WorldWideScience

Sample records for 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative pd153035

  1. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    Research highlights: → PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. → The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 ∼ 11 bp. → Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18(±0.09) x 104 (1/M). → The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol-1 at 23 ± 0.5 oC. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (KA) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining KA for PD153035, where KA is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that KA = 1.18(±0.09) x 104 (1/M) at 23 ± 0.5 oC and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 ∼ 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  2. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentia...

  3. Radiohalogenated 4-anilinoquinazoline-based EGFR-TK inhibitors as potential cancer imaging agents

    Introduction: The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tumors underlines the recent interest in EGFR as attractive target for the development of new cancer imaging agents. EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) based on the anilinoquinazoline scaffold have been explored as potential probes for EGFR imaging. However, up to now, no optimal radiotracer is available. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of three novel halogenated 6-substituted 4-anilinoquinazoline based EGFR-TKIs. Radiosynthesis (125I and 18F) of the corresponding analogues was also performed. Methods: 6a, 6b and 8 were obtained by reaction of 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazoline (5) with 3-/4-iodobenzoyl and 4-fluorobenzoyl chlorides. Inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation and A431 cellular proliferation were assessed by Western blot and MTT assays. 125I-anilinoquinazolines [125I]6a/b were prepared via destannylation of the corresponding tributylstannyl precursors with [125I]NaI. Cellular uptake studies were conducted in A431 cells. Optimization of the radiosynthesis of the 18F-anilinoquinazoline [18F]8 was attempted by nucleophilic substitution of the trimethylammonium- and nitro-6-substituted 4-anilinoquinazoline precursors. Results: 6a, 6b and 8 were synthesized in high chemical yield. All of them are inhibitors of EGFR autophosphorylation (0.15050125I]6a/b, obtained in high radiochemical purity and specific activity, were highly taken up by A431 cells. Biodistribution profile in mice indicated fast blood clearance and hepatobiliary excretion. Despite all attempts, [18F]8 was only formed in 4% yield, hampering further biological evaluation. Conclusions: This study suggests that these quinazoline derivatives can act as EGFR-TKI, warranting further modifications in the chemical structure in order to be explored as potential molecular imaging agents for single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography.

  4. Synthesis of new 4-anilinoquinazoline analogues and evaluation of their EGFR inhibitor activity.

    Wang, Zheng; WANG, Cui-Ling; Li, Jun-lin; Zhang, Ning; Sun, Yan-ni; Liu, Zhu-lan; Tang, Zhi-shu; Liu, Jian-li

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen of 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives with imine groups at position 6 of quinazoline ring were synthesized and their antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay and Western blotting analysis. Among these compounds, 13a-131 were reported first time. The MTT assay was carried out on three human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2 and SMMC7721) with EGFR highly expressed. Among the tested compounds, 13i and 13j exhibited notable inhibition potency and their IC50 values on three cell lines were equivalent to or less than those of gefitinib. Compound 14, without imine group substituted, displayed excellent inhibitor potency only on A549 cell line. Compounds 14 and 13j were chosen to perform Western blotting analysis on A549. The results showed that both of the compounds could inhibit the expression level of phosphorylated EGFR remarkably. It was concluded that the inhibitor potency of compound 14 was almost equivalent to that of gefitinib and the inhibitor potency of 13j was better than that of gefitinib. PMID:27169285

  5. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules. PMID:26106875

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes Tethering EGFR-Inhibiting 4-Anilinoquinazolines.

    Du, Jun; Kang, Yan; Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Yu; Wang, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Qun; Wu, Kui; Wang, Fuyi

    2016-05-01

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes are promising antitumor agents for their low system toxicity and versatile chemical structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be overexpressed in a broad range of tumor cells and is regarded as a drug target in developing novel antitumor drugs. In this work, five ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes containing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores were synthesized and characterized. These complexes showed both high EGFR-inhibiting activity and strong DNA minor groove-binding activity. In vitro antiproliferation screening demonstrated that the prepared ruthenium complexes are highly cytotoxic against a series of cancer cell lines, in particular non-small-cell lung A549 and human epidermoid carcinoma A431. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the most active complex, K4, induced much more late-stage cell apoptosis and necrosis than gefitinib, the first EGFR-targeting antitumor drug in clinical use. These results indicate that the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazolines possess highly active dual-targeting anticancer activity and are promising in developing new anticancer agents. PMID:27093574

  7. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-AKT signaling.

    Cheng, Li-Bo; Chen, Chun-Ming; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Li-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell apoptosis is attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant cyto-protective activity. In the current study, we explored the pro-survival effect of FLZ in oxidative stressed-RPE cells and studied the underlying signaling mechanisms. Our results showed that FLZ attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced viability decrease and apoptosis in the RPE cell line (ARPE-19 cells) and in primary mouse RPE cells. Western blotting results showed that FLZ activated AKT signaling in RPE cells. The AKT-specific inhibitor, MK-2206, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pan inhibitor, wortmannin, and AKT1-shRNA (short hairpin RNA) depletion almost abolished FLZ-mediated pro-survival/anti-apoptosis activity. We discovered that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation mediated FLZ-induced AKT activation and the pro-survival effect in RPE cells, and the anti-apoptosis effect of FLZ against H2O2 was inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor, PD153035, or by EGFR shRNA-knockdown. In conclusion, FLZ protects RPE cells from oxidative stress through activation of EGFR-AKT signaling, and our results suggest that FLZ might have therapeutic values for AMD. PMID:25329617

  8. Deriving Derivatives

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of EGFR/HER-2 inhibitors: analogs of 5-substituted-4-anilinoquinazoline and 6,7-disubstituted-4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile: screening for development of novel PET tracers

    Pimple, Surekha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project was to synthesize new PET tracers for the imaging of the EGFR/HER-2 expressing tumors and to explore PET-assisted drug discovery approach for novel EGFR/HER-2 inhibitors. To achieve this aim, several research aspects such as design, synthesis, in vitro-in vivo biological evaluation and preliminary PET studies had to be performed. We chose two classes of commercially available anticancer compounds, 5-substitued-anilinoquinazolines (reversible inhibitors) and 6,7-disubst...

  10. Volatility Derivatives

    Peter Carr; Roger Lee

    2009-01-01

    Volatility derivatives are a class of derivative securities where the payoff explicitly depends on some measure of the volatility of an underlying asset. Prominent examples of these derivatives include variance swaps and VIX futures and options. We provide an overview of the current market for these derivatives. We also survey the early literature on the subject. Finally, we provide relatively simple proofs of some fundamental results related to variance swaps and volatility swaps.

  11. Financial Derivatives

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...

  12. Derivative Chameleons

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  13. Financial derivatives

    Simon Gray and Joanna Place

    2006-01-01

    Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...

  14. The development of EGFR molecular imaging and gene mutation in non-small cell lung cancer

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) imaging has great potential to affect patient-specific treatment for NSCLC, applying a targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. New PET/CT radiotracers,such as N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-[(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) methoxy]quinazolin-4-amine (ZD6476), five 4-(anilino) quinazoline derivatives (ML01) and 4-[(3-iodophenyl) amino]-7-(2-[2-{2-(2-[2-{2-([18F]fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy}-ethoxy]-ethoxy)- ethoxy }-ethoxy]-quinazoline-6-yl-acrylamide) ([18F]F-PEG6-IPQA) are now available. But, 11C labeled-4-N-(3-bromoanilino)-6, 7-dimethoxyquinazoline (PD153035) is the only PET/CT radiotracer used for human clinical evaluation,primarily for EGFR imaging. Finally, the most important aspect of successful imaging is the identification and characterization of EGFR at the cellular or sub-cellular level with high specificity for the target. Considering the need for further development of such PET/CT tracers, EGFR molecular imaging will be presented along with an important examination of the progression that has been made thus far in the field. (authors)

  15. Electricity derivatives

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  16. On $n$-derivations

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  17. Interest rate derivatives

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  18. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

  19. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  20. The global derivatives market

    William J. McDonough

    1993-01-01

    Remarks on Derivatives: Practices and Principles, a report by the Global Derivatives Study Group of the Group of Thirty, presented at the Group of Thirty Meeting, Washington, D.C., September 27, 1993.

  1. Should We Fear Derivatives?

    Rene M. Stulz

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the extent to which derivatives pose threats to firms and to the economy. After reviewing the derivatives markets and putting in perspective the various measures of the size of these markets, the paper shows who uses derivatives and why. The difficulties firms face in valuing derivatives portfolios are evaluated. Although academics pay much attention to no-arbitrage pricing results, the paper points out that there can be considerable subjectivity in the pricing of derivat...

  2. Derivatives in emerging markets

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  3. Generalized \\delta-Derivations

    Kaygorodov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We defined generalized \\delta-derivations of algebra A as linear mapping \\chi associated with usual \\delta-derivation \\phi by the rule \\chi(xy)=\\delta(\\chi(x)y+x\\phi(y))=\\delta(\\phi(x)y+x\\chi(y)) for any x,y \\in A. We described generalized \\delta-derivations of prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In this cases we proved that generalized \\delta-derivation is a generalized derivation or \\delta...

  4. Fractional Derivative and Integral

    Aygören, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...

  5. Developing a derivatives generator

    Mircea Petic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to highlight the particularities of the derivational morphology mechanisms that will help in lexical resources extension. Some computing approaches for derivational morphology are given for several languages, inclusively for Romanian. This paper deals with some preprocessing particularities, that are needed in the process of automatic generation. Then, generative mechanisms are presented in the form of derivational formal rules separately for prefixation and suffixation. The article ends with several approaches in automatic new generated words validation.

  6. Derivative actions in China

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  7. Vitamin D derivatives

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  8. Numerical Integration with Derivatives

    Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.

  9. Managing Derivative Exposure

    Ulrich Kirchner

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to derivative exposure management based on subjective and implied probabilities. We suggest to maximize the valuation difference subject to risk constraints and propose a class of risk measures derived from the subjective distribution. We illustrate this process with specific examples for the two and three dimensional case. In these cases the optimization can be performed graphically.

  10. DERIVE in Slovenian Schools.

    Lokar, Matija

    This paper describes several projects concerning the use of the DERIVE programming language for symbolic computation in Slovenia. The main topics discussed include preparing books and materials using DERIVE in Slovenian language, and a survey on the use of programs for symbolic computation by mathematics teachers in Slovenian secondary schools.…

  11. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  12. Risk and Derivative Price

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  13. Taxation of Derivatives

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  14. Antagonistic regulation of swelling-activated Cl− current in rabbit ventricle by Src and EGFR protein tyrosine kinases

    Ren, Zuojun; Baumgarten, Clive M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of swelling-activated Cl− current (ICl,swell) is complex, and multiple signaling cascades are implicated. To determine whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) modulates ICl,swell and to identify the PTK involved, we studied the effects of a broad-spectrum PTK inhibitor (genistein), selective inhibitors of Src (PP2, a pyrazolopyrimidine) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase (PD-153035), and a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor (orthovanadate). ICl,swell evoked ...

  15. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are...

  16. American derivatives : a review

    Aase, Knut K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives an overview over the theory of pricing and hedging financial derivatives that can be exercised at any time during a fixed time interval [0, T]. The analysis makes use of the theory of optimal stopping, and as such it constitutes an interesting application of probability theory to the theory of financial economics. In this paper we concentrate on the main principles involved only, which means, for example, that we abstract from derivatives where the underlying asset pays ou...

  17. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives and...... structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....

  18. On higher derivative gravity

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author)

  19. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  20. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  1. Gorenstein derived functions

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...... injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules.......Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective and...

  2. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    Kokholm, Thomas

    financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives. With...... the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options on...

  3. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  4. Metal derivatives of tetrazoles

    Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.

  5. Metal derivatives of tetrazoles

    Gaponik, Pavel N; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Ivashkevich, Oleg A [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-06-30

    Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.

  6. Biotechnology and derived products

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  7. Learning, investments and derivatives

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2011-01-01

    The recent crisis and the following flight to simplicity put most derivative businesses around the world under considerable pressure. We argue that the traditional modeling techniques must be extended to include product design. We propose a quantitative framework for creating products which meet the challenge of being optimal from the investors point of view while remaining relatively simple and transparent.

  8. Home price derivatives

    O. Emre Ergungor

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, homeowners had no way to protect the value of their homes against losses that could result from housing market downturns. With the derivatives contracts introduced by the CME last year, homeowners now have some means of protection, and new and better products are more likely to follow from them.

  9. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  10. Derivative corrections from noncommutativity

    We show that an infinite subset of the higher-derivative α' corrections to the DBI and Chern-Simons actions of ordinary commutative open-string theory can be determined using noncommutativity. Our predictions are compared to some lowest order α' corrections that have been computed explicitly by Wyllard (hep-th/0008125), and shown to agree. (author)

  11. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  12. Systems of integrable derivations

    Vittoria Bonanzinga

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.

  13. Illiquidity and derivative valuation

    Horst, Ulrich; Naujokat, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In illiquid markets, option traders may have an incentive to increase their portfolio value by using their impact on the dynamics of the underlying. We provide a mathematical framework within which to value derivatives under market impact in a multi-player framework by introducing strategic interactions into the model of Almgren and Chriss (2001). Specifically, we consider a financial market model with several strategically interacting players that hold European contingent claims and whose tr...

  14. Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors

    ZHENG Meng-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.

  15. Credit derivatives and risk management

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  16. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    Ranci??re, Romain

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, includin...

  17. Chromophoric binaphtyl derivatives

    Bříza, T.; Kejík, Z.; Vašek, P.; Králová, Jarmila; Martásek, P.; Císařová, I.; Král, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 17 (2005), s. 3661-3664. ISSN 1523-7060 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0933; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1193; GA ČR GA203/02/0420; GA ČR GA301/04/1315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : binaphthyl derivatives * chromophore * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.368, year: 2005

  18. In defense of derivations

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  19. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  20. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  1. Original and Derived Judgment

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but...... owners may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  2. Original and Derived Judgment

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is...... to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his or her control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncetainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners may delegate a wide range of decision...... rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and...

  3. POLISH MARKET OF FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES

    Sobol, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The market of financial derivatives is the biggest market in the world. The tremendous growth of this market in recent years is the result of the increase of financial risks caused by volatilities of interest rates, share prices and the adoption of floating exchange rates by most of the developed countries. The most effective way of hedging financial risks is using of derivatives. The derivatives are the instruments which are derived from more basic ones which are called underlying instrument...

  4. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  5. On Q-derived polynomials

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  6. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  7. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy-texaphyrin with 166Ho and 90Y is described. UV-VIS absorption spectrometry was used to describe porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour over a wide pH range. This technique also provided preliminary information about the complexation of holmium and yttrium with porphyrin and texaphyrin. The labelling yield of the macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal-to-ligand ratio and time of incubation. The optimum reaction conditions for the formation of radioactive complexes of porphyrin and texaphyrin were determined by thin layer chromatography combined with beta activity measurement. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was also examined. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4-) because radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 186Re and 188Re play an important role in the therapy of many tumorous diseases. The possibility of using the ReO4- anion directly for labeling without reduction to a lower oxidation state can simplify considerably the preparation of the radiotherapeutic pharmaceuticals. Neither UV-Vis spectrometry nor TLC gave evidence of any incorporation of the ReO4- anion into the porphyrin ring

  8. Data Derivation Investigation

    S. S. Kadam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system  properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  9. Data Derivation Investigation

    S. S. Kadam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  10. Vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M

    2014-11-01

    The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847

  11. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  12. Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings

    Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac

    2001-01-01

    For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.

  13. Derivatives Activity at Troubled Banks

    Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.

    1996-01-01

    Derivatives have become an essential instrument for hedging risks, yet moral hazard can lead to their misuse by problem banks. Given that the absence of comprehensive data on bank derivatives activities prevents an accurate assessment of bank risk-taking, banks have an opportunity to take unmonitored second bets. Thus , troubled banks have the motive to increase risk, and derivatives provide the means to do so. The role of bank supervisors should be to limit the opportunity through more compr...

  14. Alternative algebras admitting derivations with invertible values and invertible derivations

    We prove an analogue of the Bergen-Herstein-Lanski theorem for alternative algebras: describe all alternative algebras that admit derivations with invertible values. We also prove an analogue of Moens' theorem for alternative algebras (a finite-dimensional alternative algebra over a field of characteristic zero is nilpotent if and only if it admits an invertible Leibniz derivation)

  15. Diassociative algebras and their derivations

    The paper concerns the derivations of diassociative algebras. We introduce one important class of diassociative algebras, give simple properties of the right and left multiplication operators in diassociative algebras. Then we describe the derivations of complex diassociative algebras in dimension two and three

  16. Glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group

    Present article is devoted to glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group. The results of studies of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of chlorine atom in linear and cyclic glycerin derivatives on thiocyanic group were considered. The composition, structure and purity of synthesized substances was defined by means of element analysis, molecular refraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography methods.

  17. Derivative Market Competition: OTC Versus Organized Derivative Exchanges

    Jens Nystedt

    2004-01-01

    Recent regulatory initiatives in the United States have again raised the issue of a 'level regulatory and supervisory playing field' and the degree of competition globally between over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives and organized derivative exchange (ODE) markets. This paper models some important aspects of how an ODE market interrelates with the OTC markets. It analyzes various ways in which an ODE market can respond to competition from the OTC markets and considers whether ODE markets would ...

  18. Complex higher order derivative theories

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  19. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    The mechanism of appearance of higher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Nether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in extended phase space. 15 refs

  20. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  1. Conditional Expectation as Quantile Derivative

    Dirk Tasche

    2001-01-01

    For a linear combination of random variables, fix some confidence level and consider the quantile of the combination at this level. We are interested in the partial derivatives of the quantile with respect to the weights of the random variables in the combination. It turns out that under suitable conditions on the joint distribution of the random variables the derivatives exist and coincide with the conditional expectations of the variables given that their combination just equals the quantil...

  2. Unethical dilemmas in derivatives practice

    Alqatawni, Tahsen

    2013-01-01

    The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...

  3. Synthesis of new xanthene derivatives

    Kotaskova, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Xanthene dyes, including fluorescein, are a well-known class of fluorescent dyes, which have widespread applications in natural sciences. The synthesis of xanthene derivatives via acid catalyzed condensation of substituted phenols with phthalic anhydride, to afford the asymmetric derivatives, is well established. The high temperature, harsh reaction conditions and often low yields make this method less convenient. The synthesis of xanthene dyes by direct modification of the fluorophore moiety...

  4. Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential tech...

  5. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Derivatives Markets for Home Prices

    Robert J. Shiller

    2008-01-01

    The establishment recently of risk management vehicles for home prices is described. The potential value of such vehicles, once they become established, is seen in consideration of the inefficiency of the market for single family homes. Institutional changes that might derive from the establishment of these new markets are described. An important reason for these beginnings of real estate derivative markets is the advance in home price index construction methods, notably the repeat sales meth...

  7. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)

    2003-01-01

    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  8. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  9. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  10. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  11. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  12. Organometallic derivatives of sydnone imines

    By the method of direct metallation of 3-cyclohexyl-N6-pivaloylsydnone imine by butyllithium solution in tetrahydrofuran at -78 deg C for 30 min. 4-lithium derivative of the relevant sydnone imine (1) was prepared. Compound 1 was characterized by the methods of elementary analysis, 1H NMR and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the compound prepared features extremely low nucleophilic properties and in terms of its chemical behavior it reminds lithium sydnones. Replacement of substituents in position 3 of the heterocycle and at exocyclic nitrogen atom affects but slightly the metallation process of sydnone imines and stability of lithium derivatives

  13. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  14. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...

  15. Radiological protection optimization using derivatives

    The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)

  16. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...

  17. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-01-01

    The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

  18. Czech lexical database - Derivation Relations

    Klímová, Jana

    Geneve : Université de Geneve , 2005 - (Bouillon, P.; Kanzaki, K.), s. 119-123 [International Workshop on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon /3./. Geneve (CH), 19.05.2005-21.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA405/03/0086; GA ČR GA405/03/0913 Keywords : lexical database * derivation Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  19. Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors

    Favero, David

    2016-01-01

    We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.

  20. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125I. (author)

  1. International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage

    Sohnke M. Bartram; Brown, Gregory W.; Frank R. Fehle

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents international evidence on the use of financial derivatives for a sample of 7,292 non-financial firms from 48 countries including the United States. Across all countries, 59.8% of the firms use derivatives in general, while 43.6% use currency derivatives, 32.5% interest rate derivatives, and only 10.0% commodity price derivatives. Firmspecific factors associated with derivatives use are very similar across different countries. Some factors are associated only with specific ...

  2. Cluster algebras and derived categories

    Keller, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This is an introductory survey on cluster algebras and their (additive) categorification using derived categories of Ginzburg algebras. After a gentle introduction to cluster combinatorics, we review important examples of coordinate rings admitting a cluster algebra structure. We then present the general definition of a cluster algebra and describe the interplay between cluster variables, coefficients, c-vectors and g-vectors. We show how c-vectors appear in the study of quantum cluster algebras and their links to the quantum dilogarithm. We then present the framework of additive categorification of cluster algebras based on the notion of quiver with potential and on the derived category of the associated Ginzburg algebra. We show how the combinatorics introduced previously lift to the categorical level and how this leads to proofs, for cluster algebras associated with quivers, of some of Fomin-Zelevinsky's fundamental conjectures.

  3. Derivatives in energy project finance

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  4. Berberine derivatives as antileishmanial drugs.

    Vennerstrom, J L; Lovelace, J K; Waits, V B; Hanson, W L; Klayman, D L

    1990-01-01

    Berberine, a quaternary alkaloid, and several of its derivatives were tested for efficacy against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania braziliensis panamensis in golden hamsters. Tetrahydroberberine was less toxic and more potent than berberine against L. donovani but was not as potent as meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), a standard drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Only berberine and 8-cyanodihydroberberine showed significant activity (greater than 50% suppression of lesion size) again...

  5. Functional linear regression with derivatives

    Mas, André; Pumo, Besnik

    2006-01-01

    International audience We introduce a new model of linear regression for random functional inputs taking into account the first order derivative of the data. We propose an estimation method which comes down to solving a special linear inverse problem. Our procedure tackles the problem through a double and synchronized penalization. An asymptotic expansion of the mean square prevision error is given. The model and the method are applied to a benchmark dataset of spectrometric curves and com...

  6. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Anna Kwiecień; Zbigniew Ciunik

    2015-01-01

    Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constitut...

  7. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    Townsend, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time, the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of...

  8. Phonological Derivation in Optimality Theory

    Ellison, T M

    1994-01-01

    Optimality Theory is a constraint-based theory of phonology which allows constraints to be violated. Consequently, implementing the theory presents problems for declarative constraint-based processing frameworks. On the basis of two regularity assumptions, that candidate sets are regular and that constraints can be modelled by transducers, this paper presents and proves correct algorithms for computing the action of constraints, and hence deriving surface forms.

  9. Phonological Derivation in Optimality Theory

    Ellison, T Mark

    1995-01-01

    Optimality Theory is a constraint-based theory of phonology which allows constraints to be violated. Consequently, implementing the theory presents problems for declarative constraint-based processing frameworks. On the basis of two regularity assumptions, that candidate sets are regular and that constraints can be modelled by transducers, this paper presents and proves correct algorithms for computing the action of constraints, and hence deriving surface forms.

  10. Unified derivation of evolution equations

    Li, Hsiang-nan

    1998-01-01

    We derive the evolution equations of parton distribution functions appropriate in different kinematic regions in a unified and simple way using the resummation technique. They include the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for large momentum transfer $Q$, the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation for a small Bjorken variable $x$, and the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation which embodies the above two equations. The relation among these equations is explored, and p...

  11. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two

  12. Synthese asymetrique glycidol et derives

    ZERHOUNI, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    La steereochilie (derive du grec ,singnifiant solide ) se refere a la chimie en trois dimensions(1) puisque la plupart des molecules sont tridimensionnelles, la stereochimie s'insere de fait dans pratiquement toute la chimie dans l'evaluation de la pensée chimique ,le concept de la sereochimie est venu relativement tard , une grande paati de la chimie ,souvent excellente de 19éme siecle, l'ingnore .

  13. Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators

    Symon, K.R.

    1997-09-12

    In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

  14. Push-Outs of Derivations

    Niels Grønbæk

    2008-05-01

    Let $\\mathfrak{A}$ be a Banach algebra and let be a Banach $\\mathfrak{A}$-bimodule. In studying $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathfrak{A},X)$ it is often useful to extend a given derivation $D:\\mathfrak{A}→ X$ to a Banach algebra $\\mathfrak{B}$ containing $\\mathfrak{A}$ as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators $b\\mapsto D(ba)-b.D(a), a\\in\\mathfrak{A}$ in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness is inherited to ideals.

  15. Chemistry of Bicyclic Endoperoxides Derived from Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Attempted Synthesis of Polyhydroxypiperidine Derivatives

    SALAMCI, Emine; BAYRAM, Beyhan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve the synthesis of azasugar derivatives with the utilization of singlet oxygen, pyridine was used as the starting material. The reduction of pyridine followed by a singlet oxygen reaction afforded cyclic aza-endoperoxides (14 and 16). However, many attempts were made to convert the aza-endoperoxides to the corresponding di- and triacetates without success. However, the base-catalyzed rearrangement of 14 gave unprecedented rearrangement products 23 and 24.

  16. Derivatives Pricing in Incomplete Markets

    Lappo, P.; Zuev, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the one-period (B, S) - market model with two securities is considered. In the introduction a replicating portfolio for the derivative security is obtained when the securities are primitive. In the second part we consider the situation where the stock price could have more than two values. We build an approximation of such a market using a fictive (B, S*) - market where the stock price could take only two values. In the third part the numerical illustration of the approximation i...

  17. Synthesis of oleanolic disaccharide derivatives

    Shu Chen Pei; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Shan Qian; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Oleanolic acid 1 exists widely in food,medicinal herbs and other plants and possesses many attractive biological activities.Recently,some oleanolic derivatives were reported to have interesting anti-tumor activities.Herein,using association principle of drug design,OA disaccharide 17 was designed and synthesized by coupling α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety,which has proved to be a unique sugar sequence with strongly antitumor activity,and modified OA with a nitrile at C-17.

  18. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  19. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  20. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives.

    Kwiecień, Anna; Ciunik, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure. PMID:26258772

  1. Iron and iron derived radicals

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  3. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  4. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  5. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  6. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  7. Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization

    Novotny, Antonio André

    2013-01-01

    The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...

  8. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  9. Radiation processing of polysaccharide derivatives

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethylstarch (CMS), carboxymethylchitin (CM-chitin) and carboxymethylchitosan (CM-chitosan) form gels when irradiated at paste-like condition. Bedsore prevention mat filled up CMC hydrogel crosslinked by irradiation at paste-like condition was practical applied as a health care products. It was found that CM-chitosan hydrogels have anti-microbial activity and effective as absorbents to remove metal ions. When crosslinked gel sheets of CM-chitin and CM-chitosan were immersed in copper (II) aqueous solution, absorption of Cu (II) were 161 mg/g and 172 mg/g, respectively. Radiation crosslinking of cellulose derivative such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, (HPMCP) kneaded with aqueous alkali solution and methanol was achieved with EB-irradiation at paste-like condition. The HPMCP gel absorbed organic solvents such as chloroform and pyridine. (author)

  10. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. fq-Derivations of G-Algebra

    Deena Al-Kadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of fq-derivation as a new derivation of G-algebra. For an endomorphism map f of any G-algebra X, we show that at least one fq-derivation of X exists. Moreover, for such a map, we show that a self-map dqf of X is fq-derivation of X if X is an associative medial G-algebra. For a medial G-algebra X, dqf is fq-derivation of X if dqf is an outside fq-derivation of X. Finally, we show that if f is the identity endomorphism of X then the composition of two fq-derivations of X is a fq-derivation. Moreover, we give a condition to get a commutative composition.

  12. Synthesis of novel bioactive doxycycline derivatives

    Usai, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Novel doxycycline derivatives were synthesized taking advantage of modern synthetic methods for diverse biological experiments. Neuartige Doxycyclin-Derivate wurden unter Zuhilfenahme moderner Synthesemethoden für verschiedene biologische Tests hergestellt.

  13. The recent growth of financial derivative markets

    Remolona, Eli M.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the reasons for the phenomenal growth of financial derivative markets in recent years. The author shows how specific demand forces have largely determined the direction and speed of the derivatives' spread.

  14. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
    option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
    Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  15. Komoditní deriváty

    Hampejs, Michal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the use of commodity derivatives in the oil market. The thesis itself is divided into two main parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is mainly focusing on the description of commodity derivatives in the oil market and the explanation of the mechanism of most often used derivative contracts. The second and more practical part of the thesis examine the use of these derivatives and all benefits and risks associated with trading in commod...

  16. Trading interest rate risk in derivatives markets

    Monika Piazzesi; Martin Schneider; Juliane Begenau

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies banks' motives for trading in interest rate derivatives. It uses data from annual reports and regulatory filings to measure major market participants' derivatives portfolios, as well as their non-derivative exposure to interest rate risk. Risk exposures with and without derivatives are compared using a term structure model. While some banks use swaps to offset maturity mismatch on their balance sheet, others appear to increase their exposure to interest rate shocks by specu...

  17. Policy Perspectives on OTC Derivatives Market Infrastructure

    Darrell DUFFIE; Li, Ada; Lubke, Theo

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent financial crisis, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives have been blamed for increasing systemic risk. Although OTC derivatives were not a central cause of the crisis, the complexity and limited transparency of the market reinforced the potential for excessive risk-taking, as regulators did not have a clear view into how OTC derivatives were being used. We discuss how the New York Fed and other regulators could improve weaknesses in the OTC derivatives market through st...

  18. THE IMPACT OF DERIVATIVES ON MARKET FUNCTIONING

    Assoc. Prof. Roxana Angela Calistru Ph. D, Assoc. Prof. Carmen Costuleanu Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    Derivatives were initially a response to the increased volatility of financial markets, but then the growth of financial derivatives has played a role in exacerbating shocks. Hence, implications of derivatives for the functioning of financial markets may differ between normal and crisis conditions. In normal market conditions, derivative markets perform a number of economic functions likely to help in discovery of future as well as current prices, to improve risk-sharing, to enhance the liqui...

  19. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  20. Adamantane Derivates of Tenocyclidine - Effective Radioprotective Agents

    Adamantyl derivatives of phencyclidine (PCP) showed better radioprotective effects than PCP itself. We prepared known thienylphencyclidine (TCP) and three of its adamantyl derivatives (Ad-TCP) and tested them in cultured cells for their radioprotective effects. The results with cells show that the piperidine derivative of adamantyl-tenocyclidine (Ad-TCP (II)) has rather outstanding radioprotective properties. This derivative revealed significant radioprotection at all survival levels. (author)

  1. Should Derivatives be Privileged in Bankruptcy?

    Patrick Bolton; Martin Oehmke

    2011-01-01

    Derivative contracts, swaps, and repos enjoy "super-senior" status in bankruptcy: they are exempt from the automatic stay on debt and collateral collection that applies to virtually all other claims. We propose a simple corporate finance model to assess the effect of this exemption on firms' cost of borrowing and incentives to engage in swaps and derivatives transactions. Our model shows that while derivatives are value-enhancing risk management tools, super-seniority for derivatives can lead...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  3. The irony in the derivatives discounting

    Henrard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A simple and fundamental question in derivatives pricing is the way (contingent) cash-flows should be discounted. As cash can not be invested at Libor the curve is probably not the right discounting curve, even for Libor derivatives. The impact on derivative pricing of changing the discounting curve is discussed. The pricing formulas for vanilla products are revisited in the funding framework described.

  4. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  5. On $t$ -Derivations of BCI-Algebras

    G. Muhiuddin; Abdullah M. Al-Roqi

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of t-derivation of a BCI-algebra and investigate related properties. Moreover, we study t-derivations in a p-semisimple BCI-algebra and establish some results on t-derivations in a p-semisimple BCI-algebra.

  6. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  7. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  9. Derivations of relativistic force transformation equations

    Redzic, Dragan; Davidovic, Dragomir; Redzic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The correct general form of relativistic transformation equations for the three-vector force is derived without using four-vectors, via the relativistic Newton's second law. The four-vector approach to the problem is also presented. The derivations extend or rectify previous derivations.

  10. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Ahmed M. Elissawy; Mohamed El-Shazly; Ebada, Sherif S.; AbdelNasser B. Singab; Peter Proksch

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated kinase modulates sensitivity of glioma cells against epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    Hartel, Ines; Ronellenfitsch, Michael; Wanka, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma but the clinical efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in malignant glioma has been disappointing. The reasons for the failure of the mechanisms of resistance of these inhibitors are unclear, but may involve factors of the tumor microenvironment such as limited glucose availability and hypoxia. It was therefore examined whether glucose and oxygen influenced the response of glioma cells to EGFR inhibition. Decreased levels of glucose and oxygen led to resistance against the EGFR inhibitor PD153035, whereas high glucose amounts and normoxia sensitised glioma cells towards the inhibitor. Low levels of glucose and oxygen stimulated AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in glioma cells. 2DG, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and the AMPK activator A769662 reduced glucose consumption, induced phosphorylation of AMPK and mimicked the effects of low glucose availability on the toxicity of PD153035. Similarly, 2DG reduced toxicity of imatinib in K562 leukemia cells. In contrast, inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by short-hairpin (sh)-mediated gene suppression increased cell death induced by the EGFR inhibitor and reverted the protective effects of 2DG and A769662. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of EGFR inhibition can be diminished by AMPK activation in glioma cells. These results may provide one explanation for the low activity of EGFR inhibitors in clinical trials and suggest antagonism of AMPK or of AMPK-regulated metabolic alterations as a promising approach to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27121290

  12. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  13. Clinical status of benzoporphyrin derivative

    Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.

  14. Eburnamine derivatives and the brain.

    Vas, Adám; Gulyás, Balázs

    2005-11-01

    The Apocynaceae plant family contains a great number of so called eburnamine-vincamine alkaloids. Quite a few of these alkaloids exert varied pharmacological activities on the cell multiplication, cardiovascular system, and brain functions. Many derivatives were also synthesized to find pharmacologically active compounds better characterized and safer to be administered than the natural plant alkaloids themselves. We concentrate on the eburnamine structures with cerebral activities in this review. Vincamine, vinburnine, vindeburnol, apovincaminate, and vinpocetine (cis-ethyl-apovincaminate) all share modulatory effects on brain circulation and neuronal homeostasis, bear antihypoxic and neuroprotective potencies to various degrees. The most eminent compound of this class of alkaloids is vinpocetine. Since its introduction to the market as a neuroprotective agent many non clinical and clinical studies proved vinpocetine's effects on calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase E1, on sodium, calcium channels, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and glutamate receptors as well as its clinical usefulness in the treatment of post-ischaemic stroke disease states and various disorders of cerebrovascular origin. Lately, positron emission tomography studies proved that vinpocetine has a rapid uptake in the primate and human brain with a heterogeneous distribution pattern (preference areas: thalamus, basal ganglia, and visual cortex) both after intravenous and oral administration. Vinpocetine exerts beneficial effects in cerebral glucose metabolism and regional cerebral blood flow in chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:16158388

  15. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  16. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    ]ože Toporišič

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  17. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  18. Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms

    Ruben Heradio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.

  19. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  20. Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation, and Investment Decisions

    Alan Morrison

    2005-01-01

    The credit derivatives market provides a liquid but opaque forum for secondary market trading of banking assets. I show that when entrepreneurs rely upon the certification value of bank debts to obtain cheap bond market insurance, the existance of a credit derivatives market may cause them to issue sub-investment grade bonds instead, and to engage in second-best behaviour. Credit derivatives can therefore cause disintermediation and thus reduce welfare. I argue that this effect can be most ef...

  1. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  2. What explains the growth in commodity derivatives ?

    Basu, P.; Gavin, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the massive increase in trading in commodity derivatives over the past decade—growth that far outstrips the growth in commodity production and the need for derivatives to hedge risk by commercial producers and users of commodities. During the past decade, many institutional portfolio managers added commodity derivatives as an asset class to their portfolios. This addition was part of a larger shift in portfolio strategy away from traditional equity invest...

  3. Pricing rainfall derivatives at the CME

    López Cabrera, Brenda; Odening, Martin; Ritter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Many business people such as farmers and financial investors are affected by indirect losses caused by scarce or abundant rainfall. Because of the high potential of insuring rainfall risk, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) began trading rainfall derivatives in 2011. Compared to temperature derivatives, however, pricing rainfall derivatives is more difficult. In this article, we propose to model rainfall indices via a flexible type of distribution, namely the normal-inverse Gaussian distri...

  4. Clearing over-the-counter derivatives

    Ed Nosal

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the over-the-counter derivatives market was not required to “clear” transactions. This changed with the signing of the new financial reform legislation, the Dodd–Frank Act on July 21, 2010. Going forward, most OTC derivatives will be cleared through a particular set of institutional arrangements: a regulated clearinghouse. This article provides an overview of how clearing works, the potential benefits of central clearing for OTC derivatives, and the opti...

  5. Derivative markets in emerging economies: a survey

    Atılgan, Yiğit; Atilgan, Yigit; Demirtaş, Özgür; Demirtas, Ozgur; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature on derivatives in emerging markets. This young but booming literature appears to be concentrated on a few countries, but is quite rich in terms of subject coverage. We classify these topics based on the generally recognized functions of derivative markets and restrict the review to the set of top journals in finance and those that specialize on emerging markets or derivatives.

  6. Derivatives: an insurer’s perspective.

    De Castries, H.; Claveranne, B.

    2010-01-01

    The business model of insurance companies and their role in the economy and for policy holders make the use of derivatives key instruments to manage their risks. Insurers bear some specifi city compared to other markets’ participants in derivatives markets: their purpose is mostly hedging and, structurally, insurance companies do not take leveraged positions. Derivative instruments are a reality for an insurer like AXA as evidenced by fi gures and processes in place ; and Solvency II will mos...

  7. Incomplete Derivative Markets and Portfolio Insurance

    Charalambos Aliprantis; Brown, Donald J; J. Werner

    1997-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the asset span of incomplete derivative markets for insuring marketed portfolios. If the asset span is finite dimensional there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding if every marketed portfolio is insurable, moreover this algorithm computes the minimum cost insurance portfolio. In addition, we extend the Cox-Leland characterization of optimal portfolio insurance in complete derivative markets to asset spans of incomplete derivative m...

  8. The Economics of Financial Derivative Instruments

    Nwaobi, Godwin C

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of derivative markets across the globe indicates their impact on the global financial scene. As the securities markets continue to evolve, market participants, investors and regulators are looking at different way in which the risk management and hedging needs of investors may be effectively met through the derivative instruments. However, it is equally recognised that derivative markets present market participants and regulators with different and complex regulatory(c...

  9. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  10. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  11. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    Dong, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  12. Covariant derivative expansion of the heat kernel

    Using the technique of labeled operators, compact explicit expressions are given for all traced heat kernel coefficients containing zero, two, four and six covariant derivatives, and for diagonal coefficients with zero, two and four derivatives. The results apply to boundaryless flat space-times and arbitrary non-Abelian scalar and gauge background fields. (orig.)

  13. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  14. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  15. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl

  16. Derived Picard groups of selfinjective Nakayama algebras

    Volkov, Yury; Zvonareva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In our proceeding paper a generating set of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra was constructed combining some previous results for Brauer tree algebras and the technique of orbit categories developed there. In this paper we finish the computation of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra.

  17. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  18. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  19. Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone

    Sanjay Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione ) i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II) complex is newly reported here

  20. EVALUATION OF ULCEROGENICITY OF KETOPROFEN GLUCOPYRANOSIDE DERIVATIVES

    Sahu Jagdish K.; Banerjee Lopamudrab

    2010-01-01

    Glucopyranoside Derivatives of Ketoprofen have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities. In vivo biological screening in mice and rats indicated that derivatives improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities with significantly reduced ulcerogenicity compared to the parent drug.

  1. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop o

  2. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    2010-01-01

    ..., you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of directors' responsibilities with respect to financial derivatives? (1) Your board of directors is responsible for effective... financial derivative, your board of directors must establish written policies and procedures...

  3. Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone

    Sanjay Gaikwad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II complex is newly reported here

  4. FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORLD MARKET COMMODITY DERIVATIVES

    Oksana Mihajlovsky

    2014-01-01

    The fractal properties of some segments of the global commodity derivatives market have been investigated in the present article. The fractal nature of segments of oil and copper derivatives markets has been determined. The presence of speculative reference groups of investors on given segments has been substantiated.

  5. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  6. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  7. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  8. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  9. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  10. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  11. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  12. Eulerian Derivation of the Coriolis Force

    Kageyama, A; Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose, but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.

  13. Eulerian derivation of the Coriolis force

    Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2006-02-01

    In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear amber to dark brown liquid preparations or white to tan powders. (2) Chymosin preparation is...

  15. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  16. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  17. Phytol-derived novel isoprenoid immunostimulants

    Roshni Roy Chowdhury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior in many respects to a number of commercial adjuvants.

  18. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  19. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  20. Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    2004-02-01

    Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5

  1. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes a...... can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products in...

  2. Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    2008-01-01

    A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.

  3. Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions

    李卫东; 魏道政

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES

    WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen

    1988-01-01

    Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.

  5. On derived groups of division rings II

    Let D be a division ring with centre F and denote by D' the derived group (commutator subgroup) of D* = D - {0}. It is shown that if each element of D' is algebraic over F, then D is algebraic over F. It is also proved that each finite separable extension of F in D is of the form F(c) for some element c in the derived group D'. Using these results, it is shown that if each element of the derived group D' is of bounded degree over F, then D is finite dimensional over F. (author). 5 refs

  6. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983

  7. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  8. Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-12-01

    There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064

  9. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...

  10. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  11. Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda

    2013-08-01

    We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.

  12. Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.

    Strang, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)

  13. The cyclic oxygen-containing glycerin derivatives

    The cyclic oxygen-containing glycerin derivatives and products of their chemical transformations attract attention as a potential biological active substances, inters for organic synthesis and find larger practical using in the different fields of industry, public health and agriculture

  14. Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Sinha, Aninda

    2013-01-01

    We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena arXiv:1304.4926 have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.

  15. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...

  16. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES

    Verma Anupam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.

  17. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphi-philicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around C.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  18. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphiphilicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around 0.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  19. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  20. Stereochemistry of a Rhododaurichromanic Acid Derivative.

    Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Mándi, Attila; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A rhododaurichromanic acid A derivative was synthesized from the naturally occurring daurichromenic acid in enantiomeric pure form. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by applying VCD, ECD and DFT calculations. PMID:27032199

  1. Functional Determinants in Higher Derivative Lagrangian Theories

    Di Criscienzo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed

  2. MANAGING DAIRY PROFIT RISK USING WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Chen, Gang; Roberts, Matthew C.; Thraen, Cameron S.

    2003-01-01

    Weather conditions are a primary source of dairy production risk. Hot and humid weather induces heat stress, which reduces lactation. Heat abatement, such as ventilation, directly affects the temperature and humidity. Abatement can increase expected profit, but cannot eliminate the lost revenue caused by heat stress. Weather derivatives can reduce weather-induced profit risk and act as a substitute for abatement at the margin. We test the risk management value of weather derivatives in a util...

  3. Derivation of Crustal Magnetic Anomalies from MAGSAT

    YANAGISAWA, Masahisa

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes various characteristics of the magnetospheric field, induction field, and ionospheric field observed by MAGSAT (Magnetic Field Satellite) and the derivation of crustal magnetic anomalies free from disturbance fields. After eliminating the effect of the disturbance field, anomaly maps were derived for the Japanese area and for the Shatsky Rise area. The magnetic field observed by satellites consists of a core field, induction field, crustal field, ionospheric field, and ma...

  4. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  5. An alternative to the flutter derivatives

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Brandt, Anders

    A new simplified framework to study flutter and assess the full scale flutter wind speed is suggested. The flutter instability problem is reduced from a problem involving 8 flutter derivatives to only 4 coefficients. With this method it is possible to estimate the self-excited forces with increased...... precision by using stability diagrams. Furthermore, the physical transparency of the aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms is increased because the development in vertical and torsional damping and stiffness is analysed instead of flutter derivatives....

  6. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under aerobic conditions

    2000-01-01

    Hypocrellins are a novel type of photosensitizers. A series of new hypocrellin B (HB) derivatives have been synthesized to overcome their limitations, I.e. To improve their red absorption and amphiphilicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) is investigated in the presence of oxygen. The chemical structures of HB derivatives affect not only the generation efficiencies of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, but also quantum yields of singlet oxygen.

  7. Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; McAleer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econometric, financial econometric and empirical finance methods have contributed significantly to the analysis of risk management, with an emphasis on financial derivatives, specifically conditional corr...

  8. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  9. Intercepting Bacterial Indole Signaling with Flustramine Derivatives

    Bunders, Cynthia A.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Ortiz, Minoshka; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Indole signaling is one of the putative universal signaling networks in bacteria. We have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives for the inhibition of biofilm formation through modulation of the indole-signaling network in E. coli and S. aureus. We have found dFBr derivatives that are 10-1000 times more active than indole itself, demonstrating that the flustramine family of indolic natural products represent a privileged scaffold for the design of molecules to cont...

  10. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  11. Machian derivation of the Friedmann equation

    Telkamp, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Despite all fundamental objections against Newtonian concepts in cosmology, the Friedmann equation derives from these in an astoundingly simple way, invoking both the shell theorem and conservation of energy in an infinite universe. However, in the presence of a gravitational horizon the application of the shell theorem fails. We derive the Friedmann equation in the presence of a gravitational horizon using Machian arguments and without using the shell theorem.

  12. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  13. Deriving modified rankin scores from medical records

    Quinn, T J; Ray, G.; Atula, S.; Walters, M.R.; Dawson, J.; Lees, K R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Modified Rankin score (mRS) is traditionally graded using a face-to-face or telephone interview. Certain stroke assessment scales can be derived from a review of a patient’s case-record alone. We hypothesized that mRS could be successfully derived from the narrative within patient case-records. Methods: Sequential patients attending our cerebrovascular outpatient clinic were included. Two independent, blinded clinicians, trained in mRS, assessed case-records to der...

  14. Hilfer-Prabhakar Derivatives and Some Applications

    Garra, Roberto; Gorenflo, Rudolf; Polito, Federico; Tomovski, Zivorad

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalization of Hilfer derivatives in which Riemann--Liouville integrals are replaced by more general Prabhakar integrals. We analyze and discuss its properties. Further, we show some applications of these generalized Hilfer-Prabhakar derivatives in classical equations of mathematical physics, like the heat and the free electron laser equations, and in difference-differential equations governing the dynamics of generalized renewal stochastic processes.

  15. Estimating derivatives and integrals with Kriging

    Vazquez, Emmanuel; Walter, Eric

    2005-01-01

    International audience This paper formalizes a methodology based on Kriging, a technique developped by geostatisticians, for estimating derivatives and integrals of signals that are only known via possibly irregularly spaced and noisy observations. This finds direct applications, e.g., in system identification when differential algebra is used to express parameters as nonlinear functions of the inputs and outputs and their derivatives. The procedure is quite simple to implement, and allows...

  16. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    Blender, Richard; Badin, Gualtiero

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fra...

  17. Entropic-gravity derivation of MOND

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2012-01-01

    A heuristic entropic-gravity derivation has previously been given of the gravitational two-body force of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Here, it is shown that also another characteristic of MOND can be recovered, namely, the external field effect (implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle). In fact, the derivation gives precisely the modified Poisson equation which Bekenstein and Milgrom proposed as a consistent nonrelativistic theory of MOND.

  18. Endogenous credit derivatives and bank behavior

    Pausch, Thilo

    2007-01-01

    Instruments for credit risk transfer arise endogenously from and interact with optimizing behavior of their users. This is particularly true with credit derivatives which are usually OTC contracts between banks as buyers and sellers of credit risk. Recent literature, however, does not account for this fact when analyzing the effects of these instruments on banking. The present paper closes this gap by explicitly modelling the market for credit derivatives and its interaction with banks? loan ...

  19. Properties of derivations on some convolution algebras

    Pedersen, Thomas Vils

    2014-01-01

    For all convolution algebras L1[0; 1); L1 loc and A(!) = T n L1(!n), the derivations are of the form Dμf = Xf μ for suitable measures μ, where (Xf)(t) = tf(t). We describe the (weakly) compact as well as the (weakly) Montel derivations on these algebras in terms of properties of the measure μ. Mo...

  20. Growth Optimal Investment and Pricing of Derivatives

    Erik Aurell; Roberto Baviera; Ola Hammarlid; Maurizio Serva; Angelo Vulpiani

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a criterion how to price derivatives in incomplete markets, based on the theory of growth optimal strategy in repeated multiplicative games. We present reasons why these growth-optimal strategies should be particularly relevant to the problem of pricing derivatives. We compare our result with other alternative pricing procedures in the literature, and discuss the limits of validity of the lognormal approximation. We also generalize the pricing method to a market with correlated s...

  1. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly ...

  2. The OTC derivatives markets after financial reforms

    Amariei, Cosmina; Valiante, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Over the past five years, the OTC derivatives market showed an impressive resilience in levels of market activity, which are now above pre-crisis levels in outstanding notional value. This confirms its systemic importance. Current volatility of the gross market values and gross credit exposures can be attributed to the uncertain market conditions for the global economy. Distribution of derivatives instruments has remained relatively constant over the past decade. Central clearing and portfoli...

  3. PECULIARITIES OF THE DERIVATIVES MARKET IN UKRAINE

    К.С. ВОЗІАНОВ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the research of development and performance features of derivatives market in Ukraine. The current trends of development of this segment have been analyzed and the problematic aspects of its full functioning have been indicated in this work. On the base of the research done the Author works out practical recommendations concerning the growth of derivatives market in Ukraine.

  4. Complexes of salicylic acid and its derivatives

    A generalization and systematization have been made of literature data on complexing of various elements, including beryllium, cadmium, boron, indium, rare-earth elements, actinides, and transition elements with salicylic acid and it derivatives (amino-, nitro- and halosalicylic acids). The effect of the position and nature of the substitute, in the case of salicylic acid derivatives, on the complexing process is discussed. Certain physicochemical properties of the complexes under consideration are described along with data indicative of their stability

  5. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Amaral-Labat, G.; Szczurek, A.; Braghiroli, F.; Parmentier, J.; Pizzi, A.; Grishechko, L. I.; Kuznetsov, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Most carbon gels investigated so far and reported in the literature were prepared from resorcinol crosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and were generally dried with supercritical CO2 before being pyrolysed. In the present paper, through some selected examples, we show how valuable carbon gels can be derived from other phenolic resources having a natural origin. Special emphasis is given to tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, as potential precursors of...

  6. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. Th...

  7. Synthesis of Some New Condensed Pyrimidine Derivatives

    Cyclodehydration of 6-amino-5-cyano pyrimidine derivative (2) afforded pyrimidoisoindole derivatives (3). Compound (3) reacted with carbethoxymethylene derivative to give pyridopyrimidine derivatives (5a,b). Compound (3) was also reacted with formamide to give the corresponding pyrimidopyrimdine derivatives (6) that condensed with benzaldehyde to give Schiff's base (7). Refluxing of compound (3) with triethyl orthoformate afforded compound (8) that cyclized with ammonium hydroxide giving the same compound (6). Compound (8) cyclized with hydrazine hydrate giving compound (9) which also cyclized with triethyl orthoformate affording compound (10). Diazotization of compound (3) led to the formation of triazinopyrimidine derivative (11). Cyclization of compound (11) upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate afforded compound (12). Compound (15) was prepared from reaction of compound (3) and ethylenediamine in presence of carbon disulfide. The behaviour of compound (15) toward benzoyl chloride, triethyl orthoformate, nitrous acid and/or carbon disulfide was also described. All proposed structures were supported by elemental analyses, spectroscopic data and some of the new products showed antimicrobial activity

  8. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    Han,Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  9. Additive Lie (ζ-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie (ζ-Lie)Derivations on Prime Algebras

    Xiao Fei QI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2013-01-01

    The additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized.It is shown,under some suitable assumptions,that an additive map L is an additive generalized Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive generalized derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivation with ζ ≠ 1 if and only if it is an additive (generalized) derivation satisfying L(ζA) =ζL(A) for all A.These results are then used to characterize additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on several operator algebras such as Banach space standard operator algebras and von Neumman algebras.

  10. On an algebraic method for derivatives estimation and parameter estimation for partial derivatives systems

    Ushirobira, Rosane; Korporal, Anja; PERRUQUETTI, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    International audience — In this communication, we discuss two estimation problems dealing with partial derivatives systems. Namely, estimating partial derivatives of a multivariate noisy signal and identifying parameters of partial differential equations. The multivariate noisy signal is expressed as a truncated Taylor expression in a small time interval. An algebraic method can be then used to estimate its partial derivatives in the opera-tional domain. The same approach applies for the ...

  11. Conversion of 3-Carbethoxy-4-methyl Coumarin Derivatives into Several New Annelated Coumarin Derivatives

    BAKEER; HadeerMohammed

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl esters of 4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-l-benzo(naphtho) pyran.3-carboxylic acids (1) with aromatic aldehy-des in the presence of piperidine yielded 4-styryl-3-carboxami-dopiperidyl connmrin derivatives 4. The reaction of hydrazlne hydrate with 1 gave acetophenone hydrozone derivatives 5 and acetophenone azine derivatives 6. The reaction of 1 with prima-ry amines afforded compomlds 7—9. And the treatment of la with Grignard reagents afforded 3-aroyl-4-methyl coumarin derivatives 10.

  12. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  13. Gateaux and Frechet Derivative in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Linear spaces

    Dinda, B.; Samanta, T. K.; Bera, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitionistic Fuzzy derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are defined and a few of their properties are studied. The relation between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are emphasized.

  14. Optimal hedging of Derivatives with transaction costs

    Aurell, E; Aurell, Erik; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal strategy over a finite time horizon for a portfolio of stock and bond and a derivative in an multiplicative Markovian market model with transaction costs (friction). The optimization problem is solved by a Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation, which by the verification theorem has well-behaved solutions if certain conditions on a potential are satisfied. In the case at hand, these conditions simply imply arbitrage-free ("Black-Scholes") pricing of the derivative. While pricing is hence not changed by friction allow a portfolio to fluctuate around a delta hedge. In the limit of weak friction, we determine the optimal control to essentially be of two parts: a strong control, which tries to bring the stock-and-derivative portfolio towards a Black-Scholes delta hedge; and a weak control, which moves the portfolio by adding or subtracting a Black-Scholes hedge. For simplicity we assume growth-optimal investment criteria and quadratic friction.

  15. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    Martins, C J A P; Calabrese, E; Ramos, M P L P

    2016-01-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is $j=1$ for flat $\\Lambda$CDM, while generically $j\

  16. Derivatives on the isotropic tensor functions

    DUI Guansuo; WANG Zhengdao; JIN Ming

    2006-01-01

    The derivative of the isotropic tensor function plays an important part in continuum mechanics and computational mechanics, and also it is still an opening problem. By means of a scalar response function and solving a tensor equation, this problem is well studied. A compact explicit expression for the derivative of the isotropic tensor function is presented, which is valid for both distinct and repeated eigenvalue cases. Throughout the analysis, the formulation holds for general isotropic tensor functions without need to solve eigenvector problems or determine coefficients. On the theoretical side, a very simple solution of a tensor equation is obtained. As an application to continuum mechanics, a base-free expression for the Hill's strain rate is given, which is more compact than the existent results. Finally, with an example we compute the derivative of an exponent tensor function. And the efficiency of the present formulations is demonstrated.

  17. Synthesis and properties of novel psoralen derivatives

    The authors have synthesized a set of new trimethylpsoralen derivatives that are characterized by a chain extending from the 4'-position of the furan ring and linked to this ring by an aminomethylene group. The nature of the side chain can be varied widely. In these derivatives, the chains contain either amino or ethylene oxide units for enhanced water solubility and allow the introduction of a thiol or amine group to nucleic acids. These compounds represent the first set of thiolated psoralen derivatives, and their usefulness is demonstrated in several nucleic acid cross-linking experiments. The reagents can be used to create both intraduplex reversible cross-links between the two single-strand partners in a DNA double helix and interduplex reversible cross-links between two DNA double helices

  18. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under anaerobic conditions

    2000-01-01

    To improve the red absorption and solubility of hypocrellin, we have synthesized a series of hypocrellin B derivatives. The photochemistry of these new compounds in anaerobic media has been investigated by using electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spectrophotometric methods. The semiquinone anion radicals can be produced by self-electron transfer on irradiation, with the formation efficiency and EPR hyperfine structures of the semiquinone anion radicals dependent on the structures of the derivatives. When an electron donor is present, the electron transfer from electron donor to hypocrellin B derivatives enhanced the production of the corresponding semiquinone anion radical; in addition, the semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone can be detected spectrophotometrically. Structural modifications exert little effect on the absorption position of semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone, but influence their formation efficiency significantly.

  19. Another derivation of generalized Langevin equations

    Dengler, R

    2015-01-01

    The formal derivation of Langevin equations (and, equivalently Fokker-Planck equations) with projection operator techniques of Mori, Zwanzig, Kawasaki and others can well be called a pearl of theoretical physics. The derivation relies on classical mechanics, and encompasses everything an omnipotent engineer can construct from point particles and potentials: solids, liquids, liquid crystals, conductors, polymers, systems with spin-like degrees of freedom ... Einstein relations and Onsager reciprocity theorem come for free. It apparently not has widely found its way into textbooks, but has been reproduced dozens of times on the fly with many references to the literature and without adding much substantially new. Here we follow the tradition, but strive to produce a self-contained text. Furthermore, we address questions that naturally arise in the derivation. Among other things the meaning of the divergence of the Poisson brackets is explained, and the role of nonlinear damping coefficients is clarified.

  20. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  1. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOTHIAZINE DERIVATIVES

    Sinha Shweta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenothiazines are heterocyclic molecules containing two benzene rings linked in a tricyclic system through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.Phenothiazine derivatives having amino alkyl side chain and these are connected to the nitrogen atom of heterocyclic unit playing crucial role in medicinal chemistry.From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of phenothiazines derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities. The investigation of substituted 10H-Phenothiazines has steadily strong growth because they exhibit a wide range of applications. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, sedatives, tranquilizers agents etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in phenothiazine nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized Phenothiazine derivatives.

  3. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  4. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745

  5. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  6. A 'simple' hybrid model for power derivatives

    This paper presents a method for valuing power derivatives using a supply-demand approach. Our method extends work in the field by incorporating randomness into the base load portion of the supply stack function and equating it with a noisy demand process. We obtain closed form solutions for European option prices written on average spot prices considering two different supply models: a mean-reverting model and a Markov chain model. The results are extensions of the classic Black-Scholes equation. The model provides a relatively simple approach to describe the complicated price behaviour observed in electricity spot markets and also allows for computationally efficient derivatives pricing. (author)

  7. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantisation. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalisable wave functions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.

  8. Generalized entropy and higher derivative gravity

    We derive an extension of the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription for curvature squared theories of gravity in the bulk, and comment on a prescription for more general theories. This results in a new entangling functional, that contains a correction to Wald’s entropy. The new term is quadratic in the extrinsic curvature. The coefficient of this correction is a second derivative of the lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the new functional reduces to Jacobson-Myers’

  9. Access to new antimicrobial 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives

    Marwa Zayane; Anis Romdhane; Mejda Daami-Remadi; Hichem Ben Jannet

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of some novel coumarin esters has been accomplished through iodine-catalyzed method using 4-methylumbelliferone as the starting material. Condensation of hydrazide, which was obtained in two steps from 4-methylumbelliferone, with some arylaldhydes provided hydrazone derivatives, while the reaction with phenylthioisocyanate leads to the thiosemicarbazide that evolved into two new compounds. Finally, condensation reaction of hydrazide with three diketones afforded new pyrrole and pyrazole derivatives. Structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ES-HRMS. They were finally tested for their antimicrobial activity and the structure-activity relationship was discussed.

  10. Ethanolamine derivatives of dysprosium and holmium

    The preparation and properties of dysprosium and holmium derivatives of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolamine derivatives are described. Compounds of general formulae: Ln(OPrsup(i))2(mea), Ln(OPrsup(i))(mea)2, Ln(mea)3, Ln(OPrsup(i))(dea), Ln2(dea)3, Ln(dea)(deaH) and Ln(tea) (where Ln = Dy or Ho and mea, dea and tea are the anions of respective ethanolamine) were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. (author)

  11. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  12. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    Salvio, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  13. On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential

    Dittrich, W

    2016-01-01

    Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.

  14. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA

    M. Cholewa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a concept of thermal analysis was shown, using for crystallization kinetics description the temperature derivatives after time and direction. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA is assigned for alloys and metals investigation as well as cast composites in range of solidification. The construction and operation characteristics were presented for the test stand including processing modules and probes together with thermocouples location. Authors presented examples of results interpretation for AlSi11 alloy castings with diversified wall thickness and at different pouring temperature.

  15. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2......D laser scanner data by a least square algorithm. The three derivative free filters are compared to an EKF based localization method on a typical run covering four rows in the orchard. The Matlab R toolbox Kalmtool is used for easy switching between different filter implementations without the need...

  16. Formal derivation of distributed MapReduce

    Pereverzeva, Inna; Butler, Michael; Salehi Fathabadi, Asieh; Laibinis, Linas; Troubitsyna, Elena

    2014-01-01

    MapReduce is a powerful distributed data processing model that is currently adopted in a wide range of domains to efficiently handle large volumes of data, i.e., cope with the big data surge. In this paper, we propose an approach to formal derivation of the MapReduce framework. Our approach relies on stepwise refinement in Event-B and, in particu- lar, the event refinement structure approach – a diagrammatic notation facilitating formal development. Our approach allows us to derive the system...

  17. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Xian-Zhi, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  18. Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents

    A K Prajapati; N L Bonde

    2006-03-01

    Two new mesogenic homologous series containing 6-methoxybenzothiazole ring at the terminus of the molecule, viz. 2-(4'--alkoxyphenylazo)-6-methoxybenzothiazoles and 2-[4'-(4"--alkoxybenzoyloxy) phenylazo]-6-methoxybenzothiazoles were synthesized. In series I, -butyloxy to -tetradecyloxy derivatives exhibit nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase commences from the -dodecyloxy derivative as a monotropic phase and is retained up to the last member synthesized. All the members of series II exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the benzothiazole ring and the methoxy substituent on mesomorphism.

  19. Credit Derivatives: Systemic Risks and Policy Options?

    John Kiff; Jennifer A. Elliott; Elias G. Kazarian; Scarlata, Jodi G.; Carolyne Spackman

    2009-01-01

    Credit derivative markets are largely unregulated, but calls are increasingly being made for changes to this "hands off" stance, amidst concerns that they helped to fuel the current financial crisis, or that they could be a cause of the next one. The purpose of this paper is to address two basic questions: (i) do credit derivative markets increase systemic risk; and (ii) should they be regulated more closely, and if so, how and to what extent? The paper begins with a basic description of cred...

  20. Energy derivatives, experiences in derivative trading from the natural gas industry : back to basics

    Some basic facts regarding derivatives in the electric power industry were discussed based on experiences in the natural gas industry. Derivatives were described as financial instruments that have no value of their own but derive their value from other assets, such as commodities. Futures and Options are the two forms of derivatives. Electricity as a commodity was characterized, and a historical parallel was drawn between deregulation in the natural gas and electric power industry. Short term and long term factors impacting the market and market dynamics impacting derivatives were identified. The latter include: (1) volatility, (2) liquidity, (3) correlations, and (4) price discovery. In contrast to the natural gas market, the electricity market is considered as lacking liquidity and in need of moving farther along the maturity timeline. The question of natural gas/ electricity convergence was also addressed refs., tabs., figs

  1. Diclofenac derivatives with insulin-sensitizing activity

    Jian Ta Wang; Ying Wang; Ji Quan Zhang; Xing Cui; Yi Zhang; Gao Feng Zhu; Lei Tang

    2011-01-01

    A series of diclofenac derivatives were synthesized. The insulin-sensitizing activity of 28 new compounds was evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells. The compounds 10a and 10f exhibited similar insulin-sensitizing activity with positive drag rosiglitazone.

  2. Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model

    Mikelic, Andro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...

  3. Chemistry of Phosphorylated Formaldehyde Derivatives. Part I

    Vasily P. Morgalyuk

    2014-01-01

    The underinvestigated derivatives of unstable phosphorylated formaldehyde acetals and some of the structurally related compounds, such as thioacetals, aminonitriles, aminomethylphosphinoyl compounds, are considered. Separately considered are halogen aminals of phosphorylated formaldehyde, acetals of phosphorylated formaldehyde of H-phosphinate-type and a phosphorylated gem-diol of formaldehyde. Synthetic methods, chemical properties and examples of practical applications are given.

  4. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  5. Benzhydroximic Acids - NMR Study of Trimethylsilyl Derivatives

    Schraml, Jan; Kvíčalová, Magdalena; Soukupová, Ludmila; Blechta, Vratislav; Exner, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 597, 1-2 (2000), s. 200-205. ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072605; GA MŠk LB98233 Keywords : trimethylsilyl derivatives * substituted benzhydroximic acids * NMR chemical shifts Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.632, year: 2000

  6. Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. B...

  7. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical in...

  8. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  9. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie

  10. Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj;

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezin...

  11. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the tail

  12. Derivative operator and harmonic number identities

    Wei, Chuanan

    2011-01-01

    By applying the derivative operator to the hypergeometric transformation from Whipple's transformation and the limiting form of Bailey's lemma, we establish a general harmonic number identity. As the special cases of it, several interesting Chu-Donno type identities and Paule-Schneider type identities are displayed.

  13. Stereoselective Synthesis of Butenolide and Butyrolactone Derivatives

    SIRIT, Abdulkadir

    2000-01-01

    Optically active butenolide and g-butyrolactone derivatives were prepared by removing (R)-phenyl glycinol and (1R, 2R)-norpseudoephedrine used as chiral auxiliaries from butenolides and g-butyrolactones in two steps. The structures of these products were determined using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spect., IR and microanalysis.

  14. Lithocholic acid and derivatives: Antibacterial activity.

    do Nascimento, Patrícia G G; Lemos, Telma L G; Almeida, Macia C S; de Souza, Juliana M O; Bizerra, Ayla M C; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; da Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop bioactive lithocholic acid derivatives, we prepared fifteen semi-synthetic compounds through modification at C-3 and/or C-24. The reactions showed yields ranging from 37% to 100%. The structures of all compounds obtained were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The activity of lithocholic acid and derivatives was evaluated against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The derivative 3α-formyloxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (LA-06) showed the best activity, with MIC values of 0.0790 mM against E. coli (Ec 27) and B. cereus in both cases, and 0.0395 mM against S. aureus (ATCC 12692). Lithocholic acid and the derivatives with MIC⩽1.2 mM were evaluated on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, amikacin and gentamicin was evaluated. There are no previously reported studies about these compounds as modifiers of the action of antibiotics or any other drugs. PMID:26216208

  15. Facile synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives.

    Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Li; Sui, Qiang; Lin, Feng; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Jianli; Lu, Weigeng; Gao, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Acacetin, a O-methylated bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Xuelianhua (Saussurea tridactyla), is a promising orally effective atrium-selective antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we describe an efficient two-component method for the synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives. PMID:27321812

  16. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  17. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    and its derivatives in dogs and their inhibition of hNKCC2A (r(2) = 0.817; P < 0.01). Replacement of the carboxylic group of bumetanide by a non-ionic residue, for example, an anilinomethyl group, decreased inhibition of hNKCC2A, indicating that an acidic group was required for transporter inhibition...... diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study......, the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS: Bumetanide blocked hNKCC2A transport with an IC50 of 4 μM. There was good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide...

  19. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  20. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th

  1. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th

  2. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of...

  3. Derivative operator and harmonic number identities

    Wei, Chuanan; Gong, Dianxuan

    2011-01-01

    By applying the derivative operator to the corresponding hypergeometric form of a $q$-series transformation due to Andrews [1,Theorem 4], we establish a general harmonic number identity. As the special cases of it, several interesting Chu-Donno type identities and Paule-Schneider type identities are displayed.

  4. Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives from Cuban propolis.

    Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-06-01

    Three new polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives, propolones B-D (5-7), together with garcinielliptone I (8) and hyperibone B (9), were isolated from Cuban propolis. All the structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and computer-generated molecular modeling. PMID:15974622

  5. Preparation of Soluble [n]Phenacene Derivatives

    Jakubík, Pavel

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 33 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * photocyclization apparatus * derivatives Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Synthesis of [60]Fullerene-Podophyllotoxin Derivative

    GUO,Li-Wei(郭礼伟); GAO,Xiang(高翔); ZHANG,Dan-Wei(张丹维); WU,Shi-Hui(吴世晖); WU,Hou-Ming(吴厚铭)

    2002-01-01

    The [60]fullerene-podophyllotoxin derivative (3) was obtained by the phosphine promeoted[2 + 3]cycloaddition reaction ofpodophyllotoxin buta-2,3-dienoate (2) and [60]fullerene. The structures of starting mateerial (2) and product (3) were confirmed by UV-vis, IR, NMR and MS spectroscopies.

  7. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...

  8. Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization

    Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachberich Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2015-05-15

    We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α'){sup 3}R{sup 4} corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α'){sup 3}-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.

  9. 78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday, December 12, 2013, Table 10...

  10. Generalized Voigt functions and their derivatives

    Sampoorna, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India) and Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in; Nagendra, K.N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Frisch, H. [Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2007-03-15

    This paper deals with a special class of functions called generalized Voigt functions H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a) and their partial derivatives, which are useful in the theory of polarized spectral line formation in stochastic media. For n=0 they reduce to the usual Voigt and Faraday-Voigt functions H(x,a) and G(x,a). A detailed study is made of these new functions. Simple recurrence relations are established and employed for the calculation of the functions themselves and of their partial derivatives. Asymptotic expansions are given for large values of x and a. They are used to examine the range of applicability of the recurrence relations and to construct a numerical algorithm for the calculation of the generalized Voigt functions and of their derivatives valid in a large (x,a) domain. It is also shown that the partial derivatives of the usual H(x,a) and G(x,a) can be expressed in terms of H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a)

  11. Corporate Governance Failures in Trading Financial Derivatives

    Turegeldiyev, Anuar

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the following master thesis is to identify specific mistakes in corporate governance practices that have led to colossal losses in financial derivatives trading departments, to draw lessons from these cases, and to propose possible solutions to prevent such behavior and the consequences that follow.

  12. The methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives

    In this chapter of book authors present some methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives, in particular, synthesis of 3-met oxi-1.2-propandiol, 1.3-di-benzil-oxi-2-propanol, 1-ge xi-lox-3-chlorine-2-propanol and other

  13. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management

  14. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  15. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  16. Synthesis of isothiocyanate-derived mercapturic acids

    Vermeulen, M.; Zwanenburg, B.; Chittenden, G.J.F.; Verhagen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve mercapturic acids derived from saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic isothiocyanates were synthesised, by adding isothiocyanate to a solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium bicarbonate, in a typical yield of 77%. Isothiocyanates were synthesised first by adding the corresponding

  17. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  18. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H.; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

  19. Derived strengths of preference relations on coordinates

    Wakker, Peter

    1988-01-01

    textabstractway is indicated to derive, from a preference relation on a Cartesian product, strength of preference relations on the coordinate sets. These strengths of preference relations are then used to reformulate several well-known properties of preference relations, and make their meaning more transparent. A new result for dynamic contexts is given.

  20. Real Estate Derivatives: New Perspectives in France

    J. Friggit

    2000-01-01

    The development of real estate derivative markets requires (a) an appropriate underlying asset, (b) a demand and (c) a launch market. In France, these requirements are now fulfilled by (a) the Notaires- INSEE home price indices, (b) significant housing price volatility, households' hedge demand and portfolio managers' diversification demand and (c) several potential launch markets.

  1. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  2. Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications

    Lodato, I.

    2014-01-01

    After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the

  3. 2-Local derivations on matrix algebras over commutative regular algebras

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Kudaybergenov, K. K.; Alauadinov, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to 2-local derivations on matrix algebras over commutative regular algebras. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on a commutative regular algebra to admit 2-local derivations which are not derivations. We prove that every 2-local derivation on a matrix algebra over a commutative regular algebra is a derivation. We apply these results to 2-local derivations on algebras of measurable and locally measurable operators affiliated with type I von Neumann algebras.

  4. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [18F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [18F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [18F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [18F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test

  5. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  6. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  7. A New Grünwald-Letnikov Derivative Derived from a Second-Order Scheme

    B. A. Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel derivation of a second-order accurate Grünwald-Letnikov-type approximation to the fractional derivative of a function is presented. This scheme is shown to be second-order accurate under certain modifications to account for poor accuracy in approximating the asymptotic behavior near the lower limit of differentiation. Some example functions are chosen and numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficacy of this new method over some other popular choices for discretizing fractional derivatives.

  8. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  9. Synthesis of metronidazole derivatives as antigiardiasis agents

    Khabnadideh S.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and its derivatives have been extensively used to treat infections caused by protozoa and anaerobic bacteria. In this investigation several novel imidazole and nitroimidazol derivatives namely: 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1a, 2-(2-methyl-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1b, 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1c, 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2d and 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2e were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding imidazoles with styrene oxide or cyclohexene oxide respectively and their biological activity against Giardia lamblia cyst in compareison with MTZ were determined by flotation technique based on Bingham method. These compounds were less active than metronidazole but showed significant antigiardiasis activity.

  10. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  11. Thiomorpholine Derivatives with Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity.

    Tooulia, Kyriaki-Konstantina; Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-09-01

    A number of thiomorpholine derivatives that are structurally similar to some substituted morpholines possessing antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activity were synthesized. The new compounds incorporate an antioxidant moiety as the thiomorpholine N-substituent. The derivatives were found to inhibit the ferrous/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids, with IC50 values as low as 7.5 µΜ. In addition, these compounds demonstrate hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic action. The most active compound (5) decreases the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels in the plasma of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, by 80, 78, and 76%, respectively, at 56 mmol/kg (i.p.). They may also act as squalene synthase inhibitors. The above results indicate that the new molecules may be useful as leads for the design of novel compounds as potentially antiatherogenic factors. PMID:26191791

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929...... cells and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting...

  13. Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives

    This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix

  14. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    A. Celzard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most carbon gels investigated so far and reportedin the literature were prepared from resorcinolcrosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and weregenerally dried with supercritical CO2 before beingpyrolysed. In the present paper, through someselected examples, we show how valuable carbongels can be derived from other phenolic resourceshaving a natural origin. Special emphasis is givento tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, aspotential precursors of carbon aero- and cryogels.However, natural compounds not obeying the usualconcepts of sol-gel chemistry may also be used forpreparing carbon gels, such as cellulose, and evenglucose. In the latter case, hydrothermal treatmentforces the phase separation to occur, and leads tomonoliths which can be advantageously convertedinto carbon aerogels by supercritical drying andsubsequent pyrolysis.

  15. Photocatalytic Based Degradation Processes of Lignin Derivatives

    Colin Awungacha Lekelefac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis, belonging to the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs, is a potential new transformation technology for lignin derivatives to value added products (e.g., phenol, benzene, toluene, and xylene. Moreover, lignin represents the only viable source to produce aromatic compounds as fossil fuel alternative. This review covers recent advancement made in the photochemical transformation of industrial lignins. It starts with the photochemical reaction principle followed by results obtained by varying process parameters. In this context, influences of photocatalysts, metal ions, additives, lignin concentration, and illumination intensity and the influence of pH are presented and discussed. Furthermore, an overview is given on several used process analytical methods describing the results obtained from the degradation of lignin derivatives. Finally, a promising concept by coupling photocatalysis with a consecutive biocatalytic process was briefly reviewed.

  16. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  17. Feynman graph derivation of Einstein quadrupole formula

    The one graviton transition operator, and consequently, the classical energy loss formula for gravitational radiation are derived from the Feynman graphs of helicity +- 2 theories of gravitation. The calculations are done both for the case of electromagnetic and gravitational scattering. The departure of the in and out states from plane waves owing to the long range nature of gravitation is taken into account to improve the Born approximation calculations. This also includes a long range modification of the graviton wave function which is shown to be equivalent to the classical problem of the true light cones deviating logarithmically at large distances from the flat space light cones. The transition from the S-matrix elements calculated graphically to the graviton transition operator is done by using complimentarity of space-time and momentum descriptions. The energy loss formula derived originally by Einstein is shown to be correct. (Auth.)

  18. Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives

    Amin, K. [Lehman Brothers (United States); Ng, V. [Goldman Sachs (United States); Pirrong, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix.

  19. Platelet-derived microparticles - an updated perspective.

    Siljander, Pia R M

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) are a heterogeneous population of vesicles (< 1 mm) generated from the plasma membrane upon platelet activation by various stimuli. They are a discrete population differing from the exosomes which originate from the intracellular multivesicular bodies. PMP also differ from the microparticles derived from megakaryocytes despite the presence of several identical surface markers on the latter. The molecular properties and the functional roles of the PMP are beginning to be elucidated by the rapidly evolving research interest, but novel questions are simultaneously raised. This updated perspective discusses the most recent highlights in the PMP research in context with the methodological problems and the paradoxical role of the PMP in health and disease. PMID:21193112

  20. Endogenous Matrix-Derived Inhibitors of Angiogenesis

    Hans Petter Eikesdal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis are proteins or fragments of proteins that are formed in the body, which can inhibit the angiogenic process. These molecules can be found both in the circulation and sequestered in the extracellular matrix (ECM surrounding cells. Many matrix-derived inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as endostatin, tumstatin, canstatin and arresten, are bioactive fragments of larger ECM molecules. These substances become released upon proteolysis of the ECM and the vascular basement membrane (VBM by enzymes of the tumor microenvironment. Although the role of matrix-derived angiogenesis inhibitors is well studied in animal models of cancer, their role in human cancers is less established. In this review we discuss the current knowledge about these molecules and their potential use as cancer therapeutics and biomarkers.

  1. Modelling of lossy coils using fractional derivatives

    Schaefer, Ingo [Federal Armed Forces Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics Research Institute, D-24148 Kiel (Germany); Krueger, Klaus [Institute of Automation Technology, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Armed Forces, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-02-21

    Coils exposed to eddy current and hysteresis losses are conventionally described by an inductance with equivalent core-loss resistance connected in parallel. The value of the equivalent core-loss resistance depends on the working frequency and the external wiring. Thus the model is less than satisfactory. The authors propose to describe loss inductance using fractional derivatives containing both a loss term and a storage term. After introducing the theory of fractional derivatives, the operating mode of the fractional coil model is explained by the example of an RLC oscillating circuit. Subsequent measurements of a series resonant circuit with a lossy coil impressively confirm the theoretical model with regard to both the frequency and time domains.

  2. Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative

    Chanam, Barchand; Dewan, K. K.

    2007-12-01

    Let , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant][mu][less-than-or-equals, slant]n, be a polynomial of degree n such that p(z)[not equal to]0 in z0, then for 0Yadav and Pukhta [K.K. Dewan, R.S. Yadav, M.S. Pukhta, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 2 (2) (1999) 203-205] proved Equality holds for the polynomial where n is a multiple of [mu]E In this paper, we obtain an improvement of the above inequality by involving some of the coefficients. As an application of our result, we further improve upon a result recently proved by Aziz and Shah [A. Aziz, W.M. Shah, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 7 (3) (2004) 379-391].

  3. Information Asymmetry in Pricing of Credit Derivatives

    Hillairet, Caroline; Jiao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    We study the pricing of credit derivatives with asymmetric information. The managers have complete information on the value process of the firm and on the default threshold, while the investors on the market have only partial observations, especially about the default threshold. Different information structures are distinguished using the framework of enlargement of filtrations. We specify risk neutral probabilities and we evaluate default sensitive contingent claims in these cases.

  4. Selectivity of Salicylaldoxime and its Derivatives

    Tüzün, Burak

    2014-01-01

    – Salicylaldoxime and its derivatives have been investigated by the DFT (Density Functional Theory) Method. All calculations were made using the Gaussian 09, Revision B.01 program. The initial molecular modelings of all molecules were optimized by b3lyp methods. The obtained geometries were further optimized at the B3LYP/ 6-311++g (d,p) level using Gaussian package. Density functional theory (DFT) offered an effective tool in the study of properties and energies of various collectors. Thus, t...

  5. Non-Covalent Derivatives: Cocrystals and Eutectics

    Emily Stoler; Warner, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Non-covalent derivatives (NCDs) are formed by incorporating one (or more) coformer molecule(s) into the matrix of a parent molecule via non-covalent forces. These forces can include ionic forces, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, lipophilic-lipophilic interactions and pi-pi interactions. NCDs, in both cocrystal and eutectic forms, possess properties that are unique to their supramolecular matrix. These properties include critical product performance factors such as solubility, stability...

  6. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  7. A topological derivative method for topology optimization

    Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB;

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...... regions, a critical requirement for robust topology optimization. We present several numerical examples that demonstrate compliance minimization of fixed-volume, linearly elastic structures....

  8. Pricing Credit Derivatives with Rating Transitions

    Viral V. Acharya; Das, Sanjiv Ranjan; Rangarajan K. Sundaram

    2002-01-01

    We develop a model for pricing risky debt and valuing credit derivatives that is easily calibrated to existing variables. Our approach is based on expanding the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (1990) term-structure model and its extension, the Das-Sundaram (2000) model to allow for defaultable debt with rating transitions. The framework has two salient features, comprising extensions over the earlier work: (i) it employs a rating transition matrix as the driver for the default process, and (ii) the entir...

  9. CREDIT DERIVATIVES PRICING WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY MODELS

    CARL CHIARELLA; SAMUEL CHEGE MAINA; CHRISTINA NIKITOPOULOS SKLIBOSIOS

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for pricing credit derivatives in a defaultable HJM framework. The model features hump-shaped, level dependent, and unspanned stochastic volatility, and accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, the default-free interest rates, and the credit spreads. The model is finite-dimensional, and leads (a) to exponentially affine default-free and defaultable bond prices, and (b) to an approximation for pricing credit default swaps and swaptions...

  10. Credit Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility Models

    Carl Chiarella; Samuel Chege Maina; Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for pricing credit derivatives within the defaultable Markovian HJM framework featuring unspanned stochastic volatility. Motivated by empirical evidence, hump-shaped level dependent stochastic volatility specifications are proposed, such that the model admits finite dimensional Markovian structures. The model also accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, default-free interest rates and credit spreads. Default free and defaultable ...

  11. Deriving pairedness in vP structure

    Grove, Kyle Wade; Putnam, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Minimalist accounts lack a natural theory of markedness, whereas Optimality-Theoretical accounts fundamentally encode markedness. We think the duality of interfaces assumed in Minimalism is a step towards explaining pairedness behavior, where a given language exhibits a marked/ unmarked pair of items occupying the same niche. We argue that while Minimalism articulates the derivational aspect of language, and underlies grammaticality, an Optimality Theoretic articulation of PF and LF is concep...

  12. VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Srivastav Sanchit; Pandeya S.N

    2011-01-01

    Oxadiazole, a five-membered heterocycle having two carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxygen atom, and two double bonds, inclusive of inductive effect & having efficient anticancer, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc... The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted oxadiazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the appl...

  13. Recursively implementating the Gaussian and its derivatives

    Deriche, Rachid

    1993-01-01

    Gaussian filtering is one of the most successfully operation in computer vision in order to reduce noise, calculating the gradient intensity change or performing Laplacian or the second directional derivative of an image. However, it is well known that in a multi-resolution context, where the need for large filters is required, this technique suffers from the fact it is a computationally expensive since the number of operations per point in convolving an image with a Gaussian filter is direct...

  14. Einstein solvmanifolds with a simple Einstein derivation

    Nikolayevsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left-invariant metric is, in a sense, completely determined by the nilradical of its Lie algebra. We give an easy-to-check necessary and sufficient condition for a nilpotent algebra to be an Einstein nilradical whose Einstein derivation has simple eigenvalues. As an application, we classify filiform Einstein nilradicals (modulo known classification results on filiform graded Lie algebras).

  15. Literature Review of Polymer Derived Ceramics

    Peterson, Reuben James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs), also known as preceramic polymers, are valuable coating agents that are used to produce surface barriers on substrates such as stainless steel. These barriers protect against a multitude of environmental threats, and have been used since their research and development in 19772. This paper seeks to review and demonstrate the remarkable properties and versatility that PDCs have to offer, while also giving a brief overview of the processing techniques used today.

  16. Service component derivation and composition in Arctis

    Xu, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration based development has its main focus on service level composition. Services are considered as reusable units and modeled as collaborations among roles performed by possibly distributed components. The problem addressed in this thesis is how components can be derived from the service models and how such components can be composed together in order to make a composite component and eventually a system. The purpose is to gain benefits such as flexibility in composition, allow compo...

  17. Folic acid derivatives for use in radioimmunoassay

    The chemical preparation of two folic acid derivatives, labelled with 125I or 131I, is described for use in radioimmunoassay of folic acid and its metabolites in biological fluids such as blood serum. Labelled compounds of the present invention more closely resemble folic acid in that they have glutamic acid in the terminal position. Examples of the use of these compounds in three different assays are given. (U.K.)

  18. Solgel-derived photosensitive germanosilicate glass monoliths.

    Heaney, A D; Erdogan, T

    2000-12-15

    We demonstrate volume gratings written in solgel-derived, Ge-doped silica monoliths. Glass was fabricated both with and without germanium oxygen deficient center (GODC) defects. The UV absorption and UV-induced index changes of these glasses, with and without hydrogen loading, are reported. The presence of GODC defects greatly enhances the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica with and without the presence of hydrogen. PMID:18066337

  19. Derivative Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ondansetron and Paracetamol

    Ravi Kumar, P.; M Murali Krishna; P. Bhanu Prakash; B. Anil Kumar; P. Madhusudhan

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reproducible spectrophotometric method, requiring no prior separation, has been developed for the estimation of ondansetron and paracetamol in combined dosage form. First order derivative spectroscopy method is adopted to eliminate spectral interference. The methods obey Beer’s Law in concentration ranges employed for evaluation. Ondansetron and paracetamol have λmax at 302 nm and 246 nm respectively in methanol. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recov...

  20. Photoinactivation of HIV by benzoporphyrin derivative

    Using both the feline leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus it is shown that the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative when activated by narrow band red light is effective in eliminating both free virus and virally infected leukocytes from spiked blood products and whole blood drawn from either virally infected animals or humans, under conditions which appear to spare red cell and uninfected leukocytes. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs

  1. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belo...

  2. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  3. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  4. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...

  5. Aminopyrimidine derivatives as adenosine antagonists / Janke Kleynhans

    Kleynhans, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this project - The aim of this study was to design and synthesise novel 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potential adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Background and rationale - Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s disease) and is characterised by the selective death of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. Distinctive motor symptoms include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor, while non-m...

  6. Use of sulphamide derivatives as neuroprotectors

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez Pérez, Juan; Romero, Miguel; Fernández Espejo, Emilio; Goya, Pilar; Páez, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to the use of a group of sulphamide derivatives with neuroprotective capacity that are of use in the treatment and/or prevention of diseases associated with cell death, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (sporadic fonns and hereditary fonns), cerebral ischaemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, post encephalitic parkinsonism, and also other rare diseases involving neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease and spino-cerebellar ataxias.

  7. Expression profiles of craniosynostosis-derived fibroblasts.

    Carinci, Francesco; Bodo, Maria; Tosi, Lara; Francioso, Francesca; Evangelisti, Rita; Pezzetti, Furio; Scapoli, Luca; Martinelli, Marcella; Baroni, Tiziano; Stabellini, Giordano; Carinci, Paolo; Bellucci, Catia; Lilli, Cinzia; Volinia, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis syndromes, a group of connective disorders characterized by abnormalities in vault osteogenesis and premature fusion of bone sutures, are associated with point mutations in FGF receptor family members. The cellular phenotype is characterized by abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used primary cultures of periosteal fibroblasts derived from two different craniosynostosis syndromes, the Apert and Crouzon syndromes. The FGFR2 third immuno...

  8. Waste-Wood-Derived Fillers for Plastics

    English, Brent; Clemons, Craig M.; Stark, Nicole; Schneider, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood–paper-...

  9. Photopolymerization induced by a benzophenone derivative photoinitiator

    2007-01-01

    A benzophenone derivative photoinitiator, HBP-TDI-HQ-TDI-HBP (HTCTH), was synthesized based on 4-hydroxy benzophenone (HBP), toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroquinone (HQ). HTCTH was a more effective photoinitiator which had longer wavelength absorption in the UV-vis absorption spectra than the low molecular counterpart benzophenone (BP). It showed that both rate of polymerization (Rp) and final conversion (P) increased with increase of amine and HTCTH concentration in photopolymerization.

  10. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    G P Singh; A Beesham; R V Deshpande

    2000-05-01

    The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially flat Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production gives rise to a supplementary negative creation pressure in addition to the thermodynamic pressure. The dynamical behaviour of both exponential as well as power law solutions have been discussed.

  11. Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense

    Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution wit...

  12. On Some Operators Involving Hadamard Derivatives

    Garra, Roberto; Polito, Federico

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel Mittag--Leffler-type function and study its properties in relation to some integro-differential operators involving Hadamard fractional derivatives or Hyper-Bessel-type operators. We discuss then the utility of these results to solve some integro-differential equations involving these operators by means of operational methods. We show the advantage of our approach through some examples. Among these, an application to a modified Lamb--Bateman integral equatio...

  13. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  14. Context Related Derivation of Word Senses

    Kunze, Manuela; Roesner, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Real applications of natural language document processing are very often confronted with domain specific lexical gaps during the analysis of documents of a new domain. This paper describes an approach for the derivation of domain specific concepts for the extension of an existing ontology. As resources we need an initial ontology and a partially processed corpus of a domain. We exploit the specific characteristic of the sublanguage in the corpus. Our approach is based on syntactical structure...

  15. Deriving scalar maps from Diffusion Spectrum MRI

    Hagmann, P.; Gigandet, X.; Cammoun, L.; Wedeen, V.; Maeder, P; Thiran, J.-P.; Meuli, R.

    2007-01-01

    Whole brain DSI acquisitions are now clinically feasible. It is therefore necessary to have scalar maps available in order to easily visualize summary statistics of the full 3D diffusion pdf available in every voxel. We show how to derive from DSI not only the widely used scalar maps like mean diffusion or fractional anisotropy but also how to extract contrasts reflecting other features of the diffusion pdf shape like the diffusion sharpness, the diffusion coefficient along and perpendicular ...

  16. Mitigating systemic risk in OTC derivative markets.

    Wellink, N.

    2010-01-01

    The financial crisis has demonstrated that turmoil in OTC derivative markets can exacerbate financial distress. One of the challenges policymakers currently face, is to mitigate the risks these markets pose to the financial system. Inducing a shift towards more central clearing is an important step in the right direction as it tempers counterparty risk and increases transparency. However, this will only be part of the solution as risk management systems of Central Counterparties (CCPs) are no...

  17. A Short History of Derivative Security Markets

    Ernst Juerg Weber

    2008-01-01

    Contracts for future delivery of commodities spread from Mesopotamia to Hellenistic Egypt and the Roman world. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, contracts for future delivery continued to be used in the Byzantine Empire in the eastern Mediterranean and they survived in canon law in western Europe. It is likely that Sephardic Jews carried derivative trading from Mesopotamia to Spain during Roman times and the first millennium AD, and, after being expelled from Spain, to the Low Countries...

  18. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clusterin...

  19. Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives for mirrorless lasing

    Wenzlik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis cholesteric films made of liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives with improved optical properties were prepared. The choice of the solvent, hydrogen bond influencing additives, the synthetic realization of a very high degree of substitution on the cellulosic polymer and the use of mechanical stirring at the upper concentration limit of the liquid crystalline range were the basis for an improved alignment of the applied cellulose tricarbamates. In combination with a tuned subs...

  20. Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications

    Lodato, I.

    2014-01-01

    After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the stage for the two distinct analyses that follow. The first analysis relies on the superconformal formalism of supergravity and its multiplet structure. We explicitly construct a new class of N=2 hi...

  1. Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging

    Tan, Abby

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

  2. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  3. Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited

    Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.

  4. Hydrodynamic Nambu brackets derived by geometric constraints

    Blender, Richard; Badin, Gualtiero

    2015-03-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-Bénard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can be used for the formulation of conservative numerical algorithms that can be employed, for example, for the study of fronts and singularities.

  5. Price models for oil derivates in Slovenia

    In Slovenia, a law is currently applied according to which any change in the price of oil derivatives is subject to the Governmental approval. Following the target of getting closer to the European Union, the necessity has arisen of finding ways for the introduction of liberalization or automated approach to price modifications depending on oscillations of oil derivative prices on the world market and the rate of exchange of the American dollar. It is for this reason that at the Agency for Energy Restructuring we made a study for the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development regarding this issue. We analysed the possible models for the formation of oil derivative prices for Slovenia. Based on the assessment of experiences of primarily the west European countries, we proposed three models for the price formation for Slovenia. In future, it is expected that the Government of the Republic of Slovenia will make a selection of one of the proposed models to be followed by enforcement of price liberalization. The paper presents two representative models for price formation as used in Austria and Portugal. In the continuation the authors analyse the application of three models that they find suitable for the use in Slovenia. (author)

  6. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  7. Forest Area Derivation from SENTINEL-1 Data

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  8. Hydrodynamic Nambu brackets derived by geometric constraints

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can be used for the formulation of conservative numerical algorithms that can be employed, for example, for the study of fronts and singularities. (paper)

  9. Data on correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived myocardial extracellular volume

    Yoshie Kurita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes data related to a research article titled “Estimation of myocardial extracellular volume fraction with cardiac CT in subjects without clinical coronary artery disease: A feasibility study”, Kurita et al. (in press [1]. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV is an imaging biomarker that can elevate in various heart diseases. This article describes correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived ECV in 24 myocardial segments in 8 patients. CT-derived ECV was obtained from pre-contrast and delayed-phase images acquired by using dual-source CT system. MRI-derived ECV was obtained by using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence implemented on a 3 T MRI system.

  10. The Synthesis of 6-Alkyl-5-Fluorouracil Derivatives

    2000-01-01

    6-alkyl-5-fluorouracil derivatives (5a~5f) were synthesized by facile alkylation of lithiation of 5-fluorouracil derivatives with mthyl iodide (MeI) or alkyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (ROTf) in yield of 42~58%. We found that the methylated product was ethyl-substituted derivatives, not methyl-substituted derivatives.

  11. On Generalized Derivations of BCI-Algebras and Their Properties

    L. Kamali Ardekani; Davvaz, B.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of (f,g)-derivations of BCI-algebras and we investigate some fundamental properties and establish some results on (f,g)-derivations. Also, we treat to generalization of right derivation and left derivation of BCI-algebras and consider some related properties.

  12. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500... PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of derivative classification markings is a responsibility of those who incorporate, paraphrase, restate,...

  13. Syntheses of 4-Indolylquinoline Derivatives via Reductive Cyclization of Indolylnitrochalcone Derivatives by Fe/HCl

    Wen-Chang Chen; Chan-Chieh Lin; Veerababurao Kavala; Chun-Wei Kuo; Chia-Yu Huang; Ching-Fa Yao

    2015-01-01

    An easy and efficient procedure for the synthesis of 4-indolylquinoline derivatives is described. This process involves two steps, the first of which is the Michael addition of indole to nitrochalcones promoted by sulfamic acid under solvent free conditions and the second step is a reductive cyclization of the indolylnitrochalcone intermediates to 4-indolylquinoline derivatives by Fe/HCl in ethanol. In both steps, the reactions are clean and the yields of products are high.

  14. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    V. Shelydko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.

  15. ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single

  16. Higher Derivative Correction to the Hawking Flux via Trace Anomaly

    Shirasaka, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we derive Hawking radiation of black holes with higher derivative corrections by the method of trace anomaly. Firstly we derive Hawking radiation for general spherical black holes. We introduce a modified tortoise coordinate to it and find the analyticity of the coordinate. Secondly we apply its method to a black hole with a higher derivative correction and derive the Hawking radiation of it. We found that as an ordinary case the flux depends only on the surface gravity.

  17. Metric derived numbers and continuous metric differentiability via homeomorphisms

    Duda, Jakub; Maleva, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We define the notions of unilateral metric derivatives and ``metric derived numbers'' in analogy with Dini derivatives (also referred to as ``derived numbers'') and establish their basic properties. We also prove that the set of points where a path with values in a metric space with continuous metric derivative is not ``metrically differentiable'' (in a certain strong sense) is $\\sigma$-symmetrically porous and provide an example of a path for which this set is uncountable. In the second part...

  18. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    V. Shelydko; Virchenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international deriva...

  19. Studies in higher-derivative gravitation

    In this work two formulations of gravitation in which the action includes the second-derivatives of the metric in a non-trivial fashion are investigated. In the first part, the gauge theory of gravitation proposed by Yang in 1974 is investigated. The implications of coupling the pure space equations to matter sources via the action principle proposed by Yang is studied. It is shown that this action principle does not couple to matter sources in a satisfactory fashion. An earlier study by Fairchild along similar lines is critically examined. It is argued that Fairchild's action functional, and his objections to Yang's gauge approach to gravitation, arise from a not very meaningful analogy with the case of a general gauge field. Also, a conjecture originated in that work is refuted. A modification of Yang's action functional is provided which leads to both the Einstein and Yang field-equations. This system is shown to have non-trivial solutions in the presence of matter. An additional advantage is that the unphysical solutions of the pure space equations can be ruled out. It is shown that the joint system of Einstein and Yang field-equations leads to a physically viable cosmological model based on the Robertson-Walker metric, which satisfies both sets of field-equations. In the second part of this work, the Hamiltonian for pure gravity in Einstein's theory is obtained directly from the Hilbert Lagrangian. Since the Lagrangian depends upon the second-derivatives of the metric tensor, first the Hamiltonian formulation for a Lagrangian which may, in general depend upon the Nth-order time derivatives of the dynamical variables is developed

  20. CYP450-derived oxylipins mediate inflammatory resolution.

    Gilroy, Derek W; Edin, Matthew L; De Maeyer, Roel P H; Bystrom, Jonas; Newson, Justine; Lih, Fred B; Stables, Melanie; Zeldin, Darryl C; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2016-06-01

    Resolution of inflammation has emerged as an active process in immunobiology, with cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system being critical in mediating efferocytosis and wound debridement and bridging the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Here we investigated the roles of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxy-oxylipins in a well-characterized model of sterile resolving peritonitis in the mouse. Epoxy-oxylipins were produced in a biphasic manner during the peaks of acute (4 h) and resolution phases (24-48 h) of the response. The epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A (epoxI) given at 24 h selectively inhibited arachidonic acid- and linoleic acid-derived CYP450-epoxy-oxlipins and resulted in a dramatic influx in monocytes. The epoxI-recruited monocytes were strongly GR1(+), Ly6c(hi), CCR2(hi), CCL2(hi), and CX3CR1(lo) In addition, expression of F4/80 and the recruitment of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells were suppressed. sEH (Ephx2)(-/-) mice, which have elevated epoxy-oxylipins, demonstrated opposing effects to epoxI-treated mice: reduced Ly6c(hi) monocytes and elevated F4/80(hi) macrophages and B, T, and dendritic cells. Ly6c(hi) and Ly6c(lo) monocytes, resident macrophages, and recruited dendritic cells all showed a dramatic change in their resolution signature following in vivo epoxI treatment. Markers of macrophage differentiation CD11b, MerTK, and CD103 were reduced, and monocyte-derived macrophages and resident macrophages ex vivo showed greatly impaired phagocytosis of zymosan and efferocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes following epoxI treatment. These findings demonstrate that epoxy-oxylipins have a critical role in monocyte lineage recruitment and activity to promote inflammatory resolution and represent a previously unidentified internal regulatory system governing the establishment of adaptive immunity. PMID:27226306

  1. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  2. Deriving the unit hydrograph by root selection

    Turner, J. E.; Dooge, J. C. I.; Bree, T.

    1989-09-01

    De Laine's method of deriving the unit hydrograph from the common roots of polynomials corresponding to different storms is used as a basis for proposing a new procedure in which the unit hydrograph roots can be selected from among the polynomial roots for the runoff of a single storm. The selection is made on the basis that the complex unit hydrograph roots form a characteristic "skew circle" pattern when plotted on an Argand diagram. The application of the procedure to field data is illustrated for both a single-peaked and a double-peaked event.

  3. A Simplified Procedure for Safety Requirements Derivation

    Eugen Ioan Gergely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a procedure for analysis of PLC-controlled system risk due to component failure and for derivation of safety integrity requirements for components, focusing on software requirements. The approach allows fully integrated treatment of random and systematic failure. It can be applied at different levels of design detail and at different stages of the system development lifecycle. The procedure does not address how to assess failure rates, but provides a foundation for integrating PLC software assessment into system riskassessment and for making trade-offs in design.

  4. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224

  5. Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.

    Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  6. Stable Tricyclic Antitubercular Ozonides Derived from Artemisinin.

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Vashundhra; Jaiswal, Pradeep K; Gaikwad, Anil N; Sinha, Sudhir K; Puri, Sunil K; Sharon, Ashoke; Maulik, Prakas R; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2015-10-16

    New, highly stable tricyclic antitubercular ozonides 9 and 10 derived from artemisinin are reported in 39 and 9% yields, respectively. The ozonide groups of 9 and 10 were found to be stable under strong basic and acidic conditions. The absolute configuration of ozonides 9 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ozonide 10 shows promising antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values of 0.39 and 3.12 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26430796

  7. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  8. Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476

  9. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Some Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    The electronic absorption spectra of triazolo pyrimidine and some of its derivatives were measured in polar as well as nonpolar solvents. Assignment of the observed transitions is facilitated via molecular orbital calculations. Charge density distributions, dipole moments, and the extent of delocalization of the MOS were used to interpret the observed solvent effects. The observed transitions are assigned as charge transfer (CT), localized, and delocalized according to the contribution of the various configurations in the CI-states. The correspondence between the calculated and experimental transition energies is satisfactory.

  10. Nullification in scalar theories with derivative couplings

    Argyres, E. N.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Bruinsma, M.; Kleiss, R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the structure of scalar field theories having the property that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish in tree approximation. It is shown that there exists a large class of such theories, with derivative couplings, which are all locally related to a free theory by a nonlinear transformation. It is also shown that a field-dependent wave-function renormalization provides all necessary counterterms so that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish also at the one-loop level.

  11. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Graphene and Its Derivatives

    Alberto Adán-Más

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives combine a numerous range of supreme properties that can be useful in many applications. The purpose of this review is to analyse the photoelectrochemical properties of pristine graphene, graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO and their impact on semiconductor catalysts/quantum dots. The mechanism that this group of materials follows to improve their performance will be cleared by explaining how those properties can be exploited in several applications such as photo-catalysts (degradation of pollutants and photovoltaics (solar cells.

  12. Multiple operator integrals and higher operator derivatives

    Peller, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the existence of higher derivatives of the function $t\\mapsto\\f(A+tK)$, where $\\f$ is a function on the real line, $A$ is a self-adjoint operator, and $K$ is a bounded self-adjoint operator. We improve earlier results by Sten'kin. In order to do this, we give a new approach to multiple operator integrals. This approach improves the earlier approach given by Sten'kin. We also consider a similar problem for unitary operators.

  13. Residues in food derived from animals

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs

  14. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    Ehab A. Abourashed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included.

  15. Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives

    Lord, Roger

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes. At the same time, new and more complex structures are invented on a regular basis. To price and risk manage such products, a financial engineer will typically: (1) choose a model which is both econ...

  16. Myeloid derived suppressor cells in human diseases

    Greten, Tim F.; Manns, Michael P.; Korangy, Firouzeh

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described as a heterogeneous cell population with potent immune suppressor function in mice. Limited data are available on MDSC in human diseases. Interpretation of these data is complicated by the fact that different markers have been used to analyze human MDSC subtypes in various clinical settings. Human MDSC are CD11b+, CD33+, HLA-DRneg/low and can be divided into granulocytic CD14− and monocytic CD14+ subtypes. Interleukin 4Rα, VEGFR, CD15...

  17. Molecular Recognition Studies on Naphthyridine Derivatives

    José Carlos Iglesias-Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association constants Kb of three hosts I–III designed to have both enhanced hydrogen bonding donor strength and conformational preorganization with biotin analogues 1–5 are reported. 1H-NMR titrations under two different concentration conditions have been employed to determine the association constants Kb. A statistical analysis using a presence absence matrix has been applied to calculate the different contributions. Hydrogen bond interactions make naphthyridine derivatives II and III potent binders and effective receptors for (+-biotin methyl ester (1, due to the complex stabilization by additional hydrogen bonds.

  18. Anticoagulant activity of original synthetic peptide derivatives.

    Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Miphtakhova, N T; Voyushina, T L; Sergeev, M E

    2008-01-01

    Original synthetic peptide derivatives exhibit anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. They delayed fibrin clot formation from human blood plasma in tests for the intrinsic coagulation pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and final stage of plasma coagulation (thrombin time) and inhibited amidolytic activity of thrombin. We determined the minimum effective dose of the most active compound providing a 2-fold lengthening of blood clotting time (activated partial thromboplastin time test and thrombin time test), which persisted for 2-3 h. PMID:19024001

  19. Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine

    On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on [3H]uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting [3H]uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain

  20. Black Holes in Higher-Derivative Gravity

    Lu, H; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this paper we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  1. Portfolio Selection Model with Derivative Securities

    王春峰; 杨建林; 蒋祥林

    2003-01-01

    Traditional portfolio theory assumes that the return rate of portfolio follows normality. However, this assumption is not true when derivative assets are incorporated. In this paper a portfolio selection model is developed based on utility function which can capture asymmetries in random variable distributions. Other realistic conditions are also considered, such as liabilities and integer decision variables. Since the resulting model is a complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, simulated annealing algorithm is applied for its solution. A numerical example is given and sensitivity analysis is conducted for the model.

  2. Steroid derivatives and their use in radioimmunoassays

    Radioimmunoassay techniques have been used to determine the concentration in body fluids of various endogenous and exogenous steroids. In the development of radioimmunoassays for the various steroids, the preparation of an antigen labelled with iodine-125 is of primary concern. The chemical structure of steroids is such that it is generally not possible to radioiodinate them directly. It is necessary to utilize as a precursor of the radiolabeled antigen a derivative of the steroid to be assayed which can be readily iodinatd. The process by which steroids are chosen and structurally modified is given

  3. New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.

    Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907

  4. A New Bezoxepine Derivative from Senecio desfontainei

    Syed Hamid Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontainei afforded one new benzoxepin derivative, Senecioside (1 along with eleven known compounds (2-12. Their structures were assigned from 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, NOE, HSQC and HMBC experiments. All these compounds were tested for antioxidant activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals.

  5. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24422395

  6. Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives

    Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.

  7. Base-Modified Nucleosides: Etheno Derivatives

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz R.; Januszczyk, Piotr A.; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability, and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs. PMID:27200341

  8. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  9. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  10. Structural Studies of Some Binaphthyl Derivatives

    Thorup, Niels; Bjørnholm, T.; Bechgaard, K.; Geisler, T.

    or H. As would be expected, the torsional angle of the central 1-1' bond varies considerably in the open forms whereas the torsion is rather restricted in the closed forms. Unfortunately, good quality crystals for structural studies are difficult to grow and, therefore, rather high residuals are......Crystal structures of several 1,1'-binaphthyl derivatives have been determined. In particular compounds which at the 2,2' positions have either identical ethoxy groups or a closed bridged ether and furthermore have identical substitution at the 6,6' positions. The latter groups may be Br, CHO, CN...

  11. Remarks on derivations on semiprime rings

    Howard E. Bell

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a semiprime ring R must be commutative if it admits a derivation d such that (i xy+d(xy=yx+d(yx for all x, y in R, or (ii xy−d(xy=yx−d(yx for all x, y in R. In the event that R is prime, (i or (ii need only be assumed for all x, y in some nonzero ideal of R.

  12. Analytically Derived Wind Wave Growth Relations

    管长龙; 孙群

    2002-01-01

    By the use of the 3/2 power law presented by Toba combined with the significant wave energy balance equation forwind wave, wind wave growth at a limited fetch is analytically investigated. The new wind wave growth relations(WWGRs) are analytically derived with sheltering coefficient and wind drag coefficient as parameters. The geometricalaverage of observational values of sheltering coefficient and the arithmetic average of observational values of wind drag co-efficient are applied to determine the new WWGRs. Comparisons with existing empirical WWGRs are made.

  13. Properties of ferrocene derivative C60 adduct

    Properties of ferrocene derivative C60 adduct were investigated by thermal analyses, x-ray diffraction, 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to examine interaction of iron with fullerene. Thermal treatment may be applied to remove organic groups to obtain sample containing C60Fe with C60 arranged in the fcc lattice and iron dispersed between fullerenes. We performed calculations based on the semi-empirical quantum chemistry model P M3 for a few exohedral complexes with Fe at various sites relatively to C60

  14. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  15. Quenching of nucleotide-derived radicals by bisbenzimidazole derivative Hoechst-33258 in aqueous solution

    H Mohan; A Adhikary; V Jain; J P Mittal

    2000-08-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reaction of DNA-minor-groove ligand bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 with pyrimidine and purine nucleotide-derived radicals. Formation of an N-centred Hoechst-33258 radical is observed. Bimolecular rate constants and the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical have been evaluated. While the rate constant for the reaction of pyrimidine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258 remained the same (1-2) × 109 dm3 mol-1s-1, the yields of the Hoechst-33258 radical varied from 25% (5 -cytidine monophosphate) to 75% (5 -guanosine monophosphate) under anoxic conditions. The rate constant values for the reaction of purine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258, under oxic and anoxic conditions, remained the same whereas with pyrimidine-derived radicals, the rate constant value under oxic conditions was about two orders of magnitude lower than under anoxic conditions. The difference in the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical with various nucleotide-derived radicals suggest the formation of different types of radicals and that the reaction mainly occurs by electron transfer from Hoechst-33258 to the nucleotide radicals.

  16. Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)

    With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

  17. New derivative of carnosine for nanoparticle assemblies.

    Bellia, Francesco; Oliveri, Valentina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide, extensively studied owing to its multifunctional activity exhibited in tissues of several animal species. This natural compound may act as a physiological buffer, ion-chelating agent (especially for copper(II) and zinc(II)), antioxidant and antiglycating agent. The main limit for the therapeutical uses of carnosine is the rapid hydrolysis mostly in human plasma by carnosinase. The chemical derivatization of carnosine is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability of the dipeptide and facilitating the site-specific transport to different tissues. On this basis, a new carnosine derivative with biotin was synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and MS measurements, with aim of exploiting the avidin-biotin technology that offers a universal system for selective delivery of any biotinylated agent. The stability of the new carnosine derivative towards the hydrolytic action of serum carnosinase as well as the copper(II) binding ability of the carnosine-biotin conjugate were also assessed. The binding affinity of the new molecular entity to avidin and streptavidin, investigated by a spectrophotometric assay, was exploited to functionalize avidin- and streptavidin-gold nanoparticles with the carnosine-biotin conjugate. PMID:24158014

  18. Method for deriving m-dioxanes

    Rakhmankulov, D.L.; Imashev, U.B.; Kravets, E.Kh.; Uzikova, V.N.; Zlotskiy, S.N.; Zlotskiy, S.S.

    1979-11-12

    Technique for deriving m-dioxanes which are used as oil additives, with a olefin hydrocarbon reaction formula RCHCH/sub 2/, where R= pureC/sub 4/H/sub 9/, pure C/sub 511/' pure C/sub 613/, with 1.1-dimetoxyethane (De) in the presence of cation-exchange catalyzer KU-2 at 60-70/sup 0/ and mol. ratio of olefin: De=1:3 (reaction time 3-4 hours); the MeOH that is formed is removed from the reaction zone. Example: A 3-neck flash with a mixer, thermometer, and a cooler was filled with 42 g. hexane-1, 135 g. De, 8 g KU-2 and 20 ml water. Reaction was carried out at 60/sup 0/ during 4 hours until MeOH was completely released. The mixture was cooled, filtered, dried above MgSO/sub 4/ and subjected to a vacuum scattering. Derived: 2.6-dimethyl-4-butyl-m-dioxane, C/sub 10/H/sub 20/O/sub 2/, extraction 81%, boiling pt. 35/sup 0//15, n/sup 20/D 1.4385.

  19. Scalar wormholes with nonminimal derivative coupling

    We consider static spherically symmetric wormhole configurations in a gravitational theory of a scalar field with a potential V(Π) and nonminimal derivative coupling to the curvature described by the term (εgμν + κGμν)Π, μΠ, ν in the action. We show that the flare-out conditions providing the geometry of a wormhole throat could be fulfilled both ifΠμ = -1 (phantom scalar) and Πμ = +1 (ordinary scalar). Supposing additionally a traversability, we construct numerical solutions describing traversable wormholes in the model with arbitrary κ, Πμ = -1 and V(Π) 0 (no potential). The traversability assumes that the wormhole possesses two asymptotically flat regions with corresponding Schwarzschild masses. We find that asymptotical masses of a wormhole with nonminimal derivative coupling could be positive and/or negative depending on κ. In particular, both masses are positive only provided κ 1 ≤ 0; otherwise, one or both wormhole masses are negative. In conclusion, we give qualitative arguments that a wormhole configuration with positive masses could be stable. (paper)

  20. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  1. Cinnoline derivatives as human neutrophil elastase inhibitors.

    Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Schepetkin, Igor A; Crocetti, Letizia; Ciciani, Giovanna; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Guerrini, Gabriella; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Quinn, Mark T; Vergelli, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Compounds that can effectively inhibit the proteolytic activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) represent promising therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present here the synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological evaluation of a new series of HNE inhibitors with a cinnoline scaffold. These compounds exhibited HNE inhibitory activity but had lower potency compared to N-benzoylindazoles previously reported by us. On the other hand, they exhibited increased stability in aqueous solution. The most potent compound, 18a, had a good balance between HNE inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 56 nM) and chemical stability (t1/2 = 114 min). Analysis of reaction kinetics revealed that these cinnoline derivatives were reversible competitive inhibitors of HNE. Furthermore, molecular docking studies of the active products into the HNE binding site revealed two types of HNE inhibitors: molecules with cinnolin-4(1H)-one scaffold, which were attacked by the HNE Ser195 hydroxyl group at the amido moiety, and cinnoline derivatives containing an ester function at C-4, which is the point of attack of Ser195. PMID:26194018

  2. Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.

    Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur

    2016-07-15

    Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739

  3. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area

  4. Functional derivatives for multi-scale modeling

    Reeve, Samuel; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    As we look beyond petascale computing and towards the exascale, effectively utilizing computational resources by using multi-fidelity and multi-scale materials simulations becomes increasingly important. Determining when and where to run high-fidelity simulations in order to have the most effect on a given quantity of interest (QoI) is a difficult problem. This work utilizes functional uncertainty quantification (UQ) for this task. While most UQ focuses on uncertainty in output from uncertainty in input parameters, we focus on uncertainty from the function itself (e.g. from using a specific functional form for an interatomic potential or constitutive law). In the case of a multi-scale simulation with a given constitutive law, calculating the functional derivative of the QoI with respect to that constitutive law can determine where a fine-scale model evaluation will maximize the increase in accuracy of the predicted QoI. Additionally, for a given computational budget the optimal set of coarse and fine-scale simulations can be determined. Numerical calculation of the functional derivative has been developed and methods of including this work within existing multi-fidelity and multi-scale orchestrators are explored.

  5. Chromoionophoric Recognition of Alkylamines by Nitro Derivative

    The molecular design of efficient and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic ionophore systems for the sensing of chemically and biologically important ionic guests has attracted much attention in the past decade. Many of the compounds are based on the well-known molecular framework of crown ethers, calixarenes, and other EDTA type efficient chelating compounds. Among them the calix[4]arenes are particularly attractive for their selective ionophoric properties toward many of interesting organic ammonium guests. Particularly, the calix[4]arene-crown ethers are known to have unique binding properties toward some of alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, and biogenic amines. Many of the chromogenic sensing materials are developed by conjugating molecular framework of calix[4]- arene-crown ethers with suitable signaling functions of azophenols, thiazoles, and indophenols. Quite unexpectedly, however, the ionophoric properties of simple nitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown ethers were not reported, except for the closely related structure having ester-ether functions in crown moiety, in spite of their synthetically easy availability and expectedly efficient ionophoric properties toward organic amine guests. In this paper, we report the ionophoric properties of dinitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown-5 ether 1 toward representative alkylammonium ions aiming for the development of efficient and selective chromogenic sensing material for the biologically important organic amine guests. The Ba2+-selective chromogenic behavior of 1 over the representative alkali and alkaline earth metal ions has been reported earlier.

  6. A One Line Derivation of EGARCH

    Michael McAleer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi- maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1 the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA process; and (2 the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.

  7. Healthy degenerate theories with higher derivatives

    Motohashi, Hayato; Suyama, Teruaki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Langlois, David

    2016-01-01

    In the context of classical mechanics, we study the conditions under which higher-order derivative theories can evade the so-called Ostrogradsky instability. More precisely, we consider general Lagrangians with second order time derivatives, of the form $L(\\ddot\\phi^a,\\dot\\phi^a,\\phi^a;\\dot q^i,q^i)$ with $a = 1,\\cdots, n$ and $i = 1,\\cdots, m$. For $n=1$, assuming that the $q^i$'s form a nondegenerate subsystem, we confirm that the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix eliminates the Ostrogradsky instability. The degeneracy implies, in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory, the existence of a primary constraint, which generates a secondary constraint, thus eliminating the Ostrogradsky ghost. For $n>1$, we show that, in addition to the degeneracy of the kinetic matrix, one needs to impose extra conditions to ensure the presence of a sufficient number of secondary constraints that can eliminate all the Ostrogradsky ghosts. When these conditions that ensure the disappearance of the Ostrogradsky instability are s...

  8. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  9. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  10. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents. PMID:12685658

  11. Derivative Securities on Romanian Capital Market

    Ramona Maria GOGONCEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the world wide agreed models of valuation of derivates may be properly applied to the Romanian capital market, obtaining reliable results for decision makers. The most common valuation models take into account market data such as, interest and exchange rates, volatilities and the price of the underlying instrument. The procedures for valuation must clearly define the nature of the market data to be taken into consideration (for example the zero-coupon curve for the valuation of swaps and the independent reference base to be used (Reuters at a given time, bid/offer or mid price, broker. In order to be able to obtain the results, I based my study on a self-developed software which can calculate the price and characteristics for different types of derivatives securities once the primary data are filled in. I compared the results obatined usig the valuation models with the actual prices on the Romanian capital market. I expected that the results obtained to be more accurate as the parameters used in the calculation models properly reflect market data as at that date being as widely as possible.. These assumptions were only supported for certain value orientations. In conclusion, explanations for these results are given and limitations for this study are discussed. Also, suggestions for future research are presented in the final part of the article.

  12. Einstein's 1916 derivation of the Field Equations

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    In his first November 4, 1915 paper Einstein wrote the Lagrangian form of his field equations. In the fourth November 25, 1915 paper, Einstein added a trace term of the energy-momentum tensor on the right-hand side of the generally covariant field equations. The main purpose of the present work is to show that in November 4, 1915, Einstein had already explored much of the main ingredients that were required for the formulation of the final form of the field equations of November 25, 1915. The present work suggests that the idea of adding the second-term on the right-hand side of the field equation might have originated in reconsideration of the November 4, 1915 field equations. In this regard, the final form of Einstein's field equations with the trace term may be linked with his work of November 4, 1915. The interesting history of the derivation of the final form of the field equations is inspired by the exchange of letters between Einstein and Paul Ehrenfest in winter 1916 and by Einstein's 1916 derivation ...

  13. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  14. GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS

    陈正新

    2014-01-01

    Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.

  15. Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.

  16. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  17. A note on the derivation of the derivatives of invariants of stretch tensor to the right Cauchy-Green tensor

    TIAN Dongyan; JIN Ming; DUI Guansuo

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the derivation of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor with respect to the right Cauchy Green tensor is presented in this paper. According to the definition of the derivation of tensor function, the three first-order derivatives for the principal invariants of the stretch tensor are obtained through derivation directly to the right Cauchy-Green tensor by incremental method. Then the three second-order derivatives are yielded by the derivation to the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor directly. Furthermore, an explicit expression of the tangent modulus of the general Varga material is given as an example.

  18. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectra of Dipeptide Derivatives

    LUO, Zaigang; ZENG, Chengchu; YANG, Daoshan; HUANG, Yali; WANG, Fang; DU, Hongguang; HU, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structure of the HIV integrase core domain, dipeptide derivatives, as a type of HIV integrase in- hibitor, were synthesized, and their fragmentation pathways were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spec- trometry (ESI-MSN) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In order to better understand the fragmentation pathways, the MS2 and MS3 spectra of the title compound were obtained. The main fragmentation pathways occur by the cleavage of the C-CO bonds between N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)aminocarbonyl and methylene, NH-CO bonds between the NH groups and carbonyl groups. Electrospray ionization was proven to be a good method for the structural characterization and identification of this kind of compound.

  19. Minimizing shortfall risk for multiple assets derivatives

    Barski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The risk minimizing problem $\\mathbf{E}[l((H-X_T^{x,\\pi})^{+})]\\overset{\\pi}{\\longrightarrow}\\min$ in the Black-Scholes framework with correlation is studied. General formulas for the minimal risk function and the cost reduction function for the option $H$ depending on multiple underlying are derived. The case of a linear and a strictly convex loss function $l$ are examined. Explicit computation for $l(x)=x$ and $l(x)=x^p$, with $p>1$ for digital, quantos, outperformance and spread options are presented. The method is based on the quantile hedging approach presented in \\cite{FL1}, \\cite{FL2} and developed for the multidimensional options in \\cite{Barski}.

  20. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Crivello, J.V.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. New Thymol Derivate from Centipeda minima

    PU Shou-cheng; GUO Yuan-qiang; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Centipeda minima(Compositae) is an annual herbaceous plant found in moist places throughout the plains mainly in the southern regions of the People's Republic of China, Eastern tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islandst[1,2]. It is a commonly used Chinese folk medicine for colds, whooping cough, nasal allergy, malaria and asthma[2]. A number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and triterpenes have previously been isolated from C. minima[2,3]. During our study on searching for biological active components from this plant, five compounds were isolated. Compound 1 was structurally elucidated as a new thymol derivate, and compounds 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  2. Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives

    to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.

  3. Pyrolisis of municipal solid waste derived fuels

    In this study of pyrolytic processes for refuse derived fuel from municipal solid wastes, the main process parameters affecting the yield and the physical-chemical characteristics of products (gases, liquids and solids) were identified and analyzed. From the experimental results, one can observe that the pyrolytic process reduces the volume of produced emissions with respect to the conventional incinerators and allows, at the same time, the recovery of a gas with a significant heat capacity (14,000-19,000 kj/nmc) according to the process temperature, two other fuels, a tar and a solid with low ash content. It seems also that the strong environmental impact associable to this process is due to the water fraction of the produced liquid, whose main pollutants were also identified

  4. Quality control of the crude oil derivatives

    OKTA is crude oil refinery and its primary activity is production of oil derivates and their distribution in order to fulfill Macedonian market with products in accordance with national standards that are in coordination with European standards from January 2004. Quality is multidisciplinary category consisted of many function. One of the functions of quality assurance is quality control. All employees should be concerned for the control that means also a big responsibility for them. For this reason, a competent team from several departments work and rise all knowledge and experience in providing production of final products with properties that satisfy the customer needs and are established with quality certificate. OKTA assures the established final products quality with quality control of crude oil, intermediates and final products, grants quality certificate, guarantee the quality and control the gas stations in order to satisfy the customers. (Author)

  5. Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement

    Min Soon Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  6. Non-Covalent Derivatives: Cocrystals and Eutectics

    Emily Stoler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-covalent derivatives (NCDs are formed by incorporating one (or more coformer molecule(s into the matrix of a parent molecule via non-covalent forces. These forces can include ionic forces, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, lipophilic-lipophilic interactions and pi-pi interactions. NCDs, in both cocrystal and eutectic forms, possess properties that are unique to their supramolecular matrix. These properties include critical product performance factors such as solubility, stability and bioavailability. NCDs have been used to tailor materials for a variety of applications and have the potential to be used in an even broader range of materials and processes. NCDs can be prepared using little or no solvent and none of the reagents typical to synthetic modifications. Thus, NCDs represent a powerfully versatile, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective opportunity.

  7. Stochastic derivative and heat type PDEs

    Udriste, Constantin; Tevy, Ionel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we address again the problem of the connection between multitime Brownian sheet and heat type PDEs. The main results include: the volumetric character of the solutions of the forward (backward) diffusion-like PDEs; the forward mean value of a Brownian process as the solution of the forward heat PDE; the backward mean value of a Brownian process as the solution of the backward heat PDE; the multitime stochastic processes with volumetric dependence; the stochastic partial derivative of a stochastic process with respect to a multitime Wiener process; Hermite polynomials stochastic processes; union of Tzitzeica hypersurfaces (constant level sets of multitime stochastic processes with volumetric dependence). The original results permit to extend the complete integrability theory to multitime stochastic differential systems, using path independent curvilinear integrals and volumetric dependence.

  8. Brane Cosmology and Higher Derivative Theory

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a cosmological model with density perturbation and decreasing cosmological constant of the form Lambda = 3beta (frac{dot{R}^2}{R^2}) + delta (frac{ddot{R}}{R}), beta, gamma = const. Inspired from brane cosmology, we supposed the presence of exotic density related to the cosmological constant by the formula 2Lambda = 3m^2, where m is a constant having the dimension of Hubble constant. Their effects on the evolution of the spatially, flat FRW cosmoligical model of the Universe is analyzed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The Universe is found to be accelerating with time with no initial singularity for beta < frac{1}{3} and the cosmological constant is found to decrease as t^{-2} but smaller than 3H^2. The presence of interacting scalar field is also discussed.

  9. Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories

    Myrzakul, Shynaray; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from scalar field subjected to potential in the framework of $f(R^2, P, Q)$-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar $R^2$, the contraction of the Ricci tensor $P$, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor $Q$. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the $e$-folds number, and the spectral indexes. Several explicit examples are furnished, namely we will consider the cases of massive scalar field and scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. Viable inflation according with observations is analyzed.

  10. Synthesis and Fluorescent Property of Pyrazoline Derivatives

    陆蓓琼; 章建民; 王明剑; 邹元海; 陈晓藿

    2012-01-01

    A series of fluorinated pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of fluorinated chalcone with hy- drazine ArNHNH2 (Ar=4-BrC6F4, 4-CIC6H4, C6Hs, 4-CH3C6H4 and 4-CH3OC6H4), The structures of all these compounds were fully supported by their spectroscopic data and one of products was further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The capability of fluorinated triaryl-2-pyrazolines to detect metal cations was in- vestigated, by monitoring changes in their fluorescence spectra in the presence of Cd^2+, Co^2+, Cu^2+, Mn^2+, Ni^2+ and Zn^2+.

  11. [Synthesis and cytotoxicity of allobetulin derivatives].

    Kazakova, O B; Smirnova, I E; Khusnutdinova, E F; Zhukova, O S; Fetisova, L V; Apryshko, G N; Medvedeva, N I; Iamansarov, E Iu; Baĭkova, I P; Nguen, Thanh Tra; Thu, Do Thi H

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and screening of antitumor activity in vitro (cytotoxicity) of various oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and platinum-containing derivatives of allobetulin, including different arrangements of the double bonds in the A and B rings, penta- and hexacyclic ring A, 21-acetyl-20,28-epoxy-18α,19βH-ursane-isomeric cycle E, was carry out. (3R,5R)-19β,28-Epoxy-4,5-seco-18α-olean-3(5)-ozonide and 2,3-indolo-21β-acetyl-20β,28-epoxy-18α, H-19β-ursane showed significant cytotoxic activity against melanoma MeWo and Leukemia SR cells, appropriately. (3S,5S)-Diastereomer of the first compound showed no cytotoxicity. PMID:25895356

  12. A negative derivative feedback design algorithm

    Vibration control logics based on the modal approach allow damping to be increased on a certain number of modes. The main limit associated with these strategies is represented by spillover on non-modelled modes. Negative derivative feedback (NDF) proves particularly robust against spillover since modal velocity is fed back through a band-pass filter so that undesired effects can be limited both at high and low frequencies. Unfortunately, the definition of the control gains for this logic is generally more difficult than other resonant controls owing to the lack of physical meaning. In this paper a design strategy for an NDF controller based on an optimal approach is proposed for single and multi-degrees of freedom systems and is tested on a cantilever beam finite element model. (paper)

  13. Phenanthrene derivatives from the orchid Coelogyne cristata.

    Majumder, P L; Sen, S; Majumder, S

    2001-10-01

    Coeloginanthridin, a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative, and coeloginanthrin, the corresponding phenanthrene analogue, were isolated from the orchid Coelogyne cristata which earlier afforded coelogin (1a) and coeloginin (1b). The structures of coeloginanthridin and coeloginanthrin were established as 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2a) and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyphenanthrene (2c), respectively, from spectral and chemical evidence including the conversion of coeloginanthridin triacetate (2b) to coeloginanthrin triacetate (2d) by dehydrogenation with DDQ. In the light of earlier reports on structurally similar compounds, 2a and 2c may have biological activities of phytoalexins and endogenous plant growth regulators. PMID:11576602

  14. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Nevzat Konar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  15. Position Estimation Using the Image Derivative

    Daniele Mortari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an image processing algorithm to identify the size and shape of a spherical reflecting celestial body prominently depicted in images taken from a spacecraft with an optical camera, with the purpose of estimating the relative distance between target and observer in magnitude and direction. The approach is based on the fact that in such images, the pixels belonging to the target’s hard edge have the highest values of the image derivative; therefore, they are easily recognizable when the image is processed with a gradient filter. Eventual extraneous points polluting the dataset (outliers are eliminated by two methods applied in sequence. The target center and radius are estimated by non-linear least squares using circular sigmoid functions. The proposed image processing has been applied to real and synthetic Moon images. An error analysis is also performed to determine the performance of the proposed method.

  16. Natural product derived immune-regulatory agents.

    Talmadge, James E

    2016-08-01

    We can now declare that the clinical goal of immune intervention as a therapeutic strategy for neoplastic, infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, has been achieved and in many instances obtained regulatory approval. Although, interest in and optimism for this approach has fluctuated, in the last 20years, immunotherapy has progressed from trials with crude microbial mixtures and extracts to the sophisticated use of pure cultured bacterial, synthetized active moieties identified from crude extracts, analogues therefrom and agonists and antagonists identified during screening resulting in reproducible pharmacologically active compounds with multiple mechanisms of action. Our current understanding of the mechanism of action for immunoregulatory agents contributes to the future discovery of improved strategies to use these and future immunotherapies. In this review we have identified and discussed, those drugs that have been approved and or are in clinical development as immunoregulatory agents, emphasizing those derived from or associated with natural product. PMID:26968760

  17. Neuroprotective effects of some creatine derivative compounds

    L. Perasso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some derivatives more lipophylic than creatine, thus theoretically being capable to better cross the blood-brain barrier, were studied for their neuroprotective effect in mouse hippocampal slices. In mouse hippocampal slices we found that EM2 I is ineffective, EM"" weakly increased the latency to population spike disapperance during anoxia. Creatine, Creatine-MG-complex (acetate and Phosphocreatine-Mg-complex (acetate increased more effectively the latency to population spike disappearance during anoxia. Moreover, Phosphocreatine-Mg-complex (acetate significantly reduced neuronal hyperexcitability during anoxia, an effect that no other compound (including creatine itself showed. Summing up, EM2 I is not useful for brain protection, while EM22 and cgelates of both creatine and phosphocreatine di replicate some of the knownn protective effects of creatine. In addition, Phosphocreatine-Mg-complex (acetate also reduced neuronal hyperexcitability during anoxia.

  18. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Coumarin Derivatives

    YAO Chun-feng; ZENG He-ping

    2011-01-01

    Five new coumarin amide derivatives were synthesized with coupling reagent,the structures of which were characterized by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MS and element analysis.Their spectral properties were studied in dichloromethane,in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) and in solid state.Solvent polarity has less influence on the UV-Vis maximum absorption at about 430 nm.The maximum emission wavelengths change from 464 nm to 474 nm in dichloromethane,from 476 nm to 482 nm in DMF and from 521 nm to 548 nm in solid state,respectively.The fluorescence intensities of compounds 8 and 9 were extremely strong in solvents or in solid state.Compounds 8 and 9 exhibited high fluorescenct quantumn yields in solution compared to compounds 4-7.The fluorescence lifetimes of all the compounds in solvents were measured.

  19. Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories

    Myrzakul, Shynaray; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from a scalar field subjected to a potential in the framework of f(R{sup 2}, P, Q)-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar R{sup 2}, the contraction of the Ricci tensor P, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor Q. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the e-fold number, and the spectral indices. Several explicit examples are furnished; namely, we will consider the cases of a massive scalar field and a scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. A viable approach to inflation according with observations is analyzed. (orig.)

  20. Power Cocentralizing Generalized Derivations on Prime Rings

    Vincenzo De Filippis

    2010-06-01

    Let be a prime ring, the Utumi quotient ring of $R,C=Z(U)$ the extended centroid of , a non-central Lie ideal of , and non-zero generalized derivations of . Suppose that there exists an integer $n≥ 1$ such that $(H(u)u-uG(u))^n=0$, for all $u\\in L$, then one of the following holds: (1) there exists $c\\in U$ such that $H(x)=xc,G(x)=cx;(2)R$ satisfies the standard identity $s_4$ and char ()=2; (3) satisfies $s4$ and there exist $a, b, c\\in U$, such that $H(x)=ax+xc,G(x)=cx+xb$ and $(a-b)^n=0$.

  1. Isocorydine Derivatives and Their Anticancer Activities

    Mei Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD, ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8 and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10 could inhibit the growth of human lung (A549, gastric (SGC7901 and liver (HepG2 cancer cell lines in vitro. Isocorydione (2 could inhibit the tumor growth of murine sarcoma S180-bearing mice, and 8-acetamino-isocorydine (11, a pro-drug of 8-amino-isocorydine (8, which is instable in water solution at room temperature, had a good inhibitory effect on murine hepatoma H22-induced tumors. The results suggested that the isocorydine structural modifications at C-8 could significantly improve the biological activity of this alkaloid, indicating its suitability as a lead compound in the development of an effective anticancer agent.

  2. Novel polymer derived ceramic hard materials

    Kaindl, A.; Lehner, W.; Greil, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Mater. Sci.; Kim, D.J. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Dept. of Materials Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Manufacturing, microstructure and properties of novel ceramic hard materials derived from polymer/reactive filler mixtures were investigated. Carbide forming metal powders of Mo were used as fillers to react with the carbon bearing decomposition products of polymethylsiloxanes during pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. Microcrystalline composites with the filler reaction product Mo{sub 2}C embedded in an amorphous SiOC-matrix could be formed with complex geometry due to near-netshape polymer/ceramic conversion. Depending on the filler and the pyrolysis conditions ceramic hard materials with Vickers hardness up to 10 GPa, fracture toughness of 5.1 MPa{radical}(m), a flexural strength of 330 MPa and a Youngs modulus of 280 GPa were obtained. (orig.) 8 refs.

  3. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Michael S. Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  4. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF in the serum/plasma to molecular genetics to (genetic brain imaging. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the current state of affairs in the context of BDNF and personality.

  5. Derivative markets, speculation and oil prices

    Recent movements in oil prices have been ascribed by a number of analysts and political leaders not to market fundamentals but to the speculative positions taken by financial investors in derivatives markets. Various economists including Nobel Prize Paul Krugman believe however that the constitution of stocks is a necessary element for speculation, a feature that was not very evident during the sudden price increase in 2008; but these points of view are not entirely incompatible. Various explanations can be put forward, among which the most important is demand inertia. On the very short run, demand price elasticity is significantly lower than that usually calculated for the short term, which can significantly reduce the impact - on stocks - of a temporary price increase provoked by financial investors' behavior. (authors)

  6. Ecotoxicology a derivative of encyclopedia of ecology

    Fath, Brian D

    2010-01-01

    The compilation of the articles in this derivative emphasizes ecological components and fundamental paradigms of ecotoxicology. The alphabetical listing of toxic substances and chemicals in Part B and C serves as a quick reference for professionals. Additionally, the international focus of Ecotoxicology and the range of toxins it covers will make it an indispensable resource to scientists. The password protected companion website will contain Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters (EEP) software developed by the author. EEP allows users to get ecotoxicological properties of chemicals in data bases or they can estimate them (there are only a few percentages in the data base). There are very specific estimation methods that only estimate for instance the properties for halogenated aromatic compounds or there are very general estimation methods. EEP covers the very general methods and is fast to use but gives in general estimation of higher uncertainty than the very specific methods.

  7. Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions

    Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.

  8. Nonlinear wave equations, covariant exterior derivative, Painleve test, and integrability

    A class of nonlinear wave equations is derived which can be written as the vanishing of a covariant exterior derivative. The Painleve test is performed and the connection with integrability is discussed

  9. On an Inequality Concerning the Polar Derivative of a Polynomial

    A Aziz; N A Rather

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund’s inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.

  10. Fractional derivative and its application in mathematics and physics

    We propose fractional derivatives and to study those mathematical and physical consequences. It is shown that fractional derivatives possess noncommutative and nonassociative properties and within which motion of a particle, differential and integral calculuses are investigated. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives

    M. F. Martinez Esperón; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. D’Accorso

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.

  12. Synthesis and antitumor activity of derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid

    2007-01-01

    A series of natural product 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were prepared. In the preparation of mono-O-benzoyl ester derivative, it was observed that benzoyl group migrated from 3-O- to 23-O-position during the detritylation.

  13. Functional derivatives, Schr\\"{o}dinger equations, and Feynman integration

    Dynin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{functional derivatives} are solved via quantized Galerkin limit of antinormal functional Feynman integrals for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{partial derivatives

  14. STUDY OF ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HYDRAZONE PINOSTROBIN DERIVATIVES

    G. K. Mukusheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New derivatives on the basis of hydrazone pinostrobin molecule were synthesized. Significant antiviral activity of received samples of new hydrazone pinstrobin derivatives was identified.

  15. Free radicals of benzo(a)pyrene and derivatives.

    Sullivan, P D

    1985-01-01

    The evidence for biological involvement, the spectroscopic properties (especially EPR), and the reactions, of free radicals derived from benzo(a)pyrene and its methylated, hydroxylated, and fluorinated derivatives are reviewed.

  16. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  17. Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris

    Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon

    1980-01-01

    Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.

  18. Cyclic Benzimidazole Derivatives and Their Antitumor Activity

    Karminski-Zamola, G.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years benzimidazole derivatives are one of the most extensively studied classes of heterocyclic compounds, and have received much attention from synthetic organic as well as medicinal chemists, because of their well known biological activities and their applications in several areas as materials in electronics, in electrochemistry as anticorrosive agents, as polymers or optical materials and fluorescent tags in DNA sequencing. The structure of vitamin B12, as an example, contains a benzimidazole group. Compounds containing benzimidazole nuclei show anticancer, antineoplastic, antiinfective, antibacterial, antifungal and many others activities. Due to the structural similarity of benzimidazole nuclei with some naturally occurring compounds such as purine, they can easily interact with biomolecules of the living systems. The introduction of an additional substituent on the benzimidazole nuclei has been increasing attention in the expectation that such changes could potentially affect the interaction of the molecules with biological targets. Fused cyclic benzimidazole derivatives, as benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines,benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines, benzimidazo[2,1-b]isoquinolines and many others, have also interesting biological activities and most of them are very good anticancer agents.DNA is the molecular target of many anticancer drugs in clinical use and development. Compounds which can bind to DNA with intercalative or non-intercalative mechanism play a major role in biological processes such as gene transcription or DNA replication. Benzoannulated benzimidazole analogues contain a planar chromophore and have the ability to become inserted between adjacent base pairs of DNA double helix. Intercalators are recognized as one of the most important classes of anticancer agents. So an understanding of the drug-DNA interactions is a promising approach to developing novel reagents and plays a key role in pharmacology today.

  19. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  20. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.