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Sample records for 4-chloro phenol efecto

  1. Effect of the modification of a natural mexican zeolite in the sorption of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol; Efecto de la modificacion de una zeolita natural mexicana en la sorcion de cadmio y 4-clorofenol

    Cortes M, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Clinoptilolite type zeolite is a material of relative abundance in Mexico, which possess ion exchange properties and it can be used in the removal of metal ions from polluted waters. The external surface of zeolites can be modified with cationic surfactants. This modification could have a negative effect on the removal of metal ions and provides to the material the capacity to adsorb phenolic compounds. For this reason, it is important to know the capability of the modified material on the sorption of metal ions and phenolic compounds, simultaneously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the external surface modification with surfactant of a Mexican zeolite over its sorption capacity of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol, in batch and column systems. To accomplish that, a clinoptilolite type zeolitic rock from a deposit located in the state of Sonora, Mexico, was used. It was ground, sieved and characterized with different techniques; and its external surface area was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). A grain size fraction was selected to carry out sorption kinetics and equilibrium experiments, as well as packed column tests with zeolitic material and solutions of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol. There are different models proposed in literature that are used to describe sorption kinetics and equilibrium. In this work, the sorption experimental results were adjusted to some of these models to identify controlling mechanisms on the kinetics and equilibrium of the studied systems. The results showed that the cadmium adsorption on natural and modified zeolite was similar in batch systems. For the case of 4-chloro phenol sorption, it was observed that natural zeolite does not retain this compound, while in modified zeolite the sorption is better than other comparable materials. The results also showed that for the case of cadmium sorption, the mechanism involved was ion exchange; while for sorption of 4-chloro phenol, a partition mechanism

  2. Analysis of the photo catalytic degradation of the 4-chloro phenol and endosulfan by gas chromatography

    The water and soil pollution by organic compounds of considerable toxicity, is every time more alarming. The phenols and organo chlorinated compounds are some of the pollutants of more environmental concern. The present work shows the degradation by heterogeneous photo catalysis of the 4-chloro phenol and endosulfan in watery solutions using a photo reactor at laboratory scale, under ultraviolet irradiation as energy source and titanium dioxide TiO2 Degussa P25 as catalyst. Solutions of both compounds at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L were used, analyzing the more important operation parameters with those that the maxima degradation levels were reached. The analyzed variables were catalyst concentration and irradiation time, the analytical techniques of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used as process control. By means of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy it was settled down that starting from the quantitative analysis, the 4-chloro phenol presented bigger degradation at smaller concentrations. Under the operation conditions mentioned in this work, it was observed that the photo catalytic processes obey a first order behavior in the chemical kinetics being adjusted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (L-H). With the purpose of checking the degradation of the same ones it was used the gas chromatography, which is an advanced technique for the process pursuit, auxiliary in the quantification and analysis of the photo catalytic degradation of the 4-chloro phenol and endosulfan. It was based on the development and validation of the analytical method, by means of which was proven that the method is good and reliable in the research environment. The results of the quantitative analysis by gas chromatography and ultraviolet-visible, derived of the photo catalytic degradation of the 4-chloro phenol, in the maximum time of study (180 minutes), using the concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L was found, by gas chromatography, a maximum

  3. Effect of the modification of a natural mexican zeolite in the sorption of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol

    Clinoptilolite type zeolite is a material of relative abundance in Mexico, which possess ion exchange properties and it can be used in the removal of metal ions from polluted waters. The external surface of zeolites can be modified with cationic surfactants. This modification could have a negative effect on the removal of metal ions and provides to the material the capacity to adsorb phenolic compounds. For this reason, it is important to know the capability of the modified material on the sorption of metal ions and phenolic compounds, simultaneously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the external surface modification with surfactant of a Mexican zeolite over its sorption capacity of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol, in batch and column systems. To accomplish that, a clinoptilolite type zeolitic rock from a deposit located in the state of Sonora, Mexico, was used. It was ground, sieved and characterized with different techniques; and its external surface area was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). A grain size fraction was selected to carry out sorption kinetics and equilibrium experiments, as well as packed column tests with zeolitic material and solutions of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol. There are different models proposed in literature that are used to describe sorption kinetics and equilibrium. In this work, the sorption experimental results were adjusted to some of these models to identify controlling mechanisms on the kinetics and equilibrium of the studied systems. The results showed that the cadmium adsorption on natural and modified zeolite was similar in batch systems. For the case of 4-chloro phenol sorption, it was observed that natural zeolite does not retain this compound, while in modified zeolite the sorption is better than other comparable materials. The results also showed that for the case of cadmium sorption, the mechanism involved was ion exchange; while for sorption of 4-chloro phenol, a partition mechanism

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  5. Methylene blue and 4-chloro phenol degradation by photo catalysis with ultraviolet light, using TiO2 as catalyst

    Within the decontamination and remediation processes of the contaminated waters, as the refining or tertiary processes are the Advanced Oxidation Technologies. Among this technology is the heterogeneous photo catalysis, which is the object of this work to de grate 4-chloro phenol and methylene blue, using as semiconductor commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2). On the degradation the combination is exposed in the use of TiO2 under gamma irradiation of 60Co at different doses 400, 500, 800, 1000 and 1500 kGy. The organic compounds degradation was determined and the results show that to more radiation dose, the material is modified in such way that shows a major absorption of the organic compound, in the same way it is determined that to more dose which undergoes the TiO2 generally a major degradation is observed, but also it is has to give a more time of previous stabilization, for that the degradation is observed of better way. (Author)

  6. A heterogeneous Fenton-like system with nanoparticulate zero-valent iron for removal of 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol

    The removal of biocide 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol (CMP) was investigated by heterogeneous Fenton-like system using nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) as catalyst. The properties of nZVI before and after reaction were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of pH value, initial concentration of CMP, nZVI dose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were determined. The experimental results showed that lower pH value and CMP concentration brought faster degradation rate. With the initial pH value of 6.1 and initial CMP concentration of 0.7 mM, the optimal dosage of reagents were 0.5 g nZVI/L and 3.0 mM H2O2. At pH 6.1, the degradation of CMP followed two-stage first-order kinetic that composed of an induction period (first-stage) and a followed rapid degradation stage (second-stage). According to the effects of scavengers n-butanol and KI, hydroxyl radicals (·OH), especially the surface-bounded ·OH, had a dominant role in the oxidation of CMP. The degradation intermediates, carboxylic acids and chloride ion produced during the reaction process were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). On the basis of these findings, the possible mechanistic steps of CMP degradation were proposed.

  7. 4-Chloro-3-ethylphenol

    Sean H. Majer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H9ClO, packs with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, without significant differences in corresponding bond lengths and angles, with the ethyl group in each oriented nearly perpendicular to the aromatic ring having ring-to-side chain torsion angles of 81.14 (18 and −81.06 (19°. In the crystal, molecules form an O—H...O hydrogen-bonded chain extending along the b-axis direction, through the phenol groups in which the H atoms are disordered. These chains pack together in the solid state, giving a sheet lying parallel to (001, via an offset face-to-face π-stacking interaction characterized by a centroid–centroid distance of 3.580 (1 Å, together with a short intermolecular Cl...Cl contact [3.412 (1 Å].

  8. 4-Chloro-N-o-tolylbenzamide

    Hiroyuki Ishida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C14H12ClNO, the two benzene rings are close to coplanar [dihedral angle = 7.85 (4°]. The amide N—C=O plane makes dihedral angles of 34.04 (4 and 39.90 (3°, respectively, with the 4-chloro- and 2-methylphenyl rings. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains.

  9. Methylene blue and 4-chloro phenol degradation by photo catalysis with ultraviolet light, using TiO{sub 2} as catalyst; Degradacion de azul de metileno y 4-clorofenol por fotocatalisis con luz ultravioleta, utilizando TiO{sub 2} como catalizador

    Martinez H, A.

    2010-07-01

    Within the decontamination and remediation processes of the contaminated waters, as the refining or tertiary processes are the Advanced Oxidation Technologies. Among this technology is the heterogeneous photo catalysis, which is the object of this work to de grate 4-chloro phenol and methylene blue, using as semiconductor commercial titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). On the degradation the combination is exposed in the use of TiO{sub 2} under gamma irradiation of {sup 60}Co at different doses 400, 500, 800, 1000 and 1500 kGy. The organic compounds degradation was determined and the results show that to more radiation dose, the material is modified in such way that shows a major absorption of the organic compound, in the same way it is determined that to more dose which undergoes the TiO{sub 2} generally a major degradation is observed, but also it is has to give a more time of previous stabilization, for that the degradation is observed of better way. (Author)

  10. 4-Chloro-2-[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)iminomethyl]phenol

    Balamurugan, P.; K. Kanmani Raja; D. Easwaramoorthy; G. Chakkaravarthi; Rajagopal, G.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H22ClNO, contains two independent molecules in which the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 76.45 (9) and 74.69 (9)°. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond occurs in each molecule. The crystal structure features weak C—H...π interactions.

  11. 4-Chloro-2-[(2,6-diisopropylphenyliminomethyl]phenol

    P. Balamurugan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H22ClNO, contains two independent molecules in which the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 76.45 (9 and 74.69 (9°. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond occurs in each molecule. The crystal structure features weak C—H...π interactions.

  12. 4-Chloro-2,3,5-trifluorobenzoic Acid

    Shuitao Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new tetrahalogenated benzoic acid 4-chloro-2,3,5-trifluorobenzoic acid was synthesized from methyl 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoate via three steps. The structure of the newly synthesized compound was established by FTIR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis.

  13. Schiff Base 2-[(2-Bromo-phenylimino)-methyl]-4-chloro-phenol and Its Copper(Ⅱ) Complex:Synthesis and Crystal Structure%2-[(2-溴苯胺基)甲基]-4-氯苯酚Schiff碱及其铜配合物的合成及晶体结构

    郭亚宁

    2011-01-01

    A Cu(Ⅱ) complex (2) of 2-[(2-bromo-phenylimino)-methyl]-4-chloro-phenol (1) generated from 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and o-bromoaniline was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction.Compound 1 is in the orthorhombic system,space group Pbca with a=0.710 19(12) nm,b=1.308 2(2)nm,c=2.533 3 (5) nm,Mr=310.57,V=2.353 6 (7) nm3,Dc=1.753 g·cm-3,F (000)=1 232,μ=3.700 mm-1,Z=8,R=0.025 0 and wR2=0.055 5.Compound 2 belongs to the monoclinic system,space group P21/c with a=0.956 8(2)nm,b=1.085 3(3) nm,c=1.204 7(3) nm,β=105.965(7)°,V=1.202 8(6) nm3,Mr=682.67,Dc=1.885 g·cm-3,Z=2,μ=4.481 mm-1,F(000)=670,R=0.045 0 and wR2=O.122 5.Compound 1 is stabilized by intermolecular C-H…N and intra-molecular C-H … O hydrogen bonds,C-H…Cl and π…π interaction and further linked into a 2D layer structure.But compound 2 is connected by halogen…halogen and C-H…π hydrogen bond to form a 3D network.CCDC:803365,1; 803366,2.%以5-氯水杨醛和邻溴苯胺为原料合成了一种新的Schiff碱配体2-[(2-溴苯胺基)甲基]-4-氯苯酚(1)(C13H9BrClNO,H2L),继而与过渡金属铜离子配合,得到其配合物2([Cu(C13H8BrClNO)2],CuL2).通过X-射线衍射法对配体及其配合物进行了结构表征.化合物1属正交晶系,Pbca空间群,晶胞参数a=0.710 19(12) nm,b=1.308 2(2) nm,c=2.533 3(5) nm,Mr=310.57,V=2.353 6(7) nm 3,Dc=1.753 g·cm-3,Z=8,μ=3.700 mm-1,Z=8,F(000)=1 232,R=0.025 0,wR=0.055 5;化合物1依靠分子间的C-H…N,C-H…O,C-H…Cl氢键及π-π堆积作用进一步联结成二维网状结构.化合物2属单斜晶系,P21/c空间群,晶胞参数a=0.956 8(2) nm,b=1.085 3(3) nm,c=1.204 7(3) nm,β=105.965(7)°,Mr=682.67,V=1.202 8(6) nm 3,Dc=1.885 g·cm-3,Z=2,μ=4.481 mm-1,F(000)=670,R=0.045 0,wR=0.1225.2依靠分子间C-H…π作用及卤索…卤素作用进一步联结成三维网状结构.

  14. Measurement and correlation of solubility of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxynitrobenzene and 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyaniline in methanol, ethanol, xylene and toluene

    Highlights: • Solubility of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxynitrobenzene in four solvents were measured. • Solubility of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenylamine in four solvents were measured. • The experimental data were correlated with the Wilson model and the NRTL model. • A suitable solvent for reduction of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxynitrobenzene was suggested. - Abstract: The solubility of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxynitrobenzene (CDMB) and 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyaniline (CDMA) in methanol, ethanol, xylene and toluene was measured over the temperatures range from (278 to 338) K by the dynamic method using a laser monitoring observation technique. The solubility in all solvents increased with temperature and the greatest solubility of both systems was obtained in toluene. The Wilson and the NRTL models were applied to correlate the experimental results. The root-mean-square deviations for the system of (CDMB + solvent) ranged from T = (0.11 to 0.34) K and (0.08 to 0.33) K calculated by the Wilson and the NRTL models, respectively, while for the system of (CDMA + solvent) the root-mean-square deviations ranged from T = (0.11 to 0.32) K and (0.14 to 0.33) K. The melting points and enthalpies of fusion of CDMA and CDMB were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Toluene was found to be the preferred solvent for the reduction of CDMB to CDMA from the point of view of reaction and product separation

  15. 1-(4-Chloro-3-fluorophenyl-2-[(3-phenylisoquinolin-1-ylsulfanyl]ethanone

    F. Nawaz Khan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H15ClFNOS, the isoquinoline system and the 4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl ring are aligned at 80.4 (1°. The dihedral angle between the isoquinoline system and the pendant (unsubstituted phenyl ring is 19.91 (1°.

  16. Bis(4-chloro-2-cyclohexylimino methyl-phenolate)-two Thiocyanation Cadmium

    ZHANG Xin-Li; LI Zong-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    The title compound (C28H32CdCl2N4O2S2, Mr = 704.00) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Schiff base compound is a derivative of 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde. As expected, the molecular structure adopts a trans configuration about the central C=N double bond. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 6.003(5), b = 16.490(15), c = 15.698 (14) (A),β = 94.523(12)°, V= 1549(2) (A)3,Z = 2, Dc = 1.509 g/cm3, F(000) = 716 andμ = 1.044 mm-1. A total of 7724 reflections were collected in the range of 2.47~25.01° by using an phi and omega scantechnique, of which 2695 were unique (Rint = 0.0341) and 2258 observed reflections with I > 2δ(Ⅰ) were used in the structure solution and refinement. The complex assumes a distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by four thiocyanate anions and two Schiff base ligands. The thiocyanate anion bridges the neighboring Cd(Ⅱ) atoms to form the polymeric chains.

  17. 4-Chloro-6-pyrimidinylferrocene modified silica gel: A novel multiple-function stationary phase for mixed-mode chromatography.

    Qiao, Lijun; Zhou, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yanhao; Yu, Ajuan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Shusheng; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-06-01

    A novel multi-function and mixed-mode stationary phase based on 4-chloro-6-pyrimidinylferrocene modified silica (NFcS) was synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Linear solvation energy relationship method was successfully employed to evaluate the new phase with a set of 27 solutes including aromatic and aliphatic compounds. Multiple mechanisms including hydrophobic, π-π, hydrogen-bonding, charge-transfer, acid-base equilibrium and anion-exchange interactions are involved. Based on these interactions, successful separation could be achieved among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mono-substituted benzenes, aromatic amines, phenols, quinolines, pyridines and nucleosides in reversed-phase (RP) or normal-phase (NP) chromatography. Inorganic anions were also shown to be individually separated in anion-exchange chromatography by using the same column. Moreover, the results here also demonstrated that NFcS based stationary phase could effectively reduce the adverse effect of residual silanol in the separation process. Such stationary phase with characteristics of multi-interaction mechanism and mixed-mode separation is potential for the analysis of complex samples. The NFcS column was successfully employed for the analysis of plant growth regulators in Fruit. PMID:27130083

  18. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    Arora Pankaj; Sharma Ashutosh; Mehta Richa; Shenoy Belle; Srivastava Alok; Singh Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium s...

  19. Decolourization of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol by a soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700.

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    Full Text Available A 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP decolourizing strain RKJ 700 was isolated from soil collected from a pesticide contaminated site of India and identified as Bacillus subtilis on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700 decolourized 4C2NP up to concentration of 1.5 mM in the presence of additional carbon source. The degradation pathway of 4C2NP was studied and 4-chloro-2-aminophenol, 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol and 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (5C2MBZ were identified as metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resting cell studies showed that Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700 depleted 4C2NP completely with stoichiometric formation of 5C2MBZ. This is the first report of (i the degradation of 4C2NP at high concentration (1.5 mM and, (ii the formation of 5C2MBZ by a soil bacterium.

  20. Crystal structures of nitrato-4-bromo-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper and nitrato-4-chloro-2-[(2-Hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper

    Nitrato-4-bromo-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper and nitrato-4-chloro-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are isostructural. The coordination polyhedron of the copper atom can be described as a distorted square pyramid whose basal plane is formed by the phenolic and alcoholic oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the monodeprotonated tridentate azomethine molecule and the imidazole nitrogen atom. The apex of the copper polyhedron is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. The complexes are linked together by hydrogen bonds with the participation of the nitrato groups to form a three-dimensional framework.

  1. 2-Benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline thio­semi­carbazone

    Katlen C. T. Bandeira; Leandro Bresolin; Lehmann, Ueslei Z.; Priscilla J. Zambiazi; Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H13ClN4S, obtained from a reaction of 2-benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline with thio­semicarbazide in ethanol, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 81.31 (13)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by three N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric rings with set-graph motif R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(18), and resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional network lying parallel to (010).

  2. Methyl Carbonium Ion Migration during the Reaction of 4-Chloro-5-methoxyl-3(2H-pyridazinone with Trifluoroethylation Agents

    Li-He Zhang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To synthesize 4-chloro-5-methoxy-2-(b-trifluoroethyl-3(2H-pyridazinone (4, the reactions of 4-chloro-5-methoxy-3(2H-pyridazinone (5 with RCH2CF3 (R = I, TsO, MsO, TfO in different solvents were studied. It was found that methyl group migration took place during this reaction. An oxonium salt 9 was suggested as the active intermediate for the formation of the byproduct4-chloro-5-methoxy-2-methyl-3(2H-pyridazinone (7 and 4-chloro-2-methyl-5-(b-trifluoroethoxy-3(2-pyridazinone(8.

  3. Tetra­kis(4-chloro­anilinium) hexa­chlorido­stannate(IV) dichloride

    Zhou, Benhua; Liu, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C6H7ClN)4[SnCl6]Cl2, comprises two 4-chloro­anilinium cations, half of an [SnCl6]2− anion and a Cl− anion. The SnIV atom, located on a special position on a twofold rotation axis, exhibits an octa­hedral environment. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds between the 4-chloro­anilinium cations, [SnCl6]2− anions and Cl− anions.

  4. Study of the Effect of UV Radiation on the Decomposition of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxyacetic Acid

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Karetnikova, E. A.; Sokolova, I. V.; Mayer, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    The influence of UV radiation wavelength on the disappearance kinetics of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in the presence of activated sludge and humic acids has been examined. Variations in the kinetic curves of MCPA removal in the presence of humic acids were determined from results on accumulation of carbon dioxide gas. Spectral-luminescence and chromato-mass-spectrometry data reveal the presence in the medium of the biotransformation product 2-methyl-4-chlorophenol, which is utilized after 14 days. Addition of humic acids, on the one hand, reduced the rates of subsequent biodecomposition of MCPA. On the other hand, in the process of transformation of the herbicide in the presence of humic acids a photobioproduct was detected which does not contain chlorine: 2-methylphenoxyacetic acid.

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-Chloro-3-Nitrophenylthiourea Derivatives Targeting Bacterial Type II Topoisomerases.

    Bielenica, Anna; Stępień, Karolina; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Krukowski, Sylwester; Włodarczyk, Marta; Struga, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel 4-chloro-3-nitrophenylthiourea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and tuberculostatic activities. Most of compounds exhibited high antibacterial activity against both standard and hospital strains (MIC values 0.5-2 μg/mL), as compared to Ciprofloxacin. Derivatives with 3,4-dichlorophenyl (11) and 3-chloro-4-methylphenyl (13) substituents were the most promising towards Gram-positive pathogens. Both of them exhibited antibiofilm potency and effectively inhibited the formation of biofilms of methicillin-resistant and standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Two N-alkylthioureas (20, 21) showed twofold to fourfold increase in in vitro potency against isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as compared to Isoniazid. An action of 7, 10, 11, 13, 20 and 21 against activity of topoisomerases isolated from Staphylococcus aureus was studied. Synthesized compounds were found as non-genotoxic. PMID:26804238

  6. Radiolytic degradation of herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid by gamma radiation for environmental protection

    Yield of the radiolytic decomposition of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solutions gamma-irradiated with a standard dose of 1 kGy is established and presented. Studies were carried out in different conditions: where MCPA exists in acid or anion form, and where predominate highly reactive products of radiolysis of water reacting with the MCPA. It was already shown, that radiolytic decomposition of chlorophenols, especially when low radiation doses are employed in order to be cost effective, may result, in formation of the products which are more toxic than the initial target compound. In presented studies the toxicity of MCPA and the expected products also has been determined: although MCPA exhibits low toxicity, the main products of its radiolysis show toxicity about 50 times larger, while hydroquinone and its methyl- and chloro-derivatives show even one order of magnitude larger

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2-Amino-4-chloro-5-(4'-methylbenzyl)-6-methylpyrimidine

    2007-01-01

    The title compound 2-amino-4-chloro-5-(4'-methylbenzyl)-6-methylpyrimidine (C26H28Cl2N6, Mr= 495.44) has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 14.892(7), b = 6.129(3), c = 14.889(7) (A), β= 109.795(8)°, V= 1278.7(10) (A)3, Z = 2, F(000) = 520, Dc = 1.287 g/cm3, μ= 0.280 mm-1, the final R = 0.0577 and wR = 0.1589 for 1357 observed reflections with Ⅰ>2σ(Ⅰ). A total of 6091 reflections were collected, of which 2257 were independent (Rint = 0.033). The X-ray analysis reveals that the chlorine atom and methyl of the title compound are disordered.

  8. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    Arora Pankaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP and 2-aminophenol (2AP as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.

  9. Diversity of 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol-Degrading Bacteria in a Waste Water Sample

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen bacterial strains, isolated from a waste water sample collected from a chemically contaminated site, Patancheru (17°32′N 78°16′E/17.53°N 78.27°E, India, were able to decolorize 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP in the presence of an additional carbon source. These eighteen 4C2NP-decolorizing strains have been identified as members of four different genera, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Leuconostoc based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Most of the bacteria (10 belonged to the genus Bacillus and contributed 56% of the total 4C2NP-degrading bacteria, whereas the members of genera Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas represented 22% and 17%, respectively, of total 4C2NP-degrading isolates. There was only one species of Leuconostoc capable of degrading 4C2NP. This is the first report of the diversity of 4C2NP-decolorizing bacteria in a waste water sample. Furthermore, one bacterium, Bacillus aryabhattai strain PC-7, was able to decolorize 4C2NP up to a concentration of 2.0 mM. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as the final product of 4C2NP decolorization in strain PC-7.

  10. 4-Chloro-2-[(E)-(2-chloro­phen­yl)imino­meth­yl]phenol

    Zhang, Xinli

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C13H9Cl2NO, was crystallized from a methanol solution of 5-chloro­salicylaldehyde and o-chloro­aniline. The mol­ecule displays a trans configuration with respect to the imine C=N double bond. The N atom is involved in an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The two aromatic rings are essentially coplanar, the dihedral angle between them being 7.1 (1)°. A C—H⋯π inter­action is present in the crystal.

  11. Effective asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13 in [Bmim]PF6-hydrolyzate media.

    He, Yu-Cai; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Di, Jun-Hua; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Lin-Bing; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Chong, Gang-Gang; Liu, Feng; Ding, Yun; Jiang, Chun-Xia; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-08-01

    It was the first report that the concentrated hydrolyzates from the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute NaOH (3wt%)-soaking rice straw at 30°C was used to form [Bmim]PF6-hydrolyzate (50:50, v/v) media for bioconverting ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (>99% e.e.) with recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with pure glucose, the hydrolyzates could promote both initial reaction rate and the intracellular NADH content. Furthermore, emulsifier OP-10 (20mM) was employed to improve the reductase activity. Moreover, Hp-β-cyclodextrin (0.01mol Hp-β-cyclodextrin/mol COBE) was also added into this bioreaction system for enhancing the biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE from COBE by E. coli CCZU-A13 whole-cells. The yield of (R)-CHBE (>99% e.e.) from 800mM COBE was obtained at 100% in the [Bmim]PF6-hydrolyzate (50:50, v/v) media by supplementation of OP-10 (20mM) and Hp-β-CD (8mM). In conclusion, an effective strategy for the biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27155796

  12. 4-Chloro-2-((E-{3-[1-(hydroxyiminoethyl]phenyl}iminomethylphenol

    Lei Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H13ClN2O2, adopts an E conformation with respect to the azomethine C=N bond. The aniline and phenol rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.33 (2°. In the crystal, the molecules lie about inversion centers, forming dimers that are connected by intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds, resulting in six-membered rings with graph-set motif R22(6. In addition, there is a strong intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen-bonding interaction, resulting in an S(6 ring motif. Weak π–π interactions between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.809 (1 Å] further stabilize the crystal structure.

  13. Fluorescent Styryl Dyes from 4-Chloro-2-(Diphenylamino)-1, 3-Thiazole-5-Carbaldehyde-Synthesis, Optical Properties and TDDFT Computations.

    Sekar, Nagaiyan; Umape, Prashant G; Patil, Sharad R

    2015-11-01

    4-Chloro-2-(diphenylamino)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde was reacted with an active methylene compounds, cyanomethyl benzimidazole, cyanomethyl benzothiazole, barbituric acid and Meldrum's acid under Knoevenagel conditions to give novel push-pull styryl chromophores 8a-8d. The synthesized styryl chromophores were characterized by FT-IR, Mass and (1)H NMR spectral analysis. The photophysical characteristics of these styryl chromophores were evaluated. The effect of solvent polarity and viscosity on the absorption and emission properties of these chromophores was studied. The structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical parameters of the push-pull dyes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations. The ratio of the ground to the excited state dipole moment of the synthesized novel styryl dyes were calculated by Bakhshiev and Bilot-Kawski correlations. PMID:26467548

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Coumarine Derivatives Synthesized from 4-Chloro-chromen-2-one. The Comparison with Standard Drug.

    Aziz Behrami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis of some new derivatives from 4-Chloro-chromen-2-one and describe the results of antibacterial activity of purified compounds. Compounds 4-Butylamino-chromen-2-one (1a , 4-Butylamino-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-sulfonyl chloride (2a , 4-Butylamino-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-sulfonic acid (2-hydroxy-phenyl-amide (3a, 4-Butylamino-5-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(N'-phenyl-hydrazino-2H-chromene-3-sulfonic acid (2-hydroxy-phenyl-amide (4a , have been synthesized and characterized using melting points , IR spectra , 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. The antibacterial activity of synthesized compounds and streptomycin at concentractions of 1mg/ml, 3mg/ml and 5mg/ml , have been evaluated against three strains of bacterial culture; Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli and Klebsiella. The compounds show bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity.

  15. Sorption of a mixture of phenols in aqueous solution with activated carbon

    The main objective of this work is the sorption of an aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in a molar relationship 1:1 in activated carbon of mineral origin of different nets (10, 20 and 30) and to diminish with it its presence in water. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the surface properties of the sorbent like of the physical and chemical properties of the sorbate. In all the cases it was observed that in the aqueous systems of low concentration the 4-chloro phenol are removed in an approximate proportion of 1.2-4 times greater to than phenol, however to concentrations but high both they are removed approximately in the same proportion. (Author)

  16. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Eletroquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The herbicide MCPA is quickly mineralized by solar photoelectro-Fenton. {yields} A CCRD allowed the optimization of current, Fe{sup 2+} content and solution pH. {yields} TOC, MCE and energy consumption are described by response surface methodology. {yields} Generated hydroxyl radical destroys MCPA and its aromatic oxidation by-products. {yields} UV light of solar irradiation photolyzes the Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes produced. - Abstract: A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L{sup -1} MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h{sup -1} with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 W m{sup -2}. The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0 mM Fe{sup 2+} and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 kWh kg{sup -1} TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed.

  17. 1-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-3-(5-methyl-2-fur­yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    Guo, Huan-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C14H11ClO2, was prepared from 4-chloro­hypnone and 5-methyl­furfural by an aldol condensation reaction. The dihedral angle formed between the two benzene rings is 7.71 (2)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H⋯O inter­actions.

  18. 1-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-3-(3,4-dimethyl­phen­yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    Guo, Meng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C17H15ClO, was prepared from 3,4-dimethyl­benzaldehyde and 4-chloro­hypnone by Aldol condensation. The dihedral angle formed by the two benzene rings is 48.91 (8)°. Only van der Waals forces affect the packing.

  19. Comparison of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol adsorption on single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Mehrizad Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The adsorption characteristics of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP onto single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs from aqueous solution were investigated with respect to the changes in the contact time, pH of solution, carbon nanotubes dosage and initial 4C2NP concentration. Experimental results showed that the adsorption efficiency of 4C2NP by carbon nanotubes (both of SWCNTs and MWCNTs increased with increasing the initial 4C2NP concentration. The maximum adsorption took place in the pH range of 2–6. The linear correlation coefficients of different isotherm models were obtained. Results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the others and based on the Langmuir model equation, maximum adsorption capacity of 4C2NP onto SWCNTs and MWCNTs were 1.44 and 4.42 mg/g, respectively. The observed changes in the standard Gibbs free energy, standard enthalpy and standard entropy showed that the adsorption of 4C2NP onto SWCNTs and MWCNTs is spontaneous and exothermic in the temperature range of 298–328 K.

  20. Comparison of 4-Chloro-2-Nitrophenol Adsorption on Single-Walled and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Karim Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption characteristics of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP onto single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs from aqueous solution were investigated with respect to the changes in the contact time, pH of solution, carbon nanotubes dosage and initial 4C2NP concentration. Experimental results showed that the adsorption efficiency of 4C2NP by carbon nanotubes (both of SWCNTs and MWCNTs increased with increasing the initial 4C2NP concentration. The maximum adsorption took place in the pH range of 2–6. The linear correlation coefficients of different isotherm models were obtained. Results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the others and based on the Langmuir model equation,maximum adsorption capacity of 4C2NP onto SWCNTs and MWCNTs were 1.44 and 4.42 mg/g, respectively. Theobserved changes in the standard Gibbs free energy, standard enthalpy and standard entropy showed that the adsorption of 4C2NP onto SWCNTs and MWCNTs is spontaneous and exothermic in the temperature range of 298–328 K.

  1. High- and low-temperature phases in isostructural 4-chloro-3-nitro­aniline and 4-iodo-3-nitro­aniline

    Fábry, Jan; Dušek, Michal; Vaněk, Přemysl; Rafalovskyi, Iegor; Hlinka, Jiří; Urban, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, Part 12 (2014), s. 1153-1160. ISSN 2053-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0878 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : crystal structure * geometric constraints * 4-chloro-3-nitro­aniline * 4-iodo-3-nitro­aniline * phase transitions * Raman Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a soil amended with biochars and other sorbents

    Cabrera Mesa, Alegría; Cox, L.; K. A. Spokas; Celis, R.; Hermosín, M. C.; Cornejo, J.; Koskinen, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar, the solid residual remaining after the thermochemical transformation of biomass for carbon sequestration, has been proposed to be used as a soil amendment, because of its agronomic benefits. The effect of amending soil with six biochars made from different feedstocks on the sorption and leaching of fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was compared to the effect of other sorbents: an activated carbon, a Ca-rich Arizona montmorillonite modified with hexadecyltrime...

  3. Differences in sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid on artificial soils as a function of soil pre-aging

    Waldner, Georg; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) to three different artificial soil mixtures was investigated. Artificial soils serve as model systems for improving understanding of sorption phenomena. Materials and methods The soils consisted of quartz, ferrihydrite, illite, montmorillonite, and charcoal. In a previous study, several selected mixtures had been inoculated with organic matter, and microbial aging (incubation) had been performed for diff...

  4. Sorption of a phenols mixture in aqueous solution with activated carbon

    The constant population growth and the quick industrialization have caused severe damages to our natural aquifer resources for a great variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among these they are those phenol compounds that are highly toxic, resistant (to the degradation chemistry) and poorly biodegradable. The phenolic compounds is used in a great variety of industries, like it is the production of resins, nylon, plastifiers, anti-oxidants, oil additives, drugs, pesticides, colorants, explosives, disinfectants and others. The disseminated discharges or effluents coming from the industrial processes toward lakes and rivers are causing a growing adverse effect in the environment, as well as a risk for the health. Numerous studies exist on the phenols removal and phenols substituted for very varied techniques, among them they are the adsorption in activated carbon. This finishes it has been used successfully for the treatment of residual waters municipal and industrial and of drinking waters and it is considered as the best technique available to eliminate organic compounds not biodegradable and toxic present in aqueous solution (US EPA, 1991). However a little information exists on studies carried out in aqueous systems with more of a phenolic compound. The activated carbon is broadly used as adsorbent due to its superficial properties in the so much treatment of water as of aqueous wastes, adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants. The main objective of this work is the adsorption of a aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in activated carbon of mineral origin of different meshes and to diminish with it their presence in water. The experiments were carried out for lots, in normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the superficial properties of the sorbent like of the physical properties and chemical of the sorbate. The isotherms were carried

  5. Sorption of a mixture of phenols in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Mejia M, D.; Lopez M, B.E.; Iturbe G, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the sorption of an aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in a molar relationship 1:1 in activated carbon of mineral origin of different nets (10, 20 and 30) and to diminish with it its presence in water. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the surface properties of the sorbent like of the physical and chemical properties of the sorbate. In all the cases it was observed that in the aqueous systems of low concentration the 4-chloro phenol are removed in an approximate proportion of 1.2-4 times greater to than phenol, however to concentrations but high both they are removed approximately in the same proportion. (Author)

  6. Coupling Reaction of 4-Chloro-7-H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidine with 2,3,5-Tri-O-Acetyl-b-D-Ribofuranosyl Chloride

    2001-01-01

    Coupling reaction of 4-chloro-7-H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine with 2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl -β-D-ribofuranosyl chloride under the basic condition was investigated.An abnormal coupling reaction,in which the heterocyclic base attacked at the carbon of 1,2-O-methylidene moiety instead of anomeric carbon of ribose was observed and the structure of products 5a,5b were identified by NMR and X-Ray diffraction.

  7. Degradation of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxyacetic Acid in Top- and Subsoil Is Quantitatively Linked to the Class III tfdA Gene

    Bælum, Jacob; Henriksen, Trine; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2006-01-01

    The tfdA gene is known to be involved in the first step of the degradation of the phenoxy acid herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in several soil bacteria, but bacteria containing other tfdA-like genes have been isolated as well. A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to monitor the increase in the concentration of tfdA genes during degradation of MCPA in sandy topsoil and subsoil over a period of 115 days. Quantitative PCR revealed growth in the tfdA-containing bacter...

  8. Di­hydrogen phosphate mediated supra­molecular frameworks in 2- and 4-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate salts

    Balamurugan, P.; Jagan, R.; Sivakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The title compounds, 2-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate (2CADHP) and 4-chloro­anilinium di­hydrogen phosphate (4CADHP), both C6H7NCl+·H2PO4 −, form two-dimensional supra­molecular organic–inorganic hybrid frameworks. In 2CADHP, the dihydrogen phosphate anions form a double-stranded anionic chain generated parallel to the [010] direction through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, whereas in 4CADHP they form a two-dimensional supra­molecular net extending parallel to the crystallograp...

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure, and Biological Studies of a Cadmium(II) Complex with a Tridentate Ligand 4'-Chloro-2,2':6',2''-Terpyridine.

    Saghatforoush, L A; Valencia, L; Chalabian, F; Ghammamy, Sh

    2011-01-01

    A new Cd(II) complex with the ligand 4'-chloro-2,2'6',2''-terpyridine (Cltpy), [Cd(Cltpy)(I)(2)], has been synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and IR spectroscopy and structurally analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The single-crystal X-ray analyses show that the coordination number in complex is five with three terpyridine (Cltpy) N-donor atoms and two iodine atoms. The antibacterial activities of Cltpy and its Cd(II) complex are tested against different bacteria. PMID:21738495

  10. (E)-2-[(4-Chloro­phen­yl)imino­meth­yl]-4-(trifluoro­meth­oxy)phenol

    Tüfekçi, Marife; Bingöl Alpaslan, Yelda; Macit, Mustafa; Erdönmez, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C14H9ClF3NO2, crystallizes in a phenol–imine tautomeric form, with a strong intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 47.62 (9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains along the c axis by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving both benzene rings are also observed.

  11. Determination by high resolution liquid chromatography of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (Xgal) and intermediates of its synthesis

    In microbiology, microorganisms markers have been found to be useful in the quality control of different products such as water and food, in which the presence of coliforms, especially E. coli has been identified. Several methods for detection and quantification of enterobacteria have been developed by using chromogenic substrates. Among them, indole derivatives such as 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (Xgal), have come out. This indole derivative is widely employed as a constituent of microbiological diagnostic media because in the presence of coliforms (β-galactosidase producers), it forms a blue-indigo color. In this paper, the development and the validation, of an HPLC method for the quality control of Xgal in the presence of its intermediates obtained in each step of the synthesis is reported. These compounds were separated by using a RP-18 column and gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of triethylammonium phosphate solution at pH 3(A) and acetonitrile (B). The detection and quantitation limits of the method was between 0.2- 0.5 % and 1.0 - 2.0 % respectively, which is acceptable if we consider that Xgal is not used as a drug. The proposed method is simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate and it can be used for the quality control of each of the intermediates and the final product, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside

  12. Influence of the particle size of activated mineral carbon on the phenol and chlorophenol adsorption

    Water pollution by phenolic compounds is a problem that requires a solution since these phenolic compounds are not completely biodegradable, they accumulate through the food chains and they are quite toxic when enter in contact with living organisms. In human beings, ingestion or contact of the skin with this type of compounds produces irritation and damages mainly to the liver and kidneys. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA assigned nine phenolic compounds among the 275 most toxic substances in 1991. Phenols are found in wastewater from agriculture and industry, because phenolic compounds are used as pesticides and in diverse industrial activities. The treatment of this type of water is not simple because they are generally composed of a mixture of residuals with different chemical nature A useful method for the removal of phenols is the adsorption by activated carbon, since this material has a great surface area and it can be regenerated. The adsorption process depends, among other factors, on the activated carbon characteristics. When they are modified, their capacity to remove pollutants from the water changes. The effect of activated carbon particle size on the removal of phenolic compounds has not been completely studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the influence of the mineral activated carbon particle size on the phenol and 4-chloro phenol adsorption in aqueous solution, on adsorption column system. The results of the present work indicate that the mineral activated carbon particle size has a very important influence on the adsorption of phenol and 4-chloro phenol. When the particles were smaller, the retention quantities of phenol and 4-chloro phenol increased. This behavior was related to the particle characteristics of the mineral activated carbon such as surface area and pore volume, while other factors such as elementary composition of the activated carbon did not influence the adsorption process

  13. (Z-Ethyl 3-[bis(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ylcarbonylamino]-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanopropanoate

    Dehua Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H25Cl3N6O4, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carbonyl chloride. The dihedral angles between the chlorobenzene and the two pyrazole rings are 59.8 (2 and 33.3 (2°. The two pyrazole rings are oriented to each other at a dihedral angle of 84.7 (2°. The crystal packing is governed by intermolecular C—H...O interactions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. The ethyl groups are disordered over two positions, with site-occupancy factors of 0.71/0.29 and 0.51/0.49.

  14. Synthesis of Disperse Dyes from Pyridone and Resorcinol Coupled to Diazotized 2-Amino-4-chloro-5-formylthiazole and Application to Polyester

    Yusuf Y. Lams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to synthesize disperse dyes in the derivative of 2-amino-4-chloro-5-formylthiazole by conventional diazotization and couplings with pyridone and resorcinol. The dyes were characterized by visible absorption spectroscopy, IR spectral studies, and 1H and 13C NMR. The pyridone and resorcinol substituted dyes exhausted well with good depth on 100% polyester fabrics with a shade of brown and purple colours, respectively. The heteroatom and the intrinsic conjugation in the thiazole structure results in high bathochromic shifts and lead to brightness of shades. The dyed fabrics showed very good to excellent wash fastness and moderate to good light and perspiration fastness properties.

  15. Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Gabapentin in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Derivatization with 4-Chloro-7-Nitrobenzo- 2-Oxa-1,3-Diazole (NBD-Cl

    Tamadr Omer Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, sensitive and validated spectrophotometric methods for the determination of antiepileptics gabapentin (GAB in pure forms and in pharmaceutical formulations was developed. The method is based on the formation of complex between drug and the chromogenic reagent 4-Chloro-7-Nitrobenzo-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazole (NBD-Cl producing complex in methanolic medium which showed an absorption maximum at 576 nm. The optimization of the reaction conditions such as: pH, the volume of buffer, and reaction time were investigated. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 10-60 μg ml-1. The molar absorptivity, detection and quantification limits are also calculated. The correlation coefficients were 0.9996 with a relative standard deviation (RSD% of 45.87. The method successfully applied to the determination of GAB in pharmaceutical formulation.

  16. Sorption of a phenols mixture in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Mejia M, D

    2004-07-01

    The constant population growth and the quick industrialization have caused severe damages to our natural aquifer resources for a great variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among these they are those phenol compounds that are highly toxic, resistant (to the degradation chemistry) and poorly biodegradable. The phenolic compounds is used in a great variety of industries, like it is the production of resins, nylon, plastifiers, anti-oxidants, oil additives, drugs, pesticides, colorants, explosives, disinfectants and others. The disseminated discharges or effluents coming from the industrial processes toward lakes and rivers are causing a growing adverse effect in the environment, as well as a risk for the health. Numerous studies exist on the phenols removal and phenols substituted for very varied techniques, among them they are the adsorption in activated carbon. This finishes it has been used successfully for the treatment of residual waters municipal and industrial and of drinking waters and it is considered as the best technique available to eliminate organic compounds not biodegradable and toxic present in aqueous solution (US EPA, 1991). However a little information exists on studies carried out in aqueous systems with more of a phenolic compound. The activated carbon is broadly used as adsorbent due to its superficial properties in the so much treatment of water as of aqueous wastes, adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants. The main objective of this work is the adsorption of a aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in activated carbon of mineral origin of different meshes and to diminish with it their presence in water. The experiments were carried out for lots, in normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the superficial properties of the sorbent like of the physical properties and chemical of the sorbate. The isotherms were carried

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Bis{2-bromo- 4-chloro-6-[(2-isopropylammonioethylimino)-methyl]phenolato}bisthiocyanatozinc(Ⅱ)

    2007-01-01

    A Schiff base zinc(Ⅱ) complex [Zn(C12H16BrClN2O)2(NCS)2] was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P with a = 8.414(1), b = 9.124(1), c = 22.212(3) (A), α = 79.177(2), β = 86.296(2), γ = 89.899(2)o, V = 1671.3(4) (A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.631 g/cm3, Mr = 820.79, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073 (A), μ = 3.444 mm-1, F(000) = 824, R = 0.0646 and wR = 0.1179. A total of 7371 unique reflections were collected, of which 3904 with I>2σ(I) were observed. The complex crystallizes with two half-molecules per asymmetric unit and each mononuclear molecule is centrosymmetric. The Zn atom lying at the inversion centre is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by two phenolate O atoms and two imine N atoms from two Schiff base ligands, as well as two N atoms from two thiocyanate anions. In the crystal structure, the combination of π-π stacking interactions and intermolecular hydrogen bonds (N-H…Br, N-H…O, N-H…N, C-H…O, C-H…S and C-H…Cl) leads to a three-dimensional network.

  18. Agro-industrial waste: a low cost adsorbent for effective removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide in batch and packed bed modes.

    Deokar, Sunil K; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-08-01

    The present work describes the aqueous phase removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide by rice husk ash (RHA) using batch and packed bed adsorption techniques. The effects of dosage, initial concentration, time, pH, temperature, and particle size of adsorbent in batch compared with effects of influent concentration, flow rate, and bed height in packed bed were studied. The particle size effect reveals that the removal is dependent on chemical composition (silica and carbon content) together with BET surface area of RHA. The aptness of Langmuir isotherm to batch data indicates the favorable adsorption whereas that of Temkin isotherm informs the heterogeneous nature of RHA. The kinetics of adsorption follows the pseudo-second order and Elovich models while thermodynamics of process indicates the exothermic adsorption. Among the models applied in packed bed study, the deactivation kinetic, Yoon-Nelson and bed depth service time (BDST) models are suitable to explain the packed bed adsorption. The adsorption capacity of RHA in packed bed study is found greater than that in batch. The adsorption capacity of RHA determined by the BDST model is 3019 mg/L for 90 % saturation of bed. The adsorption capacity of RHA based on weight is ∼2.3 times and that based on surface area is ∼55.55 times greater than that of granular activated carbon. PMID:27151241

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of 2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-(2-[18F] fluroethoxy)-2H-pyridazin-3-one

    A fluorine-18 labeled pyridazinone derivative: 2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-(2-[18F]fluroethoxy)-2H-pyridazin-3-one (18F-FP2) was designed and prepared as a potential myocardial perfusion imaging agent. The total radio-synthesis time was 70-90 min, typical decay- corrected radiochemical yield was 53.0%±5.2%, and the radiochemical purities were > 98% after purification. It is a lipophilic compound, and stable in water for 3 h. The results of biodistribution studies in mice showed that 18F-FP2 had high liver and lung uptake at initial post-injection time, the uptake was (14.53±2.36) %ID/g and (33.69±10.79) %ID/g at 2 min post-injection, respectively. Radioactivity was washed out very fast from liver and lung, the rate of clearance was 57.7% and 86.2% at 15 min post-injection, respectively. However the heart uptake of 18F-FP2 was very low, the highest heart uptake was (4.09± 0.53) %ID/g at 2 min post-injection. This may due to the removing of phenyl group in the labeling sidechain of pyridazinone, indicating that the aromatic ring has strong influence on the heart uptake and retention. (authors)

  20. Study of the Activity of 3-benzyl-5-(4-chloro-arylazo-4-thioxo-imidazolidin-2-one against Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Mice

    Andréa Cristina Apolinário da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted with the imidazolidinic derivative 3-benzyl-5-(4-chloro-arylazo-4-thioxo-imidazolidin-2-one (LPSF-PT05 show outstanding activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni worms in vitro. In the first phase of this study, S. mansoni-infected mice were treated, orally, with 100 mg/Kg of the LPSF-PT05 in three formulations: Tween 80 and saline solution, oil/water (70 : 30 emulsion, and solid dispersion with polyethylene glycol (PEG. In the second phase, three other doses of the LPSF-PT05 in PEG were tested: 3, 10, 30 mg/kg. These treatment regimens significantly reduced the number of recovered worms due to increases in the solubility of the compound in this formulation; the greatest reduction (70.5% was observed at the dose of 100 mg/kg. There was no changes in the pattern of mature egg compared to immature eggs; however there was a significant increase in the number of dead eggs. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue showed changes in morphological aspects of the hepatic parenchyma with decrease exudative-productive hepatic granuloma stages, although we found no significant differences in IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, or NO production in response to the specific antigen SEA. The results show the derivative LPSF-PT05 to be a potential candidate in the etiological treatment of schistosomiasis with a possible dampening effect of the granulomatous process.

  1. Reverse micelle-mediated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid.

    Tayyebi, Moslem; Yamini, Yadollah; Moradi, Morteza

    2012-09-01

    A supramolecular solvent consisting of reverse micelles of decanoic acid, dispersed in a continuous phase of tetrahydrofuran:water, was proposed as an efficient microextraction technique for extraction of selected chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography UV determination. The disperser solvent (1.0 mL tetrahydrofuran) containing 20 mg decanoic acid was rapidly injected into 10.0 mL of water sample. After centrifugation, the reverse micelle-rich phase (25 ± 0.5 μL) was floated at top of the home-designed centrifuge tube. The solvent was collected and 20 μL of it was injected into high-performance liquid chromatography for analysis. The results showed that the in situ solvent formation and extraction process can be completed in a few seconds. Under the optimal conditions, limits of detection of the method for 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid were in the range of 0.5-0.8 μg L(-1) and the repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied in the range of 2.5-3.2%. Linearity was found to be in the range of 1-200 μg L(-1) and the preconcentration factors were between 148 and 157. The mean percentage recoveries exceeded 92.0% for all the spiking levels in real water samples. PMID:22753042

  2. Synthesis of novel styryl derivatives from 4-chloro-2-(morpholin-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde, study of their photophysical properties and TD-DFT computations

    Novel fluorescent styryl push–pull compounds having electron donating thiazole unit were synthesized by condensing 4-chloro-2-(morpholin-4-yl)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde with active methylene compounds via classical Knoevenagel condensation. The synthesized styryl molecules were characterized by spectral analysis. Photophysical properties of these styryl derivatives were analyzed and the effect of change in solvent polarity and viscosity on their absorptive and emissive properties has been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical parameters of push–pull dyes. Bakhshiev and Kawski–Chamma–Viallet correlations were used to calculate the ratio of ground to excited state dipole moment of the synthesized novel styryl compounds. -- Highlights: •Novel styryl derivatives are synthesized from thiazole aldehyde. •Photophysical properties of styryl derivatives were evaluated and supported by TD-DFT computations. •Experimental photophysical results are in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained by TD-DFT computations. •Compounds show fluorescence in solid state as well as in solvents of different polarities

  3. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  4. Synthesis of cadmium complexes of 4'-chloro-terpyridine: From discrete dimer to 1D chain polymer, crystal structure and antibacterial activity

    Lotfali Saghatforoush; Laura Valencia Matarranz; Firoozeh Chalabian; Shahriare Ghammamy; Fatemeh Katouzian

    2012-05-01

    Two new Cd(II) complexes with the ligand 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (Cltpy), [Cd(Cltpy)(N3)(CH3COO)], 1, and [Cd(Cltpy)(NCS)(CH3COO)], 2, have been synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analyses, 1HNMR-, 13C NMR-, IR spectroscopy and structurally analysed by X-ray singlecrystal diffraction. The single crystal X-ray analyses show that the coordination number in these complexes is seven with three terpyridine (Cltpy) N-donor atoms, two acetate oxygens and two anionic bridged ligands. The crystal structure of 2 comprises a one-dimensional polymeric network bridged by NCS− anions. The antibacterial activities of Cltpy and its Cd(II) complexes are tested against different bacteria. Both complexes have shown good activity against all the tested bacteria. Against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus, antibacterial activity of complexes is higher than Cltpy ligand. The higher activity of complexes may be explained on the basis of chelation theory.

  5. Antitubercular effect of 8-[(4-Chloro phenyl sulfonyl]-7-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2H-chromen-2-One in guinea pigs

    Parvati B Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antitubercular efficacy and safety of New Chemical Entity (NCE: 8-[(4-Chloro phenyl sulfonyl]-7-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2H-chromen-2-One (CSHMC in guinea pigs. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was carried out in guinea pigs. They were infected with M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv (1.5 × 10 4 cfu/guinea pig via intramuscular route. After 30 days, infections were confirmed in 6 guinea pigs by histopathology of spleen, lung, and liver. After that CSHMC (5 and 20 mg/kg was administered for 1 month and its effect was compared with vehicle, rifampicin (60 mg/kg and isoniazid (30 mg/kg. Efficacy of CSHMC was evaluated on the basis of histopathologic scoring of lesion in lung, spleen, liver, and safety on the basis of measuring hemogram, liver and renal function parameters. Results: Isoniazid, rifampicin, and CSHMC (20 mg/kg significantly reduce the median lesion score in lung, spleen, and liver as compared to disease control group. Reduction in median lesion score for lung and spleen were not statistically significant for CSHMC 5 mg/kg. CSHMC (20 and 5 mg/kg did not produce any changes in hemogram, liver and renal function parameters with respect to normal values. Conclusions: CSHMC had shown significant antitubercular efficacy comparable to isoniazid and rifampicin and did not show hematological, hepato- and nephrotoxicity.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic properties, DFT calculation and biological activity of 4-chloro-N-(2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetoxy)-N-phenylbenzamide

    He, Dian; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Hou, Meng; Teng, Chong; Wang, Xiao-Hong

    2014-11-01

    4-Chloro-N-(2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetoxy)-N-phenylbenzamide was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR and X-ray diffraction methods. The structure-property relationship and the antitumor activity based on electrochemical measurements, density functional theory calculations (DFT) and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were investigated. The crystal structure adopts monoclinic space group P21/n with the unit cell parameters of a = 12.4385(10) Å, b = 6.5036(5) Å, c = 24.7944(19) Å, β = 103.045(9)°, V = 1954.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and stabilized by π-π conjugation and hydrogen bonding interactions. The observed results of the compound have been compared with theoretical results and it is found that the experimental data show good agreement with calculated values. And the compound had slightly better inhibition than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in NCI-H460 cell line as well as the nearly same as SAHA in MCF-7, HCT-116, PC-3, and A549 cell lines.

  7. Coupling of Molecular Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles by High Performance Liquid Chromatography as an Efficient Technique for Sensitive and Selective Trace Determination of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxy Acetic Acid in Complex Matrices.

    Fariborz Omidi; Mohammad Behbahani; Saadi Samadi; Alireza Sedighi; Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) is one of the most important pesticides which is extensively used to control weeds in arable farmland. Exposure to this compound occurs in general population and persons who occupationally handle it. The aim of this present work was the preparation of MCPA imprinting polymer and its application as a selective sample preparation technique for trace determination of MCPA in biological and environmental samples. Methods In this stud...

  8. Crystal structures of two erbium(III) complexes with 4-amino-benzoic acid and 4-chloro-3-nitro-benzoic acid.

    Smith, Graham; Lynch, Daniel E

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of two erbium(III) complexes with 4-amino-benzoic acid (4-ABAH), namely bis-(μ2-4-amino-benzoato-κ(2) O:O')bis-[bis(4-amino-benzoato-κ(2) O,O')di-aqua-erbium(III)] dihydrate, [Er2(C7H6NO2)6(H2O)4]·2H2O, (I), and 4-chloro-3-nitro-benzoic acid (CLNBAH), namely poly[hexa-kis-(μ2-4-chloro-3-nitro-benzoato-κ(2) O:O')bis-(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)dierbium(III)], [Er2(C7H3ClNO4)6(C2H6OS)2] n , (II), have been determined. In the structure of solvatomorphic compound (I), the symmetry-related irregular ErO8 coordination polyhedra in the discrete centrosymmetric dinuclear complex comprise two monodentate water mol-ecules and six carboxyl-ate O-atom donors, four from two bidentate carboxyl-ate O,O'-chelate groups and two from the bis-monodentate O:O'-bridging group of the third 4-ABA anion. The Er-O bond-length range is 2.232 (3)-2.478 (3) Å and the Er⋯Er separation in the dinuclear complex unit is 4.7527 (4) Å. One of the coordinating water mol-ecules is involved in an intra-unit O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding association with an inversion-related carboxyl-ate O-atom acceptor. In contrast, the anhydrous compound (II) is polymeric, based on centrosymmetric dinuclear repeat units comprising ErO7 coordination polyhedra which involve four O-atom donors from two bidentate O:O'-bridging carboxyl-ate groups, one O-atom donor from the monodentate dimethyl sulfoxide ligand and two O-atom donors from the third bridging CLNBA anion. The latter provides the inter-unit link in the one-dimensional coordination polymer extending along [100]. The Er-O bond-length range in (II) is 2.239 (6)-2.348 (6) Å and the Er⋯Er separation within the dinuclear unit is 4.4620 (6) Å. In the crystal of (I), extensive inter-dimer O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving both the coordinating water mol-ecules and the solvent water mol-ecules, as well as the amine groups of the 4-ABA anions, give an overall three-dimensional network structure

  9. N-(4-Chloro-2-nitrophenylmethanesulfonamide

    Muhammad Nadeem Arshad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H7ClN2O4S, is of interest as a precursor to biologically active substituted quinolines. Its structure resembles those of the previously reported N-phenylmethane sulfonamide and its 4-nitro, 4-fluoro and 4-bromo derivatives, with slightly different geometric parameters. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond gives rise to a six-membered ring. Intermolecular C—H...O contacts stabilize the crystal packing.

  10. 4-Chloro-N-cyclohexylbenzamide

    Aamer Saeed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H16ClNO, the cyclohexyl ring adopts a chair conformation, with puckering parameters Q = 0.576 (3 Å, θ = 0.1 (3 and ϕ = 8 (15°. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into one-dimensional chains propagating in [010].

  11. Effects of natural phenolic compounds from a desert dominant shrub Larrea divaricata Cav. on toxicity and survival in mice Efectos de los compuestos fenólicos naturales de un arbusto dominante del desierto, Larrea divaricata Cav. sobre la toxicidad y sobrevida en ratones

    J.M. RÍOS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that generalist herbivores may circumvent intoxication by ingesting small quantities from a mixture of plant secondary metabolites. However a single chemical, a highly toxic one or the most abundant in the mixture could cause toxicity. Survivorship and toxicity in Rockland male mice were measured to determine if the toxic effects of the phenolic resin of creosote bush (Larrea divaricata Cav. is due to its major constituent, the nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA or to the total concentration of phenolic compounds in this resin. This objective was accomplished by exposing mice to voluntary feeding on resin-treated rat chow and by oral gavaging of mice with the following doses and compounds: Resin-100 mg (n = 7, NDGA-15 mg (n = 8, and NDGA-100 mg (n = 10 and Control (n = 6. Our hypothesis was that NDGA is responsible for the toxicity of Larrea divaricata's phenolic resin. Voluntary resin intake by mice had a pronounced toxic effect, producing body mass loss and significant reduction of food intake. Mice gavaged with Resin-100 mg, NDGA-100 mg, and NDGA-15 mg showed a significant reduction in survival probability compared to mice under Control conditions. Animáis exposed to NDGA-15 mg had a higher survivorship compared to the NDGA-100 mg animáis, and equivalent survivorship to the Resin-100 mg (containing 15 mg of NDGA animáis. No significant differences in detoxification, measured as glucuronic acid conjugates in urine, were detected among gavage treatments. Therefore, given that just 15 mg of NDGA were enough to produce the same effect as the whole resin, we suggest that NDGA is the main constituent of Larrea divaricata's resin responsible for the toxic effect of the phenolic resin of this plant.Los herbívoros generalistas pueden evitar la intoxicación ingiriendo pequeñas cantidades de una mezcla de metabolitos secundarios de plantas. Sin embargo, un solo compuesto, uno altamente tóxico o el más abundante en la mezcla es el que

  12. Influence of the particle size of activated mineral carbon on the phenol and chlorophenol adsorption; Influencia del tamano de particula de carbon mineral activado sobre la adsorcion de fenol y clorofenol

    Garcia M, A

    2001-07-01

    Water pollution by phenolic compounds is a problem that requires a solution since these phenolic compounds are not completely biodegradable, they accumulate through the food chains and they are quite toxic when enter in contact with living organisms. In human beings, ingestion or contact of the skin with this type of compounds produces irritation and damages mainly to the liver and kidneys. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA assigned nine phenolic compounds among the 275 most toxic substances in 1991. Phenols are found in wastewater from agriculture and industry, because phenolic compounds are used as pesticides and in diverse industrial activities. The treatment of this type of water is not simple because they are generally composed of a mixture of residuals with different chemical nature A useful method for the removal of phenols is the adsorption by activated carbon, since this material has a great surface area and it can be regenerated. The adsorption process depends, among other factors, on the activated carbon characteristics. When they are modified, their capacity to remove pollutants from the water changes. The effect of activated carbon particle size on the removal of phenolic compounds has not been completely studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the influence of the mineral activated carbon particle size on the phenol and 4-chloro phenol adsorption in aqueous solution, on adsorption column system. The results of the present work indicate that the mineral activated carbon particle size has a very important influence on the adsorption of phenol and 4-chloro phenol. When the particles were smaller, the retention quantities of phenol and 4-chloro phenol increased. This behavior was related to the particle characteristics of the mineral activated carbon such as surface area and pore volume, while other factors such as elementary composition of the activated carbon did not influence the adsorption process

  13. Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14.

    He, Yu-Cai; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Di, Jun-Hua; Wu, Yin-Qi; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Chong, Gang-Gang; Ding, Yun; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was pretreated with combination pretreatment (e.g., sequential KOH extraction and ionic liquid soaking, sequential KOH extraction and Fenton soaking, or sequential KOH extraction and glycerol soaking). After the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SBs, it was found that all these three concentrated hydrolyzates could be used for the asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Compared with glucose, arabinose and cellobiose couldn't promote the initial reaction rate, and xylose could increase the intracellular NADH content. Moreover, it was the first report that hydrolyzates could be used for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (∼500g/L; 98.0% yield) from 3000 COBE by whole cells of Escherichia coli CCZU-K14 in the presence of β-CD (0.4mol β-CD/mol COBE), l-glutamine (200mM) and glycine (500mM). In conclusion, it is a new alternative to utilize bioresource for the synthesis of key chiral intermediate (S)-CHBE. PMID:27060248

  14. Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    Lanças, Fernando M; Olivares, Igor R B; Alves, Priscila M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the development, validation and application of method using Solid Phase Microexctration (SPME) for the analyses of five pollutants (phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro, 3-methyl phenol) in supplying water, using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) is described. The optimal conditions obtained for SPME were: fiber type: Poliacrylate (PA); extraction time: 40 minutes; extraction temperature: 70 degrees C; amount of salt added to sample (NaCl): 15%; desorption temperature: 8 minutes. The parameters studied in the method validation were: limit of detection (0.3 and 3.5 microg.L(- 1)); precision, measured by the variation coefficient (between 2.1 and 8.8%); calibration curve and linearity, by using the external standardization method (between 1 and 50 50 microg.L(- 1)). After the methodology development, samples of water collected in Atibaia River (São Paulo - Brazil) were analyzed, using the optimized methodology. Three water samples collected in the rain season showed a peak with retention time close to 4-chloro, 3 methyl phenol further analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the identity confirmation. In spite of the fact that none target compounds were found in the river water samples analyzed, the presence of two phenols different from those investigated (p-terc butyl phenol; butylated hydroxytoluene) were detected. These results together with the results of the limit of detection (that showed to be lower than the maximum concentration of phenols demanded by different environment control agencies), and the results of the validation, indicate the applicability of this method for the analysis of selected phenols in river water samples. PMID:17562456

  15. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

    Lee, Jun Ho [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Kyun [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Her, Erk; Park, Yeong Min [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul 132-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED{sub 50} 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells.

  16. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC50, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC50, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells

  17. Crystal structure of bis-(benzyl-amine-κN)[5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinato-κ(4) N]iron(II) n-hexane monosolvate.

    Dhifaoui, Selma; Harhouri, Wafa; Bujacz, Anna; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(II)(C44H24Cl4N4)(C6H5CH2NH2)2]·C6H14 or [Fe(II)(TPP-Cl)(BzNH2)2]·n-hexane [where TPP-Cl and BzNH2 are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinate and benzyl-amine ligands, respectively], the Fe(II) cation lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin ligand in the equatorial plane and by two amine N atoms of the benzyl-amine ligand in the axial sites. The crystal structure also contains one inversion-symmetric n-hexane solvent mol-ecule per complex mol-ecule. The average Fe-Npyrrole bond length [1.994 (3) Å] indicates a low-spin complex. The crystal packing is sustained by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions and by C-H⋯π inter-molecular inter-actions, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26870596

  18. Synthesis of 1, 2-bis(4-chloro)acetophenone oxime ethyl ether as a carrier and its application for construction of a new ytterbium (III)-PVC membrane sensor

    The new ytterbium (III)-PVC membrane, containing 1,2-bis(4-chloro)acetophenone oxime ethyl ether (AOEE) as an ion carrier, showed a Nernstian response for the Yb3+ ions over a wide dynamic linear range between 1.0 x 10-6 and 1 x 10-2 M. The detect ion limit is 6.3 x10-7 M while the sensor presents a response time of ∼7 s and a useful working pH range of 2.6-7.8. The electrode revealed high selectivity with respect to all the common alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, including the members of the lanthanide family other than Yb3+. The sensor was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in a potentiometric titration of YbIII ions with EDTA. The membrane sensor was used for the recovery of Yb3+ ions spiked in tap and river water samples. The proposed sensor was also used for the determination of ytterbium ions concentration mixtures of different ions. (author)

  19. Enantiomeric separation of amlodipine and its two chiral impurities by nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography using a chiral stationary phase based on cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate).

    Auditore, Roberta; Santagati, Natale A; Aturki, Zeineb; Fanali, Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a novel polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase, cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate), also called Sepapak 4 has been evaluated for the chiral separation of amlodipine (AML) and its two impurities. AML is a powerful vasodilatator drug used for the treatment of hypertension. Capillary columns of 100 μm id packed with the chiral stationary phase were used for both nano-LC and CEC experiments. The optimization of the mobile phase composed of ACN/water, (90:10, v/v) containing 15 mM ammonium borate pH 10.0 in nano-LC allowed the chiral separation of AML and the two impurities, but not in a single run. With the purpose to obtain the separation of the three pairs of enantiomers simultaneously, CEC analyses were performed in the same conditions achieving better enantioresolution and higher separation efficiencies for each compound. To fully resolve the mixture of six enantiomers, parameters such as buffer pH and concentration sample injection have been then investigated. A mixture of ACN/water (90:10, v/v) containing 5 mM ammonium borate buffer pH 9.0 enabled the complete separation of the three couples of enantiomers in less than 30 min. The optimized CEC method was therefore validated and applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation declared to contain only AML racemate. PMID:23775281

  20. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PLANT PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON ENZYMATIC AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY A SNAKE VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 EFECTOS INHIBITORIOS DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS DE PLANTAS SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD ENZIMÁTICA Y CITOTOXICA INDUCIDA POR UNA FOSFOLIPASA A2 DE VENENO DE SERPIENTE

    Jaime A PEREAÑEZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolic compounds have shown to inhibit toxic effects induced by snake venom proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propylgallate and epigallocatechingallate inhibit the enzymatic activity of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2, using egg yolk as substrate. The IC50 values are between 0.38 – 3.93 mM. These polyphenolic compounds also inhibit the PLA2 enzymatic activity when synthetic substrate is used. Furthermore, these compounds decreased the cyotoxic effect induced by a myotoxic PLA2; specifically, epigallocatechin gallate exhibited the best inhibitory capacity with 90.92 ± 0.82%, while ferulic acid showed the lowest inhibitory activity with 30.96 ± 1.42%. Molecular docking studies were performed in order to determine the possible modes of action of phenolic compounds. All polyphenols showed hydrogen bonds with an active site of enzyme; moreover, epigallocatechingallate presented the strongest binding compared with the other compounds. Additionally, a preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis showed a correlation between the IC50 and the topological polar surface area of each compound (p = 0.0491, r = -0.8079 (-0.9878 to -0.2593, which indicates the surface area required for each molecule to bind with the majority of the enzyme. Furthermore, our results show that propylgallate and epigallocatechingallate are two novel natural products with anti-myotoxic potential. The topical application of these plant polyphenols at the bite site could lead to prevent myotoxicity; however, further in vivo studies would be necessary to confirm the in vitro results.Los compuestos fenólicos han mostrado inhibir los efectos tóxicos inducidos por proteínas de veneno de serpiente. En éste trabajo, nosotros demostramos que el ácido gálico, el ácido ferúlico, el ácido cafeico, el propilgalato y el epigalocatequingalato inhiben la actividad enzimática de una fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2 usando yema de huevo

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for the stability study of a pharmaceutical formulation containing voriconazole using cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) as chiral selector and polar organic mobile phases.

    Servais, Anne-Catherine; Moldovan, Radu; Farcas, Elena; Crommen, Jacques; Roland, Isabelle; Fillet, Marianne

    2014-10-10

    The ophthalmic solution of voriconazole, i.e. (2R,3S)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(5-fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol, made from an injection formulation which also contains sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin sodium salt as an excipient (Vfend), is used for the treatment of fungal keratitis. A liquid chromatographic (LC) method using polar organic mobile phase and cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) coated on silica as chiral stationary phase was successfully developed to evaluate the chiral stability of the ophthalmic solution. The percentage of methanol (MeOH) in the mobile phase containing acetonitrile (ACN) as the main solvent significantly influenced the retention and resolution of voriconazole and its enantiomer ((2S,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(5-fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol). The optimized mobile phase consisted of ACN/MeOH/diethylamine/trifluoroacetic acid (80/20/0.1/0.1; v/v/v/v). The method was found to be selective not only regarding the enantiomer of voriconazole but also regarding the specified impurities described in the monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia. The LC method was then fully validated applying the strategy based on total measurement error and accuracy profiles. Under the selected conditions, the determination of 0.1% of voriconazole enantiomer could be performed. Finally, a stability study of the ophthalmic solution was conducted using the validated LC method. PMID:25035235

  2. Novel 5-Substituted 2-(Aylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, Anticancer Activity, Apoptosis-Inducing Activity and Metabolic Stability.

    Żołnowska, Beata; Sławiński, Jarosław; Pogorzelska, Aneta; Szafrański, Krzysztof; Kawiak, Anna; Stasiłojć, Grzegorz; Belka, Mariusz; Ulenberg, Szymon; Bączek, Tomasz; Chojnacki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide derivatives 27-60 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell lines HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7, with IC50 values below 100 μM. It was found that for the analogues 36-38 the naphthyl moiety contributed significantly to the anticancer activity. Cytometric analysis of translocation of phosphatidylserine as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle revealed that the most active compounds 37 (HCT-116 and HeLa) and 46 (MCF-7) inhibited the proliferation of cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells. Apoptotic-like, dose dependent changes in morphology of cell lines were also noticed after treatment with 37 and 46. Moreover, triazines 37 and 46 induced caspase activity in the HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were tested for metabolic stability in the presence of pooled human liver microsomes and NADPH, both R² and Ar = 4-CF₃-C₆H₄ moiety in 2-(R²-methylthio)-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides simultaneously increased metabolic stability. The results pointed to 37 as a hit compound with a good cytotoxicity against HCT-116 (IC50 = 36 μM), HeLa (IC50 = 34 μM) cell lines, apoptosis-inducing activity and moderate metabolic stability. PMID:27338337

  3. Selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of zirconium in environmental and biological samples using 4-chloro-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-hydroxy-5-sulfamoylbenzamide

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S.

    2012-11-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of Zr(IV) in aqueous samples was performed, based on complexation reaction between Zr(IV) and 4-chloro-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-hydroxy-5-sulfamoylbenzamide (xipamide). The important analytical parameters and their effects on the reported system were investigated. Zr(IV) react with xipamide in the ratio 1:1 in the pH range 8 to form a complex with an absorption maximum 333 nm. The apparent stability constant (log βn) and the free energy change (ΔG∗) of formation of the complex was calculated using the results of mole ratio and continuous variation methods. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.2-3.6 μg/mL. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration range was found from 0.3 to 3.5 μg/mL. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were also calculated. Taking a constant concentration of Zr(IV) and determining its concentration in the presence of large number of foreign ions tested the effect of foreign ions. The practical applicability of the elaborated method was examined using for determination of mentioned ion in water samples, biological, plant leaves and soil samples where excellent agreements between reported and obtained results were achieved. The relative standard deviation (n = 6) were 0.195%. The precision and accuracy of the results were comparable via F and t test at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Coupling of Molecular Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles by High Performance Liquid Chromatography as an Efficient Technique for Sensitive and Selective Trace Determination of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxy Acetic Acid in Complex Matrices.

    Fariborz Omidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid (MCPA is one of the most important pesticides which is extensively used to control weeds in arable farmland. Exposure to this compound occurs in general population and persons who occupationally handle it. The aim of this present work was the preparation of MCPA imprinting polymer and its application as a selective sample preparation technique for trace determination of MCPA in biological and environmental samples.In this study, MCPA imprinting polymer was obtained by precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid (the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (the cross-linker, 2, 2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (the initiator and MCPA (the template molecule in acetonitrile solution. The MIP-NPs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The optimization process was carried out applying batch method. After optimization of the parameters, affecting the adsorption and desorption of analyte, urine and different water samples were used to determine MCPA.Imprinted MCPA molecules were removed from the polymeric structure using acetic acid in methanol (20:80 v/v % as the eluting solvent. Both sorption and desorption process occur within 10 min. The maximum sorbent capacity of the molecular imprinted polymer is 87.4 mg g-1. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection for water samples by introduced selective solid phase extraction were 4.8% and 0.9 μg L-1, and these data for urine samples were 4.5% and 1.60 μg L-1, respectively.The developed method was successfully applied to determine MCPA in urine and different water samples.

  5. 4-Chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzoylbenzenesulfonamide

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C13H9Cl2NO3S, the conformation of the N—H bond in the C—SO2—NH—C(O segment is anti to the C=O bond. The molecule is twisted at the S atom with a torsion angle of 65.7 (2°. The dihedral angle between the sulfonyl benzene ring and the —SO2—NH—C—O segment is 88.5 (1°, and that between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings is 58.0 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  6. 4-Chloro-N-(3-methylphenylbenzamide

    Vinola Z. Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H12ClNO, the meta-methyl substituent in the aniline ring is positioned anti to the N—H bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 12.4 (1°. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into C(4 chains running along the c-axis direction.

  7. 4-Chloro-N-(3-chlorophenylbenzamide

    Susanta K. Nayak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H9Cl2N, has an intramolecular C—H...O close contact, and presents the NH group syn to the meta-chloro group in the aniline ring and trans to the C=O group. The crystal packing is formed by infinite chains of N—H...O hydrogen bonds along the c axis. Cl...Cl [3.474 (1 Å] contacts link chains. The crystal used for data collection was a twin, the domains related by the twin law 0.948 (1/0.052 (1.

  8. Bioactive berry phenolics

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and readily included in the national food composition data base. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health.

  9. Efectos colaterales del voto preferente

    Luis Diego Brenes Villalobos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la multiplicidad de potenciales efectos que la implementación del voto preferente podría acarrear en el ordenamiento jurídico y el sistema de partidos. La primera parte del análisis se dirige a caracterizar y definir el voto preferencial. En segunda instancia, el estudio comprenderá la revista de los efectos colaterales del voto preferente como modalidad de votación.

  10. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment. PMID:25434120

  11. Crystal structures of copper(II) nitrate complexes containing 4,4'-bipyridyl and halogen-substituted 2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenols

    The crystal structures of (μ-4,4'-bipyridyl)-di{nitrato-2,4-dibromo-6-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl] phenolo (1-)copper} (I), (μ-4,4'-bipyridyl)-di{nitrato-2,4-dichloro-6-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl] phenolo(1-)copper} (II), and (μ-4,4'-bipyridyl)-{4-chloro-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolo(2-) copper-nitrato-4-chloro-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolo(1-)copper} tetrahydrate (III) are determined. The crystal structures of compounds I and II contain binuclear complexes, in which each copper atom is coordinated by the singly deprotonated tridentate molecule of the corresponding azomethine, the monodentate nitrate ion, and bipyridyl that plays the role of a bridge between the central atoms. In the structures of compounds I and II, the coordination polyhedra of the copper atoms are slightly distorted tetragonal pyramids. The pyramid base is formed by the imine and bipyridyl nitrogen atoms and the phenol and alcohol oxygen atoms. The axial vertices of the pyramids are occupied by the oxygen atoms of the monodentate nitrato groups. The crystal structure of compound III involves tetranuclear complexes in which the coordination polyhedra of the central copper atoms are (4 + 1 + 1) bipyramids. The base of these bipyramids is formed by the imine and bipyridyl nitrogen atoms and the phenol and alcohol oxygen atoms. One apical vertex is occupied by the bridging phenol oxygen atom of the nearest complex. The sixth coordination site of the first copper atom is occupied by the chlorine atom of the salicylidene fragment of the neighboring complex related to the initial complex through the center of symmetry. In turn, the sixth coordination site of the second copper atom is occupied by the oxygen atom of the monodentate nitrato group.

  12. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    De-An Jiang; Cun-De Pan; Xiao Ruan; Qiang Wang; Zhao-Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical ...

  13. Efecto Fotoeléctrico

    González Marhuenda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Este vídeo tiene como objetivo el análisis del efecto fotoeléctrico, es decir de la emisión de electrones por un metal cuando sobre él incide luz (radiación electromagnética) de frecuencia superior a la denominada frecuencia umbral de ese metal. El efecto se presenta primero mediante un electroscopio casero, que permite observar la descarga de una placa de zinc, previamente cargada, con una lámpara de luz ultravioleta. Después, mediante un montaje experimental más elaborado, se analiza la cor...

  14. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  15. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  16. Study of the steam distillation of phenolic compounds using ultraviolet spectrometry

    Norwitz, G.; Nataro, N.; Keliher, P.N.

    1986-03-01

    The steam distillation of 42 phenolic compounds was studied by use of a semimicro steam distillation apparatus and ultraviolet spectrometry. In the distillation, the following gave recoveries greater than 95%: phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-bromophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,3- and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2-, 3-, and 4-methylphenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4-, and 3,5-dimethylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-amylpheno,, thymol, and carvacrol. The percent recovery for the other phenolic compounds was as follows: 3-nitrophenol, 3.7%; 4-nitrophenol, 1.8; 3-methoxyphenol, 31.1; 4-methoxyphenol, 23.2; 3-bromophenol, 79.6; 4-bromophenol, 67.8; 3-chlorophenol, 93.5; 4-chlorophenol, 91.6; 3,4-dichlorophenol, 64.1; 2,4-dinitrophenol, 21.2; 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 0.0; 2-aminophenol, 0.1; 3-aminophenol, 0.2; 4-aminophenol, 0.1; pyrocatechol, 1.6; resorcinol, 04.; hydroquinone, 0.0; pyrogallol, 0.7; and phloroglucinol, 0.1. By the examination of the spectra of the undistilled, distilled, and residual solutions, it is concluded that the aminophenols undergo some decomposition and the hydroquinone is almost completely destroyed during the distillation. The important role that hydrogen bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular) plays in the recovery in the steam distillation is examined. 9 references, 2 tables.

  17. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  18. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid

    Graham Smith

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 −, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 −, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 −·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomo...

  19. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  20. Thermophilic degradation of phenolic compounds in lab scale hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    This Study describes the feasibility of anaerobic degradation of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) listed 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C-2-NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C-4-NP), 2-chloro-5-methylphenol (2C-5-MP) from a simulated wastewater using four identical 7L bench scale hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blankets (HUASBs) at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) under thermophilic condition (55 ± 3 deg. C). The substrate to co-substrate ratios were maintained between 1:33.3 and 1:166.6. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation, oxidation reduction potential, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, gas productions, methane percentages were carried out along with compound reduction to asses the efficiency of biodegradation. The compound reduction was estimated by using spectrophotometric methods and further validated with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimum HRT values were observed at 24 h. Optimum ratio of substrate (phenolic compounds) to co-substrate (glucose) was 1:100. Scanning electron micrographs show that the granules were composed of thermophilic Methanobrevibacter and thermophilic Methanothrix like bacteria.

  1. sujetos a Efectos de Red

    José Luis Arroyo Barrigüete

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar una de las principales características de la Economía Digital: las Externalidades de Red. Dichas Externalidades inducen en los mercados una realimentación positiva que lleva en muchos casos a situaciones prácticamente monopolísticas. Se identificarán aquellas capacidades internas de las empresas que resultan críticas para lograr el éxito en presencia de Efectos de Red así como las principales estrategias que es posible desarrollar en este contexto.

  2. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Pablo Velasco; María Elena Cartea; Pilar Soengas; Marta Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  3. Continuous Stabilization of Chardonnay with Ion-Exchage Resin: Influence on Protein and Phenolic Profile of Wine Estabilización en Continuo de Chardonnay con Resina de Intercambio Iónico: Efecto en los Perfiles Proteicos y Fenólicos del Vino

    Johannes de Bruijn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Unstable proteins may react with polyphenols, forming haze and precipitation in white wines. Therefore, the adsorption of these wine proteins is an essential step in the production of white wines. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of adsorption of these proteins on the stability, and protein and phenolic composition of a Chardonnay wine. In this work, protein stabilization of Chardonnay wine was done by continuous adsorption using a packed bed with a SP-Trisacryl-M adsorbent (Sigma-Aldrich. A more pronounced breakthrough of proteins and turbidity causing compounds was found after treating 65 bed volumes of wine by the resin. An increased retention of the protein fraction of 20-50 kDa during the first 62 bed volumes of treated wine was related to improved wine stability. The removal of phenolics by Trisacryl was low. Caffeic acid and (--epicatechin were the main phenolic compounds that could be detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Chardonnay, a low protein content wine, improved its stability after Trisacryl treatment due to the adsorption of the 20-50 kDa protein fraction.Proteínas inestables pueden reaccionar con polifenoles, formando turbidez y precipitación en vinos blancos. Por ende, la adsorción de estas proteínas de vino es una etapa esencial en la producción de vinos blancos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de la adsorción de estas proteínas en la estabilidad y la composición proteica y fenólica de un vino Chardonnay. En este trabajo, la estabilización proteica de vino Chardonnay se realizó mediante adsorción en continuo, utilizando un lecho empaquetado con adsorbente de SP-Trisacryl-M (Sigma-Aldrich. Un quiebre más pronunciado de proteínas y componentes causantes de turbidez se encontró después de pasar un volumen de vino equivalente a 65 lechos de volumen de Trisacryl a través de la resina. Una mayor retención de la fracción proteica de 20-50 k

  4. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  5. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  6. Phenolic compounds in oats

    Skoglund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined how to treat raw oat material for oat-based food products in order to sustain or increase the levels of phenolic compounds. The focus was mainly on the avenanthramides, which are potentially health beneficial bioactive components found exclusively in oats. A proposed enzymatic decrease in avenanthramide levels when non heat-treated milled oats are steeped in water was investigated. The decrease was strongly suggested to be caused by a polyphenol oxidase. Althoug...

  7. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  8. Allelopathic Interactions Involving Phenolic Acids

    Blum, U.

    1996-01-01

    A major concern regarding allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in no-till systems pertains to the fact that concentrations of individual phenolic acids recoverable from field soils are well below levels required for inhibition of germination and seedling growth in laboratory bioassays. Field soils contain a variety of phenolic acids as well as other toxic and nontoxic organic compounds that are available to interact with seeds and roots; whereas in laboratory bioassays, with few...

  9. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamides and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamides as antimicrobial agents

    Kalpesh Parikh; Deepkumar Joshi

    2014-05-01

    A series of 2-mercapto-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been condensed with different phenyl acetamide derivatives possessing fluorine atom at meta position; resulting in the formation of 2-(5-aryl- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (5a-j) and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamide (5k-t) derivatives. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized entities (5a-t) measured as their MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values were evaluated by using the broth dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and fungi (C. albicans and A. niger). The results of antimicrobial activities (in g/ml) revealed the fact that the compounds 5a and g bearing a maximum number of fluorine atoms showed the highest potency among the synthesized compounds against the broad panel of bacterial and fungal strains. The presence of fluorine atom at the meta position in the phenyl ring of final derivatives (5a-t) brought about an enhancement of their antimicrobial properties to a notable extent.

  11. Degradation of terbutylazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-terbutylamino-1,3,5-triazine), deisopropyl atrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and chlorinated dimethoxy triazine (2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine) by zero valent iron and electrochemical reduction

    To help elucidate the mechanism of dechlorination of chlorinated triazines via metallic iron, terbutylazine (TBA: 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-terbutylamino-1,3,5-triazine), deisopropyl atrazine (DIA: 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and chlorinated dimethoxy triazine (CDMT: 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine) were degraded via zero valent iron under controlled pH conditions. The lower the solution pH the faster the degradation, with surface area normalized pseudo first order rate constants ranging from 2 (±1)x10-3 min-1 m-2 l for TBA at pH 2.0 to 4 (±2)x10-5 min-1 m-2 l for CDMT at pH 4.0. Hydrogenolysis (dechlorinated) products were observed for TBA and CDMT. Electrochemical reduction on mercury showed similar behavior for all of the triazines studied; the initial product of CDMT bulk electrolysis was the dechlorinated compound. The iron results are consistent with a mechanism involving the addition of surface hydrogen to the surface associated triazine. - Reductive dechlorination via zero valent iron is dependent upon solution pH and the specific triazine

  12. Preparation of phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood

    LIGai-yun; QINTe-fu; TohmuraShin-ichiro; IkedaAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    The technique for preparing phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood (PWF) and its characters were studied and analyzed. Poplar (Populus spp.) wood meal was liquefied by phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. After the liquefied products were cooled, alkaline catalyst and formaldehyde were added. The mixture was kept at (60±2)℃ for lh and then was heated to (85±2)℃ for lh. The influence of molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol (F/P) was investigated. The results showed when the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was over 1.8, the PWF adhesives had high bond quality, bond durability and extremely low aldehydes emissions.

  13. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  14. El efecto fotoeléctrico

    M. A. Rodríguez-Meza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión del trabajo de Albert Einstein de 1905 que popularmente se conoce como del efecto fotoeléctrico, y por el cual se le otorgó el premio Nobel en 1921. Mostramos que para Einstein el efecto en sí no era importante, sino que estaba interesado en entender los procesos de emisión y absorción de radiación por la materia. Veremos también que al entender la termodinámica de la radiación electromagnética en una cavidad en equilibrio térmico a una temperatura dada, Einstein pudo plantear su hipótesis de los quanta que aplicó a tres fenómenos de interés en esos años, entre ellos el efecto fotoeléctrico.

  15. Efectos digitales de audio con Web Audio API

    GARCÍA CHAPARRO, SAMUEL

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en un estudio de la capacidad de Web Audio API para el procesado de efectos de audio en tiempo real. De todos los efectos de audio posibles se han elegido el wah-wah, el flanger y el choris, efectos ampliamente empleados con guitarra eléctrica. Se crean funciones de lenguaje JavaScript que modelan el comportamiento de los efectos de audio elegidos, haciéndolas funcionar sobre una plataforma web HTML5. García Chaparro, S. (2015). Efectos digitales de audio con W...

  16. Electropolymerization treatment of phenol wastewater and the reclamation of phenol.

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Liyin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; He, Jun; Wei, Gang

    2012-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment of phenol wastewater was carried out with stainless steel anodes, and phenol removal was achieved through the electropolymerization process. The effects of phenol concentration and bath voltage were discussed. The original chemical oxygen demand (COD) value was approximately 500 mg/L. After electropolymerization treatment, phenol concentration was 0.087 mmol/ L with a removal efficiency of 95.6%, and COD was 68 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 86.5%. During treatment, the average current efficiency was 60.36% and power consumption was 27.62 kJ/kg (6.96 kWh/ton). The electropolymerization reaction was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, and the polyphenol product was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. PMID:23356018

  17. Phenol extraction of DNA samples

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Typically, an equal volume of TE-saturated phenol is added to an aqueous DNA sample in a microcentrifuge tube. The mixture is vigorously vortexed, and then centrifuged to enact phase separation. The upper, aqueous layer carefully is removed to a new tube, avoiding the phenol interface and then is subjected to two ether extractions to remove residual phenol. An equal volume of water-saturated ether is added to the tube, the mixture is vortexed, and the tube is centrifuged to allow phase separa...

  18. Los primeros minutos del efecto invernadero

    Corominas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Esta actividad práctica muestra cómo determinados gases absorben la radiación infrarroja (de longitud de onda larga), lo cual permite explicar lo que ocurre a gran escala en la atmósfera de la Tierra en el llamado «efecto invernadero».

  19. Ácido giberélico, bissulfureto de carbono e ácido 2-4 cloroetil fosfônico e a dormência e produtividade de tubérculos de batata Giberellic acid, carbon-disulphide and 2-4 chloro-ethyl phosphonic and the dormancy and yield of potato tubers

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do ácido giberélico, bissulfureto de carbono e ácido 2-4 cloroetil-fosfônico (EthrellR na quebra de dormência e na produção de batata, cv. "Marijke", foi conduzido um ensaio no período de 1990/ 91 em Piraí do Sul, PR . A superioridade do tratamento com o ácido 2-4-cloroetil-fosfônico em relação ao ácido giberélico e ao bissulfureto de carbono, aliada a sua facilidade de aplicação, justifica a sua recomendação com vistas a quebra de dormência de tubérculos do genótipo de batata em estudo, para a região de Piraí do Sul, PR, onde a dose de 842 mg.L-1 de EthrellR ocasionou a produção máxima de 23395 kg/ha.In order to evaluate the efficiency of giberellic acid, carbon-disulphide, and 2-4 chloro-ethyl phosphonic acid (EthrellR on dormancy breaking and yield of potato cv. 'Marijke', an essay was conducted at Piraí do Sul, PR, Brazil, during 1990/1991. The superiority of the EthrellR treatment over giberellic acid and carbon-disulphide, and its easy application, justify its use for dormancy breaking of potato tubers, for the studied genotype and location, at the rate of 842 mg.L-1, resulting in a potato yield of 23,395 kg/ha.

  20. 4-Chloro-N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    K. Shakuntala

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H16ClNO2S, contains two independent moleules. The conformation of the N—H bonds are anti to the ortho-methyl groups in the sulfonyl benzene rings of both the molecules, while the N—H bonds are anti to the ortho- and meta-methyl groups in the aniline ring of one of the molecules and syn in the other. Furthermore, the torsion angles of the C—SO2—NH—C segments in the two molecules of are −66.8 (3 and 70.3 (3°. The sulfonyl and the aniline benzene rings are oriented at angles of 44.1 (1 and 39.7 (1° in the two molecules. In the crystal, pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into dimers.

  1. 4-Chloro-N-[4-(diethylaminobenzylidene]aniline

    Fu-Gong Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C17H19ClN2, contains two independent molecules which differ by a 180° flip in the orientation of the 4-chloroaniline unit with respect to the diethylaminobenzylidene unit [N=C—C—C = 10.0 (3 and −170.6 (2°]. The dihedral angles between the two aromatic rings are 64.0 (1 and 66.5 (1° in the two independent molecules.

  2. 4-Chloro-N-(3,4-dimethylphenyl-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    Vinola Z. Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H16ClNO2S, the conformation of the N—C bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment is gauche with respect to the S=O bonds. Further, the N—H bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment is syn with respect to the meta-methyl group in the aniline benzene ring and the ortho-methyl group in the sulfonyl benzene ring. The C—SO2—NH—C torsion angle is −49.72 (18°. The sulfonyl and aniline benzene rings are tilted relative to each other by 71.6 (1°. The crystal structure features inversion-related dimers linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. (E-4-Chloro-N-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzylideneaniline

    Ying Guo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H16ClN, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 24.61 (13°. In the crystal, only van der Waals interactions occur between neighbouring molecules.

  4. 4-Chloro-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    Vinola Z. Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10Cl3NO2S, the N—C bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment forms trans and gauche torsion angles with respect to the S=O bonds. Further, the N—H bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment is anti to the meta-Cl atom in the anilino benzene ring and nearly syn with respect to the ortho-methyl group in the sulfonyl benzene ring. The C—SO2—NH—C torsion angle is −49.4 (2°. The sulfonyl and aniline benzene rings are tilted relative to each other by 54.6 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along the c-axis direction by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. 4-Chloro-N-(2,5-dimethylphenylbenzenesulfonamide

    K. Shakuntala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H14ClNO2S, contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with different conformations. The C—SO2—NH—C torsion angles are 65.3 (2 and 54.6 (2° and the aromatic rings are tilted relative to each other by 59.3 (1 and 45.8 (1° in the two molecules. In the crystal, inversion symmetry results in dimers linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds for both molecules.

  6. Phenyl N-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethylphenyl]carbamate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C14H9ClF3NO2, the aromatic rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 66.49 (3°. Intramolecular C—H...F and C—H...O interactions result in the formation of one planar five- and one non-planar six-membered ring. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains.

  7. 4-Chloro­anilinium thio­cyanate

    Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.; Halima, F. Salem; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C6H7ClN+·NCS−, the benzene ring and the protonated amine and chloro substituents are nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (2) Å for the N atom. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds into a chain along the b axis.

  8. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  9. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  10. La Antracnosis del olivo y su efecto en la calidad del aceite

    Moral, J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea is one of the first domesticated and cultivated trees that is widely distributed in the Mediterranean regions. The Anthracnose, caused by the two complex fungal species Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is the most important disease adversely affecting the olive oil quality. Even so, the effect of Anthracnose on oil quality is largely unknown and many questions remain unanswered. This offers a unique opportunity to study how Colletotrichum species, cultivars, infection type (latent or visible and severity, and other factors that may affect different parameters of oil quality, such us acidity, peroxide value, K232, K270, phenolic compounds, or alkyl esters. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and management of Anthracnose and its effect on olive oil quality.El olivo (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea es uno de los primeros cultivos leñosos domesticados. Actualmente el olivo se encuentra ampliamente distribuido por todas las regiones de clima mediterráneo. La Antracnosis, causada por las especies complejas Colletotrichum acutatum y C. gloeosporioides, es la enfermedad del olivo que más afecta a la calidad del aceite. Aun así, el efecto de la Antracnosis en la calidad del aceite es ampliamente desconocido. Por lo que creemos esencial que se afronten estudios encaminados a dilucidar el efecto de las especies del patógeno, el cultivar de olivo y el tipo (latente o visible y severidad de las infecciones de la aceituna en los distintos parámetros de calidad del aceite como la acidez, índice de peróxidos, K232, K270, compuestos fenólicos o ésteres alquílicos. Esta revisión presenta los conocimientos actuales sobre la biología, epidemiología, control, y efecto en la calidad del aceite de la Antracnosis del olivo.

  11. Effects of Na2SO4 or NaCl on sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds in an aqueous solution under Ar: Positive and negative effects induced by the presence of salts.

    Uddin, Md Helal; Nanzai, Ben; Okitsu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol, phenol, catechol and resorcinol was studied under Ar at 200 kHz in the absence and presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl. The rates of sonochemical degradation in the absence of salts decreased in the order 4-chlorophenol>phenol>catechol>resorcinol and this order was in good agreement with the order of log P (partition coefficient) value of each phenolic compound. The effects of salts on the rates of sonochemical degradation consisted of no effect or slight negative or positive effects. We discussed these unclear results based on two viewpoints: one was based on the changes in pseudo hydrophobicity and/or diffusion behavior of phenolic compounds and the other was based on the changes in solubility of Ar gas. The measured log P value of each phenolic compound slightly increased with increasing salt concentration. In addition, the dynamic surface tension for 4-chlorophenol aqueous solution in the absence and presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl suggested that phenolic compounds more easily accumulated at the interface region of bubbles at higher salt concentration. These results indicated that the rates of sonochemical degradation should be enhanced by the addition of salts. On the other hand, the calculated Ar gas solubility was confirmed to decrease with increasing salt concentration. The yield of H2O2 formed in the presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl decreased with increasing salt concentration. These results suggested that sonochemical efficiency decreased with decreasing gas amount in aqueous solution: a negative effect of salts was observed. Because negative and positive effects were induced simultaneously, we concluded that the effects of salts on the rates of sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds became unclear. The products formed from sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol were also characterized by HPLC analysis. The formation of phenol and 4-chloro-1,3-dihydroxy benzene was confirmed and these concentrations were affected by the

  12. Phenolic content of Sicilian virgin olive oils and their effect on MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation

    García-Martínez, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the influence of olive variety and elevation of orchards on the phenolic compound content of Sicilian virgin olive oils (VOOs and, second, to investigate the effects of VOO phenolic extracts on osteoblast cell growth using the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Olive oil phenolic content and its effect on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation varied according to the type of cultivar and the grove altitude. This variation was also observed within the same type of cultivar. This observation demonstrates that the cultivar and the grove location can significantly affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of virgin olive oil. Although this study supports the hypothesis that virgin olive oil phenolic fractions exert a beneficial effect on bone health, further studies assessing the in vivo accessibility of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds to osteoblast cells should be carried out.El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la influencia de la variedad y la altitud del cultivo en el contenido fenólico de aceites de oliva virgen Sicilianos. Asimismo, se ha investigado el efecto de los extractos fenólicos de los aceites en el crecimiento de osteoblastos usando la línea celular de osteosarcoma humano MG-63. El contenido fenólico y el efecto de los extractos analizados en la proliferación de la línea celular osteoblástica muestra una variabilidad consistente de acuerdo con el tipo y la altitud del cultivo. Estos datos demuestran que estas características pueden afectar significativamente la composición química y los efectos en salud del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados de este trabajo soportan la hipótesis de que las fracciones fenólicas de los aceites de oliva vírgenes ejercen un efecto beneficioso en la salud ósea. Asimismo, se deben realizar más estudios que establezcan la accesibilidad in vivo de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva virgen a las células osteoblásticas.

  13. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  14. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PHENOLIC UNITS IN LIGNINS

    Knut Lundquist; Jim Parkås

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cross-linking and branching on the number of interconnections between lignin units and the number of end groups (phenolic and non-phenolic) in the lignin molecules is discussed. Branching results in an increased number of end groups. It appears from an evaluation of the literature that p-hydroxyphenylpropane units are phenolic to a larger extent than guaiacylpropane units and that such units in turn are phenolic to a larger extent than syringylpropane units. It is proposed th...

  15. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  16. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...

  17. Efectos garrapaticidas de algunos aceites esenciales

    Juan F. Gil; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Pastor, Ana; Ringuelet, Jorge; Elder, Heriberto; Echeverri, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Soluciones acuo-etanólicas de aceites esenciales de Lippia (3 quimiotipos), Schinus molle, Tagetes, Lavandina (dos quimiotipos), Hisopo, Romero y Ciprés, fueron sometidas a ensayos in Vitro para evaluar sus efectos sobre le supervivencia y reproducción de las garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Los aceites de Lippia, Tagetes e Hisopo mostraron buenos niveles de inhibición de la oviposición y de mortalidad superiores al 50%, a una concentración del 1%; no obstante, a concentracio...

  18. Efecto de masticar chicle sobre la halitosis

    De Luca Monasterios, Fiorella; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; López López, José

    2014-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: Este estudio pretende estimar la prevalencia de halitosis oral en una población joven y mostrar el efecto del chicle sobre el aliento. Pacientes y método: Estudio prospectivo de campo descriptivo correlacional, de corte transversal. Se seleccionaron a conveniencia 121 jóvenes, de los que 98 concluyeron el estudio, el cual se realizó en el Hospital Odontológico Universitario-Universidad de Barcelona. El protocolo consistió en: cuestionario, evaluación clínica oral, prueb...

  19. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry. PMID:24444905

  20. The phenolic complex in flaxseed

    Strandås, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Flaxseed is the richest plant source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). In flaxseed, SDG exists in an oligomeric structure with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaric acid (HMGA) forming a phenolic complex together with p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid glucosides and herbacetin diglucoside (HDG). Epidemiological and animal studies indicate protective effects of flaxseed and SDG towards hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases, and reducing effect toward cholesterol levels...

  1. Vibrational analysis of phenol/(methanol)1

    Gerhards, M.; Beckmann, K.; Kleinermanns, K.

    1994-09-01

    Ab initio calculations at the Hartree-Fock 4-31G* level were performed in order to calculate binding energies and vibrational frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster and two deuterated isotopomers ( d-phenol/CH3OD, d-phenol-CD3OD). The minimum energy structure is trans-linear, as for the phenol/H2O-cluster. The calculated frequencies of phenol and methanol as well as the intramolecular frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are assigned to experimental values. The calculated intermolecular frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are compared with the available experimental frequencies of the S 0 (and S 1)-state of the phenol/methanol-cluster and the similar p-cresol/methanol-cluster. Assignments are suggested for the σ and p 1-mode. In order to clarify the assignment of the low frequency vibration at 22 cm-1 anharmonic corrections for the β2-mode of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are calculated. These calculations show only slight anharmonicity compared with the β2-mode calculations carried out for the phenol/H2O-cluster.

  2. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico). Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para i...

  3. Adsorption of plant phenols by polystyrene resins

    Akiyoshi Fukushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of nine plant phenols by nine polystyrene ion-exchange resins was investigated in an experimental model system. The phenols were adsorbed by Amberlite CG-120 more efficiently than any other acidically charged resins tested in this study. They were also taken up by anion exchangers. Among them Dowex 1-X8 was found to show the strongest effect on the adsorption of the phenolic constituents applied. A comparison of the efficiency of plant phenol adsorption between two different types of the synthetic polymers revealed that the basically charged polystyrenes had more prefarable affinities for phenols than cation exchangers. For example, the ratio of the efficiency between Amberlite CG-120 and Dowex 1-X8 was roughly calculated to be 3:7 under the present experimental conditions. The adsorption rate of the test phenols was raised mostly by increasing the amount of the resins added, if they were mixed with effective polymers in the incubation model system.

  4. El efecto coagulante de la digital

    Naranjo Villegas, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Se lleva a cabo un trabajo para determinar el efecto coagulante de las dosis terapéuticas de digital, empleando las técnicas de Howell, de Lee y White, y de Quick. No se encontró modificación de la protrombina en los casos observados con el método de Howell. Se encontró aceleración del tiempo de protrombina -método de Quick - en 5 de 6 casos. Hubo aceleración de la coagulabilidad sanguínea - técnica de Lee y White - en 13 de 24 cardíacos digitalizados. Las dosis que más favorecieron el ...

  5. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    Alice, Vilela; António, M. Jordão; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  6. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Pekala Karolina; Wawrzusiszyn Katarzyna; Bogucka-Kocka Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC) on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence...

  7. Thermal properties of ablative phenolic resins

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Dimeski, Dimko; BOGOEVA-GACEVA, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic resins are known for their excellent thermal properties and chemical stability and are widely used in automotive industry, electrical engineering, military industry and industry of construction materials. Their attractive properties have been especially exploited in high temperature applications. Recently a wide range of phenolic resins for different applications is available on the market. In this paper the properties of two types of ablative phenolic resins are compared: resin B...

  8. Effect of adaptation to phenol on biodegradation of monosubstituted phenols by aquatic microbial communities.

    Shimp, R J; Pfaender, F K

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of a mixed aquatic microbial community to phenol was examined in microcosms receiving phenol as a sole carbon source. Extended exposure (adaptation) to phenol resulted in adaptation of the microbial community to the structurally related aromatic compounds m-cresol, m-aminophenol, and p-chlorophenol. The increased biodegradation potential of the phenol-adapted microbial community was accompanied by a concurrent increase in the number of microorganisms able to degrade the three t...

  9. Effect of the molecular structure of phenolic novolac precursor resins on the properties of phenolic fibers

    A series of phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and ortho/para (O/P) ratios were prepared. The effect of the phenolic precursor resin structure on the structure and properties of the resulting phenolic fibers was investigated. The structures of the resins and fibers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, melt rheometry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the O/P ratio, unsubstituted ortho and para carbon ratio (Ou/Pu), and Mw of the phenolic resins play an important role in determining the properties of the phenolic fibers. The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac precursor Ou/Pu ratios, corresponding to low O/P ratios, at comparable resin Mw values. Also, the tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac Mw values at comparable O/P ratios. Phenolic fibers with high tensile strength and good flame resistance characteristics were generated from a phenolic precursor resin, possessing a high weight-average molecular weight and a low O/P value. - Highlights: • Phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights and ortho/para ratios have been prepared. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with reducing novolac O/P ratio. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac Mw

  10. Phenolic Compounds from Scutellaria pontica

    ERSÖZ, Tayfun; HARPUT, Ü. Şebnem; SARACOĞLU, İclal; ÇALIŞ, İhsan

    2002-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Scutellaria pontica, a phenolic glucoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenyl b -D-glucopyranoside (1); as well as a C-glucosyl flavon, isovitexin (2); flavones and flavone glycosides, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (3); apigenin (4); apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (5); and apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-4'-O-methylether (6) were isolated in addition to two phenylethanoid glycosides, martynoside (7) and verbascoside (= acteoside) (8). The structures...

  11. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  12. Sorbents for Phenol Removal from Contaminated Waters

    Papežová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, contamination of underground and surface water by various pollutants is serious environmental problem. Phenol and phenolic compounds belong to the most common organic pollutants. Huge sources of contamination are industrial waste waters (from chemical, rubber, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and other industry), which are necessary to purify. Various techniques (oxidation, enzymatic purification, sorption, photocatalysis, or their combination) are used for water treatment. This study ...

  13. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  14. Efectos de la “mentalidad” conquistadora

    Edison Viveros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor hace un análisis del proceso de conquista y colonia de América. Utiliza una técnica de rastreo documental para examinar lo que denomina “mentalidad conquistadora” a través de sus expresiones históricas. Evalúa las particularidades políticas y económicas tanto de Europa como de América en esa época, con el fin de demostrar que el choque de dos cosmovisiones, una de corte bélico y conquistador, otra con una ética de hermandad y cuidado por la tierra y los ancestros, impidió un proceso que podría haber sido sincrético. Finalmente, concluye que, pese a los efectos de esta mentalidad, y de su permanencia en los rasgos culturales americanos, este continente es un espacio de mixturas y un mundo plural, con toda la potencialidad para ser auténtico.

  15. Catalytic Graphitization of Phenolic Resin

    Mu Zhao; Huaihe Song

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic graphitization of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN) was studied in detail. The morphologies and structural features of the products including onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It was found that with the changes of loading content of FN and residence time at 1000℃, the products exhibited various morphologies. The TEM images showed that bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube consisted of tens of bamboo sticks and onion-like carbon nanoparticle was made up of quasi-spherically concentrically closed carbon nanocages.

  16. [Growth kinetics and phenol degradation of highly efficient phenol-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. CH10].

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Wei, Gang; Liu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Jiang-Man; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Hao-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Jun

    2012-11-01

    The strain Ochrobactrum sp. CH10 was a highly efficient phenol degrading bacterial strain isolated from soil in a constructed wetland in Yuan Dynasty Capital City Wall Relics in Beijing. Growth and biodegradation were investigated in details with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. The best growth and most efficient phenol biodegradation occurred when the strain was cultured in medium containing 400 mg x L(-1) phenol at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C, with 5% inoculation volume. The phenol degradation rate was around 100% , 92.3 and 82.2% with an initial concentration of 400, 900 and 1 000 mg x L(-1) phenol in 24, 44 and 48 h, respectively. Phenol degradation kinetic studies indicated that the strain followed Haldane's model, and the parameters were: upsilon(max) (maximum specific rate) = 0.126 h(-1), K(s) (half-saturation constant) = 23.53 mg x L(-1) and K(I) (inhibition constant) = 806.1 mg x L(-1). The phenol-limited growth kinetics of CH10 by Andrews's model also followed a similar trend to that of phenol degradation. Among all the strains belonging to Ochrobactrum genus, this strain is the most efficient at present. The strain has a good application potential for the phenolic wastewater treatment. PMID:23323431

  17. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves

    Andreia P. Oliveira; Pereira, J.A.; Andrade, P.B.; Valentão, P.; Seabra, R.M.; B.M. Silva

    2007-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and Central Portugal (Covilhã) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3-O-, 4-O...

  18. Heterogeneous Photooxidation of Phenol by Catalytic Membranes

    Enrica Fontananova; Enrico Drioli; Laura Donato; Marcella Bonchio; Mauro Carraro; Gianfranco Scorrano

    2006-01-01

    In this work the heterogenization in polymeric membranes of decatungstate, a photocatalyst for oxidation reactions,was reported. Solid state characterization techniques confirmed that the catalyst structure was preserved within the polymeric membranes. The catalytic membranes were successfully applied in the aerobic photo-oxidation of phenol, one of the main organic pollutants in wastewater, providing stable and recyclable photocatalytic systems. The dependence of the phenol degradation rate by the catalyst loading and transmembrane pressure was shown. By comparison with homogeneous reaction,the catalyst heterogenized in membrane appears to be more efficient concerning the rate of phenol photodegradation and mineralization.

  19. Phenolic constituents in irradiated banana fruit tissues

    The ''Hom Tong'' banana fruits grown in Thailand irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 Krad and stored at 170C were used for analyses. The total phenolic compounds observed in irradiated fruits were higher than non-irradiated ones after harvested and 7 days of storage. The total phenolic components in the pulp of banana fruits were decreased during ripening when stored from 7-35 days. However, the phenolic constituents become increased again after 21 days of storage at the doses of 20 and 40 Krad due to the infected fruits by the fungus during the fruits approached to over ripe

  20. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization and...... modified phenolic acids will have amphiphilic property, therefore they can be localized at oil-water or water-oil phase where oxidation is considered to occur frequently. It had been reported that immobilized Candida Antarctica lipase B was the most effective biocatalyst for the various esterification...... reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show these...

  1. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico. Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para integrar la información en estructuras complejas de información.

  2. Effect of the molecular structure of phenolic novolac precursor resins on the properties of phenolic fibers

    Ying, Yong-Gang; Pan, Yan-Ping; Ren, Rui; Dang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Chun-Ling, E-mail: clliutt@snnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-16

    A series of phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights (M{sub w}) and ortho/para (O/P) ratios were prepared. The effect of the phenolic precursor resin structure on the structure and properties of the resulting phenolic fibers was investigated. The structures of the resins and fibers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, melt rheometry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the O/P ratio, unsubstituted ortho and para carbon ratio (O{sub u}/P{sub u}), and M{sub w} of the phenolic resins play an important role in determining the properties of the phenolic fibers. The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac precursor O{sub u}/P{sub u} ratios, corresponding to low O/P ratios, at comparable resin M{sub w} values. Also, the tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M{sub w} values at comparable O/P ratios. Phenolic fibers with high tensile strength and good flame resistance characteristics were generated from a phenolic precursor resin, possessing a high weight-average molecular weight and a low O/P value. - Highlights: • Phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights and ortho/para ratios have been prepared. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with reducing novolac O/P ratio. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M{sub w}.

  3. Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Phenolic Compositions and Color Properties of Fresh Grape Leaves

    Güler, Ali; CANDEMİR, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Grape leaves have been consumed as fresh and canned for years. Stuffed grape leaves (dolma) is a traditional delicacy for Turkish, Balkan and Middle East nations. In this study; grape leaves from Sultani Çekirdeksiz (SÇ), Sultan1 (S1), Sultan7 (S7) Saruhanbey (SB) and Narince (N) grape cultivars were assayed for their total phenolics, total flavonoids, some phenolic compounds and color properties. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the samples were determined by Folin Ciocalteu an...

  4. Phenolic cutter for machining foam insulation

    Blair, T. A.; Miller, A. C.; Price, B. W.; Stiles, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Pre-pregged fiber glass is an efficient abrasive for machining polystyrene and polyurethane foams. It bonds easily to any cutter base made of aluminum, steel, or phenolic, is inexpensive, and is readily available.

  5. Phenolic Resin Sector Enters New Stage

    Pu Zeshuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid output increase With the importation of new production technologies and the boom of large timber processing, insulation refractory material, composite material and foam plastics sectors in recent years, the phenolic resin production in China has developed rapidly.

  6. Efecto neuroprotector de los cannabinoides en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas

    Carlos Suero-García; Lucia Martín-Banderas; Mª Ángeles Holgado

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: Se analiza la situación actual de las investigaciones relacionadas con las sustancias cannabinoides, así como su interacción con el organismo, clasificación, efectos terapéuticos y su uso en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Métodos: Se realiza una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las sustancias cannabinoides y sus derivados sintéticos, haciendo especial hincapié en la forma de interactuar con el organismo y los efectos que provocan dichas interacciones. Concret...

  7. Phenolic compounds of three unconventional Sudanese oils

    Abdalbasit Mariod; Bertrand Matthäus; Karl Eichner; Hussein, Ismail H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The total amount and content of phenolic and fl avonoid compounds using the Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods of the methanolic extracts of Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO), Melon bug oil (MBO), and Sorghum bug oil (SBO) were studied. Material and methods. Dry samples of Sclerocarya birrea, Aspongopus vidiuatus and Agonoscelis pubescens were used in this study. The oil was extracted using n-hexane following AOCS method. The phenolic compounds were extracted following a...

  8. Phenolic Compounds and Uses in Fruit Growing

    Sulusoglu, Melekber

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a class of chemical compounds in organic chemistry which consist of a hydroxyl group directly bonded to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. Phenolic compounds find in cell wall structures and play a major role in the growth regulation of plant as an internal physiological regulators or chemical messengers. They are used in the fruit growing field. They are related with defending system against pathogens and stress. They increase the success of tissue culture; can be helpful ...

  9. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-12-04

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  10. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence of phenolic acids in leaves and fruit of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf was confirmed. Overall, proportions of 15 phenolic acids were found and identified in the analyzed material. These are: gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, syryngic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dimethoxycinnamic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3 other compounds named A, B, C, whose identification was not possible due to the lack of suitable reference patterns. Studies have shown that leaves and fruit of the plant Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. contain a large number of phenolic acids which possess many important pharmacological activities.

  11. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  12. Phenolic glycosides from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Azuma, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2008-11-01

    Three phenolic glycosides were isolated together with two known flavonol glycosides from the H2O-soluble fraction of rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora. Their structures were determined to be rel-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (1), its rel-5aS,10bR isomer (2), and (2R,3S,4S)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-3'-O-methyl-ent-epicatechin-(2alpha-->O-->3,4alpha-->4)-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (3). The structures were elucidated on the basis of analyses of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18922550

  13. Phenolic Glucosides from Gentiana piasezkii

    WU,Quan-Xiang; SHI,Yan-Ping; YANG,Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) contains about 400 species, which distribute almost all over the world. Some species have been investigated on phytochemistry and they could be characterized by the presence of some secoiridoid glucosides (bitter principles), flavone-C-glucosides and xanthone aglycones and glucosides,[1] but nothing is known, up to now, about the chemical constitutents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim. Members of the genus Gentiana have been used as traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat hepatitis.[2] In order to find active compounds as lead molecule for medicine, we have studied on constituents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim and found two new natural occurring,6'-O-(4-hydroxy-veratroyloxy)-arbutin (1) and luteolin 7-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamoyl)-8-C-glucoside (2) from n-BuOH soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). So we describe herein the structures of two new phenolic glucosides.

  14. Selective defunctionalization by TiO2 of monomeric phenolics from lignin pyrolysis into simple phenols.

    Mante, Ofei D; Rodriguez, Jose A; Babu, Suresh P

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on defunctionalizing monomeric phenolics from lignin into simple phenols for applications such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, epoxidized novolacs, adhesives and binders. Towards this goal, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used to selectively remove hydroxyl, methoxy, carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities from the monomeric phenolic compounds from lignin to produce mainly phenol, cresols and xylenols. The results showed that anatase TiO2 was more selective and active compared to rutile TiO2. Catechols were found to be the most reactive phenolics and 4-ethylguaiacol the least reactive with anatase TiO2. An overall conversion of about 87% of the phenolics was achieved at 550°C with a catalyst-to-feed ratio of 5 w/w. Over 97% conversion of phenolics is achievable at moderate temperatures (550°C or ≤ 600°C) and a moderate catalyst-to-feed ratio of 6.5:1. The reactivity of catechols on TiO2 suggests that titania is a promising catalyst in the removal of hydroxyl moiety. PMID:24080289

  15. Efectos del D-003 sobre patrones conductuales de roedores

    Lilia Fernández Dorta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El D-003 es una mezcla de ácidos alifáticos de muy alto peso molecular purificada de la cera de la caña de azúcar con efectos hipocolesterolemizante y antiagregante plaquetario demostrados experimentalmente y en estudios clínicos Fase I y II. Los estudios experimentales y clínicos culminados han mostrado que el D-003 es seguro y bien tolerado. Sin embargo, la farmacología de la seguridad de nuevos medicamentos investiga sus efectos sobre diversos sistemas que pudieran ser blancos potenciales de toxicidad. Teniendo en cuenta que los efectos adversos relacionados con el Sistema Nervioso (SN están entre los más frecuentes para diversas áreas terapéuticas, estos estudios suelen investigar los efectos de las sustancias sobre la función y estructura del SN. La investigación de los efectos sobre patrones conductuales de roedores comúnmente representa la primera etapa de estos estudios. De acuerdo con ello, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del tratamiento oral con D-003 (dosis únicas y repetidas sobre la actividad exploratoria, la respuesta al plato caliente, la sujeción y ejecución en varilla rotatoria y la evitación pasiva de una sola prueba de aprendizaje en ratones. Los animales se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos experimentales (10 animales/grupo: uno control que recibió el vehículo goma acacia-H20 y cuatro tratados con D-003 (5, 25, 100 y 400 mg/kg, respectivamente. El tratamiento oral con dosis únicas y repetidas de D-003 (400 mg/kg aumentó de forma modesta, pero significativa, la actividad exploratoria con respecto al grupo control. Sin embargo, el D-003 no modificó la respuesta en el ensayo de plato caliente, la capacidad de sujeción y ejecución motora en varilla rotatoria ni la retención del aprendizaje en el ensayo de evitación pasiva. Se necesitan estudios ulteriores que diluciden las causas por las cuales el D-003 aumenta la actividad exploratoria en ratones y que

  16. Efecto del D-004 sobre patrones conductuales en roedores

    Daisy Carbajal Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El D-004 es un extracto lipídico de los frutos de la palma real cubana (Roystonea regia que ha mostrado efectos protectores sobre la hyperplasia prostática (HP inducida en roedores con testosterona, pero no con dihidrotestosterona y que además, antagoniza respuestas mediadas por los ¿1-adrenoreceptores prostáticos. El D-004 mostró una modesta acción antiinflamatoria en el modelo de granuloma por algodón, modelo que se acerca más a la condición de inflamación crónica aparejada a la hiperplasia prostatica benigna (HPB en el hombre, lo que podría contribuir, en alguna medida, a su efecto en los modelos de HP. Teniendo en cuenta que los efectos adversos relacionados con el sistema nervioso (SN están entre los más frecuentes para diversas áreas terapéuticas, es obligado investigar los efectos de las sustancias sobre la función y estructura del SN. La investigación de los efectos sobre patrones conductuales de roedores comúnmente representa la primera etapa de estos estudios. El presente estudio investigó los efectos del tratamiento oral con D-004 (dosis únicas y repetidas sobre la actividad exploratoria, la respuesta al plato caliente y a las contracciones inducidas con ácido acético (200, 400 y 800 mg/kg, así como sobre la sujeción en varilla rotatoria y la fuerza de agarre en ratones (250, 500 y 1 000 mg/kg. El tratamiento oral con D-004 no modificó la actividad exploratoria, la respuesta al plato caliente y a las contracciones inducidas con ácido acético, así como la sujeción en varilla y la fuerza de agarre . El tratamiento oral con D-004 en el intervalo de dosis indicado no indujo efectos neurotóxicos, ya que no modificó ninguna de las conductas estudiadas.

  17. Synthesis of Phenolic-Based Resist Materials for Photolithography

    Sutikno; Muhammad Lukman Hakim; Sugianto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol-basedphotoresist for photolithography application is successfully developed in this research namely by mixing phenolic resin with ethanol solvent and sodium acetate 3-hydrate 30% of phenolic resin mass. Novolac phenolic resin is made by mixing formaldehyde and phenol in mol ratio 2,8:1 catalyzed using NaOH. Phenolic resin is made at heating temperature of 85°C and stirring rotation speed of 1000 rpm. Photoresist thin film is spincoated on the glass substrate and prebaked on the hotpla...

  18. Preparation of organic rechargeable battery using phenols

    Phenols are antioxidant compounds and have the property of electrochemical oxidation. Exploiting the antioxidant properties of the phenol a rechargeable battery was prepared by coupling phenol with resorcinol through salt bridge. The voltage power and stability of this battery was found to depend upon the concentration of the phenols, concentration of the electrolyte, power/voltage of charger and porosity of the salt bridge which connects the two solutions. The salt bridges used for this battery include piece of card board and wicks made of the loose and tightly woven cotton threads i.e. the wick of spirit lamp and the wick used in lantern. Sodium hydroxide solution was used as electrolyte and conductivity improving medium. The concentration of the electrolyte was investigated using its solutions of various concentrations in separate experiments. The voltage of the charger was investigated by using charger/transformers of 6.15 and 3 volt. This five cell phenol battery gives a maximum voltage of 8000 milli volt at the optimum conditions. This battery was recharged using a 15 volt Dc power supply. The charging and theoretical aspects of the battery are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  19. Environmental phenols and pubertal development in girls.

    Wolff, Mary S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M; Windham, Gayle C; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Biro, Frank M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 μM of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6-8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5-6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64-0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65-0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol: 4-9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96-1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  20. Adsorption of phenol on wood surfaces

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of phenol on aspen and pine wood is investigated. It is shown that adsorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. The woods' specific surface areas and adsorption interaction constants are determined. It is found that the sorption of phenol on surfaces of aspen and pine is due to Van der Waals interactions ( S sp = 45 m2/godw for aspen and 85 m2/godw for pine). The difference between the adsorption characteristics is explained by properties of the wood samples' microstructures.

  1. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H+ → Na+) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na+, NaOH, and Cs+ concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied

  2. Uptake and transformation of labelled lignin derived phenols as a contribution of phenol metabolism in plants

    For the formation of fractions of soil organic matter some phenolic substances play an important role. A part of these is formed by degradation of lignin. The main reactions of transformations of lignin degradation products are mentioned; these influence plant metabolism. Studies about uptake, transport and chemical behaviour in plants with phenol carboxylic acids labelled in different positions are reported. The kinetics of the reactions have been studied in plant cell suspension cultures. The studies are made to find out, if these phenolic compounds influence resistance of plants against diseases. (author)

  3. Honey discrimination of three Portuguese beekeepers associations by phenolic pattern

    Dias, L. G.; Barros, Lillian; Girante, Sónia; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (phenolics acids and flavonoids) in honey are known to have healthpromoting effects as antioxidants and anticarcinogens". These compounds, considered as the phytochemical profile, have also been used as biochemical markers for the honey geographic origin.

  4. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  5. Inhibition of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cellulase

    Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Li, Bing-zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lignin-derived phenolic compounds are universal in the hydrolysate of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The phenolics reduce the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the cost of ethanol production. We investigated inhibition of phenolics on cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis using vanillin as one of the typical lignin-derived phenolics and Avicel as cellulose substrate. Results As vanillin concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg/mL, cellulose conversion after 72-h e...

  6. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Alagna Fiammetta; Mariotti Roberto; Panara Francesco; Caporali Silvia; Urbani Stefania; Veneziani Gianluca; Esposto Sonia; Taticchi Agnese; Rosati Adolfo; Rao Rosa; Perrotta Gaetano; Servili Maurizio; Baldoni Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleu...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF A LIGNOSULFONATE-BASED PHENOLIC FOAM

    Lihong Hu; Yonghong Zhou; Meng Zhang; Ruijie Liu

    2011-01-01

    Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w) and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scann...

  8. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids

    Prashant Kaushik; Isabel Andújar; Santiago Vilanova; Mariola Plazas; Pietro Gramazio; Francisco Javier Herraiz; Navjot Singh Brar; Jaime Prohens

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been f...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  10. SOME PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SALVIA PLEBEIA R. BR.

    Rupali Shirsat

    2012-01-01

    A linear relationship existed between the medicinal potential and phytoconstituents specially phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs. Salvia plebeia is one of important plant of high medicinal potential. The present study deals with the HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds of this herb. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compound. Among the identified phenolic compounds, the quantity of rosmarinic ac...

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2009-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  12. Adsorption capacity of phenolic compounds onto cellulose and xylan

    Telma dos Santos Costa; Hervé Rogez; Rosinelson da Silva Pena

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between three phenolic compounds (catechin, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) onto two dietary fibres (cellulose and xylan) has been evaluated to inquire possible interferences on the biodisponibility of phenolic compounds. The adsorption kinetics were performed using solutions containing 100 mg/L of phenolic compounds during a contact time ranging between 10 and 120 minutes at pH 2.0, 4.5, and 7.0. After the kinetics, isotherms were obtained using phenolic compounds concentratio...

  13. Kinetics of Phenol Biodegradation by an Immobilized Methanogenic Consortium †

    Dwyer, Daryl F.; Krumme, Mary Lou; Boyd, Stephen A.; Tiedje, James M

    1986-01-01

    A phenol-degrading methanogenic enrichment was successfully immobilized in agar as shown by the stoichiometric conversion of phenol to CH4 and CO2. The enrichment contained members of three physiological groups necessary for the syntrophic mineralization of phenol: a phenol-oxidizing bacterium, a Methanothrix-like bacterium, and an H2-utilizing methanogen. The immobilization technique resulted in the cells being embedded in a long, thin agar strand (1 mm in diameter by 2 to 50 cm in length) t...

  14. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  15. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  18. Electron transfer reactions of osmium(II) complexes with phenols and phenolic acids

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Velayudham, Murugesan; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-07-01

    Three [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes (NN = polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectral techniques. The geometry of the molecules are optimized by DFT calculations. The interaction between [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes and phenolate ion in ground state is confirmed by absorption spectral study and the binding constant values are in the range of 3-740 M-1. The photoinduced electron transfer reaction of these [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes with phenols and phenolic acids at pH 12.5 leads to the formation of phenoxyl radical confirmed through transient absorption spectral study. Binding constants and electron transfer rate constants within the [Os(NN)3]2+-phenolate ion adduct account for the change for the overall quenching constant with the change of structure of reactants.

  19. Allelochemical phenolic acids from Gypsophila paniculata

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae) resulted in the isolation of the phenolics p-coumaric acid (1), dihydroferulic acid (2), and syringic acid (3). In addition to their noted weak antimicrobial activity, compounds 1 and 3 are known to be potent exuded alleloc...

  20. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  1. Geotrichum capitatum, a new isolate degrading phenol

    Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Geotrichum capitatum strain GID2, highly active in degradation of phenol was isolated from the biocenosis of rotating discs reactor treating petrochemical wastes. It was also able to utilize ethanol, glycerol, acetate, citrate and p-, m-cresoles as sole C-sources.

  2. Natural Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Groundwater

    2000-01-01

    A combination of field data and theoretical approaches is used to assess the natural attenuation and status of a complex plume of phenolic compounds (phenol, cresols, xylenols) in a deep, consolidated, UK Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer. Biodegradation of the phenolic compounds at concentrations up to 12500mg·L-1 is occurring under aerobic, NO-3-reducing, Mn/Fe-reducing, SO2-4-reducing and methanogenic conditions in the aquifer, with the accumulation of inorganic and organic metabolites in the plume. An electron and carbon balance for the plume suggests that only 6% of the source term has been degraded in 50 years. The residual contaminant mass in the plume significantly exceeds estimates of electron acceptor inputs, indicating that the plume will grow. Two detailed vertical profiles through the plume show that contaminant distributions are controlled more by source history than by biodegradation processes. Microbiological and mass balance studies show that biodegradation is greatest at the plume fringe where contaminant concentrations are diluted by transverse mixing. Active bacterial populations exist throughout the plume but biodegradation is inhibited in the plume core by high contaminant concentrations. Stable isotope studies show that SO2-4-reduction is particularly sensitive to contaminant concentration. The aquifer is not oxidant-deficient but natural attenuation of the phenolic compounds in this system is limited by toxicity from the pollutant load and the bioavailability of electron acceptors. Natural attenuation of these contaminants will increase only after increased dilution of the plume.

  3. Phenolic profile of Helichrysum stoechas L. Moench

    Barroso, Marisa; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural matrices represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. Many plants frequently used in folk medicine have antioxidant and pharmacological properties connected with the presence of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids [1]. The biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties of this group of compounds have been extensively reviewed (2]. Ethnobotanica...

  4. Cylinder overpack phenolic foam shock testing

    The mechanical shock absorbability of phenolic foam made from reagent grade chemicals, specified in US Atomic Energy Commission (Department of Energy) Material and Equipment Specification SP-9 is compared to that of foam made from substituted commercial grade chemicals. The testing reported herein compares mechanical properties of the foams. The test results demonstrate the equivalence in the shock absorbability of the two foam types

  5. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  6. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  7. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  8. Efecto de la Escolaridad sobre la Fecundidad en Nicaragua

    Bonilla, Roger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los estudios que han mostrado la asociación inversa existente entre la escolaridad y la fecundidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar el efecto de la escolaridad sobre la fecundidad, en una muestra de 11246 mujeres de Nicaragua. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión de Poisson en donde la variable respuesta Y fue el número de hijos nacidos vivos de la mujer y la variable independiente fue la escolaridad, controlando por otros efectos como zona de residencia, tenencia de empleo, uso actual de métodos anticonceptivos, edad y una medida del nivel informativo de la mujer. Los modelos propuestos son significativos (p < 0.05 el hecho de tener escolaridad primaria hace que el riesgo de tener hijos adicionales sea 13% menor con respecto a las mujeres que no tienen escolaridad alguna. El riesgo para las mujeres con escolaridad secundaria es 40% menor (Modelo 1. El efecto interactivo de la escolaridad secundaria y más y la edad es significativo ( <0.05 (Modelo 2. El estudio suministra información útil para el apropiado diseño de políticas públicas y programas educativos.

  9. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  10. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  11. Removal of aqueous phenol and phenol derivatives by immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase

    GORAN ROGLIĆ; MIROSLAVA VUJČIĆ; BILJANA DOJNOV; ALEKSANDRA MILOVANOVIĆ; IVAN ANĐELKOVIĆ; NATAŠA BOŽIĆ; NIKOLA LONČAR; ZORAN VUJČIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Phenols containing halogens, which tend to deactivate the aromatic nuclei, constitute a significant category of highly toxic and difficult-to-degrade pollutants, which arise from a wide variety of industries. The main purpose of this study was to obtain an inexpensive immobilized enzyme for the removal of phenols. Partially purified potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was immobilized onto different commercial and laboratory produced carriers. Three of the obtained biocatalysts, with the highest P...

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorine, phenol, and chlorine-phenol mixtures on the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii

    The mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, was acutely exposed (96-hr) to chlorine-produced oxidants (CPO), phenol, and a CPO-phenolic mixture (1:1) to determine lethal and sublethal effects. The 96-hr (LC50) values were determined for each individual compound and mixture. Additionally, whole-animal respiration rates were measured following acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of each compound or mixture. Phenol uptake/depuration rates were measured in the phenol and CPO-phenol mixture concentrations. Results indicated 96-hr LC50 values of 1.06 mg/L for CPO, 52.8 mg/L for phenol, and 184.7 mg/L total toxicant units (TTU) for the CPO-phenol mixture. Statistical analysis indicated that the acute toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture was less than additive. Sublethal studies indicated that only acute exposure to sublethal concentrations of CPO caused altered respiration rates. After 96-hr depuration, metabolic rates in all CPO-exposure crabs generally returned to control rates. Uptake/depuration rate studies indicated significantly lower phenol uptake rates in crabs exposed to the CPO-phenol mixture. These findings suggest that the less-than-additive toxicity of the CPO-phenol mixture may result from lowered uptake/depuration rate kinetics and indicate that the discharge of chlorinated-phenolic waste may not result in additive and/or synergistic interactions, but rather in less-than-additive effect on decapod aquatic species

  13. A WATER-COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL MODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) foradsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads, this resin can be used directly without wetting process. A comparison of the sorption properties of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds, phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made. The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-l for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4, which may be contributed to phenol hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual pore distributior. At their dilute solution, the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased about 62% over that of Amberlite X4D-4, while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%, suggesting an advantage of AM-I over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compounds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-I resins. Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  14. El lado oscuro de las organizaciones: efectos negativos en el factor humano

    Juana Patlán Pérez; Dolores Margarita Navarrete Zorrilla; María del Rosario García Velázquez

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como propósito determinar qué es el lado oscuro de las organizaciones y analizar cuáles son los efectos negativos que producen las organizaciones en el factor humano. Para tal propósito se efectuó una revisión a la literatura. El análisis de los efectos negativos que producen las organizaciones se realiza desde una perspectiva sistémica que sustenta que dichos efectos van desde provocar efectos derivados del trabajo tales como accidentes, enfermedades del trabajo, ha...

  15. Paraplegia after intercostal neurolysis with phenol

    Gollapalli L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakshman Gollapalli, Rudramanaidu Muppuri Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: In patients with advanced stages of cancer, severe pain is commonly encountered and is very difficult to treat. It affects the quality of life of the patient and the families involved. Pain can be managed using analgesics and adjuvant therapy. However, studies have shown that at least 10%–15% of patients fail to control pain adequately and will experience severe pain. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old female with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland and developed paraplegia following intercostal neurolysis with phenol. After a successful diagnostic T6 to T12 intercostal nerve block, the patient was scheduled for an intercostal neurolytic block. We injected 2 mL of 10% aqueous phenol at each level on the left from the T6 to T12 ribs. One hour after the procedure, the patient developed bilateral lower extremity weakness with difficulty moving. A physical examination showed the absence of sensation to pinpricks and vibration from T10 to S5 and an absence of anal sphincter tone and sensation. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed leptomeningeal metastatic disease and myelitis. We postulate that the paraplegia could be from phenol diffusing along either the spinal nerves or the paravertebral venous plexus into the subarachnoid space. This case report points to the risks involved with phenol neurolysis close to the spine, and we propose alternative methods to minimize neurological complications. Keywords: intercostal neurolysis, pain, phenol, paraplegia 

  16. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2007-09-19

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and Central Portugal (Covilhã) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

  17. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  18. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Brazilian honeys

    Fernanda B. Salgueiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic levels of "assa peixe," "cambara," and "morrão de candeia" Brazilian honeys were investigated. Phenolic extracts of 11 honeys were evaluated spectrophotometrically to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were measured using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was applied to determine the phenolic composition of the honey extracts. The presence of fourteen phenolic compounds was established (eleven phenolic acids and three flavonoids, as well as HMF and abscisic acid. Principal component analysis was applied to classify the honey samples according to their floral origins.

  19. Efecto neuroprotector de los cannabinoides en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas

    Carlos Suero-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se analiza la situación actual de las investigaciones relacionadas con las sustancias cannabinoides, así como su interacción con el organismo, clasificación, efectos terapéuticos y su uso en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Métodos: Se realiza una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las sustancias cannabinoides y sus derivados sintéticos, haciendo especial hincapié en la forma de interactuar con el organismo y los efectos que provocan dichas interacciones. Concretamente, se estudiarán sus efectos neuroantiinflamatorio y analgésico lo que conlleva al efecto neuroprotector en enfermedades neurodegenerativas tales como Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, esclerosis múltiple y esclerosis lateral amiotrófica. Resultados: Desde hace miles de años la planta Cannabis Sativa ha sido utilizada por muchas culturas con distintos fines, de ocio, textiles, analgésicos, pero no es hasta finales del siglo XX cuando se empieza a incentivar los estudios científicos relacionados con ésta. La planta posee una mezcla de unos 400 componentes, de los cuales 60 pertenecen al grupo de los cannabinoides siendo los principales el cannabinol, cannabidiol y tetrahidrocannabinol. Con el descubrimiento de las sustancias cannabinoides, sus derivados, y los receptores que interactúan, se amplían las posibilidades terapéuticas teniendo un especial interés el efecto neuroprotector que estas sustancias contienen. Conclusiones. Se ha demostrado el gran potencial de los cannabinoides como sustancias terapéuticas más allá de su uso analgésico o antiemético, esto es, en enfermedades neurodegenerativas en las que pueden no solo disminuir los síntomas, sino frenar el proceso de la enfermedad. Otra posible aplicación puede ser en el campo oncológico, siendo particularmente intensa la actividad investigadora realizada en los últimos 15 años.

  20. Complex enzyme hydrolysis releases antioxidative phenolics from rice bran.

    Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics. PMID:27507440

  1. The effect of temperature on phenolic content in wounded carrots.

    Han, Cong; Li, Jing; Jin, Peng; Li, Xiaoan; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Yonghua

    2017-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play important roles in biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrots. This study has gone further to understand the effects of storage temperature on phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. The results indicated that both increased wounding intensity and higher storage temperature promoted the generation of ROS and enhanced phenolics accumulation in wounded carrots. Moreover, treatment with ROS inhibitor inhibited ROS generation, suppressed the activities of key enzymes in phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, C4H; 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, 4CL) and restrained phenolics accumulation in shredded carrots confirming previous reports. In contrast, treatment with ROS elicitor promoted ROS generation, enhanced the activities of PAL, C4H and 4CL, and induced phenolics accumulation. Thus, our results confirmed that ROS are essential for mediating wound-induced phenolics accumulation in carrots and suggested that increase temperature enhanced the accumulation of phenolics through inducing ROS generation. PMID:27542457

  2. Protective effect of immobilized ammonia oxidizers and phenol-degrading bacteria on nitrification in ammonia- and phenol-containing wastewater

    Morita, M.; Watanabe, A. [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Chiba (Japan); Kudo, N.; Shinozaki, H. [Materials Science Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan); Uemoto, H.

    2007-12-15

    Phenol present in wastewaters from various industries has an inhibitory effect on nitrification even at low concentrations. Hence, the biological treatment of wastewater containing both phenol and ammonia involves a series of treatment steps. It is difficult to achieve nitrification capability in an activated sludge system that contains phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. Batch treatment of wastewater containing various concentrations of phenol showed that the ammonia oxidation capability of suspended Nitrosomonas europaea cells, an ammonia oxidizer, was completely inhibited in the presence of more than 5.0 mg/L phenol. To protect the ammonia oxidizer from the inhibitory effect of phenol and to achieve ammonia oxidation capability in the wastewater containing phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level, a simple bacterial consortium composed of an ammonia oxidizer (N. europaea) and a phenol-degrading bacterial strain (Acinetobacter sp.) was used. Ammonia oxidation did not occur in the presence of phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level when suspended or immobilized N. europaea and Acinetobacter sp. cells were used in batch treatment. Following the acclimatization of the immobilized cells, accumulation of nitrite was observed, even when the wastewater contained phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. These results showed that immobilization was effective in protecting N. europaea cells from the inhibitory effect of phenol present in the wastewater. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. A WATER—COMPATIBLE PHENOLIC HYDROXYL ODIFIED POLYSTYRENE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR ADSORBING PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    LIAimin; FeiZhenghao; 等

    2001-01-01

    A water-compatible phenolic hydroxyl modified polystyrene adsorbent (AM-1) for adsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was prepared by covalent bonding of phenolic hydroxyl groups to the surface of porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads,this resin can be used directly without wetting process.A comparison of the sorption properites of the new resin and Amberlite XAD-4 toward four phenolic compounds,phenol,p-cresol,p-chlorophenol,and p-nitrophenol was made.The capacities of equilibrium adsorption of AM-1 for all four phenolic compounds increased around 20% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,which may be contributed to pheonl hydroxyl group on the surface and the unusual poe distribution.At their dilute solution,the equilibrium adsorption capacities of AM-1 for phenol increased aout 62% over that of Amberlite XAD-4,while equilibrium adsorption capacities of the other three phenolic compounds increased 4-35%,suggesting an advantage of AM-1 over Amberlite XAD-4 in the collection of phenol.Freundlich isotherm equations and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compunds indicate a physical adsorption process on the Amberlite XAD-4 and AM-1 resins,Column studies for phenol show that AM-1 resin has excellent adsorption and desorption performance.

  4. Phenolic Compounds in Four Astragalus Species

    Ilina N. Krasteva

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the phenolic compounds in four Astragalus species (A. hamosus, A. ponticus, A. corniculatus and A. cicer) distributed in Bulgarian flora. Study Design: Using LC-MS, HPLC, UV, NMR and HRESIMS for identification of the compounds. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria, between May 2009 and December 2012. Methodology: LC/MS/MS analysis was performed using Agilent 1100 and API 365 t...

  5. Phenolic Profile of Asturian (Spain) Natural Cider

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2¢-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, aviculari...

  6. Identification of phenolic constituents of cytisus multiflorus

    Olívia R. Pereira; Silva, Artur; Domingues, M. R. M.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2012-01-01

    The phenolic composition of the ethanolic extract obtained from the flowers of the medicinal plant Cytisus multiflorus has been elucidated by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The extract was mainly composed of flavones, including the common chrysin, orientin, luteolin-5-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, which appeared as minor components. The major flavone in the ...

  7. Molecular design of the phenol type extractants

    Semenov, Sergey A; Reznik, Aleksandr M

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimisation of new extractants structure using the desirable function has been developed. Earlier the desirable function has been proposed by Harrington (Ind Qual Control 21: 494-498, 1965) for the optimisation of processes with several response functions. The developed method of optimisation of new extractants structure has been used for construction of phenolic type extractants (PTE) (a class of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzil)-dialkylamines). It has been offered to use the charge o...

  8. Diffusion of phenolic compounds through polyethylene films

    M. Mendes; Touze Foltz, N.; Gardoni, M.; Mazéas, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the diffusion of phenolic compounds through virgin and aged polyethylene (PE) films. The study considers five chlorophenols contaminants (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-tricholophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol) that are known to be toxic even at very low concentrations. The concentration dynamics in the source and receptor chambers of the diffusion cells is interpreted using the numerical code Pollute. For virgin P...

  9. Thermomechanical analyses of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat

    Highlights: • Over 10% glass fiber was used to reinforce phenolic foam in the shape of glass fiber mat. • Nucleating agents were used together with glass fiber mat and improved tensile strength of phenolic foam by 215.6%. • Nucleating agents lead to a smaller bubble size of phenolic foam. • The glass transition temperature of phenolic foam remained unchanged during the reinforcement. - Abstract: In this paper, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to study the properties of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat. Unreinforced phenolic foam was taken as the control sample. Mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed to confirm the results of TMA. The results show that glass fiber mat reinforcement improves the mechanical performance of phenolic foam, and nucleating agents improve it further. Phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat has a smaller thermal expansion coefficient compared with unreinforced foam. The storage modulus of the reinforced phenolic foam is also higher than that in unreinforced foam, whereas the loss modulus of the former is lower than that of the latter. The glass transition temperature of the phenolic foam matrix remains unchanged during the reinforcement

  10. Removal of Phenolic Species from Water Sources by Gamma Radiation

    Phenol and substituted phenols may occur in natural, drinking water and industrial waste waters. Those compounds arise typically from petroleum, petroleum industries, chemical refining, livestock dips, breakdown of pesticides, human and animal wastes. All phenols are not removed from water treatment processes, and chlorination of such waters may produce very toxic odorous and objectionable tasting chlorophenols. In this work, the effect of the removal of phenol and substituted phenols from drinking and sewage water were examined by varying Gamma irradiation dose of Cobalt-60 source for the water radiolysis. In addition the effect of substituted position and function group of phenol structure is studied. Radiation effect on initial concentration of phenolic species, dissolved oxygen and PH change during the radiolysis were studied. It was found that the percent removal of all Phenolic species were almost 100% at 1.0 kGy dose when the initial concentrations were set around 5 ppm. If the number of substituted group of phenol was increased, the irradiation dose was also varied depending on the number, type and position of the functional group for total removal of phenolic compound from the solution. (authors)

  11. Phenolic content variability and its chromosome location in tritordeum

    Fernando ePistón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolic content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was used for extraction of the free, conjugates and bound phenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by RP-HPLC and the results were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. This is the first study that describes the composition of phenolic acids of the amphiploid tritordeum. As in wheat, the predominant phenolic compound is ferulic acid. In tritordeum there is great variability for the content of phenolic compounds and the main factor which determines its content is the genotype followed by the environment, in this case include in the year factor. Phenolic acid content is associated with the substitution of chromosome DS1D(1H$^{ch}$ and DS2D(2H$^{ch}$, and the translocation 1RS/1BL in tritordeum. The results show that there is high potential for further improving the quality and quantity of phenolics in tritordeum because this amphiploid shows high variability for the content of phenolic compounds.

  12. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  13. Efecto de la quercetina sobre la nefrotoxicidad producida por cadmio

    A. I. Morales Martín; Vicente Sánchez; C. Santiago Sandoval; J Mª Fernández Tagarro; J.M. López Novoa; F. Pérez Barriocanal

    2004-01-01

    El incremento en la producción anual de cadmio ha favorecido que la incidencia de la intoxicación crónica por este elemento haya aumentado en los últimos años. El estrés oxidativo es uno de los mecanismos implicados en la generación del efecto tóxico, manifestándose, entre otras patologías, por una disfunción y lesión renal. La quercetina, un flavonoide muy abundante en la dieta mediterránea, es un potente antioxidante y un buen quelante de metales. Nuestro objetivo fue estudia...

  14. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Bastida, Sara; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii...

  15. Efecto protector de oleuropeina en inflamación intestinal

    Giner Ventura, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    La colitis ulcerosa (CU) es un desorden inflamatorio intestinal crónico que se caracteriza por la inflamación recurrente del colon. Debido a su desconocida etiología, la búsqueda de nuevos tratamientos farmacológicos está enfocada a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes y reducir la inflamación. Sin embargo, aún con un amplio espectro de medicamentos, un cierto porcentaje de pacientes son resistentes a estas terapias, y además, los efectos secundarios asociados son elevados y, algunos d...

  16. El efecto spillover de la M-30 de Madrid

    López García de Leániz, Cristina; Pérez Prada, Fiamma

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo propone una metodología para medir el efecto desbordamiento o spillover que produce una infraestructura de transporte, en este caso viaria de carácter urbano (M-30), sobre los municipios limítrofes, y su impacto en la movilidad urbana y metropolitana de Madrid. Se utiliza un modelo de demanda de vehículo privado de la región de Madrid para cuantificar el número de viajes de la M-30 con origen o destino en estos municipios.

  17. Los efectos contraproducentes de los Planes de Mano Dura

    Aguilar Villamariona, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo se ocupa de analizar y mostrar a la luz de las propias estadísticas oficiales el fracaso de las políticas de Mano Dura y Super Mano Dura implementadas en El Salvador en los últimos tres años, en su tarea de combatir la criminalidad y controlar el fenómeno de las pandillas. A su vez, se centra en analizar dos de los principales efectos adversos que la implementación de políticas represivas ha tenido en la inseguridad y en la violencia experimentada en ...

  18. Efectos del entrenamiento en memoria en personas mayores

    Sánchez Caro, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    El proceso de envejecimiento lleva consigo diferentes cambios a nivel físico y cognitivo. Durante este proceso tienen lugar ciertos déficits de memoria asociados a la edad, pudiéndose mejorar el rendimiento en tareas de memoria, así como la autopercepción de la misma gracias a entrenamientos centrados en este proceso cognitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el efecto de un entrenamiento en memoria sobre el rendimiento objetivo de la misma y quejas subjetivas de los participantes;...

  19. MEMORIA EMOCIONAL: EFECTOS DE LA CORTICOSTERONA SOBRE LOS RECUERDOS

    ELIANA RUETTI; ALBA MUSTACA; MARIANA BENTOSELA

    2008-01-01

    Las hormonas adrenales, administradas inmediatamente antes o después de una tarea de aprendizaje, modulan la memoria. Este efecto varía de acuerdo al tiempo y a la intensidad con que se incrementan las hormonas. La liberación o administración de glucocorticoides inmediatamente antes o después de una tarea, facilitan la memoria. Por el contrario, la elevación o administración de glucocorticoides antes de una prueba de aprendizaje, deteriora la evocación de la información previamente adquirida....

  20. LOS EFECTOS QUE PRODUCE LA CREATINA EN LA PERFORMANCE DEPORTIVA

    Paula Carrillo; María Victoria Gilli

    2011-01-01

    Se ha propuesto realizar una investigación sobre los efectos de la suplementación con creatina como ayuda ergogénica para mejorar la performance deportiva. La investigación consistió en una evaluación del consumo de creatina, en una muestra representativa de deportistas recreacionales y amateurs que concurren a gimnasios habilitados de la ciudad de Pergamino, provincia de Buenos Aires. Las investigaciones disponibles indican que la creatina puede incrementar el contenido muscular de fosfocrea...

  1. The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates.

    Kahru, A; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1998-07-01

    Phenolic composition, toxicity and biodegradability of three different phenolic leachates/samples was studied. Samples A and C were the leachates from the oil-shale industry spent shale dumps at Kohtla-Järve, Estonia. Sample B was a laboratory-prepared synthetic mixture of 7 phenolic compounds mimmicking the phenolic composition of the leachate A. Toxicity of these 3 samples was analyzed using two photobacterial test (BioTox and Microtox), Daphnia test (DAPHTOXKIT F pulex) and rotifiers' test (ROTOXKIT F). All the LC50 values were in the range of 1-10%, leachate A being the most toxic. The growth and detoxifying potential (toxicity of the growth medium was measured using photobacterial tests) of 3 different phenol-utilizing bacteria and acclimated activated sludges was studied in shake-flask cultures. 30% leachate A (altogether 0.6 mM total phenolic compounds) was too toxic to rhodococci and they did not grow. Cell number of Kurthia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in 30% leachate A increased by 2 orders of magnitude but despite of the growth of bacteria the toxicity of the leachate did not decrease even by 7 weeks of cultivation. However, if the activated sludge was used instead of pure bacterial cultures the toxicity of the 30% leachate A was eliminated already after 3 days of incubation. 30% samples B and C were detoxified by activated sludge even more rapidly, within 2 days. As the biodegradable part of samples A and B should be identical, the detoxification of leachate A compared to that of sample B was most probably inhibited by inorganic (e.g. sulphuric) compounds present in the leachate A. Also, the presence of toxic recalcitrant organic compounds in the leachate A (missed by chemical analysis) that were not readily biodegradable even by activated sludge consortium should not be excluded. PMID:9650267

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF A LIGNOSULFONATE-BASED PHENOLIC FOAM

    Lihong Hu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, friability, and mechanical property tests. The experimental results showed the foam to have lower density, better toughness, and excellent thermal insulation compared to those of foams obtained from conventional resol resin. The properties of phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can comply with the required specifications for its practical utilization.

  3. Formulation of lignin phenol formaldehyde resins as a wood adhesive

    This work describes the potential of reducing phenol with lignin in phenol formaldehyde resin formulation. The physical and chemical properties between lignin phenol formaldehyde resin (LPF) and commercial phenol formaldehyde resin (CPF) were compared. Phenol had been replaced by lignin [that was extracted from black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)] in synthesizing resin with a ratio lignin to phenol 1:1. The IR spectra showed that there were similarities in functional groups between LPF resin and CPF resin. The comparison of physical strength properties via tensile strength test between LPF resin and CPF resin showed that the newly formulated resin has higher bonding strength compared to commercial resin. Kinematics viscosity test showed that LPF resin has lower kinematics viscosity compared to CPF resin in 21 days storage time. SEM images for both resin showed similarities in the effect of resin penetration into woods vessel existed. (author)

  4. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  5. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  6. Preparation of Phenolized Calcium Lignosulfonate andCharacterization of the Reaction by IR Spectroscopy

    2001-01-01

    A kind of calcium lignosulfonate was phenolized by phenol with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The calcium lignosulfonate and its phenolized derivatives were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. It is proved that the extent and type of the phenolizing reaction can be deduced from the IR spectra of the calcium lignosulfonate and its phenolized derivatives.

  7. Extraction of Phenol From Industrial Water Using Different Solvents

    Bushra Yaseen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and efficiency of phenol extraction from the industrial water using different solvents, were investigated. To our knowledge, the experimental information available in the literature for liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary mixtures containing the pair phenol-water is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present investigation is to generate the data for the water-phenol with different solvents to aid the correlation of liquid-liquid equilibria, including phase diagrams, distribution coefficients of phenol, tie-lines data and selectivity of the solvents for the aqueous phenol system.The ternary equilibrium diagrams and tie-lines data for systems containing Water-Phenol-Benzene, Water-Phenol-Chloroform, Water-Phenol-iso-Butyl Acetate, Water-Phenol-Butanol, Water-Phenol-Ethyl Methyl Keton and Water-Phenol-Toluene, were determined at 303 K and atmospheric pressure.The capacity and selectivity of these organic solvents in each of these systems were determined from the tie-lines data. The capacity of the isobutyle acetate was found to be the highest among the other solvents, and its selectivity was also the highest. Similar results also were obtained for the ethyl methyl keton but gave less capacity and selectivity as compared to the isobutyle acetate. It can be concluded that both isobutyle acetate and ethyl methyl keton are good solvents for extraction of phenol from industrial water.The liquid-liquid equilibrium data of ternary systems were correlated to the NRTL, UNIQUAC and UNIFAC models of activity coefficient to determine their adjustable parameters. The standard deviations from experimental compositions were calculated. Results show that the correlation may be greatly improved by applying the NRTL model with the regression criteria based on minimizing the experimental and calculating distribution coefficients SK to give an average value of the root mean square deviation about 1.436 % and in terms of the average errors in the

  8. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary conce...

  9. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  10. Treatment of phenolic wastewater in suspended and fixed bed bioreactors

    Bajaj, Mini

    2009-01-01

    Phenol and chlorophenols are among the most important class of raw materials in chemical industry. These compounds also list among priority pollutants. The main problem in treating phenol or chlorophenol containing wastewater is the toxicity it exerts to the microbial flora in biological treatment plants. This may lead to partial or complete treatment plant failure, when the microbial flora is not adapted to phenol concentrations in the influent. The purpose of this thesis was to adapt the mi...

  11. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    Julian Ihssen; Mark Schubert; Linda Thöny-Meyer; Michael Richter

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of ...

  12. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds of Inula candida (L.) Cass.

    Maleš, Željan; HAZLER PILEPIĆ, KROATA; PETROVIĆ, LINA; BAGARIĆ, IVA

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Some species of the genus Inula L. are used in herbal medicine. Phenolic compounds contribute to many biological activities of the plants. No literature could be found in respect of the determination of the quantities of phenolic compounds of Inula candida. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in different plant parts was therefore performed. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from different locations in Croatia. The content of phenoli...

  13. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Semih Otles; Buket Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts o...

  14. Void-Free Flame Retardant Phenolic Networks: Properties and Processability

    Tyberg, Christy Sensenich

    2000-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important components of the composite industry because of their excellent flame retardance and cost effectiveness. However, the common procedure for curing phenolic novolac resins uses hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and releases volatiles during the cure, which produce networks with numerous voids. This results in materials that lack the toughness necessary for structural applications. An alternative to curing with HMTA is to crosslink the pendant phenolic groups in the ...

  15. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Brazilian honeys

    Fernanda B. Salgueiro; Aline F. Lira; Victor M. Rumjanek; Rosane N. Castro

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic levels of "assa peixe," "cambara," and "morrão de candeia" Brazilian honeys were investigated. Phenolic extracts of 11 honeys were evaluated spectrophotometrically to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were measured using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was applied to determine the phenolic composition of the honey extracts. Th...

  16. Biorefinery concept with green solvents towards the phenolic valorization

    Bogel-Lukasik, R.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient separation, hydrolysis and conversion of principal components of lignocellulosic biomass allows to produce chemicals and value added compounds. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been used for the pre-treatment and fractionation of biomass.1-3 The pre-treatment reveals that phenolic compounds were found in the IL phase. This work was devoted for the extraction of phenolic compounds from the recovered IL liquid using several adsorption resins in small scale batch processes. Phenolic co...

  17. Phenolic characterization of Northeast Portuguese propolis: usual and unusual compounds

    Falcão, Soraia; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Leticia M. Estevinho; BARROS, Cristina; Domingues, M. R. M.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an ethanolic extract from Portuguese propolis was prepared, fractionated by highperformance liquid chromatography, and the identification of the phenolic compounds was done by electrospray mass spectrometry in the negative mode. This technical approach allowed the identification of 37 phenolic compounds, which included not only the typical phenolic acids and flavonoids found in propolis from temperate zones but also several compounds in which its occurre...

  18. Phenol Solvothermal Synthesis of JBW-Type Zeolites

    WEI Bo; WANG Ye; XIN Ming-hong; QIU Shi-lun

    2007-01-01

    Phenol was used as an aromatic and acidic solvent in solvothermal synthesis. JBW- type zeolites were successfully synthesized in a phenolic system. The as-synthesized microporous crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The results indicate that phenol is a good organic solvent and has a huge potential of application in studying crystallization mechanism and synthesizing novel microporous materials.

  19. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  20. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lončar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2004-01-01

    Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during te...

  1. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa; Camila Tureck; Gelvani Locateli; Rosane Marina Peralta; Eloá Angélica Koehnlein

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 ...

  2. Influence of vegetation on phenolic acid contents in soil

    Malá, J.; Cvikrová, M.; Hrubcová, M. (Marie); Máchová, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study described in this paper was undertaken in order to assess the impact of different woody plants on the dynamics of phenolic acids in soil. The influence of plant litter on the amount of phenolic compounds occurring in soils beneath several deciduous and coniferous tree species was examined in pot experiments. The contents of endogenous methanol soluble free and conjugated phenolic acids in Norway spruce, larch, rowan and two species of willow were determined. We focused on the dynami...

  3. Plant phenolics are detoxified by prophenoloxidase in the insect gut

    Kai Wu; Jie Zhang; Qiaoli Zhang; Shoulin Zhu; Qimiao Shao; Clark, Kevin D.; Yining Liu; Erjun Ling

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenolics are a group of important secondary metabolites that are toxic to many animals and insects if ingested at high concentrations. Because most insects consume plant phenolics daily, they have likely evolved the capacity to detoxify these compounds. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera as models to study the metabolism of plant phenolics by prophenoloxidases. We found that insect foreguts release prophenoloxidases into the lumen, and that the ...

  4. Phenolic Profile of Leaves and Drupes of Ten Olive Varieties

    Georgios MITSOPOULOS; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Michael KOMAITIS; Marianna HAGIDIMITRIOU

    2016-01-01

    Leaves and drupes of the olive varieties "Koroneiki", "Lianolia Kerkyras", "Mastoidis", "Arbequina", "Adramytini", "Megaritiki", "Gaidourelia", "Kalamata", "Konservolia" and "Chalkidiki" were collected at different seasons during 2008 and 2009 and investigated by HPLC for their phenolic profile and the concentration of the phenolic compounds present. The phenolic compounds identified in 2008 new season leaves were, in declining concentration order, oleuropein, 7-O-glucoside of luteolin and ru...

  5. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Edson Archela; Luiz Henrique Dall’Antonia

    2014-01-01

    One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is impo...

  6. Phenolic acids in leaves of Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. (Asclepiadaceae)

    Renata Nowak; Sławomir Kawka

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the sets of free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids in the leaves of, Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. was conducted by 2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods. Sixteen phenolic acids were identified: chlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic, homoprotacatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, α-resorcylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, synapic, ferulic and salicylic. By means of the RP-HPLC the contents of major phenolic acids was d...

  7. Gut bacteria producing phenols disturb keratinocyte differentiation in human skin

    Iizuka, Ryoka; Kawakami, Koji; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our previous study suggested that phenols (phenol and p-cresol) produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice. In the present study we aimed to determine if the same phenomenon is applicable to humans. Methods: First, we analyzed the correlation between serum phenol levels and corneocyte size in 50 healthy female volunteers. Second, we administered a prebiotic beverage (containing galacto-oligosaccharides and polydextrose) to 19 healthy female volunteers and examined th...

  8. Efecto de la edad y el entrenamiento sobre la memoria

    Angel M. Elgier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos antecedentes muestran que el envejecimiento está asociado con el deterioro de algunas capacidades cognitivas, entre ellas la memoria. Hay evidencias que indican que las deficiencias de memoria asociadas con la edad pueden mejorarse con entrenamiento, tanto en adultos jóvenes como maduros. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la edad y el entrenamiento sobre una tarea de recuerdo de palabras, comparando un grupo de adultos jóvenes con un grupo de adultos mayores, que recibían o no entrenamiento. Los adultos jóvenes recordaron más palabras que los maduros. Asimismo, el entrenamiento produjo un incremento en la cantidad de palabras recordadas en ambos grupos etareos. Los grupos Jóvenes sin entrenamiento y Maduros con entrenamiento obtuvieron un rendimiento similar. Se discuten las implicancias clínicas del efecto del entrenamiento en adultos jóvenes y maduros.

  9. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  10. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids

    Prashant Kaushik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  11. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids. PMID:26473812

  12. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.

  13. Antioxidative activity of bound-form phenolics in potato peel.

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Takayuki; Honma, Tamaki; Koga, Hidenori

    2006-06-01

    Free and bound-form phenolics were isolated from potato (cv. Toyoshiro) flesh and peel. The free and bound-form phenolics in the peel showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, while those in the flesh showed low activity. The total amount of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the free-form phenolics from the peel was highly correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was identified as the active radical scavenging compound in the bound-form phenolics from the peel. The potato peel may therefore offer an effective source of an antioxidative. PMID:16794331

  14. Efecto acaricida de una mezcla química

    E. Egea

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: Se investiga el efecto de una nueva mezcla química (ATLASAC para el control de ácaros del polvo doméstico, microorganismos cosmopolitas que conviven con el hombre, reconocidos como importante fuente de alergenos y la principal causa de exacerbación de las enfermedades alérgicas. En el medio ambiente de los hogares colombianos se conoce por reportes científicos la prevalencia de varias especies comunes en otros países: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. Farinae, Blomia tropicales, etc, asociados con asma y/o rinitis. Por todo ello, en el medio ambiente residencial del paciente es importante establecer medidas locativas tendientes a evitar la exposición y el control químico para reducir o eliminar la fuente de alergenos, en especial, los ácaros. Un recurso fácil de aplicar son los acaricidas, los cuales varían en el grado de efectividad y tiempo de protección. En nuestro medio no se tienen productos aprobados como acaricidas. Por tal motivo, esta investigación pretende llenar un vacío en el medio colombiano con una mezcla química con efecto acaricida, en especial sobre aquellos implicados con las enfermedades alérgicas.

    Metodología: Se seleccionaron 25 pacientes definidos por historia clínica como alérgicos y 50 voluntarios que por pruebas cutáneas se descartó sensibilización a ácaros. Inmediatamente después del ingreso se hicieron muestreos para determinar la presencia de ácaros del polvo doméstico y fundamentalmente para obtener cultivos puros.

    Resultados preliminares: 100 ácaros de

  15. Chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger - formation of halogenated phenols and subsequent environmental risk

    Melbye, Alf G.; Faksness, Liv-Guri; Knudsen, Boerre Leif

    2006-03-15

    Formation of halogenated phenols as side products from treatment of produced water with aqueous chlorine dioxide has been investigated. The literature describes formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in effluent treatment using chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. A new chlorine dioxide product, originally intended as a H2S scavenger in the oil and gas industry, has been tested both as a phenol scavenger and H2S-scavenger for produced water applications. The concern about the possible formation of halogenated by-products initiated laboratory testing of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger for produced water applications. The tests also included synthetic matrixes containing phenols, and the tests show that halogenated phenols, mainly brominated species, are found in produced water after treatment with chlorine dioxide. Due to potential environmental risk from halogenated organic contaminants, the use of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger is not recommended. (Author)

  16. Phenolic Acid-Mediated Regulation of the padC Gene, Encoding the Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase of Bacillus subtilis▿ †

    Tran, Ngoc Phuong; Gury, Jerôme; Dartois, Véronique; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chi; Seraut, Hélène; Barthelmebs, Lise; Gervais, Patrick; Cavin, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, several phenolic acids specifically induce expression of padC, encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase that converts these antimicrobial compounds into vinyl derivatives. padC forms an operon with a putative coding sequence of unknown function, yveFG, and this coding sequence does not appear to be involved in the phenolic acid stress response (PASR). To identify putative regulators involved in the PASR, random transposon mutagenesis, combined with two different screens, w...

  17. Determination of major phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes and triterpenes in Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry:

    Vončina, Ernest; Doleček, Valter; Islamčević Razboršek, Maša; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka

    2007-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of seven major phenolic and terpenic compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis L. was developed. The compounds were identified as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of phenolic acids (caffeic and rosmarinic acid), phenolic diterpene (carnosic acid), and pentacyclic triterpenes (ursolic, oleanolic, betulinic acid and betulin). These compounds have been identified by retention time and compari...

  18. Kinetics of Phenol Oxidation by Candidateopicalis: Effect of Oxygen Supply Rate and Nutrients on Phenol Inhibition

    Páca, J.; Komárková, E.; Prell, Aleš; Stiborová, M.; Sobotka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 701-707. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/0575 Keywords : phenol oxidation * candida tropicalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  19. Removal of aqueous phenol and phenol derivatives by immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase

    GORAN ROGLIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenols containing halogens, which tend to deactivate the aromatic nuclei, constitute a significant category of highly toxic and difficult-to-degrade pollutants, which arise from a wide variety of industries. The main purpose of this study was to obtain an inexpensive immobilized enzyme for the removal of phenols. Partially purified potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO was immobilized onto different commercial and laboratory produced carriers. Three of the obtained biocatalysts, with the highest PPO activities, namely Eupergit C250L–PPO; Celite–PPO and CelluloseM–PPO, were tested in a batch reactor for the removal of phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 4-bromophenol. In the case of 2.5 mM substrates with Eupergit C250L–PPO, an around 45 % removal of 4-bromophenol was achieved, while the removals 4-chlorophenol and phenol were 35 and 20 %, respectively. The reusability of Eupergit C250L–PPO for the removal of 4-chlorophenol was tested. After eight repeated tests, the efficiency of 4-chlorophenol removal by Eupergit C250L–PPO immobilisate had decreased to 55 %.

  20. Five new phenolic glycosides from Hedyotis scandens.

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Tao; Deng, Fang-Ye; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-03-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, hedyotosides A-E (1-5), including a new cyanogenic glycoside (1), along with 10 known compounds (6-15) were isolated from the whole plants of Hedyotis scandens. The structures of compounds 1-5 were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Compounds 6 and 15 showed anti-RSV effects with IC(50) values of 20 and 25 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:23333151

  1. Phenolic composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    B.M. Silva; Oliveira, A.P.; Pereira, J.A.; Valentão, P.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic profile of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from 3 different geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in 3 collection months, was determined by HPLC/DAD. Quince leaf presented a common profile composed by 9 constituents: 3-0-, 4-0- and 5-0-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3-0 galactoside, quercetin-3-0-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-0-glycoside, kaempferol-3-0-g1ucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside. C. oblonga leaf total content varied from 4...

  2. Molecular complexes of phenols with DDQ

    T Vinod Kumar; T Veeraiah; G Venkateshwarlu

    2000-04-01

    Molecular complexes of phenols with DDQ have been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 10-30°C in a solvent (CHCl3) of low polarity under low donor concentrations. All the complexes exhibit one CT band each in the wavelength region where acceptor and donor do not have any absorption. The complexes are inferred to be of the - type and have y configuration in which the donor molecular orbital encompasses the substituent. The ionization potentials of the donors, the stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes have been evaluated.

  3. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations

    Arslan, D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compounds, radical scavenging effect and antioxidant capacity of olive fruits from the “Sarıulak” variety were studied from four different locations: Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke and Karaman in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. They were collected on three different harvest dates (HDs and in two consecutive crop years. The levels of most of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of the Alanya location were remarkably high among the values (mg/kg obtained for all location samples mainly on the first HDs, for instance hydroxytyrosol rose to 3596.4, luteolin rose to 269.5, vanillic acid rose to 159.8 and caffeic acid rose to 62.1. The olive fruits from Alanya, which had the highest average rainfall compared to the other locations, showed the highest phenolic content. The olive fruits from Silifke, which had a dramatic decrease in rainfall between the two crop years, showed a reduction in total phenolic content in the following crop year. The highest oleuropein contents (mg/kg were detected for the fruit samples grown in Silifke (963.5-2981.8 and for Karaman (835.2-655.6. All of the locations showed similar changes in antioxidant activity pointing to an increase with later HDs. The effect of HD on the phenolic compounds such as 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid and hidroxytyrosol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were more dependent on the location factor.

    Se han estudiado los compuestos fenólicos, el efecto captador de radicales y la capacidad antioxidante de aceitunas de la variedad “Sarıulak” procedentes de cuatro localidades diferentes, Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke y Karaman de la región mediterránea de Turquía, que fueron recogidas en tres diferentes fechas de cosecha (HDs y en dos años consecutivos de cultivos. Los niveles de la mayoría de estos compuestos fenólicos, expresados en mg/kg , de los frutos procedentes de Alanya fueron los mas altos entre los valores

  4. Changos in phenolic contents of sheshum leaf exudates in response to infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae

    Sunita Bakshi; Chauhan, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    An increase in phenolic contents of leaf exudates was found after infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae, but phenolic content decreased as the disease progressed. Healthy leaf exudates show a gradually decline in phenolic contents as the leaves mature.

  5. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum pr

  6. El efecto de la estancia postdoctoral en la productividad científica

    García-Romero, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el efecto que tiene sobre la productividad científica, la realización de una estancia postdoctoral. En primer lugar, se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre formación de investigadores. En segundo lugar, se estima un modelo basado en la Teoría de Capital Humano para explicar dicho efecto. Los resultados muestran que la productividad es debida tanto a la habilidad de los doctores como a la estancia realizada, si bien el primer efecto es del orden de siete vec...

  7. Efectos reales de la política fiscal en Colombia: 1990-2007

    Henry Laverde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia internacional muestra que la actividad económica se veafectada por los choques de la política fiscal. En este trabajo se caracterizan los efectos dinámicos del gasto y los ingresos del Gobierno nacional colombiano sobre el producto interno bruto (PIB y la demanda agregada para el periodo 1990-2007. Para ello se utiliza un modelo estructural de vectores autorregresivos (SVAR con información trimestral. Los resultados evidencian los efectos keynesianos tanto de la tributación como del gasto gubernamental y de sus componentes (consumo e inversión, aunque sus efectos son de bajapersistencia.

  8. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Maryam Karimi; Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this stud...

  9. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Karimi, Maryam; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the ph...

  10. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  11. N-(4-Chloro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-2-(3-methylphenylacetamide monohydrate

    H. S. Yathirajan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H13ClN2OS·H2O, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzothiazole ring system and the methylphenyl ring is 79.3 (6°. The crystal packing features intermolecular O—H...N, O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the water molecule and weak C—H...O, C—H...Cg and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.8743 (7, 3.7229 (7 and 3.7076 (8 Å].

  12. Microbial formation of hydroxylated aromatic compounds from 4-chloro- and 4-nitrobenzoate.

    Groenewegen, P.E.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the introduction of this thesis several aspects of the production of hydroxylated aromatic compounds are described. These compounds are applied in the production of pharmaceuticals, polymers, flavors and dyes, but their chemical synthesis is rather difficult in preparative organic chemistry. Therefore, biotechnological production might be an alternative approach, in particular in the case of specialty chemicals. It is discussed that an attractive way to accomplish the formation of a hydrox...

  13. N-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-2-(hydroxy­imino)acetamide

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Zaisheng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C8H7ClN2O2, is an inter­mediate in the synthesis of 5-chloro­isatin, which can be further transformed to 5-chloro-2-indolinone via a Wolff–Kishne reduction. The C2N acetamide plane forms a dihedral angle of 6.3 (3)° with the benzene ring. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action results in the formation of a six-membered ring. In the crystal, inter­molecular N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into multimers, forming sheets.

  14. Crystal structure of 2-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl-1H-benzimidazole

    M. S. Krishnamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H8ClFN2, the dihedral angle between the plane of the benzimidazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.022 Å and the benzene ring is 26.90 (8°. The F atom at the meta position of the benzene ring is disordered over two sites in a 0.843 (4:0.157 (4 ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming infinite C(4 chains propagating along [010]. In addition, weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.6838 (12 Å] are observed, which link the chains into a three-dimensional network.

  15. Microbial formation of hydroxylated aromatic compounds from 4-chloro- and 4-nitrobenzoate.

    Groenewegen, P.E.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the introduction of this thesis several aspects of the production of hydroxylated aromatic compounds are described. These compounds are applied in the production of pharmaceuticals, polymers, flavors and dyes, but their chemical synthesis is rather difficult in preparative organic chemistry. Ther

  16. Crystal structure of 2-(4-chloro-benzamido)-benzoic acid.

    Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo; Melo, Vanessa; Ellena, Javier

    2015-11-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C14H10ClNO3, the amide C=O bond is anti to the o-carb-oxy substituent in the adjacent benzene ring, a conformation that facilitates the formation of an intra-molecular amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bond that closes an S(6) loop. The central amide segment is twisted away from the carb-oxy- and chloro-substituted benzene rings by 13.93 (17) and 15.26 (15)°, respectively. The most prominent supra-molecular inter-actions in the crystal packing are carb-oxy-lic acid-H⋯O(carbox-yl) hydrogen bonds that lead to centrosymmetric dimeric aggregates connected by eight-membered {⋯HOC=O}2 synthons. PMID:26594563

  17. 4-Chloro-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)aniline

    Khalaji, A.D.; Asghari, J.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2009), o253-o253. ISSN 1600-5368 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * Jana 2006 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.411, year: 2009

  18. Molecular and crystal structure of (E)-4-chloro-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)aniline

    Khalaji, A.D.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2011), 835-840. ISSN 0022-4766 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Shiff bases * crystal structure * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2011

  19. 4-Chloro-N-[(E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]aniline

    M. Nawaz Tahir

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H14ClNO2, contains two molecules with significantly different conformations: the dihedral angles between the 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl (excluding C atoms moieties are 19.68 (7 and 45.54 (4°. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions.

  20. Ethyl 4-chloro-2′-fluoro-3-hydroxy-5-methylbiphenyl-2-carboxylate

    Muhammad Adeel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14ClFO3, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 71.50 (5°. Due to an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group and the carbonyl O atom of the ethyl ester group, the ethyl ester group lies within the ring plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  1. 4-Chloro-N-(2,3-dimethyl­phen­yl)benzamide

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z.; Kameníček,, Jiří; Gowda, B. Thimme; Kožíšek, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H14ClNO, the ortho- and meta-methyl substituents in the aniline ring are anti to the N—H bond. The dihedral angle between the benzoyl and aniline benzene rings is 95.0 (1)°. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules in the crystal structure.

  2. (E-4-Chloro-N-[(E-2-methyl-3-phenylallylidene]aniline

    Jim Simpson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base compound, C16H14ClN, adopts E configurations with respect to both the C=C and C=N bonds. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 53.27 (4°, while the plane through the C=C—C=N system is inclined at 9.06 (8° to the benzene ring and 44.92 (5° to the chlorobenzene ring. In the crystal structure, weak C—H...Cl and C—H...N hydrogen bonds stack the molecules down the a axis.

  3. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles... articles intended for repeated use in contact with nonacid food (pH above 5.0), in accordance with...

  4. Radiation shielding phenolic fibers and method of producing same

    A radiation shielding phenolic fiber is described comprising a filamentary phenolic polymer consisting predominantly of a sulfonic acid group-containing cured novolak resin and a metallic atom having a great radiation shielding capacity, the metallic atom being incorporated in the polymer by being chemically bound in the ionic state in the novolak resin. A method for the production of the fiber is discussed

  5. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  6. Simultaneous Detection of Phenols and Anilines in Oilfield Waste Water

    Yuan Cunguang; Feng Chengwu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Phenols and aromatic anilines are monitored in many countries , because both of them pollute environment seriously. The methods of 4-AAP(4-Aminoantipyrine)photometric detection of volatile phenols and naphthalene -ethyl-diamine-azo photometric detection of anilines are recommended by the National Environmental Protection Bureau, China (NEPBC).

  7. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND SHOOT GROWING IN APRICOT CULTIVARS

    Ali Islam

    2002-01-01

    In this research, shoot growing and amount of total phenolic compounds were investigated on apricot grown in Van ecological conditions. Correlations between the two it was determined. In the end of this study it was determined that phenolic compounds increased during the rapid growing period (generally until the end of May) and decreased in the following period.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Organic Emulsion Liquid Membrane on Phenol Removal

    Ng, Yee Sern; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramaniam; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2010-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane: internal phase ratio, membrane: external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage ...

  9. Selective Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol. Final Report

    Sherif, F.; Kung, H.; Marshall, C.

    2000-09-30

    Direct catalytic oxidation of commodity aromatics to phenolic compounds was studied by a team from Akzo Nobel Chemicals, Argonne National Lab., and Northwestern University. Results did not exceed previously published performance. The object of the project was to selectively oxidize benzene to phenol using a conventional oxidant.

  10. Photo-Oxidation of Phenol aqueous solution: toxicity of intermediate

    Phenol is one of the most abundant pollutants in industrial wastewater, i.e., chemical, petrochemical, paint, textile, pesticide plants, etc. The contamination of bodies of water with phenol is a serious problem in terms of environmental considerations and human health due to its high toxicity. (Author)

  11. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  12. Efecto invernadero o el acto de poseer un cuerpo

    Daniela Renjel Encinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la construcción discursiva de la enfermedad terminal como antesala de la muerte y momento culminante de creación y belleza siniestra. El mal es el camino hacia la posesión del cuerpo; el deterioro, la vía de conocimiento y revelación que se opone a la nada, la antagonista de la belleza. Con Efecto invernadero, Bellatin abre la posibilidad de concebir la enfermedad como un imperativo de creación de la obra más importante, el momento final de la propia vida, mediante una escritura que se pule con los años, a manera de un juego cuyas reglas incluyen lo intocable de la vida.

  13. Biological transformation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer

    Broholm, M.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Ammonia liquor with very high concentrations of phenols is known to have leaked into the subsurface at a former coal carbonization plant in the UK. High concentrations of ammonium has been encountered in the groundwater reservoir at the site. In spite of this no significant concentrations of...... phenols are found in the groundwater. In this study the potential for transformation of the phenols in the sandstone aquifer at the site under aerobic, nitrate enriched and ''unaltered'' (limited nitrate available, ironoxides and sulphate available) is investigated in laboratory microcosms. Preliminary...... results reveal complete transformation of phenol, cresols and 3,4-xylenol under all 3 conditions and of 2,5-xylenol under aerobic conditions and 3,5-xylenol under anoxic conditions. The potential for natural attenuation of the phenols in this aquifer appear very promising....

  14. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols. PMID:25587787

  15. Effect of phenols on radiation induced oxidation of benzpyrene

    Kinetica and main products of oxidative radiolysis of benzpyrene (BP) in the presence of phenols are studied to clarify a principal possibility of the given process application as a method for medium purification from them. 1.0 mmolxl solutions of BP and their equimolar mixtures with phenols have been subjected to #betta#-irradiation. It is shown that in the process of oxidative radiolysis concentrations of carcinogenous BP and phenols decrease. Effect of addition of one of the two tested phenols (phenol and 5-methylresorcinol) on BP oxidation initiated by radiation is manifested in the rate decrease (20 and 24%) of the process and change of its mechanism to the side of higher hydroxylation and alkylation of BP molecules

  16. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  17. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruit and nut crops.

    Ogah, Onwuchekwa; Watkins, Carolyn S; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C

    2014-10-01

    The demand for new fruit cultivars with high levels of phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, has received increasing attention from biochemists, pharmaceutical companies, plant breeders, and the general public due to their health benefits. This review focuses on the economically important Rosaceae, which contains varying proportions and concentrations of these compounds. The paper discusses the common phenolics in the Rosaceae including phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. The nonextractable phenolics are also presented but not discussed in detail. The metabolism and bioavailability of phenolics, as well as human and environmental factors that affect their concentration and composition, are highlighted. Furthermore, the paper presents different approaches for biofortification and posits that breeding may be the most viable and sustainable option as it improves other fruit quality traits simultaneously and increases confidence in adoption of new cultivars with enhanced consumer appeal. PMID:25198667

  18. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    Cheneviere, Yohan

    2010-10-20

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing phenolics composition and antioxidant activities of different pomegranate products

    The phenolics and antioxidant abilities of pomegranate juices (aril juice (aj) and aril-mesocarp-epicarp mixture juice (amej), by-product extracts (extract of aril-mesocarp-epicarp (eame) and rind extract (er) were determined and compared. The results showed no significant difference in phenolic compositions however ratio of phenolic constituent were found different. The total phenolics, total flavonoids and total tannins contents followed the order of er>eame>amej>aj, and total anthocyanins followed the trend eame>amej>aj>er. The total antioxidant, total reduction, abts o+ radical scavenging and dppho radical scavenging capacities followed the sequence r>aj>eame>amej, amej>er>eame>aj, er>amej>eame>aj and amej>er>aj>eame respectively. With the exception of abtso+ scavenging capacities, strongest antioxidant activity found in juices compared to their corresponding purified products. These data suggest that phenolics play a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of pomegranate products. (author)

  20. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. PMID:26720328

  1. Efectos derrame interestatales y transfronterizos de la red de carreteras: Un estudio para México

    Inmaculada C. Álvarez Ayuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar la existencia de efectos derrame de la infraestructura carretera nacional y transfronteriza de Estados Unidos sobre la producción en México, a través de la implementación de un modelo de fronteras estocásticas. Para ello, se han elaborado indicadores espaciales que capturan estos efectos y que recogen la influencia de las entidades federativas contiguas a cada una de ellas. Los resultados muestran que tanto las carreteras nacionales como las transfronterizas generan un efecto favorable para la producción, reduciendo la ineficiencia técnica estatal, generando efectos derrame entre las entidades federativas contiguas.

  2. Efectos del entrenamiento de carrera en el rendimiento en ciclismo. Un modelo de entrenamiento del duathlon

    Chavarren Cabrero, Javier

    1996-01-01

    [ES] El duathlon es una disciplina deportiva que combina carrera y ciclismo. Se analiza aquí una de las posibles alternativas de entrenamiento, describiendo sus efectos sobre el rendimiento en competición.

  3. Efecto de los antipsicóticos sobre la homeostasis intracelular del colesterol

    Canfrán Duque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Los antipsicóticos son aminas anfipáticas que se utilizan ampliamente para el tratamiento de ciertos trastornos psiquiátricos por su capacidad de inhibir los receptores D2. Desafortunadamente, algunos de los más utilizados, particularmente los de segunda generación (SGA), producen efectos metabólicos indeseados como ganancia de peso, hipertrigliceridemia e hiperglucemia, con incremento del riesgo cardiovascular. Para explorar los mecanismos potencialmente implicados en estos efectos secundari...

  4. ??Qu?? experimentamos al tomar t??? Estudio cualitativo y efecto farmacol??gico de sus componentes

    Ramos Mart??nez, T.; Campo y Matilla, M.M. del; Slowing Barillas, K.

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN: Al igual que otras plantas, la Camellia sinensis posee efectos sobre nuestro organismo. La costumbre actual del ???afternoon tea??? en Inglaterra, y el consumo de t?? como bebida placentera (Nestea, Trina t?????) ha hecho que sus efectos farmacol??gicos pasen a un segundo plano sin percatarnos del beneficio que nos aporta. Este estudio pretende mostrar lo que ???desconocemos??? sobre ??l. OBJETIVO: Conocer los principales componentes del t??, su control de calidad y su...

  5. Efectos visuales: desarrollo y evolución a lo largo de la historia del cine

    HERNANDEZ GIRBÉS, GABRIEL

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia del cine se han utilizado multitud de efectos visuales con el objetivo de asombrar, reducir la peligrosidad o disminuir los costes de representación de algunas escenas. Ante el crecimiento exponencial de los efectos visuales digitales (VFX), este trabajo pretende indagar respecto a las transformaciones tecnológicas que han ido convirtiendo estas formas de trabajo puramente analógicas, al entorno computarizado. De igual forma, comprender la fase prim...

  6. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Avina G, E.I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  7. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds by Basidiomycota and its phenol oxidases: A review.

    Martínková, L; Kotik, M; Marková, E; Homolka, L

    2016-04-01

    The phylum Basidiomycota include organisms with enormous bioremediation potential. A variety of processes were proposed at the lab scale for using these fungi and their phenol oxidases in the degradation of phenolics. Here we present a survey of this topic using literature published mostly over the last 10 years. First, the sources of the enzymes are summarized. The laccase and tyrosinase were mainly from Trametes versicolor and Agaricus bisporus, respectively. Recently, however, new promising wild-type producers of the enzymes have emerged and a number of recombinant strains were also constructed, based mainly on yeasts or Aspergillus strains as hosts. The next part of the study summarizes the enzyme and whole-cell applications for the degradation of phenols, polyphenols, cresols, alkylphenols, naphthols, bisphenols and halogenated (bis)phenols in model mixtures or real wastewaters from the food, paper and coal industries, or municipal and hospital sewage. The enzymes were applied as free (crude or purified) enzymes or as enzymes immobilized in various supports or CLEAs, and optionally recycled or used in continuous mode. Alternatively, growing cultures or harvested mycelia were used instead. The products, which were characterized as quinones and their polymers in some cases, could be eliminated by filtration, flocculation or adsorption onto chitosan. The purity of a treated wastewater was monitored using a sensitive aquatic organism. It is concluded that low-cost sources of these enzymes should be searched for and the benefits of enzymatic, biological and physico-chemical methods could be combined to make the processes fit for industrial use. PMID:26874626

  8. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  9. Phenolic compounds from Anaphalis aureo-punctata

    WU Yan-Qi; LOU Ning; LI Yu

    2003-01-01

    @@ From the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anaphalis aureo-punctata, a new acylated flavonoid glycoside 3-O-kaempferol-3-O-acetyl-6-O-(p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and five known phenolic compounds 3-O-kaempferol-6- O- ( p-coumaroyl )-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), kaempferol-3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside 3,6-(4′-hydroxystyryl)-4-methoxy-2-pyrone (4), 2H-pyran-2-one, 6-[ 2-( 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy ) phenyl ) ethenyl ]-4-methoxy-( E ) (5) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic hexacosyl ester (6) were isolated. Their structures were established by spectral methods (UV, IR, MS, 1D, 2D-NMR). The flavonoid glycosides, 1, 2 and 3 showed markedly inhibited oxidative DNA strand breaks induced by Fenton reaction and NADH/PMS in a concentration-dependent manner.

  10. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  11. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin. PMID:16390187

  12. Action of phenols on various algal species

    Stom, D.I.; Beym, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of specific and non-specific mechanisms in manifestation of the toxic properties of phenols has been elucidated for Nitella sp. It may be concluded from the results of this and other studies that the action of pyrocatechol, hydroquinone and benzoquinone on algae is specific. The nature of the effect of p- and o-dioxydiphenylsulfones, o-aminophenol, ..beta..-naphtol, thymol, guiaiacol, hydroquinone dimethyl ester, veratrole and o-cresol was similar to or approached that of typical narcotics: hexanol, chloroform, butanol and carbon tetrachloride. The criteria employed lead the authors to classify resorcin, o-cresol and monophenol as biological depressants rather than as structurally specific agents. 14 references, 1 table.

  13. Causas, efectos y políticas para prevenir el efecto rebote de la modernización de regadíos

    Gutiérrez-Martín, Carlos; Berbel, Julio

    2013-01-01

    La existencia de un posible efecto rebote de las medidas de ahorro de agua que lleve a un mayor consumo tiene un cierto carácter novedoso en la política de aguas, y la Unión Europea quiere apostar por la herramienta del precio del agua como solución al posible problema. En nuestra opinión, el conocimiento sobre el efecto rebote no es suficiente en este momento para apostar por un único instrumento hasta que no se conozca con la debida profundidad el fenómeno. Este documento trata de revisar l...

  14. Phenol Oxidation by Combined Cavitation Water Jet and Hydrogen Peroxide

    卢义玉; 刘勇; 夏彬伟; 左伟芹

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of phenol oxidized under the conditions of high temperature created during collapse of cavitation bubbles.The degradation efficiency has been greatly improved by using cavitation water jets combined with H2O2 as demonstrated in laboratory tests.Various factors affecting phenol removal ratio were ex-amined and the degradation mechanism was revealed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The re-sults showed that 99.85% of phenol was mineralized when phenol concentration was 100 mg·L-1 with pH value of 3.0,H2O2 concentration of 300 mg·L-1,confining pressure of 0.5 MPa,and pumping pressure of 20 MPa.The in-termediate products after phenol oxidation were composed of catechol,hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone.Finally,phenol was degraded into maleic acid and acetic acid.Furthermore,a dynamic model of phenol oxidation via cavi-tation water jets combined with H2O2 has been developed.

  15. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. PMID:27507478

  16. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  17. Associations of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes

    Many phenols are known to mimic or antagonize hormonal activities and may adversely affect fetal growth. A study of 567 pregnant women was conducted to investigate the relationship between prenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes, including birth weight, length, and gestational age. We measured the concentrations of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol in maternal urine and examine their association with birth outcomes. Categories of urinary benzophenone-3 concentration were associated with decreased gestational age in all infants (p for trend = 0.03). Between middle and low exposure groups, we also found bisphenol A was negatively associated with gestational duration (βadjusted = −0.48 week; 95% confidence interval: −0.91, −0.05). After stratification by gender, we found the consistent results in infant boys with those in all infants, but we did not observe significant association for girls. In conclusion, we found prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes. -- Highlights: •We examined relationship of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes. •We determined urinary concentrations of various phenols. •BP-3 and BPA were negatively associated with gestational age. •There was sex-specific association between phenol exposure and birth outcomes. -- Prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes

  18. Selective Condensation Reaction of Phenol Using A Micromixer

    N.Daito; J.Yoshida; K.Mae

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Bisphenol-F,which is synthesized by the acid catalyzed condensation reaction of phenols and form aldehyde is a useful raw material of epoxy resins having superior heat resistance and low viscosity. The commodity bisphenol,however,includes high molecular weight compounds,which are derived from tris-phenols and other highly condensed compounds.Such contaminants impair largely the feature of low viscosity which the bisphenol-F epoxy resin has.To overcome this problem,the molar ratio of phenol/for...

  19. Methodology optimization for quantification of total phenolics and individual phenolic acids in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) roots.

    Padda, M S; Picha, D H

    2007-09-01

    Phenolic acids are one of the several classes of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds found in sweetpotatoes. Simplified, robust, and rapid methodologies were optimized to quantify total and individual phenolic acids in sweetpotato roots. Total phenolic acid content was quantified spectrophotometrically using both Folin-Denis and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent gave an overestimation of total phenolic acids due to the absorbance of interfering compounds (that is, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid). Individual phenolic acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the latest in column technology. Four reversed-phase C18 analytical columns with different properties (dimensions, particle size, particle shape, pore size, and carbon load) were compared. Three different mobile phases using isocratic conditions were also evaluated. A column (4.6 x 150 mm) packed with 5-microm spherical silica particles of pore size 110 A combined with 14% carbon load provided the best and fast separation of individual phenolic acids (that is, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and 3 isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid) with a total analysis time of less than 7 min. Among the 3 mobile phases tested, a mobile phase consisting of 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution: acetonitrile: 2-propanol, pH 2.5 (70:22:8, v/v/v) gave adequate separation. Among the solvents tested, aqueous mixtures (80:20, solvent:water) of methanol and ethanol provided higher phenolic acid extraction efficiency than the aqueous mixture of acetone. PMID:17995640

  20. Effect of phenolic extracts on trans fatty acid formation during frying

    Gamel, TH

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil (blend of refined and virgin and sunflower oil containing added methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary and olive vegetable water or the synthetic antioxidant BHA in combination with the extracts, were used in a frying process. Eight frying operations were performed at 180 °C with 24 hr intervals between fryings. During the frying period the trans fatty acids (TFA by capillary column gas chromatography (CC-GC were determined. Trans fatty acids of oleic and linoleic were increased with frying time in both the control oil samples. The rosemary additives (extracts alone and in combination with BHA decreased the level of trans fatty acids (mainly elaidic acid, while the addition of olive vegetable water did not have any effect.

    Aceite de oliva (mezcla de virgen y refinado y aceite de girasol con extractos fenólicos de romero seco y aguas de vegetación de aceituna, o con el antioxidante sintético BHA en combinación con los extractos, se usaron en proceso de fritura. Se realizaron 8 operaciones de fritura a 180°C con intervalos de 24 h. Se determinaron los ácidos grasos trans (TFA por cromatografía de gases en columna capilar (CC-GC. Los ácidos grasos trans de oleico y linoleico aumentaron con el tiempo de fritura en las muestras de aceite control. Los extractos de romero, solos y en combinación con BHA, disminuyeron los niveles de ácidos grasos trans (principalmente ácido elaídico mientras que la adicción de aguas de vegetación de aceituna no tuvo ningún efecto.

  1. EL EFECTO DE LA DESHIDRATACION EN EL RENDIMIENTO ANAEROBICO

    Fernando Ubiratan Da Silveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la temperatura corporal y la aparición de la sudoración son dos respuestas normales a la actividad física. Sin embargo, la deshidratación y la hipertermia que frecuentemente acompañan el entrenamiento deportivo y a la competición, son las causas más comunes y al mismo tiempo evitables de la fatiga prematura entre los atletas (Murray, 1996. La deshidratación contribuye a la hipertermia reduciendo la capacidad del organismo de perder calor, y aún bajos niveles de deshidratación de tan sólo un 2% del peso corporal perdido, pueden perjudicar el rendimiento físico (Maughan, 2003; Murray, 1996. Los efectos de la deshidratación sobre variables anaeróbicas no son muy claros, debido a los diferentes porcentuales y métodos de deshidratación utilizados en las investigaciones. Por eso, la presente revisión de literatura propone un análisis de los efectos de la deshidratación sobre el rendimiento y metabolismo anaeróbico bajo la organización según tres distintos modelos experimentales: 1. métodos de deshidratación pasiva; 2. métodos de deshidratación activa; 3. método de deshidratación mixto. Así como ocurre en el rendimiento aeróbico, las diferencias en los resultados del rendimiento anaeróbico parecen estar relacionados con algunos factores como: la magnitud de cambio en el peso corporal, el tiempo en que los sujetos estuvieran bajo proceso de deshidratación, las pruebas utilizadas para medir las variables anaeróbicas, los métodos de deshidratación y principalmente si hubo combinación de estos métodos.

  2. EFECTO ABORTIVO DE LOS ANTICONCEPTIVOS HORMONALES: UNA REVISIÓN

    PAU AGULLES SIMÓ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En gran parte de la comunidad científica, así como del ámbito jurídico, al tratar del embrión no nacido, está vigente el criterio según el cual hay que definir el embarazo como el período que comprende sólo desde la implantación hasta el nacimiento natural. Esto lleva consigo otras novedades; por ejemplo, la redefinición de aborto como la eliminación del embrión sólo en ese período, o la extensión de la anticoncepción a cualquier medio que impida la unión entre los gametos como consecuencia de una relación íntima, o también que elimine el producto de la concepción antes de su implantación. De modo que la industria farmacéutica está lanzando al mercado, bajo el nombre de anticonceptivos, productos que actúan también mediante un mecanismo antiimplantatorio. Este hecho tiene grandes repercusiones éticas con relación al respeto del embrión, que obligan a reflexionar acerca de la valoración moral de la prescripción, dispensación y uso de estos medios. Ahora bien, ¿cuáles de los medios contraceptivos actualmente presentes en el mercado incluyen un efecto antiimplantatorio?, ¿qué mecanismos contribuyen a su acción farmacológica y en qué medida lo hacen? Esto es lo que hemos estudiado en este artículo, basándonos en la bibliografía científica disponible. Aunque no ha sido una tarea sencilla, puesto que los resultados aportados por la literatura varían mucho, se ha tratado de ofrecer una conclusión bastante precisa. Básicamente hemos cumplido un doble objetivo: actualizar y completar los estudios —pocos, parciales o lejanos en el tiempo— que tenían este mismo objeto; y ofrecer una valoración ética respecto al respeto de la vida naciente del uso de los anticonceptivos hormonales que pueden tener efecto antiimplantatorio.

  3. Formation of brominated phenolic contaminants from natural manganese oxides-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(.).

    Lin, Kunde; Song, Lianghui; Zhou, Shiyang; Chen, Da; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Brominated phenolic compounds (BPCs) are a class of persistent and potentially toxic compounds ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. However, the origin of BPCs is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the formation of BPCs from natural manganese oxides (MnOx)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol in the presence of Br(-). Experiments at ambient temperature clearly demonstrated that BPCs were readily produced via the oxidation of phenol by MnOx in the presence of Br(-). In the reaction of MnOx sand with 0.213 μmol/L phenol and 0.34 mmol/L Br(-) for 10 min, more than 60% of phenol and 56% of Br(-) were consumed to form BPCs. The yield of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of phenol and Br(-). Overall, a total of 14 BPCs including simple bromophenols (4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were identified. The production of BPCs increased with increasing concentrations of Br(-) or phenol. It was deduced that Br(-) was first oxidized to form active bromine, leading to the subsequent bromination of phenol to form bromophenols. The further oxidation of bromophenols by MnOx resulted in the formation of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBBs. In view of the ubiquity of phenol, Br(-), and MnOx in the environment, MnOx-mediated oxidation may play a role on the natural production of BPCs. PMID:27131033

  4. Biotransformation and bioconversion of phenolic compounds obtainment: an overview.

    Madeira Junior, Jose Valdo; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic compounds have recently been recognized for their influence on human metabolism, acting in the prevention of some chronic diseases as well as proving to be important antioxidants in food. Nevertheless, the extraction and concentration processes are usually carried out by organic solvent extraction from natural sources and can generate some drawbacks like phenolic compound degradation, lengthy process times and low yields. As a solution, some eco-friendly technologies, including solid-state fermentation (SSF) or enzymatic-assisted reaction, have been proposed as alternative processes. This article reviews the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial co-products by solid-state fermentation, even as friendly enzyme-assisted extractions. It also discusses the characteristics of each bioprocess system and the variables that affect product formation, as well as the range of substrates, microorganisms and enzymes that can be useful for the production of bioactive phenolic compounds. PMID:23855523

  5. Photo-Fenton treatment of water containing natural phenolic pollutants.

    Gernjak, Wolfgang; Krutzler, Thomas; Glaser, Andreas; Malato, Sixto; Caceres, Julia; Bauer, Rupert; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2003-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are known to be present in high concentrations in various types of agro-industrial wastes. As they are highly biorecalcitrant, the possibility of treatment by advanced oxidation processes should be investigated. In this work, six model phenolic compounds (vanillin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and L-tyrosine) were chosen for a demonstration of degradation by photo-Fenton reaction, under artificial light in laboratory experiments in Vienna and under sunlight in pilot-plant experiments at the Plataforma Solar de Almería in Spain. All compounds were completely mineralised. No non-degradable intermediates were produced, either in experiments with single substances or in a more complex matrix of a mixture of phenolic compounds. The expected selectivity of the photo-Fenton reaction for aromatic compounds was proven by comparison of the decrease in total organic carbon with the removal of total phenolic content. PMID:12656231

  6. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    Tapan Jayantilal Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient′s body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60 2 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal.

  7. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  8. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  9. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  10. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  11. Radiation oxidation of phenol in petrochemical waste water. II

    The rate was studied of radiation destruction of phenol aqueous solutions at a concentration range of 1 to 100 ppm. Irradiated were model solutions containing additions of some organic and inorganic substances typical of the petrochemical industry. In view of the fact that the radiation destruction kinetics is determined by the amount of dissolved oxygen in the sample and by the phenol concentration, relatively low doses were used. Thus, a sufficient amount of oxygen in the sample and therefore the oxidation mechanism of radiolysis were ensured. The dose-response relationships for phenol destruction were studied using doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 J.kg-1; the limit dose was 500 J.kg-1. From the results obtained, a kinetic model was constructed of radiation phenol oxidation in aqueous solutions in the presence of various organic and inorganic additions. (B.S.)

  12. REMOVAL OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM WOOD PRESERVING WASTEWATERS

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies were undertaken to develop economically feasible technologies for the treatment of wastewaters from wood preserving operations. Of prime concern was the removal of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, in particular, pentachlorophenol. Screeni...

  13. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible greens

    Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Dueñas, Montserrat; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the phenolic composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of wild asparagus, white and black bryony (early shoots in spring). Black bryony revealed the highest antioxidant potential in all the assays (ECso

  14. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries. PMID:26868586

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. PMID:24912728

  16. Phenolics Total and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis

    Rince Alfia Fadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the total of phenolics and antioxidant activity of Strawberry  that grows in the area Alahan Panjang Solok Regency and  Padang Panjang city. This research was carried out at the Chemical Laboratory of  Agricultural Polytechinc State of Payakumbuh with a long six months time needed.To determine the levels of  phenols total used Folin-Ciocalteu methode, and as a standard also to be used galat acid, while on antioxidant activity testing used DPPH free radical absorption methode.The results of research that methanol extract of Strawberries  originally from Alahan Panjang have phenol total 180 mg/100 g of fresh sample and higher than Strawberries originally from Padang Panjang with phenol total 139.2 mg/100 g of fresh sample.

  17. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  19. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L. fruits

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is one of the important natural plant of the Mediterranean region. Fruits are in black and white colour. The earlier studies are mostly focused on the essential oil content of leaves in myrtle plant, whereas the latest studies are dealing with the phenolic compounds of leaves and fruits with their effects on human health. The aim of the study was to determine the phenolic content of the myrtle fruit and to investigate the differences between the genotypes. Myrtle fruits were collected from Antalya district. Phenolic content was determined by HPLC. Gallic acid (GA, catechin (CT, epicatechin (ECT, epicatechin-3-0-gallate (ECG, procyanidin B1 (B1, procyanidin B2 (B2, quercetin (Q, kamferol (K and myricetin (M were calculated as phenolic compounds. Epicatechin-3-0-gallate (in flavan-3-ol group and myricetin (in flavonol group were detected in large amounts.

  20. Photo catalytic activity of titanium dioxide on phenol degradation

    Full text: The photo catalytic degradation performance of the TiO2 based heterogeneous photo catalyst was evaluated on the degradation of phenol contaminant found in the wastewater from resins industries. UV spectrophotometry analysis has shown that the wastewater consisted of both phenol and formaldehyde at 274 nm and 251 nm, respectively. However, phenol was selected as the targeted contaminant to study on the photo catalyst activity and degradability. TiO2 powder was coated onto ion exchange resin as support by using a thermal attachment procedure. The results showed that the efficiency of photodegradation activity increased for greater photo catalyst loading. However, above 6 g of catalyst, the degradation was then adversely affected. The photo catalytic kinetics of phenol degradation has followed first order reaction kinetic. The regeneration of the immobilized TiO2 has remained appreciable up to 3 cycles. (author)

  1. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  2. LC-MALDI-TOF MS-Based Rapid Identification of Phenolic Acids

    Mandal, Santi M; Dey, Satyahari

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first on combined HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of phenolic acids. The analyses were carried out for phenolic acid mixtures and showed a unique, individual co-crystalline pattern for each phenolic acid. HPLC could distinguish phenolic acids and MALDI-TOF MS provided comparable mass (m/z) profiles for the samples. This combined study proved to be rapid in the accurate identification and structural analysis of phenolic acids with different masses.

  3. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Cheng Chia Meng; Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil; Amin Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theob...

  4. Phenol and trichloroethylene degradation by Pseudomonas cepacia G4: kinetics and interactions between substrates.

    Folsom, B R; Chapman, P J; Pritchard, P H

    1990-01-01

    Intact cells of Pseudomonas cepacia G4 completely degraded trichloroethylene (TCE) following growth with phenol. Degradation kinetics were determined for both phenol, used to induce requisite enzymes, and TCE, the target substrate. Apparent Ks and Vmax values for degradation of phenol by cells were 8.5 microM and 466 nmol/min per mg of protein, respectively. At phenol concentrations greater than 50 microM, phenol degradation was inhibited, yielding an apparent second-order inhibitory value, K...

  5. Chemical and biological evolution of (U-14C)phenol sorbed on activated carbon

    Methods describing the chemical and biological evolution of (U-14C)phenol adsorbed on activated carbon are given with or without the use of bacteria. Without bacteria, the (U-14C)phenol initially adsorbed is not removed from the carbon after adding a solution of unlabelled phenol through the column for eight days. With bacteria, the (U-14C)phenol initially present, is removed (60-70%) from activated carbon with a solution containing unlabelled phenol, nitrogen and phosphorus. (author)

  6. Neurociencia y bilingüismo: efecto del primer idioma

    Germary Díaz-Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva neurobiológica, en este trabajo abordamos los efectos del idioma materno sobre el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua. Aunque existen investigaciones en diferentes países sobre este problema, pocas tratan el enfoque de la neurobiología y, menos aún, cuando se trata del español como idioma materno. Para la investigación se recopiló literatura descriptiva y experimental, con el fin de obtener los datos necesarios para alcanzar los objetivos; se realizó un metaanálisis cualitativo de los datos obtenidos, utilizando tablas de correlación. Los datos reflejaron que la adquisición de un segundo idioma siempre va a estar mediatizada por los esquemas ya establecidos del primer idioma y que existen aspectos neurobiológicos que subyacen a algunos mecanismos de interferencia y a la adquisición de un segundo lenguaje. Además, encontramos que, mientras más similares sean los idiomas, los mecanismos neurales subyacentes facilitan la transferencia del uno al otro.

  7. Efecto del bioestimulante fitomas E en cultivos seleccionados

    José Villar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available FitoMas E es un bioestimulante derivado de la industria azucarera obtenido y desarrollado en el ICIDCA, que ejerce una gran influencia en el desarrollo de las plantas de cultivo. El efecto antiestrés de este producto se manifiesta en una mejora fisiológica global del estado de la planta. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados sobre la floración y el rendimiento en los cultivos de tomate (Licopersicum sculentus variedad Amalia y pepino (Cucumis sativus variedad SS-5 bajo manejo agroecológico. El pepino se plantó en un suelo con indicadores de fertilidad aceptables, pero saturado con valores cercanos a la salinidad. Por su parte, el tomate fue plantado en un suelo con contenido satisfactorio de fósforo y potasio para este cultivo pero bajo en materia orgánica (2.09 %. Se reportan incrementos de 118 % en el número de flores en tomate con 0.7 l/ha de FitoMas E y en el pepino de 147 % y 156 %, respectivamente, para las flores masculinas y femeninas con dosis de 0.2 l/ha del producto. Por otra parte, los incrementos de rendimientos fueron de 333 % en tomate y de 145 % en pepino.

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  9. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez; Patricia Garcia-Salas; Aranzazu Morales-Soto

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but ...

  10. Adsorption of phenol and chlorophenols on pure and modified sepiolite

    Yildiz, A; A. GÜR

    2007-01-01

    In this work, pure sepiolite and sepiolite modified by nitric acid (HNO3), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (HDTMA) were used ad adsorbents. The changes on the surface were studied by IR spectroscopy. The adsorption of solutions of phenol and phenol derivatives in pure ethanol on these adsorbents were examined by means of gas chromatography. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the clay–organic complexes (sepiolite–EDTA and sepiolite–HDTMA) were...

  11. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  12. Phenolic content variability and its chromosome location in tritordeum

    Navas-Lopez, José F.; Ostos-Garrido, Francisco J.; Castillo, Almudena; Martín, Antonio; Gimenez, Maria J.; Pistón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolics content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was us...

  13. Inhibition of human lymphoproliferative responses by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids.

    Fournie, J J; Adams, E; Mullins, R J; Basten, A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids from Mycobacterium leprae, M. bovis BCG, and M. kansasii on in vitro proliferative responses by human blood mononuclear cells from healthy BCG vaccinees was investigated. All three phenolic glycolipids inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition was independent of the stimulus used and involved neither antigen-presenting cells nor antigen-specific CD8+ suppressor T cells. It was concluded that the phenomenon may be a...

  14. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products

    Ludmila Machu; Ladislava Misurcova; Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova; Jana Orsavova; Jiri Mlcek; Jiri Sochor; Tunde Jurikova

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyreno...

  15. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    Athar Hussain; Shashi Kant Dubey; Vinay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of ...

  16. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Mahdi Farzadkia; Yousef Dadban Shahamat; Simin Nasseri; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Mitra Gholami; Ali Shahryari

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP) and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catal...

  17. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Elina Bastos Caramão; Irajá do Nascimento Filho

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC), Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals). The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spe...

  18. Olive mill wastewater anaerobically digested : phenolic compounds with antiradical activity

    La Cara, Francesco; Ionata, Elena; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Loredana; Gonçalves, Marta R.; Marques, I. P.

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds, present in the olive fruits and its by-products, has been intensively studied by the antioxidant properties. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a phenolic-rich industrial effluent that can be advantageously valorized by the anaerobic digestion to the methane and agricultural fertilizer productions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antiradical activity of OMW after anaerobic digestion in order to maximize the valorization of this type o...

  19. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; Mariana Veras de Carvalho; Lauro Melo

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the ma...

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SOME FOLK MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Koche D. K.; Suradkar S. S.; Kokate P. S.; Bhadange D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Several species of plants are being used as folk medicine by various tribal and local communities in India as well as all over the world since ancient days. Five medicinal plant species were analysed for their basic chemical composition that makes them medicinal. All the selected plants are found to contain phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponin. It was observed that phenolic compounds are the most active drug content in modern herbal medicine. Therefore, th...

  1. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Chiang Vincent L; Tiimonen Heidi; Mäkelä Riina; Vuosku Jaana; Saranpää Pekka; Laakso Tapio; Edesi Jaanika; Niemi Karoliina; Sutela Suvi; Koskimäki Janne; Suorsa Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto Riitta; Häggman Hely

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch li...

  2. Phenol Reduces Hypertonia and Enhances Strength: A Longitudinal Case Study

    McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J.; Willms, Rhonda

    2004-01-01

    Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spastici...

  3. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves

    Chunpeng Wan; Yanying Yu; Shouran Zhou; Shuge Tian; Shuwen Cao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chr...

  4. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview

    Sabiha Sumbul; Mohd. Aftab Ahmad; Mohd. Asif; Mohd Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promot...

  5. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). 13 c...

  6. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Hazal Akyol; Ylenia Riciputi; Esra Capanoglu; Maria Fiorenza Caboni; Vito Verardo

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this v...

  7. Optical properties of natural phenols in aqueous media

    Vusovich, Olga; Sultimova, Natalia; Tchaikovskaya, Olga; Sokolova, Irina; Vasilieva, Nina

    2015-11-01

    Currently, the study of the photochemistry of natural phenols is relevant as it has a fundamental and a practical importance. The optical properties of natural phenols are studied: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 3- hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (isovanillin), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The processes of proton transfer in the investigated molecules in ground and excited states under exposure to lamp and laser emissions are presented using the methods of electron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Madiha Bichra; Cherkaoui El-Modafar; Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hafida Bouamama; Fatiha Benkhalti

    2013-01-01

    The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest...

  9. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  10. Extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Ballesteros, Lina F.; Martins, Silvia; J. A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Extraction experiments were carried out by the conventional solid–liquid method, using methanol as solvent at different concentrations (20–100%), solvent/solid ratios (10–40 ml/g SCG), and extraction times (30–90 min), and the influence of these operational variables on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the produced extracts was evaluated. Flavonoids, chlorogenic aci...

  11. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens *

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chai, Wei-ming; Feng, Hui-ling; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of ext...

  12. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  13. Synthesis and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Prenylated Phenol Derivatives

    Héctor Carrasco; Luis Espinoza; Marcela Carvajal; Cesar González; Alejandra Vergara; Lautaro Taborga; Evelyn Baeza; Karen Catalán; Mauricio Osorio; Jacqueline Aravena

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of twenty six prenylated phenols derivatives is reported. These compounds were obtained under mild conditions via Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) coupling reactions between phenol derivatives containing electron-donor subtituents and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol using BF3×OEt2. Dialkylations were also produced with this method. The formation of a chroman ring by intramolecular cyclization between a sp2 carbon from the prenyl group with the hydroxyl substituent in the ortho po...

  14. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  15. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  16. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:26920287

  17. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds.

    Al-Farsi, Mohamed Ali; Lee, Chang Yong

    2008-06-01

    This work was conducted to optimise extraction conditions of phenolics and dietary fibre from date seeds. The effects of solvent to sample ratio, temperature, extraction time, number of extractions and solvent type on phenolic extraction efficiency were studied. At two-stage extraction, each stage 1h duration at 45°C with a solvent to sample ratio of 60:1, is considered optimum. Acetone (50%), and butanone were the most efficient solvents for extraction and purification, increasing the yield and phenolic contents of seed concentrate to 18.10 and 36.26g/100g, respectively. The total dietary fibre of seeds (57.87g/100g) increased after water and acetone extractions to 83.50 and 82.17g/100g, respectively. Nine phenolic acids (free and liberated) were detected in seeds with p-hydroxybenzoic (9.89mg/100g), protocatechuic (8.84mg/100g), and m-coumaric (8.42mg/100g) acids found to be among the highest. After extraction and purification, total phenolic acid content increased significantly from 48.64 to 193.83mg/100g. Protocatechuic, caffeic and ferulic acids were the major phenolic acids found in the concentrates. Based on this study, we believe date seed concentrates could potentially be an inexpensive source of natural dietary fibre and antioxidants and possibly used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26065761

  18. Plant phenolics are detoxified by prophenoloxidase in the insect gut.

    Wu, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qiaoli; Zhu, Shoulin; Shao, Qimiao; Clark, Kevin D; Liu, Yining; Ling, Erjun

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenolics are a group of important secondary metabolites that are toxic to many animals and insects if ingested at high concentrations. Because most insects consume plant phenolics daily, they have likely evolved the capacity to detoxify these compounds. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera as models to study the metabolism of plant phenolics by prophenoloxidases. We found that insect foreguts release prophenoloxidases into the lumen, and that the survival of prophenoloxidase-deletion mutants was impaired when fed several plant phenolics and tea extracts. Using l-DOPA as a model substrate, biochemical assays in large Lepidopteran insects demonstrated that low levels of l-DOPA are rapidly metabolized into intermediates by phenoloxidases. Feeding with excess l-DOPA showed that the metabolic intermediate 5,6-dihydroxyindole reached the hindgut either by passing directly through the midgut, or by transport through the hemolymph. In the hindgut, 5,6-dihydroxyindole was further oxidized by prophenoloxidases. Intermediates exerted no toxicity in the hemocoel or midgut. These results show that plant phenolics are not toxic to insects unless prophenoloxidase genes are lost or the levels of phenolics exceed the catalytic activity of the gut prophenoloxidases. PMID:26592948

  19. Free and glycosylated simple phenol profiling in Apulian Italian wines.

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Malacarne, M; Larcher, R

    2016-09-01

    Free simple phenols have a significant role in defining the sensory and nutritional characteristics of wines, affecting the organoleptic profile and having positive effects on health, but glycosidically bound phenols can also be hydrolysed during the winemaking process, releasing the corresponding volatile compounds and making a possible contribution to the final sensory profile. In this work, application of on-line SPE liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, operating in negative polarity with heated electrospray, allowed to detect over eighty free and glycosylated simple phenols in Primitivo di Manduria and Negroamaro wines. Sixty-one phenols, four of which phenolic glucosidic precursors, were quantified as having quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.1μgmL(-1), calibration R(2) of 0.99 for over 92% of compounds, and precision (R.S.D.%) always lower than 12%. Twenty-four simple phenolic precursors were tentatively identified as hexoside, pentoside and hexoside-hexoside derivatives, on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. PMID:27041324

  20. PEMBUATAN RESIN PHENOL FORMALDEHID TERHADAP APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI VERNIS

    Nur Rokhati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenol formaldehid termasuk kelompok resin sintetis yang dihasilkan dari reaksi polimerisasi antara phenol dengan formaldehid. Ada dua jenis resin phenol formaldehid yaitu : novolak yang bersifat termoplast dan resol yang bersifat termoset. Phenol formaldehid dapat diaplikasikan sebagai vernis karena dapat membentuk lapisan film yang kering.Penelitian dilakukan dengan mereaksikan phenol dan formaldehid dengan pH dan perbandingan mol bervariasi. Jenis novolak dibuat pada suasana asam dengan penambahan HCl, suhu 900C, dan waktu reaksi 5 jam, sedangkan jenis resol dibuat pada suasana basa dengan penambahan NaOH, suhu 800C dan waktu reaksi 3 jam. Hasil resin phenol formaldehid diaplikasikan sebagai vernis pada kayu jati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan bertambahnya pH dan perbandingan reaktan, waktu kering semakin lama. Kondisi optimum jenis novolak diperoleh pada pH 2,5 dan perbandingan reaktan 1 : 0,8, sedangkan untuk jenis resol dicapai pada pH 10 dan perbandingan mol reaktan 1 : 2. Aplikasi jenis novolak sebagai vernis kayu menghasilkan warna yang lebih cerah (tingkat gloss tinggi dibanding dengan jenis resol

  1. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  2. Behavior of phenol adsorption on thermal modified activated carbon☆

    Dengfeng Zhang; Peili Huo; Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption process is acknowledged as an effective option for phenolic wastewater treatment. In this work, the activated carbon (AC) samples after thermal modification were prepared by using muffle furnace. The phenol ad-sorption kinetics and equilibrium measurements were carried out under static conditions at temperature ranging from 25 to 55 °C. The test results show that the thermal modification can enhance phenol adsorption on AC samples. The porous structure and surface chemistry analyses indicate that the decay in pore morphology and decrease of total oxygen-containing functional groups are found for the thermal modified AC samples. Thus, it can be further inferred that the decrease of total oxygen-containing functional groups on the modified AC sam-ples is the main reason for the enhanced phenol adsorption capacity. For both the raw sample and the optimum modified AC sample at 900 °C, the pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir models are found to fit the exper-imental data very well. The maximum phenol adsorption capacity of the optimum modified AC sample can reach 144.93 mg·g−1 which is higher than that of the raw sample, i.e. 119.53 mg·g−1. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis confirms that the phenol adsorption on the optimum modified AC sample is an exothermic process and mainly via physical adsorption.

  3. Phenols displaying tyrosinase inhibition from Humulus lupulus.

    Kim, Dae Wook; Woo, Hyun Sim; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Ki Hun; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2016-10-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of melanin and other pigments via the oxidation of l-tyrosine. The methanol extract from Humulus lupulus showed potent inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this methanol extract resulted in the isolation of seven flavonoids (1-7), identified as xanthohumol (1), 4'-O-methylxanthohumol (2), xanthohumol C (3), flavokawain C (4), xanthoumol B (5), 6-prenylnaringenin (6) and isoxanthohumol (7). All isolated flavonoids (1-7) effectively inhibited the monophenolase (IC50s = 15.4-58.4 µM) and diphenolase (IC50s = 27.1-117.4 µM) activities of tyrosinase. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon-plots revealed that chalcones (1-5) were competitive inhibitors, whereas flavanones (6 and 7) exhibited both mixed and non-competitive inhibitory characteristics. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the phenolic phytochemicals of H. lupulus display potent inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. PMID:26162028

  4. Phenolic compounds: their journey after intake.

    Velderrain-Rodríguez, G R; Palafox-Carlos, H; Wall-Medrano, A; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Chen, C-Y O; Robles-Sánchez, M; Astiazaran-García, H; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-02-01

    Plant foods are rich in phenolic compounds (PCs) that display multifaceted bioactions in health promotion and disease prevention. To exert their bioactivity, they must be delivered to and absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, transported in circulation, and reach the target tissues. During the journey from ingestion to target tissues and final excretion, PCs are subjected to modifications by many factors during their absorption, deposition, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and consequently their bioefficacy may be modified. Consistent with all nutrients in foods, PCs must first be released from the food matrix through mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic forces to facilitate absorption along the GI tract, particularly in the upper small intestine section. Further, glycosylation of PCs directs the route of their absorption with glycones being transported through active transportation and aglycones through passive diffusion. After enteral absorption, the majority of PCs are extensively transformed by the detoxification system in enterocytes and liver for excretion in bile, feces, and urine. The journey of PCs from consumption to excretion appears to be comparable to many synthetic medications, but with some dissimilarities in their fate and bioactivity after phase I and II metabolism. The overall bioavailability of PCs is determined mainly by chemical characteristics, bioaccessibility, and ADME. In this review, factors accounting for variation in PCs bioavailability are discussed because this information is crucial for validation of the health benefits of PCs and their mechanism of action. PMID:24336740

  5. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat,...

  6. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%, total phenolics (TPC and total flavonoids (TFC ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%, total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW, the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  7. Microbial degradation and stabilization of 14C-labeled lignins, phenols, and phenolic polymers in relation to soil humus formation

    Use of specifically 14C-labeled phenols, lignins, fungal melanins, and model humic acid polymers makes it possible to determine which of the constituent carbons of polymers are utilized most readily by the soil organisms and which are relatively more important in soil humus formation. The studies summarized in this contribution involve: (1) the decomposition in soil of specifically 14C-labeled phenols, including lignin alcohols, monolignols; phenols, and phenolic acids formed through microbial transformations of these alcohols in the free state; (2) decomposition of model and plant lignins prepared by polymerization of specifically 14C-labeled p-hydroxyclinnamyl alcohols or by incorporation of labeled lignin precursors into plants; (3) decomposition of specific carbons of model humic acid polymers and fungal melanins prepared by the action of phenolases on reaction mixtures containing 14C-labeled phenols, amino acids, peptides, or amino sugar compounds and by placing 14C- labeled phenolic compounds under the pads of appropriate fungal cultures; and (4) some comparative properties of model, fungal, and soil humic polymers and lignins. (Refs. 70)

  8. Efficient Phenol Removal of Raw Industrial Wastewater from Phenolic Resin Plants using Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin Adsorbent

    Yamasaki, Hirohito; Matsui, Hisako; Fukunaga, Kimitoshi

    A series of sorbents with mean diameters no greater than φ75μm was prepared by a crosslinking reaction with β-cyclodextrin (βCyD) and diisocyanates followed by ball-milling. The sorbent synthesized with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as a crosslinker showed better phenol removal efficiency than that with toluene 2,6-diisocyanate (TDI). The greatest removal efficiency was achieved with βCyD/HDI (1/8) sorbent which was obtained by the crosslinking of βCyD with HDI in a 1 : 8 molar ratio. The removal of the phenolic compounds from the raw industrial wastewater was almost instantaneous and the sorbents were efficiently regenerated by the elution of the adsorbed phenols with methanol. The βCyD/HDI (1/8) sorbent effectively removed phenol from phenolic wastewater containing 89 g/L phenol to concentrations as low as 117 mg/L, using five times accumulated batchwise treatments. Adsorption by the use of a liquid-solid fluidized bed was also carried out.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the toxicological evaluation of phenol

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was asked by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR to re-evaluate the TDI for phenol of 1.5 mg/kg bw/day, since this value is within the same dose range which was reported to be associated with some haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects in an oral study on phenol. The Panel comprehensively reviewed the available toxicological studies, mainly those using an oral route of exposure. The CEF experts did not consider immunotoxicity as a suitable endpoint on which to base a new TDI for phenol, given the study limitations and the lack of confirmation of phenol-induced immunotoxic effects in other studies. The Panel considered a gavage developmental toxicity study and an oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study as the two most robust toxicity studies, and performed a dose-response analysis of these data using the benchmark dose (BMD approach. The lower 95 % confidence bound (one-sided of the BMD, denoted BMDL, was then taken as the reference point. The lowest reference point for deriving a health based guidance value was provided by the BMDL10 of 52 mg/kg bw/day for reduced maternal body weight gain from a developmental toxicity study where rats were exposed to phenol by gavage from gestational day 6 to 16. The CEF Panel set a TDI for phenol to 0.5 mg/kg bw/day, by applying a standard uncertainty factor of 100 (for inter- and intra-species differences to this BMDL10 value. The Panel did not assess the hazards related to the possible oxidation products of phenol, e.g. quinones/hydroquinones. Therefore, the above TDI only covers phenol. Exposure to phenol may occur via sources other than food contact materials, e.g. flavourings, smoke flavourings, traditionally smoked foods, floor waxes, cosmetics, disinfectants, etc.. The European Commission may wish to take note of all these sources of exposure if setting a restriction for phenol in food contact materials.

  10. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  11. Efecto de la quercetina sobre la nefrotoxicidad producida por cadmio

    A. I. Morales Martín

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento en la producción anual de cadmio ha favorecido que la incidencia de la intoxicación crónica por este elemento haya aumentado en los últimos años. El estrés oxidativo es uno de los mecanismos implicados en la generación del efecto tóxico, manifestándose, entre otras patologías, por una disfunción y lesión renal. La quercetina, un flavonoide muy abundante en la dieta mediterránea, es un potente antioxidante y un buen quelante de metales. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar si la administración de quercetina pudiera prevenir la aparición de los procesos nefrotóxicos asociados a la exposición crónica al cadmio. Los experimentos se realizaron con ratas Wistar (200g, incluidas en tres grupos experimentales: 1 ratas a las que se administró cadmio (1,2 mg/kg/día, s.c. cinco veces por semana, durante nueve semanas, 2 ratas a las cuales se les administró quercetina (50 mg/kg/día, i.p. cinco veces por semana, empezando en la cuarta semana y 3 ratas a las que se administró cadmio y quercetina. La lesión renal se evaluó midiendo proteinuria, microalbuminuria y glucosuria, así como la excreción de enzimas urinarias N-acetil-beta-D-glucosaminidasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gamma-glutamil-transpeptidasa. Las muestras de plasma se utilizaron para la determinación de creatinina y nitrógeno ureico plasmático, así como dialdehido malónico, como índice de peroxidación lipídica y antioxidantes totales en plasma. En riñón se midió la actividad enzimática de la superóxido dismutasa y de la glutation reductasa. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la administración de cadmio durante 9 semanas produjo un incremento en los valores de flujo urinario, proteinuria, microalbuminuria y glucosuria. El tratamiento con cadmio incluso incrementó la creatinina sérica y el nitrógeno uréico plasmático y elevó drásticamente la actividad de enzimas urinarias. Finalmente el aclaramiento de creatinina disminuyó como consecuencia de la

  12. Insulator contamination effects; Efectos de la contaminacion en aislamientos

    Gonzalez, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    centros de produccion (contaminacion industrial); asimismo, en algunos casos para transportar energia, es necesario atravesar grandes extensiones de territorio en las que no existe vegetacion alguna (contaminacion desertica). Es por ello que el efecto de la contaminacion sobre las instalaciones electricas debe considerarse para lograr un suministro de energia confiable y economico.

  13. EFECTOS PSICOLÓGICOS DE LA LESIÓN DEPORTIVA

    A. Ramírez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    La práctica continuada de la actividad física y deportiva ha sido relacionada con la mejora objetiva del estado de ánimo y el nivel de autoeficacia del deportista. En este estudio, se analizan los efectos que produce la interrupción de la práctica deportiva como consecuencia de la lesión en dichas variables. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el estado de ánimo del deportista, pero no en su nivel de habilidad física percibida. Así mismo, se constata una relación positiva entre el nivel de hostilidad y la habilidad física percibida por el sujeto cuando ocurre la lesión.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Deporte, Lesión, Estado de ánimo, Autoeficacia

    ABSTRACT

    The continued practice of physical activity and sport, has been related with better moods and self-efficiency. This study analyses the consequences on mood disturbance and perception of physical ability that result from an interruption in training as a result of an injury. Significant differences were found in these dependent variables between the injured and non-injured athletes. A significant correlation was also found between self-efficiency and anger at the onset of injury.
    KEY WORDS: Sport, Injury, Self Efficiency, Mood State

  14. Efecto del Cambio de Reglas en Pelota Vasca Escolar

    Oidui Usabiaga Arruabarrena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la influencia de las modificaciones de reglas en la acción de juego de los escolares que participaron en un programa de deporte escolar de pelota a mano. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 escolares de 8 a 12 años, 35 participaron en seis partidos celebrados durante el curso 2007-08 y los 25 restantes en otros seis enfrentamientos del 2008- 09. El registro se llevó a cabo mediante un instrumento observacional ad hoc y posteriormente se realizó un análisis de las variables: zona y tipo de golpe, ubicación espacial en situación de espera y dirección del saque, resto y juego de intercambio. La comparación (curso 2007-08 y 2008-09 de medias se llevó a cabo mediante el test no paramétrico de U de Mann-Whitney (p < 0,05, con corrección de Bonferroni. Los resultados muestran que, después de modificar las reglas, los jugadores de ambos cursos juegan de forma similar: golpean la pelota con la mano derecha en zonas próximas a la pared frontal e izquierda, se ubican a la derecha del jugador que golpea en los duelos por parejas y a la izquierda en los individuales, dirigen los saques a media distancia, cometen faltas en el resto y juego de intercambio y desarrollan un juego a corta distancia. La única diferencia se encontró en el resto a distancia corta y a la derecha. El análisis de indicadores de juego puede ser de gran ayuda para conocer los efectos de los cambios de reglas en el ámbito formativo.

  15. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Lotus Root Varieties

    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus root attracts increasing attention mainly because of its phenolic compounds known as natural antioxidants. Its thirteen varieties were systematically analyzed on the content, distribution, composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds for a better understanding of this aquatic vegetable. The respective mean contents of total phenolics in their flesh, peel and nodes were 1.81, 4.30 and 7.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g fresh weight (FW, and those of total flavonoids were 3.35, 7.69 and 15.58 mg rutin equivalents/g FW. The phenolic composition determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method varied significantly among varieties and parts. The phenolics of flesh were mainly composed of gallocatechin and catechin; those of peel and node were mainly composed of gallocatechin, gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts in increasing order were flesh, peel and node; their mean concentrations for 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were 46.00, 26.43 and 21.72 µg GAE/mL, and their mean values representing ferric reducing antioxidant power were 75.91, 87.66 and 100.43 µg Trolox equivalents/100 µg GAE, respectively. “Zoumayang”, “Baheou”, “No. 5 elian” and “Guixi Fuou” were the hierarchically clustered varieties with relatively higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity as compared with the others. Especially, their nodes and peels are promising sources of antioxidants for human nutrition.

  16. Oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    Lehmann, R.G.; Cheng, H.H.; Harsh, J.B.

    Phenolic acids are intermediary metabolites of many aromatic chemicals and may be involved in humus formation, allelopathy, and nutrient availability. Depending on their structures, six phenolic acids were shown to react at different rates with oxidized forms of Fe and Mn in a Palouse soil (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxeroll). Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring of phenolic acids increased the reaction rate. Reaction rate was also increased for longer carboxyl-containing side chains. After 4 h reaction, little of the applied (10 mg kg/sup -1/ soil) p-hydroxybenzoic or p-coumaric acids had reacted, while 0 to 5, 70, 90, and 100% of the vanillic, ferulic, syringic, and sinapic acids, respectively, had reacted. After 72 h under conditions limiting microbial growth, none of the p-hydroxybenzoic, 30% of the p-coumaric, and 50% of the vanillic acids had reacted. The reaction was shown to be predominantly chemical, and not biological, since phenolic acid extractabilities were similar for Palouse soil and for Palouse soil pretreated with LiOBr to remove organic matter. When the Palouse soil was pretreated with a sodium dithionite-citrate solution to remove Fe and Mn oxides, none of the phenolic acids reacted after 1 h. The reaction of sinapic acid with Palouse soil was shown to produce Fe(II) and soluble Mn as reaction products. The reaction of phenolic acids with soil was thus shown to be an oxidation of the phenolic acids, coupled with a reduction of soil Fe and Mn oxides.

  17. Efectos de la imagen corporativa en el comportamiento del consumidor. Un estudio aplicado a la banca comercial

    Rafael Bravo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de las dimensiones de imagen corporativa sobre la satisfacción, compromiso y lealtad del cliente hacia su entidad bancaria, así como el efecto moderador de las variables sexo, edad y tipo de entidad en estas relaciones. A través de un estudio empírico se muestra que la dimensión relacionada con el personal es la que tiene un mayor efecto directo sobre la satisfacción y la lealtad. Asimismo, la dimensión de justicia en precios es la que tiene un mayor efecto directo sobre el compromiso. El análisis comparativo por grupos de sexo y edad señala diferencias en los efectos de algunas de las dimensiones de imagen, si bien no se observan diferencias significativas entre los bancos y las cajas de ahorros.

  18. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Aimée Echevarría; Dinorah Torres Idavoy

    2001-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcenta...

  19. EDITORIAL EFECTOS ADVERSOS DE MEDICAMENTOS: UNA PATOLOGÍA MULTIFORME RESPONSABILIDAD

    Joan-Ramon Laporte

    2009-01-01

    Quizá todavía haya profesionales que, cuando oyen hablar de efectos adversos de medicamentos, piensen en erupciones cutáneas, discrasias hemáticas, shock anafiláctico o incluso malformaciones congénitas. Los citados son efectos adversos reales, pero relativamente raros. Además, son inesperados, no relacionados con la acción farmacológica, imprevisibles e independientes de la dosis. Son como una lotería terapéutica, que dependería de «la suerte».No obstante, cuando se examina la patología farm...

  20. Efecto del clorhidrato de tiaprida sobre el metabolismo oxidativo de cerebro de rata "in vitro"

    Torrecilla García-Ripoll, Juan Ramón

    2012-01-01

    El clorhidrato de tiaprida es una benzamida u ortopramida con efecto neuroléptico atípico. En el presente trabajo se estudia el efecto del clorhidrato de tiaprida sobre el consumo de oxígeno, glucosa, fosforilación oxidativa mitocondrial, actividad ATPasa y la interacción con diversos neurotransmisores en preparaciones de cortes de corteza de rata "in vitro". En relación con el MATERIAL Y METODOS, se determinó el consumo de oxígeno en cortes, homogeneizados y mitocondrias de cerebro de r...

  1. Efecto de Bursera grandiflora sobre el peso corporal y lipemia en ratones obesos

    Lucía AGUILAR SANTAMARÍA; Ofelia ROMERO CERECERO; Manasés GONZÁLEZ CORTAZAR; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    El sobrepeso y la obesidad están claramente vinculados con la ingesta calórica que lleva a la instalación crónica de inflamación sistémica de bajo grado. La terapia farmacológica es altamente recomendable para este padecimiento. Dentro de la familia Burseraceae existen especies utilizadas para el tratamiento de la obesidad, de las cuales, Bursera grandiflora es referida también por su efecto anti-inflamatorio. Evaluar el efecto de B. grandiflora en un modelo de obesidad, su potencial toxicoló...

  2. EFECTO DEL USO DE Azolla EN LOS RENDIMIENTOS DE CULTIVOS EN CONDICIONES DE ORGANOPÓNICOS

    Castro, R; Maribel Rodríguez; Gloria E. Álvarez; M. Gil; R. Novo; R. I. Castro; Sandra H. Díaz

    2006-01-01

    En el período comprendido entre 1996 y 2001, se realizó el trabajo integrado por dos experimentos, en el organopónico del INRE, Los Palacios, Pinar del Río, con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia de la dosis de Azolla y el efecto residual sobre el rendimiento y la evolución del sustrato de los canteros de los organopónicos con aplicaciones periódicas de este helecho; para ello, se emplearon los cultivos de lechuga y cebollino. En el cultivo de la lechuga se evaluó el efecto de seis dosis de...

  3. Efecto antiinflamatorio preclínico del polvo seco de Caléndula officinalis

    Núñez Figueredo, Yanier; Montero Alarcón, Claudia; Agüero Fernández, Sara; Muñoz Cernuda, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Para demostrar la actividad antiinflamatoria del polvo seco Caléndula officinalis secado por atomización se emplearon dosis de 50, 150 y 450 mg/Kg y se evaluó el efecto sobre la inflamación aguda provocada por carragenina, dextrán, histamina y serotonina y granuloma inducido por discos de algodón en ratas y edema auricular inducido por aceite de crotón en ratones. El polvo seco mostró efecto inhibitorio sobre los diferentes modelos empleados sin afectar el peso del timo y las glándulas suprar...

  4. Métodos para evaluar el efecto del pastoreo sobre las comunidades vegetales de bofedales

    Mary Carolina Garcia; Rosa Isela Meneses; Kazuya Naoki; Fabien Anthelme

    2014-01-01

    Los bofedales son ecosistemas semi-acuáticos de la zona altoandina dominados por plantas en forma de cojín. Han sido y son usados para el pastoreo desde hace varias generaciones. Los herbívoros son conocidos por afectar la composición y riqueza de las especies en una comunidad vegetal. En bofedales el pastoreo, además de tener un efecto directo sobre la estructura de la comunidad, podría tener un efecto indirecto a través de cambios en las interacciones entre las especies dominantes (plantas ...

  5. Comportamiento geoquimico de las formaciones salinas bajo el efecto de la temperatura y la irradiacion

    Cuevas Müller, Carles de las; Miralles, L; Teixidor, P.; García Veigas, Francisco Javier; Pueyo Mur, Juan José

    1993-01-01

    La generación de defectos cristalinos y la migración de las fases fluidas (salmueras y gases), son los efectos más relevantes de la irradiación y la temperatura sobre una formación salina, susceptible de albergar un almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos. Para determinar dichos efectos se ha puesto a punto la metodología necesaria y se ha verificado sobre muestras salinas de la mina de Sallent (Barcelona). El contenido en agua oscila entre 0,04 y 1 %. Sin embargo, la cantidad de salmuera susc...

  6. Efecto de la amitriptilina sobre la evitación inhibitoria en ratones machos y hembras

    Everss Villalba, Estrella

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN Los antidepresivos son uno de los posibles tratamientos para prevenir y tratar los síntomas depresivos. Sin embargo, estos fármacos también pueden tener otros efectos no terapéuticos derivados de su acción sobre determinados sistemas de neurotransmisión, por ejemplo, sobre el sistema colinérgico, de gran importancia en los procesos de aprendizaje y memoria. Para mejorar el conocimiento del perfil cognitivo del antidepresivo amitriptilina se investigaron los efectos derivados de su ...

  7. Efecto incretina en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Manuel de Jesús Díaz Pérez; Jorge Luís Hernández Alfonso; Yareanna Del Rosario Vega

    2015-01-01

    El efecto incretina está dado por las funciones del polipéptido insulinotrópico dependiente de glucosa y un péptido similar a glucagón sobre la hiperglucemia en el organismo humano. Desde su descubrimiento ha cobrado un papel cada vez más significativo en la elaboración de nuevos fármacos normoglucemiantes, que logren el control metabólico de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. El objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar la información sobre el efecto incretina, su relación con la diab...

  8. Aportaciones de la psicología experimental al análisis del efecto placebo

    Ramón Bayés; F. Xavier Borrás

    1993-01-01

    La psicología del aprendizaje ha propuesto un modelo del "efecto placebo" basado en los procesos de condicionamiento clásico. Esta concepción ha recibido soporte empírico del condicionamiento de las respuestas fisiológicas inducidas por drogas. Más recientemente, la psiconeuroinmunología ha demostrado el condicionarnento de las respuestas inmunológicas y su impacto en la salud. Estos datos han ampliado el análisis experimental del efecto placebo como una respuesta condicionada ...

  9. Aportaciones de la psicología experimental al análisis del efecto placebo

    Ramón Bayés

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available La psicología del aprendizaje ha propuesto un modelo del "efecto placebo" basado en los procesos de condicionamiento clásico. Esta concepción ha recibido soporte empírico del condicionamiento de las respuestas fisiológicas inducidas por drogas. Más recientemente, la psiconeuroinmunología ha demostrado el condicionarnento de las respuestas inmunológicas y su impacto en la salud. Estos datos han ampliado el análisis experimental del efecto placebo como una respuesta condicionada y sugieren la aplicación del condicionamiento a los tratamientos farmacoterapéuticos.

  10. Efectos del miedo en los trabajadores y la organización

    Cristian Bedoya Dorado; Mónica García Solarte

    2016-01-01

    A partir de la propuesta de Deming sobre erradicar el miedo en el lugar de trabajo, diferentes investigaciones han encontrado que esta emoción es negativa para los trabajadores y las organizaciones. Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar los efectos que el miedo genera en los trabajadores y en las organizaciones. Para ello, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre los estudios del miedo en la organización y sus implicaciones en el trabajo. De este modo se agruparon los efectos del m...

  11. Efectos del TLCAN en México: una interpretación

    James M. Cypher

    2005-01-01

    No sería posible, creo, ni en un libro extensivo, hacer un balance definitivo de los efectos del TLCAN (Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte) en México. Falta a los economistas de una metodología para separar el resto de la economía mexicana y medir los efectos del TLCAN. No es cosa estática la relación entre los dos. Esto se funda en muchas razones, pero destaca el hecho de que en los últimos 11 años la sociedad mexicana ha sido alterada fundamentalmente por los cambios estructural...

  12. Efectos alelopáticos de rumex crispus l. sobre pissum sativum l

    Moreno B., Luis Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Se investigaron los efectos alelopáticos de R. Crispus sobre P. sativwn mediante 3 ensayos: el primero consistió en incorporar residuos de diferentes partes de la maleza a un cultivo de arveja; los otros dos, en aplicar extractos acuosos y etéricos, en diferentes concentraciones, a semillas de arveja puestas a germinar. El estudio se realizó bajo un diseño completamente al azar en parcelas divididas. El efecto se evaluó mediante la varianza y pruebas de Desviación Standard Media (DSM). Se hal...

  13. Efectos alelopáticos de Rumex Crispus L. sobre Pissum Sativum L

    Moreno B. Luis Francisco

    1989-01-01

    Se investigaron los efectos alelopáticos de R. Crispus sobre P. sativum mediante 3 ensayos: el primero consistió en incorporar residuos de diferentes partes de la maleza a un cultivo de arveja: los otros dos, en aplicar extractos acuosos y etéricos, en diferentes concentraciones, a semillas de arveja puestas a germinar. El estudio se realizó bajo un diseño completamente al azar en parcelas divididas. El efecto se evaluó mediante la varianza y pruebas de Desviación Standard Media (DSM...

  14. Efectos reales de la política fiscal en Colombia: 1990-2007

    Henry Laverde

    2015-01-01

    La evidencia internacional muestra que la actividad económica se veafectada por los choques de la política fiscal. En este trabajo se caracterizan los efectos dinámicos del gasto y los ingresos del Gobierno nacional colombiano sobre el producto interno bruto (PIB) y la demanda agregada para el periodo 1990-2007. Para ello se utiliza un modelo estructural de vectores autorregresivos (SVAR) con información trimestral. Los resultados evidencian los efectos keynesianos tanto de la tributación com...

  15. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  16. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  17. NATURAL DURABILITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN DRIED SCOTS PINE HEARTWOOD

    Margot Sehlstedt-Persson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The durability of Scots pine heartwood has previously been shown to be affected by the industrial drying process of sawn lumber. The durability of heartwood from boards dried at temperatures between 20°C-110°C was studied by measuring the mass loss in a decay test with a brown rot fungus (Coniophora puteana, and the concentration of total phenolics was measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC assay. The relation between mass loss and phenolics in dried heartwood showed a weaker negative correlation at lower levels of phenolics as compared to the strong relationship found in a study on heartwood from standing Scots pine trees. Mass loss in dried heartwood showed a weak negative correlation to density. Heating of extractives-rich green sawdust under moist conditions resulted in a reduction of phenolics with temperature up to 180 oC and with increasing time. The concentration of phenolics in heated, green sawdust was higher in extractives-rich pine heartwood than in heartwood with a normal extractives content.

  18. Transport and Degradation of Phenol in Groundwater at Four Ashes

    2000-01-01

    Drift deposits and Triassic Sandstone of the Bromsgrove and Wildmoor Formations, 700m thick, form the main aquifers at Four Ashes. The coal tar and products from early plant and tank storage facilities constructed over unprotected ground directly and indirectly caused significant groundwater pollution. The organic pollutants include phenol, cresol, and xylenol. The maximum phenol concentration in the groundwater reached 12000mg/L, with an average of 1300mg/L, which accounts for 40%-60% of the total organic contaminants. Three computer codes, Visual Modflow, MT3D, and BioRedox, which solute transport model to groundwater flow were used to simulate and predict the distribution, transport, and degradation of phenol in the polluted groundwater. Over about 46 years, the phenol moved from the pollutant source to the plume front and it will take 220 years to reach the main pumping wells. The BioRebox model was used to simulate the aerobic, sulfidogenic, nitrate-reducing, ferrogenic, manganogenic, and methanogenic zones. The residual mass in the groundwater will decrease from 1600 t to 400 t by the year 2080, with 80% of total phenol eventually lost with maximum concentration declining from 15000mg/L to 2000mg/L.

  19. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain. PMID:10552753

  20. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  1. Effects of operating parameters on sonochemical decomposition of phenol

    Ultrasonic removal of phenol under irradiation at 20, 300 and 520 kHz was investigated to assess the impacts of operating parameters on the efficiency of the systems. It was found under our experimental conditions that 20 kHz was the least effective frequency for ultrasonic decomposition of phenol, owing to the low volatility of phenol and the slow rate of OH radical ejection to the bulk solution at this frequency. Assessment of relative rates of destruction and ultrasonic yields showed that maximum efficiency was accomplished with 300 kHz employed in a reactor enclosed with an ultrasonic energy of 14.7 W. The same reactor and frequency was found to provide maximum ejection of hydroxyl radicals to the solution. Impacts of pH and initial concentration on the efficiency of phenol removal were such that acidic pH and high concentrations accelerated the process as related to the increased likelihood of phenol at these conditions to approach the cavity sheath. Separate injection of equivalent volumes of air and argon into the reactors showed that the decomposition was enhanced in the presence of air by virtue of the production of additional reactive species via the reaction of nitrogen with molecular oxygen

  2. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  3. Antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts of Mimusops elengi

    Durre Shahwar; Muhammad Asam Raza

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant potential of the phenolic extracts of Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) L. (Sapotaceae). Methods:The extract of stem bark and seeds of M. elengi were prepared in methanol and acetone:water (7:3). The acetone: water was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and partitioned fractions of M. elengi was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (DPPH), inhibition of lipid peroxidation [ferric thiocyanate (FTC)], and total antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdate method). Total phenolics content were calculated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results:The stem bark extract partitioned with ethyl acetate exhibited highest amount of total phenols (98.0 mg GAE/g dry weight), among all other extracts, with 92.0%DPPH radical scavenging activity at concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, while methanol extract (stem bark) had maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation (62.0%) and total antioxidant activity (771.0 mg/g GAE/g). A positive correlation occurred between total phenols and radical scavenging activity (R2= 0.922 9) and total antioxidant activity (R2= 0.945 1). Conclusions: Our study suggested that antioxidant activity of stembark extract of M. elengi is due the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the bark extract is a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  5. Selective liquefaction of wheat straw in phenol and its fractionation.

    Chen, Hongzhang; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xie, Shuangping

    2012-05-01

    For the first time, a method of phenol-selective liquefaction is proposed for the fractionation and multilevel conversion of lignocellulose. Through phenol-selective liquefaction, lignin and hemicellulose are liquefied, with large amounts of cellulose retained in the unliquefied residues. Using a phenol/straw ratio of 3 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 3%, large amounts of hemicellulose (≥85%) and lignin (≥70%) can be liquefied at 100 °C in 30 min, with a high quantity of cellulose (≥80%) retained. Unliquefied residues from selective liquefaction have higher susceptibility for enzymatic attack. Enzymatic hydrolyzation of residues can be as high as 65% in 48 h with 40.7 FPU/g of dry materials, which can then be used to prepare sugar platform intermediates. The liquefied products of wheat straw are then resinified with formaldehyde in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst and synthesized into phenol formaldehyde-type resins reaching up to GB/T 14732-2006 standards. Phenol selective liquefaction, a new technology for the fractionation of lignocellulose, achieves effective fractionation and multilevel conversion of straw components. Hence, it is an important tool to achieve full utilization of biomass and high value-added conversion of lignocellulose. PMID:22544687

  6. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660

  7. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  8. Phenolic Phytoalexins in Rice: Biological Functions and Biosynthesis.

    Cho, Man-Ho; Lee, Sang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Phytoalexins are inducible secondary metabolites possessing antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens. Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and environmental stresses. With few exceptions, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Until very recently, flavonoid sakuranetin was the only known phenolic phytoalexin in rice. However, recent studies have shown that phenylamides are involved in defense against pathogen attacks in rice. Phenylamides are amine-conjugated phenolic acids that are induced by pathogen infections and abiotic stresses including ultra violet (UV) radiation in rice. Stress-induced phenylamides, such as N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine, N-p-coumaroylserotonin and N-cinnamoyltyramine, have been reported to possess antimicrobial activities against rice bacterial and fungal pathogens, an indication of their direct inhibitory roles against invading pathogens. This finding suggests that phenylamides act as phytoalexins in rice and belong to phenolic phytoalexins along with sakuranetin. Phenylamides also have been implicated in cell wall reinforcement for disease resistance and allelopathy of rice. Synthesis of phenolic phytoalexins is stimulated by phytopathogen attacks and abiotic challenges including UV radiation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that biosynthetic pathways including the shikimate, phenylpropanoid and arylmonoamine pathways are coordinately activated for phenolic phytoalexin synthesis, and related genes are induced by biotic and abiotic stresses in rice. PMID:26690131

  9. Electrochemical sensor for predicting transformer overload by phenol measurement

    Bosworth, Timothy; Setford, Steven; Saini, Selwayan [Cranfield Centre for Analytical Science, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Heywood, Richard [National Grid Company Plc, Kelvin Avenue, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7ST (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-10

    Transformer overload is a significant problem to the power transmission industry, with severe safety and cost implications. Overload may be predicted by measuring phenol levels in the transformer-insulating oil, arising from the thermolytic degradation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The development of two polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sensors, based on monitoring the enzymatic consumption of oxygen using an oxygen electrode, or reduction of enzymatically generated o-quinone at a screen-printed electrode (SPE), for the measurement of phenol in transformer oil is reported. Ex-service oils were prepared either by extraction into aqueous electrolyte-buffer, or by direct dilution in propan-2-ol, the latter method being more amenable to simple at-line operation. The oxygen electrode, with a sensitivity of 2.87 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}, RSD of 7.0-19.9% and accuracy of {+-}8.3% versus the industry standard International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method, proved superior to the SPE (sensitivity: 3.02 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}; RSD: 8.9-18.3%; accuracy: {+-}7.9%) and was considerably more accurate at low phenol concentrations. However, the SPE approach is more amenable to field-based usage for reasons of device simplicity. The method has potential as a rapid and simple screening tool for the at-site monitoring of phenol in transformer oils, thereby reducing incidences of transformer failure.

  10. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  11. Halogen bonds in some dihalogenated phenols: applications to crystal engineering

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Dichlorophenol (1 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I41/a with a short axis of 3.7926 (9 Å. The structure is unique in that both type I and type II Cl...Cl interactions are present, these contact types being distinguished by the angle ranges of the respective C—Cl...Cl angles. The present study shows that these two types of contacts are utterly different. The crystal structures of 4-bromo-3-chlorophenol (2 and 3-bromo-4-chlorophenol (3 have been determined. The crystal structure of (2 is isomorphous to that of (1 with the Br atom in the 4-position participating in a type II interaction. However, the monoclinic P21/c packing of compound (3 is different; while the structure still has O—H...O hydrogen bonds, the tetramer O—H...O synthon seen in (1 and (2 is not seen. Rather than a type I Br...Br interaction which would have been mandated if (3 were isomorphous to (1 and (2, Br forms a Br...O contact wherein its electrophilic character is clearly evident. Crystal structures of the related compounds 4-chloro-3-iodophenol (4 and 3,5-dibromophenol (5 were also determined. A computational survey of the structural landscape was undertaken for (1, (2 and (3, using a crystal structure prediction protocol in space groups P21/c and I41/a with the COMPASS26 force field. While both tetragonal and monoclinic structures are energetically reasonable for all compounds, the fact that (3 takes the latter structure indicates that Br prefers type II over type I contacts. In order to differentiate further between type I and type II halogen contacts, which being chemically distinct are expected to have different distance fall-off properties, a variable-temperature crystallography study was performed on compounds (1, (2 and (4. Length variations with temperature are greater for type II contacts compared with type I. The type II Br...Br interaction in (2 is stronger than the corresponding type II Cl...Cl interaction in (1, leading to elastic

  12. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    2010-07-01

    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine, propylene glycol diamine and aliphatic polyamine, N... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether,...

  13. Exposure to creosote bush phenolic resin causes avoidance in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini La exposición a la resina fenólica de jarilla causa deterrencia en la hormiga cortadora de hojas Acromyrmex lobicornis (Formicidae: Attini

    ANA I MEDINA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We focused our study on the effects of Larrea cuneifolia phenolic resin on leaf-cutting ants from two populations (Sierra de las Quijadas National Park and San Roque of Acromyrmex lobicornis in San Luis, Argentina. We conducted two bioassays of food choice (field and laboratory to compare the effects of phenolic resin on ant workers from these two populations. Results of the field experiment indicated that there were no differences in preference for either leaves treated with resin or untreated leaves among colonies from both localities. However, results of the laboratory experiments with individual ants indicated a significant effect of population and treatment on the time spent in different treatments. While leaf-cutting individual workers from Quijadas preferred the phenolic resin, workers from San Roque avoided it. These results evidence that ants respond according to time of exposure to chemicals from plants (presence or absence and that the effects of resin among a population can be observed and measured on individual ant workers, even in the absence of fungus garden influences in the nest.Este estudio se ha centrado en los efectos que produce la resina fenólica de Larrea cuneifolia sobre dos poblaciones distintas (Parque Nacional de Sierra de las Quijadas y la localidad de San Roque de Acromyrmex lobicornis en San Luis, Argentina. Se disenaron dos tipos de bioensayos (a campo y en laboratorio para comparar los efectos de la resina fenólica sobre las hormigas obreras de estas dos poblaciones. Los resultados de los experimentos de elección de la oferta alimentaria en el campo, indicaron que no hubo ninguna diferencia de preferencia entre las colonias, ni por las hojas tratadas con resina ni por las hojas sin tratar para ambas localidades. Sin embargo, los resultados de los experimentos de laboratorio con las hormigas obreras individualmente indicaron efectos significativos entre las poblaciones y entre los tratamientos. Mientras que las

  14. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  16. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  17. Antidiabetic Effects of Simple Phenolic Acids: A Comprehensive Review.

    Vinayagam, Ramachandran; Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Xu, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major public health threat across the globe. Current antidiabetic therapies are based on synthetic drugs that very often have side effects. It has been widely acknowledged that diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. Phenolic acids are widely found in daily foods such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and wine and they provide biological, medicinal, and health properties. Simple phenolic acids have been shown to increase glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, improve glucose and lipid profiles of certain diseases (obesity, cardiovascular diseases, DM, and its complication). The current review is an attempt to list out the antidiabetic effects of simple phenolic acids from medicinal plants and botanical foods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26634804

  18. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the main food sources and factors of variation, besides methods for the identification and quantification commonly used to analyze these compounds. Moreover, the role of phenolic compounds in scavenging oxidative stress and the techniques of in vitro antioxidant evaluation are discussed. In vivo studies to evaluate the biological effects of these compounds and their impact on chronic disease prevention are presented as well. Finally, it was discussed the role of these compounds on the sensory quality of foods.

  19. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Phenolic Resin/Montmorillonite Intercalation Nanocomposites

    YU Jian-ying; WEI Lian-qi; CAO Xian-kun

    2003-01-01

    Phenolic resin/ montmorillonite intercalation composites were prepared by using the methods of pressing intercalation and melt intercalation. Properties and structure of the composites were investigated by using XRD , TG and test of softening point. It is indicated that both the pressing intercalation and melt intercalation can be used to prepare the phenolic resin/organo-montmorillonite intercalation nanocomposites. Compared with phenolic resin, the intercalation nanocomposites have better heat-resistance, higher decomposition temperatures and less thermal weight-loss. However , these two intercalation methods have different effects on the softening point of the intercalation nanocomposites . Pressing intercalation almost does not affect the softening point of the intercalation nanocomposites, while melt intercalation signifwantly increases the softening point of the intercalation nanocomposites ,probably due to the chemical actions happening in the process of melt intercalation.

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and total phenolic contents of Calophyllum symingtonianum

    Nissad Attoumani; Deny Susanti; Muhammad Taher

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts from Calophyllum symingtonianum.Methods:The extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the β-carotene bleaching assay, while the antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method.Results:All the tested extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition values of 10, 11 and 12 mm for n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts respectively at 30 µg/disc. N-hexane showed low antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 mm) at 30 µg/disc. The total phenolic test showed that methanol has high phenolic content (162.25 mg GAE/g of extract) compared to the other extracts.Conclusions:The ability of the extracts to inhibit microbial growth at a concentration of 30 µg/disc indicated the its potent antimicrobial activity.

  2. Phenol hydroxylation over copper modified ZSM-5 catalysts

    Several CuZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis from gels containing different Si/Al and Si/Cu ratios; methylamine or sodium hydroxide were used as mineralizing agents. DRX, IR, BET, UV-VIS and chemical analysis characterized catalysts. Catalysts activities were evaluated in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2. The catechol (CAT)/(hydroquinone (HQ) + p-benzoquinone (PBQ)) ratio increased either by increasing H2O content and reaction temperature, lowering catalyst amount, or decreasing catalyst Si/Al ratio. The production of p-benzoquinone (PBQ), resulting from hydroquinone oxidation, was minimized when reaction conditions were: 80 Celsius degrade, phenol: 1 mmol, phenol/H2O2 molar ratio: 3/1, catalyst: 20 mg, and water: 5 g, reaction time: 4 h

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  4. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  5. Hydrogen bonding interactions of phenol with cyclic ketones

    Jeng, Mei-Lee H.; Li, Ying-Sing

    1989-01-01

    Complexes of phenol with cyclohexanone, 2-cyclohexan-1- one, δ-valerolactone, 5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one, cyclopentanone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, γ-valerolactone and γ-butyrolactone have been studied by i.r. spectroscopy. The thermodynamic data for the 1 : 1 association have been determined. When the complexes are classified into phenol-cycloketones and phenol-lactones, the variation of the enthalphy for the complex formation in each group has been found to be consistent with those of the free energy change, the equilibrium constant, and the dipole moment of the bases in gas phase. The sites of intermolecular interactions and the relationship of the interaction strength with the dipole moment of the proton acceptor are discussed.

  6. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment. PMID:26860939

  7. Efectos de la deficiencia de hierro en el funcionamiento intelectual

    Ernesto Pollitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar un análisis comparativo de los resultados de seis investigaciones en las cuales ha participado el autor sobre la relación entre la deficiencia de hierro y el funcionamiento intelectual. Las investigaciones fueron realizadas en Egipto, Estados Unidos, Guatemala, Indonesia y Tailandia entre niños de edad pre-escolar. La deficiencia de hierro con anemia está entre las dos deficiencias nutricionales más prevalentes en el mundo y es de esperar que su prevalencia sea alta en el Perú, particularmente entre los infantes y niños y entre las madres gestantes y lactantes. Una de las causas importantes es el limitado consumo de alimentos ricos en hierro hemínico que generalmente son muy costosos para los grupos más pobres de la sociedad. El análisis comparativo muestra que los resultados son consistentes a través de los seis estudios y que la deficiencia de hierro con anemia afecta el rendimiento en las pruebas de procesos cognoscitivos específicos y en las pruebas de rendimiento escolar. Los resultados también muestran que dichos efectos son reversibles con el tratamiento apropiado. A su vez, el análisis muestra que no hay evidencia suficiente para inferir que la deficiencia de hierro sin anemia afecta el cociente intelectual.   The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the results of six researches in which the author has participated, about the relation between iron deficiency and intellectual performance. The researches were carried out in Egypt, U.S.A., Guatemala, Indonesia and Thailand, with pre-school and school children. Iron deficiency with anemia are among the two nutritional deficiencies of major prevalence in the word and it must be expected that the same goes for Peru. One of the causes of the low consuming of food rich in iron is that these are too expensive for groups of low socioeconomic level. The comparative analysis shows consistent results in the six

  8. Efecto del calor aportado en recargues nanoestructurados base hierro

    Agustín Gualco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han desarrollado consumibles de soldadura que depositan recubrimientos duros de aleaciones base hierro nanoestructuradas de gran resistencia al desgaste abrasivo. Las resistencias al desgaste erosivo y abrasivo están controladas principalmente por la composición química y la microestructura. A su vez, la microestructura del metal depositado puede presentar variaciones con el procedimiento de soldadura empleado, especialmente en relación al aporte térmico. Los parámetros operativos que definen el aporte térmico (tensión, corriente y velocidad de soldadura afectan aspectos como la geometría del cordón (ancho, penetración y sobremonta y la dilución con el material base. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del calor aportado sobre las características geométricas del cordón, la dilución y la evolución microestructural de una aleación nanoestructurada base hierro, depositada por FCAW. Se soldaron muestras con aportes térmicos de entre 0,5 y 3,5 kJ/mm. Sobre cada cupón soldado se realizó un relevamiento dimensional, se analizó la composición química y se caracterizó la microestructura usando microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido y difracción de rayos X. También se midieron la microdureza del depósito, el tamaño de cristalita y el grado de dilución. Se observó una gran influencia de las condiciones de proceso sobre la geometría del cordón. La dilución varió entre un 30 y un 40%, la microdureza del depósito se encontró entre 800 y 870 HV1 y el tamaño de cristalita osciló entre 105 y 130 nm, en función de las variables de proceso empleadas. Las mayores durezas y los menores tamaños de cristalita se obtuvieron con el menor aporte térmico, asociado a una menor dilución.

  9. Antimutagenic dietary phenolics as antigenotoxic substances in urothelium of smokers.

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1998-06-18

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of PhIP-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified ABP-dG adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n=18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (e.g., quercetin, isorhamnetin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited non-competitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Onion, lettuce, apples and red wine are important sources of dietary flavonoids which are probably responsible for the anti-mutagenicity associated with foods and beverages. After HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts, the distribution profile of anti-mutagenic activity corresponded roughly to that of onion and wine extract combined. Overall, our study strongly suggests that smokers ingesting dietary phenolics, probably flavonoids, are partially protected against the harmful effects by tobacco carcinogens within their bladder mucosal cells. PMID:9675288

  10. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  11. Electrochemical Behavior and Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Natural Phenolics

    Marija Todorović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the electrochemical oxidation of a number natural phenolics (salicylic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and rutin using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also studied. A structural analysis of the tested phenolics suggests that multiple OH substitution and conjugation are important determinants of the free radical scavenging activity and electrochemical behavior. Compounds with low oxidation potentials (Epa lower than 0.45 showed antioxidant activity, whereas compounds with high Epa values (>0.45 act as prooxidants.

  12. Adsorption of phenol and chlorophenols on pure and modified sepiolite

    A. YILDIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pure sepiolite and sepiolite modified by nitric acid (HNO3, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (HDTMA were used ad adsorbents. The changes on the surface were studied by IR spectroscopy. The adsorption of solutions of phenol and phenol derivatives in pure ethanol on these adsorbents were examined by means of gas chromatography. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the clay–organic complexes (sepiolite–EDTA and sepiolite–HDTMA were higher than those of pure sepiolite and sepiolite–HNO3.

  13. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:26139940

  14. Development of Low Density, Flexible Carbon Phenolic Ablators

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Covington, Alan; Doxtad, Evan; Beck, Robin; Gasch, Matt; Arnold, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the enabling TPS material for the Stardust mission where it was used as a single piece heatshield. PICA has the advantages of low density (approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter) coupled with efficient ablative capability at high heat fluxes. Due to its brittle nature and low strain to failure recent efforts at NASA ARC have focused on alternative architectures to yield flexible and more conformal carbon phenolic materials with comparable densities to PICA. This presentation will discuss flexible alternatives to PICA and include preliminary mechanical and thermal properties as well as recent arc jet and LHMEL screening test results.

  15. Developing of effective treatment technology of the phenolic wastewater

    Klymenko, Irina; Yelatontsev, Dmytro; Ivanchenko, Anna; Dupenko, Olga; Voloshyn, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    It is found that a high degree of purification from emulsified coal tar is achieved in the phenolic wastewater treatment using 88 mg/dm3 of sodium bentonite with the addition of 8 mg/dm3 of cationic flocculant in conditions the closest to industrial. This innovative method of phenolic wastewater treatment is cost­effective because of the low cost of bentonite. It is shown that the deposit formed during the wastewater treatment with bentonite floats to the liquid surface and can be separated b...

  16. Extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa using microwave and ultrasound

    İNCE, Alev Emine; ŞAHİN, Serpil; ŞÜMNÜ, Servet Gülüm

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa by microwave and ultrasound was studied. In both the microwave and ultrasound extractions, the effects of extraction time (5-20 min for microwave; 5-30 min for ultrasound) and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 g mL-1) on total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated. Effects of different powers (50% and 80%) were also studied for the ultrasound extraction. As a solvent, water was used. In microwave extractions, the highe...

  17. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  18. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  19. Degradation of phenolic compounds by using advanced oxidation processes

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Hincapie, M. [Dept. de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ambiental, Univ. de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Curco, D.; Contreras, S.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A new empirical kinetic equation [r = k{sub 1}c - k{sub 2} (c{sub 0} - c)] is proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds. This equation considers the influence of the intermediates in the degradation of the pollutant. The correct formulation of the contaminant mass balance in the experimental device that operates in recycle mode was done. The proposed empirical kinetic equation fitted quite well with the experimental results obtained in the TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic degradation of phenol. (orig.)

  20. Radiolysis of phenol in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures

    γ-Radiolysis and pulse radiolysis of phenol in aqueous solution up to supercritical condition have been carried out. G-values of phenol consumption and product formation have been determined. While dihydroxybenzenes were major products at room temperature, multi-ring compounds and benzene were formed above 300 deg. C. This indicates reaction mechanism was changed above 300 deg. C, where phenoxyl radical plays a predominant role. This is supported by the observation of phenoxyl radical in pulse radiolysis. In supercritical water, the G-values increased with decrease of density

  1. The mechanism of Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation of phenol

    竹湘锋; 徐新华

    2004-01-01

    Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation yielded better degradation rate and extent of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) or oxalic acid as compared with oxidation by ozone alone. Two parameters with strong effects on the efficiency of ozonation are pH of the solution and the catalyst (Fe3+) dosage. The existence of a critical pH value determining the catalysis of Fe (Ⅲ) in acid conditions was observed in phenol and oxalic acid systems. The best efficiency of catalysis was obtained at a moderate concentration of the catalyst. A reasonable mechanism of Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation of phenol was obtained based on the results and literature.

  2. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, condensated... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  3. Phenolic composition, anitproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint

    Conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint were investigated for their phenolic profile, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 75% acetone was a better method than Soxhlet and overnight extraction for phenolic content and a...

  4. Rapid determination of total phenols in seawater by 4-aminoantipyrine colorimetry

    Kadam, A.N.; Bhangale, V.P.

    A rapid and efficient 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) colorimetric method without any cleanup step to determine total phenols in seawater is described. Efficiency of the method for seawater using external addition of phenol concentrations with working...

  5. Removal performance and microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor treating hypersaline phenol-laden wastewater.

    Jiang, Yu; Wei, Li; Zhang, Huining; Yang, Kai; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-10-01

    Hypersaline phenol-rich wastewater is hard to be treated by traditional biological systems. In this work, a sequencing batch reactor was used to remove phenol from hypersaline wastewater. The removal performance was evaluated in response to the variations of operating parameters and the microbial diversity was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the bioreactor had high removal efficiency of phenol and was able to keep stable with the increase of initial phenol concentration. DO, pH, and salinity also affected the phenol removal rate. The most abundant bacterial group was phylum Proteobacteria in the two working conditions, and class Gammaproteobacteria as well as Alphaproteobacteria was predominant subgroup. The abundance of bacterial clusters was notably different along with the variation of operation conditions, resulting in changes of phenol degradation rates. The high removal efficiency of phenol suggested that the reactor might be promising in treating phenol-laden industrial wastewater in high-salt condition. PMID:27359064

  6. Developmental effects on phenolic, flavonol, anthocyanin, and carotenoid metabolites and gene expression in potatoes

    Potato phytonutrients include phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Developmental effects on phytonutrient concentrations and gene expression was studied in white, yellow and purple potatoes. Purple potatoes contained the most total phenolics, which decreased during development (1...

  7. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  8. Efectos del tipo de diabetes, estrategias de afrontamiento, sexo y optimismo en el apoyo social

    Rondón, José E.; Lugli, Zoraide

    2013-01-01

    Se desea conocer el efecto del tipo de diabetes, las estrategias de afrontamiento, el sexo, y el optimismo sobre las redes sociales y el apoyo social percibido por sujetos con diabetes. Participaron 103 hombres y 197 mujeres divididos en diabéticos tipo

  9. Efectos de la drogadicción, el alcoholismo y el tabaquisrno sobre el embarazo

    Chiani de Murad, Margarita E.

    1986-01-01

    Se consideran los posibles efectos nocivos que la adicción a las drogas de uso más frecuente-anialgésicos narcóticos, marihuana, alcohol y tabaco- pueden causar sobre el producto de la concepción.

  10. El cambio climático y sus efectos en el Perú

    Barco, Daniel; Vargas, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Luego de una presentación del impacto esperado del cambio climático en el crecimiento global, analizan las consecuencias del calentamiento y la acumulación de gases de efecto invernadero sobre el crecimiento del país.

  11. Efectos de la Crisis Financiera sobre los Sistemas de pensiones en América Latina

    Mario Marcel; Waldo Tapia Troncoso

    2010-01-01

    Los efectos de la reciente crisis financiera internacional en los fondos de pensiones de América Latina muestran que ésta no solo ha afectado su rentabilidad sino que también la densidad de las cotizaciones como producto del mayor desempleo, informalidad y evasión de aportes a que ha dado lugar la recesión.

  12. Degradation by synergistic effect in synthetic insulators; Degradacion por efecto sinergico en aisladores sinteticos

    Garza M, Anibal; Montesinos S, Jose I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    A study is presented of the main degradation phenomena experimented by synthetic insulators and the simultaneous participation of such phenomena to propitiate a synergistic effect. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio de los principales fenomenos de degradacion que sufren los aisladores sinteticos y la participacion simultanea de dichos fenomenos para propiciar un efecto sinergico.

  13. Efectos del entrenamiento con electroestimulación muscular en pacientes afectados de hemofilia A

    Gomis Bataller, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN La propuesta de la presente investigación fue examinar los efectos producidos por un programa de electroestimulación muscular aplicado sobre el biceps brachii en pacientes afectados de hemofilia A. Treinta sujetos tomaron parte en el presente estudio, 15 pacientes con hemofilia A clínicamente graves (nivel de factor

  14. Cambio climático y efectos sobre la agricultura: la sequía

    Garrido Colmenero, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    •Mitigación del CC: reducción de emisiones de GEI. –Ejemplos: energías renovables/ Agricultura ecológica •Adaptación: estrategias para combatir/atenuar los efectos del CC –Protección en zonas costeras/ Mercados de agua.

  15. Efectos de la aplicación de un plan de trabajo de resistencia y sobrecarga

    Baronetto, Leopoldo Miguel.

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se propone investigar cuales son los efectos de la aplicación de un Plan de Trabajo de Resistencia y Sobrecarga en la calidad de vida de las personas, apuntando al desarrollo de dos variables fundamentales: la Composición Corporal y el Consumo Máximo de Oxígeno (VO2max).

  16. Efectos del ácido retinoico en el desarrollo temprano del pez cebra Danio rerio

    Carreño Gutiérrez, Héctor

    2009-01-01

    [ES]Este trabajo trata sobre los efectos del ácido retinoico en el desarrollo temprano del pez cebra Danio rerio. [EN]This work deals with the effects of retinoic acid in the early development of zebrafish Danio rerio. Trabajo de Fin de Máster del Máster en Neurociencias, curso 2008-2009.

  17. El efecto knobe: asimetrías en la atribuición de intencionalidad y sus causas

    Alejandro Rosas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo proponemos una explicación novedosa del efecto Knobe. El efecto Knobe es una asimetría peculiar en la atribución de intencionalidad a un agente con relación a los efectos colaterales previstos de su acción, dependiendo sólo de la valoración moral del efecto y sin que nada más cambie en la situación juzgada: los efectos colaterales malos, pero no los buenos, se consideran intencionalmente producidos. Nos enfocamos aquí en la pregunta por la explicación de esa peculiar asimetría ¿basta la valencia moral del efecto colateral para explicarla? Hacemos un análisis sistemático de una gran variedad de viñetas presentes en los estudios experimentales y de sus resultados. Intentamos así aislar los factores explicativos. Proponemos que la asimetría se explica por concordancia o discordancia entre la valencia moral del efecto colateral y la actitud moral del agente, juzgada por los espectadores.

  18. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  19. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Alejandro Medel; Erika Bustos; Karen Esquivel; Luis A. Godínez; Yunny Meas

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. ...

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF FIVE ALGERIAN EGGPLANT CULTIVARS

    CHÉRIFA BOUBEKRI; TOUHAMI LANEZ; ASSIA DJOUADI

    2015-01-01

    Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured in the whole fruit of dark-purple eggplant cultivars from five different regions of east Algeria using, respectively, the Folin-Ciocalteu method, spectrophotometrical and electrochemical assays. Total phenolic contents were highest in sample from Jijel, followed by Skikda cultivars, finally sample from Guelma with the lowest phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was positively associated with total antioxidant activity in eggpl...