three CH bonds extended. In general, the performance of the approximate methods is similar to that observed in calculations on other molecules in which one or two bonds were stretched.

  15. Source term calculations of the ALMR

    This report contains the results of a thermochemical study on the aspects of fission product release in sodium cooled reactors. An overview of the relevant thermochemical data (excess Gibbs energies of mixing) of sodium systems is presented. Phase equilibrium calculations of the thermochemical behavior of one fuel pin and of the reactor vessel were performed. In these calculations, 30 elements and approximately 100 compounds are involved. (orig.)

  16. Source term calculations of the ALMR

    Schram, R.P.C.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Huntelaar, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report contains the results of a thermochemical study on the aspects of fission product release in sodium cooled reactors. An overview of the relevant thermochemical data (excess Gibbs energies of mixing) of sodium systems is presented. Phase equilibrium calculations of the thermochemical behavior of one fuel pin and of the reactor vessel were performed. In these calculations, 30 elements and approximately 100 compounds are involved. (orig.).

  17. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....

  18. VVER-related burnup credit calculations

    The calculations related to a VVER burnup credit calculational benchmark proposed to the Eastern and Central European research community in collaboration with the OECD/NEA/NSC Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmark Working Group (working under WPNCS - Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) are described. The results of a three-year effort by analysts from the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom are summarized and commented on. (author)

  19. Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM

    In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production

  20. Efficient Finite Element Calculation of Nγ

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing.......This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing....

  1. INTERNAL CALCULATION IN TERM BUSINESS DECISION MAKING

    Jugoslav Aničić, Miloje Jelić, Jasmina M. Đurović, Srećko Radoičić, Živojin B. Prokopović

    2014-01-01

    Business-financial decision making represent prime activity of top management. Growing complexity in the business ,market and rapid technological change require fast and appropriate answer of top management. Confident and efficient system of internal calculation gives confident base, for making financial decision and strategic as well. Companies of industrial sector in Serbia can significantly improve their business performance by improving internal calculation systems. The preservation and s...

  2. Calculation Methodology for Flexible Arithmetic Processing

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio; Signes Pont, María Teresa

    2003-01-01

    A new operation model of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust the operation delay depending on the available time is presented. The operation method design uses look-up tables and progressive construction of the result. The increase in the operators’ granularity opens up new possibilities in calculation methods and microprocessor design. This methodology, together with the advances in technology, enables the functions of an arithmetic unit to be implemented on the basis of techniques...

  3. A revised calculational model for fission

    A semi-empirical parametrization has been developed to calculate the fission contribution to evaporative de-excitation of nuclei with a very wide range of charge, mass and excitation-energy and also the nuclear states of the scission products. The calculational model reproduces measured values (cross-sections, mass distributions, etc.) for a wide range of fissioning systems: Nuclei from Ta to Cf, interactions involving nucleons up to medium energy and light ions. (author)

  4. Variational calculations on the hydrogen molecular ion

    Taylor, J. M.; Yan, Zong-Chao; Dalgarno, A.; Babb, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    We present high-precision non-relativistic variational calculations of bound vibrational-rotational state energies for the $H_2^+$ and $D_2^+$ molecular ions in each of the lowest electronic states of $\\Sigma_g$, $\\Sigma_u$, and $\\Pi_u$ symmetry. The calculations are carried out including coupling between $\\Sigma$ and $\\Pi$ states but without using the Born-Oppenheimer or any adiabatic approximation. Convergence studies are presented which indicate that the resulting energies for low-lying le...

  5. R-matrix calculation for photoionization

    2000-01-01

    We have employed the R-matrix method to calculate differe ntial cross sections for photoionization of helium leaving helium ion in an exci ted state for incident photon energy between the N=2 and N=3 thresholds (69~73 eV) of He+ ion. Differential cross sections for photoionization in the N=2 level at emission angle 0° are provide. Our results are in good agreem ent with available experimental data and theoretical calculations.

  6. Calculation of mixed core safety parameters

    The purpose of this presentation is the reactor physics explanation of the most important nuclear safety parameters in mixed TRIGA cores as well as their calculation methods and appropriate computer codes. Nuclear core parameters, such as power density peaking factors and temperature reactivity coefficients are considered. The computer codes adapted, tested and widely available for TRIGA nuclear calculations are presented. Thermal-hydraulics aspects of safety analysis are not treated

  7. Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings

    1982-05-24

    Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

  8. Sample size calculation in medical studies

    Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Vahedi, Mohsen; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Optimum sample size is an essential component of any research. The main purpose of the sample size calculation is to determine the number of samples needed to detect significant changes in clinical parameters, treatment effects or associations after data gathering. It is not uncommon for studies to be underpowered and thereby fail to detect the existing treatment effects due to inadequate sample size. In this paper, we explain briefly the basic principles of sample size calculations in medica...

  9. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  10. Improved Calculation of Thermal Fission Energy

    Ma, X. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Wang, L. Z.; Y. X. Chen; Cao, J

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fission energy is one of the basic parameters needed in the calculation of antineutrino flux for reactor neutrino experiments. It is useful to improve the precision of the thermal fission energy calculation for current and future reactor neutrino experiments, which are aimed at more precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. In this article, we give new values for thermal fission energies of some common thermal reactor fuel isotopes, with improvements on three aspects. ...

  11. DOWNSCALE APPLICATION OF BOILER THERMAL CALCULATION APPROACH

    Zelený, Zbynĕk; Hrdlička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used thermal calculation methods are intended primarily for large scale boilers. Hot water small scale boilers, which are commonly used for home heating have many specifics, that distinguish them from large scale boilers especially steam boilers. This paper is focused on application of thermal calculation procedure that is designed for large scale boilers, on a small scale boiler for biomass combustion of load capacity 25 kW. Special issue solved here is influence of formation of dep...

  12. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-01-01

    Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to me...

  13. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.)

  14. Towards Density Functional Calculations from Nuclear Forces

    Schwenk, A; Polonyi, J.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method for microscopic calculations of nuclear ground-state properties in the framework of density functional theory. We discuss how the density functional is equivalent to the effective action for the density, thereby establishing a constructive framework for density functional calculations from nuclear forces. The presented approach starts from non-interacting nucleons in a background potential (a simple approximation for the mean field). The nuclear forces are then gradually t...

  15. A revised calculational model for fission

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    A semi-empirical parametrization has been developed to calculate the fission contribution to evaporative de-excitation of nuclei with a very wide range of charge, mass and excitation-energy and also the nuclear states of the scission products. The calculational model reproduces measured values (cross-sections, mass distributions, etc.) for a wide range of fissioning systems: Nuclei from Ta to Cf, interactions involving nucleons up to medium energy and light ions. (author)

  16. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  18. Core-wide calculations by HELIOS code

    The transport method of HELIOS is called the CCCP method, because it is based on current coupling and collision probabilities. The system to be calculated consists of space elements that are coupled with each other and with the boundaries by interface currents. The angular dependence of the interface or coupling currents can be discretized in various ways. This is done by partitioning the directional half-sphere into a number of θ polar levels, and each θ level into a number of φ azimuthal intervals. In two dimensional calculations the discretization of the azimuthal level is dominant. In the last issue of the HELIOS code (version 1.10) the maximum value of azimuthal discretization is increased from 4 to 12. This gives the possibility to calculate large (core-wide or near core-wide) systems with appropriate accuracy, which extends the applicability of the HELIOS program. This paper presents the experience gained from HELIOS calculations of large systems having several WWER-440 assemblies. The examined parameter is the core-wide power distribution, which was inadequately calculated by former versions of HELIOS. The application of high azimuthal discretization gives substantial improvement in accuracy, compared to reference solutions calculated by MCNP Monte-Carlo code. Although HELIOS is designed to calculate assembly-wide systems, it is now applicable to core-wide systems. Using its possibilities, the area of application is extended to calculate reference solutions for core-wide programs or to examine spectral changes of few-group cross sections due to burnup in real situations. Some potential areas of application are presented in the paper, together with the limitations of those applications. (Author)

  19. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  20. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burn-up matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths of the nuclide and search the paths automatically according to to problem description and precision restrictions should be sought. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to search and calculate the linear chains using Depth First Search (DFS) method. The depletion program can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The solution space and time complexity of the program were analyzed. The new developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-II to calculate the benchmark burn-up problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). The initial verification and validation of the program was performed by the calculation. (author)

  1. Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy

    We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations

  2. Software program for teletherapy dosimetry calculations

    Using this program, one can calculate the routine treatment time, TDF, CRE and output calibration. For treatment time calculations, the central axis depth dose values (BJR Suppl. No.25, 1996) for square fields, the output values for square fields, the wedge factor for corresponding angles and field sizes and tray factor for slotted and plain tray have to be fed into the database file. When the desired menu is selected, SSD or SAD, and required data for the treatment time calculations such as planned dose, planned fractions, number of fields, field size, depth of the tumor, with or without wedges, types of tray used in case of shielding and treatment date are entered and this program calculates and gives the result with parameters PDD/TAR, BSF, output of the machine. Also, the factors involved in the manipulation for the verification and self-satisfaction are displayed. The calculated treatment time will be accurate since it uses the current day decay correction. Print option is also available. All the data used for the calculations will be stored in a file so that one can read out at any instant, using the patients file menu

  3. ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440 calculation benchmark

    Because of the difficulties with experimental validation of power distribution predicted by macro-code on the pin by pin level we decided to prepare a calculation benchmark named ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440. This benchmark is a two-dimensional (2D) calculation benchmark based on the VVER-440 reactor core cold state geometry with taking into account the geometry of explicit radial reflector. The main task of this benchmark is to test the pin by pin power distribution in fuel assemblies predicted by macro-codes that are used for neutron-physics calculations especially for VVER-440 reactors. The proposal of this benchmark was presented at the 21st Symposium of AER in 2011. The reference solution has been calculated by MCNP code using Monte Carlo method and the results have been published in the AER community. The results of reference calculation were presented at the 22nd Symposium of AER in 2012. In this paper we will compare the available macro-codes results of this calculation benchmark.

  4. Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy

    Kelsey Iv, Charles T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations.

  5. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  6. Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core

    The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)

  7. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    Eastwood, Kathyrn J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations.Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved.Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects.Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.[WestJEM. 2009;10:240-243.

  8. On the relativistic calculation of spontaneous emission

    In a recent work, Barut and Salamin (1988) have derived a method for calculating the relativistic decay rates in atoms, in a formulation of quantum electrodynamics based upon the electron's self-energy. The decay rate appears as the imaginary part of a formula giving a complex energy shift, the real part of the formula being the Lamb shift. The presence of the the decay rate in the imaginary part of a formula, giving an energy in its real part, may appear a bit strange. A confirmation of the Barut and Alamin calculation, by means of a quite different point of view, would be useful. Therefore in this work the Einstein A coefficients are calculated, in all cases of degeneracies of the Dirac transition currents, by means of the energy balance method. This point of view is based on the balance between the energy released during the transitions of electrons from a higher state to a lower one, and the flux of the Poynting vector of the classical electromagnetic field, created by the electrons, through a sphere a large radius. The particularity of the present work lies in the direct calculation of the relativistic Dirac transition currents and the fact that the dipole and Pauli approximations are avoided. The quantum part of the relativistic calculation is based on the determination of the transition charge currents in the Darwin solutions of the Dirac equation. 13 refs

  9. Good Practices in Free-energy Calculations

    Pohorille, Andrew; Jarzynski, Christopher; Chipot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As access to computational resources continues to increase, free-energy calculations have emerged as a powerful tool that can play a predictive role in drug design. Yet, in a number of instances, the reliability of these calculations can be improved significantly if a number of precepts, or good practices are followed. For the most part, the theory upon which these good practices rely has been known for many years, but often overlooked, or simply ignored. In other cases, the theoretical developments are too recent for their potential to be fully grasped and merged into popular platforms for the computation of free-energy differences. The current best practices for carrying out free-energy calculations will be reviewed demonstrating that, at little to no additional cost, free-energy estimates could be markedly improved and bounded by meaningful error estimates. In energy perturbation and nonequilibrium work methods, monitoring the probability distributions that underlie the transformation between the states of interest, performing the calculation bidirectionally, stratifying the reaction pathway and choosing the most appropriate paradigms and algorithms for transforming between states offer significant gains in both accuracy and precision. In thermodynamic integration and probability distribution (histogramming) methods, properly designed adaptive techniques yield nearly uniform sampling of the relevant degrees of freedom and, by doing so, could markedly improve efficiency and accuracy of free energy calculations without incurring any additional computational expense.

  10. Considering alternative calculations of weight suppression.

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Weight suppression (WS)--the difference between an individual's highest adult weight and current weight-relates to eating pathology and weight gain; however, there are several methodological issues associated with its calculation. The current study presents four alternative methods of calculating WS and tests whether these methods differentially relate to maladaptive outcomes. Alternative methods of calculation included: (1) change in BMI units; (2) BMI category change; (3) percent change in weight; and (4) two different uses of regression residuals. A sample of undergraduate students (N=631) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, current and past weight, and teasing. Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale. Results indicated that components of WS, current weight and highest weight, were strongly related in the present sample. The traditional method of calculating WS was related to eating pathology, binge eating and teasing for both males and females. However, WS indices orthogonal to the highest weight did not correlate with eating pathology and teasing in both males and females; for females, WS indices orthogonal to current weight were also unrelated to eating pathology. Findings suggest that the link between WS and eating pathology is mitigated after accounting for an individual's highest weight. Future research should continue to assess the reliability and clinical utility of this construct and consider using alternative WS calculations. PMID:26643591

  11. Effective action calculation in lattice QCD

    A method (called the effective action method) devised to make analytic calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics in the region of strong coupling is presented. First, the author deals with developing the calculation of a strong coupling expansion of the generating functional for gauge systems on a lattice with arbitrary sources. An accompanying manual describes the implementation of this calculation on a computer. The next step consists of substituting the expressions for the one-link free energies for a specific gauge group in the result of the previous calculation. This process of substitution, together with the replacement of the sources by a bilinear combination of fermion fields, is described for the group SU(3). More details on the implementation of the substitution scheme on a computer can be found in the accompanying manual. From the effective action thus obtained in terms of meson fields and baryon fields the Green functions of the theory can be derived. As an illustrative application the effective potential determining the vacuum expectation value of the meson field is calculated. (Auth.)

  12. Spectroscopic calculation code ASPECT and its application

    The Code ASPECT is available for calculations of electronic levels of atoms and ions by the intermediate coupling scheme. This scheme is characterized by the simultaneous diagonalization of Hamiltonians for electronic repulsion, spin orbit interaction and crystal field effect. ASPECT performs the sorting of microstates involved in the electronic configuration in problem, calculation of matrix elements of these Hamiltonians, and diagonalization of the summed matrix. As input data, the calculation needs only parameter values of Slater integrals. ASPECT is also applied to calculate transition probabilities between the electronic levels obtained by this code. ASPECT is particularly focused on complex configurations containing f-electrons as met in Lanthanides and Actinides, which are not easily treated by an algebraic method. For convenience of users, Slater integral values for configurations fn of Lanthanides and Actinides are installed in the code so that users may select merely the atomic number. This document is composed of three parts. The first part (Chapter 1-3) describes quantum mechanical principles to calculate matrix elements of each unperturbed Hamiltonian and transition probabilities. The second part (Chapter 4) explains the structure of the code, and the last part (Chapter 5) serves as the manual for applications of this code, in which some samples are included. The third part (Chapter 6) is added as supplement for users who will improve this code. (author)

  13. PWR and WWER thorium cycle calculation

    The first step of the investigation of the thorium fuel cycle with HELIOS 1.8 is validation of the results obtained from the code for this particular type of fuel. To complete this first task we performed calculation of the benchmark announced by IAEA in 1995. The benchmark was based on a simplified PWR model of the assembly with reduced fuel composition. This calculation was focused on a comparison of the methods and basic nuclear data. After successful validation of the code we focused our work on calculating the PWR and WWER thorium fuel cycles. The thorium cycle begins after the first use of UO2 fuel in the reactor as separation of plutonium from the burnt fuel. Separated plutonium is mixed with thorium and used as a new nuclear fuel in the reactor. For our calculation we prepared two variants of the assembly - the first variant is a homogeneous distribution and the second one is a non-homogenised distribution of thorium fuel in the assembly. The model of non-homogenised distribution of Pu-Th fuel was designed by replacing selected rods of the classical UO2 assembly by Pu-Th rods. These selected rods are distributed symmetrically in the assembly. Other rods in the assembly remain the same as in the classical UO2 assembly. The calculated and compared values are criticality and fuel composition as a function of burnup (Authors)

  14. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  15. Reactor perturbation calculations by Monte Carlo methods

    Whilst Monte Carlo methods are useful for reactor calculations involving complicated geometry, it is difficult to apply them to the calculation of perturbation worths because of the large amount of computing time needed to obtain good accuracy. Various ways of overcoming these difficulties are investigated in this report, with the problem of estimating absorbing control rod worths particularly in mind. As a basis for discussion a method of carrying out multigroup reactor calculations by Monte Carlo methods is described. Two methods of estimating a perturbation worth directly, without differencing two quantities of like magnitude, are examined closely but are passed over in favour of a third method based on a correlation technique. This correlation method is described, and demonstrated by a limited range of calculations for absorbing control rods in a fast reactor. In these calculations control rod worths of between 1% and 7% in reactivity are estimated to an accuracy better than 10% (3 standard errors) in about one hour's computing time on the English Electric KDF.9 digital computer. (author)

  16. LCEs for Naval Reactor Benchmark Calculations

    The purpose of this engineering calculation is to document the MCNP4B2LV evaluations of Laboratory Critical Experiments (LCEs) performed as part of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology program. LCE evaluations documented in this report were performed for 22 different cases with varied design parameters. Some of these LCEs (10) are documented in existing references (Ref. 7.1 and 7.2), but were re-run for this calculation file using more neutron histories. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the MCNP4B2LV code system's ability to accurately calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) for various critical configurations. These LCE evaluations support the development and validation of the neutronics methodology used for criticality analyses involving Naval reactor spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository

  17. Benchmarking calculations of excitonic couplings between bacteriochlorophylls

    Kenny, Elise P

    2015-01-01

    Excitonic couplings between (bacterio)chlorophyll molecules are necessary for simulating energy transport in photosynthetic complexes. Many techniques for calculating the couplings are in use, from the simple (but inaccurate) point-dipole approximation to fully quantum-chemical methods. We compared several approximations to determine their range of applicability, noting that the propagation of experimental uncertainties poses a fundamental limit on the achievable accuracy. In particular, the uncertainty in crystallographic coordinates yields an uncertainty of about 20% in the calculated couplings. Because quantum-chemical corrections are smaller than 20% in most biologically relevant cases, their considerable computational cost is rarely justified. We therefore recommend the electrostatic TrEsp method across the entire range of molecular separations and orientations because its cost is minimal and it generally agrees with quantum-chemical calculations to better than the geometric uncertainty. We also caution ...

  18. Calculation of electric fields in imperfect dielectrics

    Filippov, A.A.

    1985-07-01

    No existing numerical method of calculating electric fields in kinetical form allows simultaneous consideration of bias current and conductivity current. This article suggests a modification of the method of integral equations allowing computation of the field in imperfect media. The use of the method is said to be more effective than the method of equivalent discharges. The method suggested allows computation of the field while simultaneously considering conductivity current and permeability current. It also allows determination of the frequency characteristics of high voltage apparatus. Furthermore, it can be used to calculate various transient processes if the applied voltage is expanded into a Fourier series and calculations are performed individually for each member of the series.

  19. Calculating Young's modulus for a carbon nanotube

    Alzubi, Feras; Cosby, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    Young's modulus for an armchair single-wall carbon nanotube was calculated using an atomistic approach and density functional theory (DFT). Atomic forces and total energies for strained carbon nanotube segments were computed using Atomistix's Virtual NanoLab (VNL) and ToolKit (ATK) software. For a maximum strain of one percent, elastic moduli were calculated using both force-strain and energy-strain data. The average values found for Young's modulus were in the range 1.2 to 3.9 TPa depending on the cross-sectional area taken for the carbon nanotube, consideration of Poisson's ratio, and the calculation method used. Three possible choices of cross-sectional area for the carbon nanotube are discussed and parameter and convergence tests for the DFT computations are described.

  20. Thermalization Calculations in a Cylindrical Shell

    An approximate, semi-analytical procedure for determining the distribution and energy spectrum of the thermal and epithermal neutron flux in a weakly neutron capturing, cylindrical shell medium is considered. The shell medium is taken to represent the moderator surrounding a fuel rod in a thermal reactor. The basis for calculating the flux in most of the moderator is the energy-dependent diffusion equation. Transient corrections to the diffusion approximation are added near the medium boundaries. The effects of adjoining media are taken into account through the boundary conditions imposed on the diffusion and transient fluxes. At the inner boundary these effects are calculated by collision probability methods. Activation fluxes are derived from the calculated neutron flux distributions and compared with measurements made in the D2O moderator surrounding a uranium metal rod in the ZEEP reactor. (author)

  1. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  2. Multiloop Calculations In Perturbative Quantum Field Theory

    Blokland, I R

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with high-precision calculations in perturbative quantum field theory. In conjunction with detailed experimental measurements, perturbative quantum field theory provides the quantitative framework with which much of modern particle physics is understood. The results of three new theoretical calculations are presented. The first is a definitive resolution of a recent controversy involving the interaction of a muon with a magnetic field. Specifically, the light-by-light scattering contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is shown to be of positive sign, thereby decreasing the discrepancy between theory and experiment. Despite this adjustment to the theoretical prediction, the remaining discrepancy might be a subtle signature of new kinds of particles. The second calculation involves the energy levels of a bound state formed from two charged particles of arbitrary masses. By employing recently developed mass expansion techniques, new classes of solutions are obtained for proble...

  3. Are limit cycle calculations a stochastic process?

    Stochasticity is typically associated with processes that produce uncertain results which, in many cases, are due to process nonlinearities and/or extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. By its name, a stochastic process should have a probabilistic or random nature; however, it is well known that many if not all, of the processes that behave stochasticly are indeed deterministic. This is the case with computer calculations to predict the stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs). This paper attempts to introduce the reader to some of the ''stochastic'' uncertainties involved in this topic, and in particular the errors introduced by the approximations used to integrate numerically the solutions in the time domain. The knowledge of this type of errors is relevant not only in BWR stability calculations but also in time domain calculations involving nonlinear or stochastic processes

  4. Computation cluster for Monte Carlo calculations

    Two computation clusters based on Rocks Clusters 5.1 Linux distribution with Intel Core Duo and Intel Core Quad based computers were made at the Department of the Nuclear Physics and Technology. Clusters were used for Monte Carlo calculations, specifically for MCNP calculations applied in Nuclear reactor core simulations. Optimization for computation speed was made on hardware and software basis. Hardware cluster parameters, such as size of the memory, network speed, CPU speed, number of processors per computation, number of processors in one computer were tested for shortening the calculation time. For software optimization, different Fortran compilers, MPI implementations and CPU multi-core libraries were tested. Finally computer cluster was used in finding the weighting functions of neutron ex-core detectors of VVER-440. (authors)

  5. Resolving resonances in R-matrix calculations

    We present a technique to obtain detailed resonance structures from R-matrix calculations of atomic cross sections for both collisional and radiative processes. The resolving resonances (RR) method relies on the QB method of Quigley-Berrington (Quigley L, Berrington K A and Pelan J 1998 Comput. Phys. Commun. 114 225) to find the position and width of resonances directly from the reactance matrix. Then one determines the symmetry parameters of these features and generates an energy mesh whereby fully resolved cross sections are calculated with minimum computational cost. The RR method is illustrated with the calculation of the photoionization cross sections and the unified recombination rate coefficients of Fe XXIV, O VI, and Fe XVII. The RR method reduces numerical errors arising from unresolved R-matrix cross sections in the computation of synthetic bound-free opacities, thermally averaged collision strengths and recombination rate coefficients. (author)

  6. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these 'ores' contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another 'parent' radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures

  7. Calculations for TRIGA ACPR with MCNPX

    The purpose of the paper is to present an MCNP model for the TRIGA pulsed reactor (ACPR) operated by INR-Pitesti. MCNPX is a Fortran90 Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code that can be used in a broad range of applications for neutrons (and for a series of other particles, too) on a continuous (or discrete) energy domain. The reactor model created has been tested in different calculations, by comparing the bank control rods efficiency against experimental measurements, the prompt neutrons generation time and the effective fractions of delayed neutrons with the Safety Analysis Report parameters. Also, neutron flux in pulsed mode inside the experimental cavity have been calculated using the model and compared with results of flux measurements. Generally, the MCNPX model is used in static criticality calculations, to determine the reactor kinetics parameters and in the design of experiments. (authors)

  8. Parallel scalability of Hartree–Fock calculations

    Quantum chemistry is increasingly performed using large cluster computers consisting of multiple interconnected nodes. For a fixed molecular problem, the efficiency of a calculation usually decreases as more nodes are used, due to the cost of communication between the nodes. This paper empirically investigates the parallel scalability of Hartree–Fock calculations. The construction of the Fock matrix and the density matrix calculation are analyzed separately. For the former, we use a parallelization of Fock matrix construction based on a static partitioning of work followed by a work stealing phase. For the latter, we use density matrix purification from the linear scaling methods literature, but without using sparsity. When using large numbers of nodes for moderately sized problems, density matrix computations are network-bandwidth bound, making purification methods potentially faster than eigendecomposition methods

  9. Calculation system analysis for radiation shielding

    This work consists of the computational system implementation for nuclear reactor shielding analysis. The system has as objectives to facilitate the installation of the calculation framework, problem set-up, and results analysis. Several computational programmes commonly used for cross-section preparation and radiation transport were chosen for the system. This work represents the capacity necessary for nuclear reactor and particle accelerator shielding design, to aid in nuclear experiments and in the utilization of nuclear techniques that require the radiation field calculation. The system was implemented in PC-DOS environment and consists of the necessary and sufficient programs and data for generation of the cross sections, groups constants, self-shielding factors, activation sources, for the calculation of neutron and gamma-ray fluence, dose rates, and other types of response functions. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs

  10. Calculating the Charge of a Jet

    Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2012-01-01

    Jet charge has played an important role in experimentally testing the Parton Model and the Standard Model, and has many potential LHC applications. The energy-weighted charge of a jet is not an infrared-safe quantity, so hadronization must be taken into account. Here we develop the formalism to calculate it, cleanly separating the nonperturbative from the perturbative physics, which we compute at one-loop order. We first study the average and width of the jet charge distribution, for which the nonperturbative input is related to (dihadron) fragmentation functions. In an alternative and novel approach, we consider the full nonperturbative jet charge distribution and calculate its evolution and jet algorithm corrections, which has a natural Monte Carlo-style implementation. Our numerical results are compared to Pythia and show reasonable agreement. This calculation can directly be extended to similar track-based observables, such as the total track momentum generated by an energetic parton.

  11. FURNACE calculations for JET neutron diagnostics

    Neutron transport calculations have been performed for the JET-torus, using the two-dimensional toroidal geometry transport code system FURNACE, to predict the response of the time integrated neutron yield monitors on the variation of the plasma conditions. Calculations have been performed for the full aperture D-shaped and circular plasmas, for DD-operation and for DT-operation. For the neutron source distribution a simple model was used based on plasma-plasma interaction. For the torus rotation symmetry around the main torus axis was assumed. Curves have been produced that give the radial plasma shift as function of the ratio of the foil activations measured. It is shown that these curves are sufficiently accurate for application in the DT-phase. For application in the DD-phase, however, the flux of neutrons backscattered from the massive torus needs to be calculated more accurately. (Auth.)

  12. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    Cullen, Gavin [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, Nicolas [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinrich, Gudrun; Reiter, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, Gionata [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, Giovanni [New York City Univ., NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; New York City Univ., NY (United States). The Graduate School and University Center; Tramontano, Francesco [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  13. Cosmology calculations almost without general relativity

    Jordan, T F

    2003-01-01

    The Friedmann equation can be derived for a Newtonian universe. Changing mass density to energy density gives exactly the Friedmann equation of general relativity. Accounting for work done by pressure then yields the two Einstein equations that govern the expansion of the universe. Descriptions and explanations of radiation pressure and vacuum pressure are added to complete a basic kit of cosmology tools. It provides a basis for teaching cosmology to undergraduates in a way that quickly equips them to do basic calculations. This is demonstrated with calculations involving: characteristics of the expansion for densities dominated by radiation, matter, or vacuum; the closeness of the density to the critical density; how much vacuum energy compared to matter energy is needed to make the expansion accelerate; and how little is needed to make it stop. Travel time and luninosity distance are calculated in terms of the redshift and the densities of matter and vacuum energy, using a scaled Friedmann equation with the...

  14. Radiation transport calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The methods and data used to calculate the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prompt and delayed radiation fluences for the DS02 study represent a considerable improvement over the methods and data used for the DS86 study. During the intervening sixteen years, enhancements were made in the radiation transport codes and the nuclear data that are used to describe the migration of the neutrons and gamma rays from the bomb location through the intervening air and into, out of and off the surface of the ground. Increased computational capability permits better descriptions of the weapon source spectra and their extension to higher neutron and photon energies. The weapon leakage spectra were generated in the same neutron and gamma-ray energy structures that were used in the transport calculations. No interpolation or fitting of the leakage spectra was necessary, assuring consistent and accurate representations of the data were used in the transport calculations. (J.P.N.)

  15. KENO-IV code benchmark calculation, (6)

    A series of benchmark tests has been undertaken in JAERI in order to examine the capability of JAERI's criticality safety evaluation system consisting of the Monte Carlo calculation code KENO-IV and the newly developed multigroup constants library MGCL. The present report describes the results of a benchmark test using criticality experiments about Plutonium fuel in various shape. In all, 33 cases of experiments have been calculated for Pu(NO3)4 aqueous solution, Pu metal or PuO2-polystyrene compact in various shape (sphere, cylinder, rectangular parallelepiped). The effective multiplication factors calculated for the 33 cases distribute widely between 0.955 and 1.045 due to wide range of system variables. (author)

  16. Benchmark calculation of CANDU end shielding system

    Roh, Gyuhong; Choi, Hangbok [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    A shielding analysis was performed for the end shield of CANDU 6 reactor. The one-dimensional discrete ordinate code ANISN with a 38-group neutron-gamma library, extracted from DLC-37D library, was used to estimate the dose rate for the natural uranium CANDU reactor. For comparison, MCNP-4B calculation was performed for the same system using continuous, discrete and multi-group libraries. The comparison has shown that the total dose rate of the ANISN calculation agrees well with that of the MCNP calculation. However, the individual dose rate (neutron and gamma) has shown opposite trends between ANISN and MCNP estimates, which may require a consistent library generation for both codes.

  17. Use of quadratic components for buckling calculations

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Segalman, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A buckling calculation procedure based on the method of quadratic components is presented. Recently developed for simulating the motion of rotating flexible structures, the method of quadratic components is shown to be applicable to buckling problems with either conservative or nonconservative loads. For conservative loads, stability follows from the positive definiteness of the system`s stiffness matrix. For nonconservative loads, stability is determined by solving a nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, which depends on both the stiffness and mass distribution of the system. Buckling calculations presented for a cantilevered beam are shown to compare favorably with classical results. Although the example problem is fairly simple and well-understood, the procedure can be used in conjunction with a general-purpose finite element code for buckling calculations of more complex systems.

  18. Note about socio-economic calculations

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...... for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of...... infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a...

  19. Challenges in Large Scale Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Ratcliff, Laura E; Huhs, Georg; Deutsch, Thierry; Masella, Michel; Genovese, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, quantum mechanical methods have undergone an amazing transition from pioneering investigations of experts into a wide range of practical applications, made by a vast community of researchers. First principles calculations of systems containing up to a few hundred atoms have become a standard in many branches of science. The sizes of the systems which can be simulated have increased even further during recent years, and quantum-mechanical calculations of systems up to many thousands of atoms are nowadays possible. This opens up new appealing possibilities, in particular for interdisciplinary work, bridging together communities of different needs and sensibilities. In this review we will present the current status of this topic, and will also give an outlook on the vast multitude of applications, challenges and opportunities stimulated by electronic structure calculations, making this field an important working tool and bringing together researchers of many different domains.

  20. Method for consequence calculations for severe accidents

    This report was commissioned by the Swedish State Power Board. The report contains a calculation of radiation doses in the surroundings caused by a theoretical core meltdown accident at Forsmark reactor No 3. The assumption used for the calculations were a 0.06% release of iodine and cesium corresponding to a 0.1% release through the FILTRA plant at Barsebaeck. The calculations were made by means of the PLUCON4 code. Meteorological data for two years from the Forsmark meteorological tower were analysed to find representative weather situations. As typical weather pasquill D was chosen with wind speed 5 m/s, and as extreme weather, Pasquill F with wind speed 2 m/s. 23 tabs., 36 ills., 21 refs. (author)

  1. LCEs for Naval Reactor Benchmark Calculations

    W.J. Anderson

    1999-07-19

    The purpose of this engineering calculation is to document the MCNP4B2LV evaluations of Laboratory Critical Experiments (LCEs) performed as part of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology program. LCE evaluations documented in this report were performed for 22 different cases with varied design parameters. Some of these LCEs (10) are documented in existing references (Ref. 7.1 and 7.2), but were re-run for this calculation file using more neutron histories. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the MCNP4B2LV code system's ability to accurately calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for various critical configurations. These LCE evaluations support the development and validation of the neutronics methodology used for criticality analyses involving Naval reactor spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository.

  2. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... calculator, based on major National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cohort studies, is designed to predict 10-year risk of 'hard' atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, namely, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal, or fatal stroke. Considerable...... disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  3. Multiloop calculations in perturbative quantum field theory

    Blokland, Ian Richard

    This thesis deals with high-precision calculations in perturbative quantum field theory. In conjunction with detailed experimental measurements, perturbative quantum field theory provides the quantitative framework with which much of modern particle physics is understood. The results of three new theoretical calculations are presented. The first is a definitive resolution of a recent controversy involving the interaction of a muon with a magnetic field. Specifically, the light-by-light scattering contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is shown to be of positive sign, thereby decreasing the discrepancy between theory and experiment. Despite this adjustment to the theoretical prediction, the remaining discrepancy might be a subtle signature of new kinds of particles. The second calculation involves the energy levels of a bound state formed from two charged particles of arbitrary masses. By employing recently developed mass expansion techniques, new classes of solutions are obtained for problems in a field of particle physics with a very rich history. The third calculation provides an improved prediction for the decay of a top quark. In order to obtain this result, a large class of multiloop integrals has been solved for the first time. Top quark decay is just one member of a family of interesting physical processes to which these new results apply. Since specialized calculational techniques are essential ingredients in all three calculations, they are motivated and explained carefully in this thesis. These techniques, once automated with symbolic computational software, have recently opened avenues of solution to a wide variety of important problems in particle physics.

  4. Willow growing - Methods of calculation and profitability

    The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs

  5. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n {<=}3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3{sup 3} D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs.

  6. Necessity of Exact Calculation for Transition Probability

    LIU Fu-Sui; CHEN Wan-Fang

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that exact calculation for transition probability can make some systems deviate fromFermi golden rule seriously. This paper also shows that the corresponding exact calculation of hopping rate inducedby phonons for deuteron in Pd-D system with the many-body electron screening, proposed by Ichimaru, can explainthe experimental fact observed in Pd-D system, and predicts that perfection and low-dimension of Pd lattice are veryimportant for the phonon-induced hopping rate enhancement in Pd-D system.

  7. Calculation of radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes

    Zemke, W. T.; Verma, K. K.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for calculating bound-bound and bound-continuum (free) radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes are summarized. Calculations include rotational dependence and R-dependent electronic transition moments (no Franck-Condon or R-centroid approximation). Detailed comparisons of theoretical results with experimental measurements are made for bound-bound transitions in the A-X systems of LiH and Na2. New bound-free results are presented for LiH. New bound-free results and comparisons with very recent fluorescence experiments are presented for Na2.

  8. Intrication et Imperfections dans le Calcul Quantique

    Pomeransky, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    L'information quantique est un nouveau domaine de la physique, qui consiste à employer les systèmes quantiques dans le calcul et la transmission de l'information. Cette thèse est consacrée à l'étude de certains aspects théoriques de l'information quantique. Les ordinateurs quantiques utilisent les lois de la mécanique quantique pour exécuter des calculs d'une manière bien plus efficace que les ordinateurs existants. Les ordinateurs quantiques envisageables dans la pratique seraient influencés...

  9. Doing mathematics convention, subject, calculation, analogy

    Krieger, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses some ways of doing mathematical work and the subject matter that is being worked upon and created. It argues that the conventions we adopt, the subject areas we delimit, what we can prove and calculate about the physical world, and the analogies that work for mathematicians - all depend on mathematics, what will work out and what won't. And the mathematics, as it is done, is shaped and supported, or not, by convention, subject matter, calculation, and analogy. The cases studied include the central limit theorem of statistics, the sound of the shape of a drum, the connection

  10. Residual regularities in liquid drop mass calculations

    A systematic study of correlations in the chart of nuclear masses calculated using the finite range droplet model of Moeller et al. is presented. It is shown that the differences between the calculated and measured masses have a well defined oscillatory component as function of the proton and neutron numbers, which can be removed with an appropriate fit, concentrating the error distribution on a single peak around zero. The presence of this regular residual correlations suggests that the Strutinsky method of including microscopic fluctuations in nuclear masses could be improved

  11. Numerical calculation of second order perturbations

    We numerically solve the Klein-Gordon equation at second order in cosmological perturbation theory in closed form for a single scalar field, describing the method employed in detail. We use the slow-roll version of the second order source term and argue that our method is extendable to the full equation. We consider two standard single field models and find that the results agree with previous calculations using analytic methods, where comparison is possible. Our procedure allows the evolution of second order perturbations in general and the calculation of the non-linearity parameter fNL to be examined in cases where there is no analytical solution available

  12. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  13. New tool for standardized collector performance calculations

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus;

    2011-01-01

    A new tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance for a number of representative cities in Europe...... on the basis of parameters from collector tests performed according to EN12975, without any intermediate conversions. The main target group for this tool is test institutes and certification bodies that intend to use it for conversion of collector model parameters derived from performance tests, into a more...

  14. MCNP calculations in decommissioning of VVER-440

    The paper briefly describes the issue of neutron fluence and radionuclide inventory determination in components of decommissioned nuclear power plants with emphasis on VVER-440 reactor type. According to induced activity calculation, it will be possible to optimize the time frame and choose the appropriate dismantling procedure during the disposal of reactor internal and external components in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Prerequisite for this calculation is the collection of reactor operation data. In this paper, abilities of MCNP5 and MCNPX codes in this field are presented. (authors)

  15. Molecular transport calculations with Wannier Functions

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating coherent electron transport in atomic-scale contacts. The method combines a formally exact Green's function formalism with a mean-field description of the electronic structure based on the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory. We use an accurate plane......-wave electronic structure method to calculate the eigenstates which are subsequently transformed into a set of localized Wannier functions (WFs). The WFs provide a highly efficient basis set which at the same time is well suited for analysis due to the chemical information contained in the WFs. The method is...

  16. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 33 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  17. BEGAFIP. Programming service, development and benchmark calculations

    This report summarizes improvements to BEGAFIP (the Swedish equivalent to the Oak Ridge computer code ORIGEN). The improvements are: addition of a subroutine making it possible to calculate neutron sources, exchange of fission yields and branching ratios in the data library to those published by Meek and Rider in 1978. In addition, BENCHMARK-calculations have been made with BEGAFIP as well as with ORIGEN regarding the build-up of actinides for a fuel burnup of 33 MWd/kg U. The results were compared to those arrived upon from the more sophisticated code CASMO. (author)

  18. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  19. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    Crume, E. C.; Arnurius, D. E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly.

  20. Relaxation Method For Calculating Quantum Entanglement

    Tucci, R R

    2001-01-01

    In a previous paper, we showed how entanglement of formation can be defined as a minimum of the quantum conditional mutual information (a.k.a. quantum conditional information transmission). In classical information theory, the Arimoto-Blahut method is one of the preferred methods for calculating extrema of mutual information. We present a new method akin to the Arimoto-Blahut method for calculating entanglement of formation. We also present several examples computed with a computer program called Causa Comun that implements the ideas of this paper.

  1. A method for tokamak neutronics calculations

    This paper presents a new method for neutron transport calculation in tokamak fusion reactors. The computational procedure is based on the solution of the even-parity transport equation in a toroidal geometry. The angular neutron distribution is treated by even-parity spherical harmonic expansion, while the spatial dependence is approximated by using R-function finite elements that are defined for regions of arbitrary geometric shape. In order to test the method, calculation of a simplified tokamak model is carried out. The results are compared with the results from the literature and for the same order of accuracy a reduction of the number of spatial unknowns is shown. (author)

  2. Recursive Delay Calculation Unit for Parametric Beamformer

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2006-01-01

    hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N -channel system needs N + 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to...... each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit...

  3. COVE 2A Benchmarking calculations using NORIA

    Six steady-state and six transient benchmarking calculations have been performed, using the finite element code NORIA, to simulate one-dimensional infiltration into Yucca Mountain. These calculations were made to support the code verification (COVE 2A) activity for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. COVE 2A evaluates the usefulness of numerical codes for analyzing the hydrology of the potential Yucca Mountain site. Numerical solutions for all cases were found to be stable. As expected, the difficulties and computer-time requirements associated with obtaining solutions increased with infiltration rate. 10 refs., 128 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Calculation of tolerances in accelerating structures

    A method is suggested for calculating tolerances for similar elements of an accelerating-focusing channel of a charged particle linac the particle dynamics in which is described by linear or non-linear equations. Tolerances for each drift tube of the accelerating structure with modified variable-phase focusing are determined with respect to tolerances for the output parameters of an accelerated beam at preset lengths of drift tubes. The tolerances obtained in supposition of equal effects, equal tolerances and those accounting for the cost of fabrication and assembling of the elements of the structure are compared. The algorithm suggested can also be used for calculating tolerances in structures with hard focusing

  5. Radiological Dose Calculations for Fusion Facilities

    Michael L. Abbott; Lee C. Cadwallader; David A. Petti

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes the results and rationale for radiological dose calculations for the maximally exposed individual during fusion accident conditions. Early doses per unit activity (Sieverts per TeraBecquerel) are given for 535 magnetic fusion isotopes of interest for several release scenarios. These data can be used for accident assessment calculations to determine if the accident consequences exceed Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy evaluation guides. A generalized yearly dose estimate for routine releases, based on 1 Terabecquerel unit releases per radionuclide, has also been performed using averaged site parameters and assumed populations. These routine release data are useful for assessing designs against US Environmental Protection Agency yearly release limits.

  6. Calculated Electron Fluxes at Airplane Altitudes

    Schaefer, R K; Stanev, T

    1993-01-01

    A precision measurement of atmospheric electron fluxes has been performed on a Japanese commercial airliner (Enomoto, {\\it et al.}, 1991). We have performed a monte carlo calculation of the cosmic ray secondary electron fluxes expected in this experiment. The monte carlo uses the hadronic portion of our neutrino flux cascade program combined with the electromagnetic cascade portion of the CERN library program GEANT. Our results give good agreement with the data, provided we boost the overall normalization of the primary cosmic ray flux by 12\\% over the normalization used in the neutrino flux calculation.

  7. Tank Z-361 dose rate calculations

    Neutron and gamma ray dose rates were calculated above and around the 6-inch riser of tank Z-361 located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Dose rates were also determined off of one side of the tank. The largest dose rate 0.029 mrem/h was a gamma ray dose and occurred 76.2 cm (30 in.) directly above the open riser. All other dose rates were negligible. The ANSI/ANS 1991 flux to dose conversion factor for neutrons and photons were used in this analysis. Dose rates are reported in units of mrem/h with the calculated uncertainty shown within the parentheses

  8. Validation of BGCore System for Burnup Calculations

    BGCore is a software package for comprehensive computer simulation of nuclear reactor systems and their fuel cycles. BGCore interfaces the Monte Carlo particles transport code MCNP4C with a SARAF module - an independently developed code for calculating fuel composition during irradiation and spent fuel emissions following discharge. In BGCore system, depletion coupling methodology is based on the multi-group approach that significantly reduces computation time and allows tracking of large number of nuclides during calculations. The objective of this study is validation of the BGCore system against well established and verified, state of the art computer codes for thermal and fast spectrum lattices

  9. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    Cook, D B

    1974-01-01

    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  10. Ammonia synthesis from first principles calculations

    Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Hellman, Anders; Remediakis, Ioannis; Logadottir, Ashildur; Carlsson, A.; Dahl, Søren; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    . When the size distribution of ruthenium particles measured by transmission electron microscopy was used as the [ink between the catalyst material and the theoretical treatment, the calculated rate was within a factor of 3 to 20 of the experimental rate. This offers hope for computer-based methods in......The rate of ammonia synthesis over a nanoparticle ruthenium catalyst can be calculated directly on the basis of a quantum chemical treatment of the problem using density functional theory. We compared the results to measured rates over a ruthenium catalyst supported on magnesium aluminum spinet...

  11. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  12. Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment

    Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.

  13. Improving on calculation of martensitic phenomenological theory

    2003-01-01

    Exemplified by the martensitic transformation from DO3 to 18R in Cu-14.2Al-4.3Ni alloy and according to the principle that invariant-habit-plane can be obtained by self-accommodation between variants with twin relationships, and on the basis of displacement vector, volume fractions of two variants with twin relationships in martensitic transformation, habit-plane indexes, and orientation relationships between martensite and austenite after phase transformation can be calculated. Because no additional rotation matrixes are needed to be considered and mirror symmetric operations are used, the calculation process is simple and the results are accurate.

  14. Microscopic optical model calculations and uncertainty estimates

    Full text: The optical model is a basic ingredient of almost all reaction calculations. Therefore, a great effort has been devoted to its microscopic determination. Among the various attempts the nuclear matter approach with its various facets works surprisingly well even at low energies about 20 MeV. In the present contribution a comparison of elastic differential and integral cross sections and polarization data with theoretical results is given for structure materials. Possible procedures for assigning uncertainties to calculated observables are discussed. (author)

  15. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  16. A method to calculate Fresnel lenses

    In solar engineering, in contrast to image optics, Fresnel lenses are intended for securing the required concentrations of solar radiation and its distribution over a receiver's surface. It is also important to secure a high use coefficient of the concentrated flux. In particular, this defines the features of calculation of Fresnel lenses: it is necessary to take into account inaccuracies in fabrication of Fresnel lenses and solar radiation redistribution by means of selecting the respective parameters of Fresnel lens belts. In the present work, we examine the procedure for the calculating geometrical parameters of Fresnel lenses on a flat base by considering the mentioned requirements. A corresponding software for calculating the geometrical parameters and concentrating characteristics of the Fresnel lenses is developed, and examples of calculation are given. For a constant refractive index of Fresnel lens material, it is shown that the Fresnel lens can secure a concentration of about 1000, but in this case the optical efficiency of the Fresnel lens will not be higher than 70%. The procedure that has been developed may be the basic one for determining the parameters and concentrating characteristics of Fresnel lenses by considering refractive index variance. (author)

  17. Conductance calculations with a wavelet basis set

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    . The linear-response conductance is calculated from the Green's function which is represented in terms of a system-independent basis set containing wavelets with compact support. This allows us to rigorously separate the central region from the contacts and to test for convergence in a systematic way...

  18. Complex Kohn calculations on an overset grid

    Greenman, Loren; Lucchese, Robert; McCurdy, C. William

    2016-05-01

    An implentation of the overset grid method for complex Kohn scattering calculations is presented, along with static exchange calculations of electron-molecule scattering for small molecules including methane. The overset grid method uses multiple numerical grids, for instance Finite Element Method - Discrete Variable Representation (FEM-DVR) grids, expanded radially around multiple centers (corresponding to the individual atoms in each molecule as well as the center-of-mass of the molecule). The use of this flexible grid allows the complex angular dependence of the wavefunctions near the atomic centers to be well-described, but also allows scattering wavefunctions that oscillate rapidly at large distances to be accurately represented. Additionally, due to the use of multiple grids (and also grid shells), the method is easily parallelizable. The method has been implemented in ePolyscat, a multipurpose suite of programs for general molecular scattering calculations. It is interfaced with a number of quantum chemistry programs (including MolPro, Gaussian, GAMESS, and Columbus), from which it can read molecular orbitals and wavefunctions obtained using standard computational chemistry methods. The preliminary static exchange calculations serve as a test of the applicability.

  19. Theory and calculation of the atomic photoeffect

    Sabbatucci, Lorenzo; Salvat, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    The so-called elementary theory of the atomic photoeffect is presented in a form that is suited for practical numerical calculation of subshell cross sections and angular distributions of emitted photoelectrons. Atomic states are described within the independent-electron approximation, with bound and free one-electron orbitals that are solutions of the Dirac equation with the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent potential of the ground-state configuration. Detailed derivations are given of subshell cross sections for both excitation to discrete bound levels and ionization. In the case of ionization, the cross section differential in the direction of the photoelectron is obtained for partially polarized photons, with the polarization specified by means of the Stokes parameters. The theoretical formulas have been implemented in a computer program named PHOTACS that calculates tables of excitation and ionization cross sections for any element and subshell. Numerical calculations are practicable for excitations to final states with the principal quantum number up to about 20 and for ionization by photons with energy up to about 2 MeV. Elaborate extrapolation schemes for determining the subshell cross section for excitation to bound levels with larger principal quantum numbers and for ionization by photons with higher energies are described. The effect of the finite width of atomic energy levels is accounted for by convolving the calculated subshell cross-section with a Lorentzian profile.

  20. Harmonic balance calculations by using matrices

    Fergusson, N. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    1995-05-01

    The computation of the total and tangential stiffness matrices associated with the harmonic balance method for non-linear ordinary differential equations requires some complicated calculations involving double sums. Some matrix results are presented here that ease the associated book-keeping and allow the matrices to be programmed easily.

  1. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations for trigonal selenium have been calculated on the basis of a short range potential field model. Electrostatic long range forces have not been included. The force field is defined in terms of symmetrized coordinates which reflect partly the symmetry of the space group...

  2. Hawking temperature and higher order tunnelling calculations

    Chatterjee, Bhramar

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation has recently been explained in terms of tunnelling across the black hole horizon in a Hamilton-Jacobi framework. Higher order calculations using both usual and non-singular coordinates are found to change the tunnelling amplitude, but this change is not a simple alteration of the Hawking temperature.

  3. On the calculation of Mossbauer isomer shift

    Filatov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A quantum chemical computational scheme for the calculation of isomer shift in Mossbauer spectroscopy is suggested. Within the described scheme, the isomer shift is treated as a derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to the radius of a finite nucleus. The explicit use of a finite nuc

  4. Paper-and-pencil cosmological calculator

    Pilipenko, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil calculator is a cosmological nomogram which allows to find relations between redshift, distance, age of the Universe, physical and angular sizes, luminosity and apparent magnitude for the standard cosmological model with parameters from the Planck mission.

  5. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    This thesis focuses on some of the numerical aspects of the treatment of the electronic structure problem, in particular that of determining the ground state electronic density for the non–equilibrium Green’s function formulation of two–probe systems and the calculation of transmission in the Lan...

  6. Calculating uncertainties of safeguards indices: error propagation

    Statistical methods play an important role in making references about a MUF, shipper-receiver difference, operator-inspector difference, and other safeguards indices. This session considers the sources and types of measurement errors and treats a specific example to illustrate how the variance of MUF is calculated for the model plant

  7. A New Iterative Method to Calculate [pi

    Dion, Peter; Ho, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    For at least 2000 years people have been trying to calculate the value of [pi], the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. People know that [pi] is an irrational number; its decimal representation goes on forever. Early methods were geometric, involving the use of inscribed and circumscribed polygons of a circle. However, real…

  8. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  9. Calculation code of the fission products activity

    The document describes the two codes for the calculation of the fission products activity. The ''Pepin le bref'' code gives the exact value of the beta and gamma activities of completely known fission products. The code ''Plus Pepin'' introduces the beta and gamma activities whose properties are partially known. (A.L.B.)

  10. Analytic methods for calculating coupling impedances

    These lecture notes describe a variety of analytic techniques to calculate the longitudinal and transverse impedances of obstacles in a beam pipe. They also treat the effort to shield these impedances from the beam by appropriate use of thin conducting layers. (orig.)

  11. Calculating the Fuzzy Project Network Critical Path

    Nasser Shahsavari Pour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A project network consists of various activities. To determine the length of project time and the amount of the needed sources, the time of project completion must correctly and exactly be calculated, so the critical path is calculated. The activities on this path have no floating. It means that there is no delay on these activities. As a result the calculation of the critical path in a project network has a special importance. In this paper a simple method for calculation the critical path is proposed. Assignment an exact time on any activity in real world is not correct; So the fuzzy and uncertainty theories are used to assigned a length of time on any activities. In the present study the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are assigned to the length of activity time, and the total time of the project is also a fuzzy number. In addition, to compare the fuzzy numbers, ranking of fuzzy numbers are used. Finally a practical example will show the efficiency of the method.

  12. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  13. The code system COROUT: Radioactive inventory calculations

    The code system COROUT is devoted to the evaluation of nuclear reactor out-of-core radioactive inventory for the sake of the nuclear power plant decommissioning problem. The code includes calculations of the neutron flux distributions and activation kinetics in the consistent way. Only thermal neutrons are taken into consideration in the present code version. Code is divided into three steps. The first step prepares the necessary data file containing data on reactor geometry, core flux, reactor operational history and data on elements in the out-of-core zones. The main part of calculations are performed during the second step. Here the thermal neutron flux distribution in the out-of-core area is calculated for two-dimensional cylindrical geometry and the system of gain-loss equations and the activation kinetics is solved for the elements in the different out-of-core shells. The Vladimirov's method of iterations on the spatial grid is used for the neutron flux calculations. The kinetic equations are solved by the operational method. The change of neutron field due to activation during reactor campaign is taken into account. The third part of COROUT code system allows to prepare plots of flux and activity distribution for different shells. All steps could be initiated independently using the results stored at the previous steps. The code is destined for the personal computers and has been written on the base of 32-bit FORTRAN language for IBM PC. 4 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. Fast calculation of best focus position

    Bezzubik, V.; Belashenkov, N.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    New computational technique based on linear-scale differential analysis (LSDA) of digital image is proposed to find the best focus position in digital microscopy by means of defocus estimation in two near-focal positions only. The method is based on the calculation of local gradients of the image on

  15. Calculated electron fluxes at airplane altitudes

    A precision measurement of atmospheric electron fluxes has been performed on a Japanese commercial airliner (Enomoto et al.). The bulk of these electrons are produced in pairs from the γ rays emitted when π0's decay, which in turn have been produced in cosmic-ray--air-nucleus collisions. These electron fluxes can be used to test elements of our atmospheric neutrino flux calculation, i.e., the assumed primary spectrum and the Monte Carlo shower code. Here we have modified the Monte Carlo program which has previously been used to calculate the fluxes of atmospheric neutrinos by combining it with the program GEANT to compute the electromagnetic part of the shower. This hybrid program now keeps track of the electrons produced in cosmic-ray showers as a function of energy and atmospheric depth. We compare our calculated integral fluxes above the experimental threshold energies 1, 2, and 4 GeV for a variety of atmospheric depths and cutoff rigidities. Our results are in good agreement (∼ a few %) with the data, but we found we needed to boost the normalization of the primary flux by 12% over the value we had previously used to calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux

  16. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor...

  17. GENMOD - A program for internal dosimetry calculations

    The computer code GENMOD was created to calculate the retention and excretion, and the integrated retention for selected radionuclides under a variety of exposure conditions. Since the creation of GENMOD new models have been developed and interfaced to GENMOD. This report describes the models now included in GENMOD, the dosimetry factors database, and gives a brief description of the GENMOD program

  18. Fission cross section calculations for Pa isotopes

    Based on the recently measured cross-section values for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa and our experience gained with other isotopes, new self consistent neutron cross section calculations for n+231Pa have been performed up to 30 MeV. The results are quite different to the existing evaluations, especially above the first chance fission threshold. (authors)

  19. ROI Calculations for Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    Altalib, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of calculating the return on investment (ROI) for electronic performance support systems, beginning with the practical issues of identifying what will be measured and then assigning costs and benefits to each variable in monetary terms. Suggests the challenge is in defining and quantifying the real business benefits.…

  20. Dose calculation in brachytherapy with microcomputers

    The computer algorithms, that allow the calculation of brachytherapy doses and its graphic representation for implants, using programs developed for Pc microcomputers are presented. These algorithms allow to localized the sources in space, from their projection in radiographics images and trace isodose counter. (C.G.C.)

  1. A note on weighted premium calculation principles

    M. Kaluszka; R.J.A. Laeven; A. Okolewski

    2012-01-01

    A prominent problem in actuarial science is to determine premium calculation principles that satisfy certain criteria. Goovaerts et al. [Goovaerts, M. J., De Vylder, F., Haezendonck, J., 1984. Insurance Premiums: Theory and Applications. North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 84] establish an optimality-type

  2. On nonadiabatic SCF calculations of molecular properties

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the dynamic extended molecular orbital (DEMO) method may be less accurate than expected because the motion of the center of mass was not properly removed prior to the SCF calculation. Under such conditions the virial theorem is a misleading indication of the accuracy of the wavefunction.

  3. Difference equations in massive higher order calculations

    The calculation of massive 2-loop operator matrix elements, required for the higher order Wilson coefficients for heavy flavor production in deeply inelastic scattering, leads to new types of multiple infinite sums over harmonic sums and related functions, which depend on the Mellin parameter N. We report on the solution of these sums through higher order difference equations using the summation package Sigma. (orig.)

  4. Surface area estimation: pocket calculator v nomogram.

    Briars, G L; Bailey, B J

    1994-01-01

    Three sheets of 10 surface area determinations were completed by 10 subjects using a nomogram and a formula. The formula was faster to calculate, 4.27 v 7.6 minutes for each sheet, and resulted in fewer serious errors (three v 30 errors).

  5. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W

    1974-01-01

    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  6. Molecular symmetry in ab initio calculations

    A scheme is presented for the construction of the Fock matrix in LCAO-SCF calculations and for the transformation of basis integrals to LCAO-MO integrals that can utilize several symmetry unique lists of integrals corresponding to different symmetry groups. The algorithm is fully compatible with vector processing machines and is especially suited for parallel processing machines. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Cobalamins uncovered by modern electronic structure calculations

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ryde, Ulf

    electronic-structure calculations, in particular density functional methods, the understanding of the molecular mechanism of cobalamins has changed dramatically, going from a dominating view of trans-steric strain effects to a much more complex view involving an arsenal of catalytic strategies. Among these...

  8. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  9. Significance of intraocular lens power calculation.

    M. Singh; Dahalan, A

    1987-01-01

    A total of 94 patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction and insertion of Sinsky style two-loop posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Forty-six eyes received a standard power IOL and 48 eyes were given a preoperatively calculated IOL. A significant difference was found in the two groups with regard to the postoperative refractive error and uncorrected visual acuity.

  10. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  11. Relativistic calculations for many electron atoms

    Many improvements have now been introduced in ab-initio methods for relativistic atomic structure calculations. After a short description of the different methods, we review the various contributions to energy levels and compare the most recent theoretical and experimental results for few electron heavy ions

  12. Witten index calculation in supersymmetric gauge theory

    Direct calculation of the Witten index Isub(W) in the SU(2) SUSY Yang-Mills theiory is performed using the periodic boundary conditions. Our result is Isub(W)--1 which disagrees with the Witten's result: Isub(W)=N for the SU(N) gauge group. The principle physical conclusion of SUSY unbreaking in this theory remains intact

  13. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    Barrault, M; Hager, W W; Le Bris, C

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods.

  14. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    Maddalena De Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS. Methods. A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. Results. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the problem of calculating the IOL power in patients that underwent CRS were found. According to the information needed to try to overcome this problem, the methods were divided in two main categories: 18 methods were based on the knowledge of the patient clinical history and 15 methods that do not require such knowledge. The first group was further divided into five subgroups based on the parameters needed to make such calculation. Conclusion. In the light of our findings, to avoid postoperative nasty surprises, we suggest using only those methods that have shown good results in a large number of patients, possibly by averaging the results obtained with these methods.

  15. Properties and calculations of multi parton processes

    Methods are studied and developed to calculate multi-jet final states. Jets are streams of hadrons moving more or less in the same direction, resulting from fragmentation of partons (i.e. quarks and gluons) originating from large angle scattering of partons in proton-antiproton collisions. The study of jets at colliders is a direct test of the QCD description of the strong interactions. Furthermore accurate calculations of multi-jet final states may reveal new and interesting physics hidden in the background of these states. In ch. 2 the parton model is described, the application of perturbative calculations is given and the shortcomings of the approach are given. In ch.'s 3 and 4 the Weyl-van der Waerden spinor calculus, which makes optimal use of the fact that in the calculations all partons are taken massless thus reducing a lot of algebra which is necessary in more conventional spinor calculus, is presented and the recursion relations are applied in the actual calculations of multi-parton matrix elements in ch.'s 5, 6, 7 and 8. The Parke-Taylor conjecture, which gives the matrix element for the scattering of two gluons to an arbitrary number of gluons for special helicity of the gluons, and related conjectures are proven. The validity of the conjecture is important because approximate formulae for multi gluon processes are based upon it. The proof is extended to processes involving a quark pair with or without a vector boson (ch. 5). In ch. 6 the soft gluon behaviour of multi-parton processes is examined. A number of factorization processes are proven for scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gluons. The subject of ch.'s 7 and 8 is the explicit calculation of multi-parton helicity amplitudes. Ch. 8 is concerned with n-gluon scattering, n< B, while in ch. 8 the process involving a vector boson and up to 5 partons is calculated. (H.W.). 97 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs. schemes

  16. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  17. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  18. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  19. Optimizing an analytical dose calculation algorithm for fast 2D calculations

    Lorenz, Friedlieb [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Centre, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Richter, Henning [Technical Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Zygmanski, Piotr [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Previously, an analytical dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based radiotherapy was developed and commissioned, which includes a detailed model of various MLC effects as a unique feature [1]. The algorithm was originally developed as an independent verification of the treatment planning system's dose calculation and it explicitly modeled spatial and depth dependent MLC effects such as interleaf transmission, the tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, MLC scatter, beam hardening, and gradual MLC transmission fall-off with increasing off-axis distance. Originally the algorithm was implemented in Mathematica trademark (Wolfram). To speed up the calculation time and to be able to calculate high resolution 2D dose distributions within a reasonable time frame (<2 s) the algorithm needs to be optimized and to be embedded in a user friendly environment. To achieve this goal, the dose calculation model is implemented in Visual Basic 6.0, which decreases the calculation time moderately. More importantly, the numerical algorithm for dose calculation is changed at two levels: the dose contributions are split into their x- and y-contributions and the calculation is aperture- rather than as originally point-based. Implementing these three major changes, the calculation time is reduced considerably without loosing accuracy. The time for a typical IMRT field with about 2500 calculation points decreased from 2387 seconds to 0.624 seconds (a factor of about 3800). The mean agreement of the optimized and the not optimized calculation algorithm at the isocenter for a fairly complex IMRT plan with 23 fields is better than 1% relative to the local dose at the measuring point. (orig.)

  20. Third Grade Students' Performance on Calculator and Calculator-Related Tasks. Technical Report No. 498.

    Weaver, J. Fred

    Refinements of work with calculator algorithms previously conducted by the author are reported. Work with "chaining" and the doing/undoing property in addition and subtraction was tested with 24 third-grade students. Results indicated the need for further instruction with both ideas. Students were able to manipulate the calculator keyboard, but…