Sample records for 4-aminobutyrate transaminase

  1. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit

    Kristen L Deyman


    Full Text Available 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with ‘Empire’ apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3 oC, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA


    H. Mohammadiha


    Full Text Available The levels of serum tota1 protein, albumin, transaminases and phosphatases were estimated in a group of children with severe Marasmus or mild malnutrition in order to identify some of the associated deficiencies in these syndromes. The biochemical pattern was similar in the normal and malnourished children.




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones regulate Basal Metabolic Rate (BM R and calorigenesis in tissues, including hepatocytes and thereby modulate hepatic function. The liver in turn metabolizes the thyroid hormones and regula tes their systemic endocrine effect. Raised serum transaminase activities in absence of any ove rt liver dysfunction can therefore be attributed to primary thyroid dysfunction. The aim o f this study is to assess the impairment in liver function by estimating serum Aspartate Transam inase (AST and Alanine Transaminase (ALT in patients with hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients diagnosed with thyroid disorders irrespective of duration of t he disease and treatment were taken as cases and 50 healthy adults were taken as control. Estim ation of T3, T4, TSH, serum AST and serum ALT were carried out. RESULTS: Serum AST and serum ALT were within reference rang e in both cases and controls. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of abnormal serum transaminases lev els in hypothyroid patients is minimal. Early detection and better management of the thyroid diseases in recent times might be attributed as one of the factors for the same

  4. Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Levels in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui


    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or…

  5. Applying Enzymatic Cascades for ISCPR in ω-transaminase Systems

    Janes, Kresimir; Woodley, John; Tufvesson, Pär; Gernaey, Krist

    , esterases, ketoreductases and proteases and many more emerging biocatalysts such are monoamine oxidases, transaminases and P450 monooxygenases to name a few. The focus of this thesis is the biocatalytic synthesis of small molecule pharmaceuticals (Mw<1000), and in particular the production of optically pure...... amines via ω-transaminases, which is an interesting class of reactions for the pharmaceutical industry. There are many challenges related to the realization and implementation of these technologies, and attempts of tackling them have been numerous. In some cases ω-transaminase catalyzed reactions are...... enzymatic cascades often provides the only viable option as equilibrium shifting strategy. In the literature several enzymatic cascades have been reported as an ISCPR for the ω-transaminase systems, however in most cases no process considerations have been made and the consequences of using a givens cascade...

  6. Characterization of a novel amine transaminase from Halomonas elongata

    Cerioli, Lorenzo; Planchestainer, Matteo; Cassidy, Jennifer; Tessaro, Davide; Paradisi, Francesca


    Chiral amines are indispensable building blocks in the production of biologically active compounds. They are fundamental for the pharmaceutical industry, both as active molecules themselves and as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis; however, the available synthetic strategies often present disadvantages. ω-Transaminases (ω-TAs) appear as an attractive alternative by driving the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. HEWT is a novel amine transaminase from the moderate halophi...

  7. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...... to overcome any unfavorable parameters. The ω-transaminase is used as a model system because it is an important enzyme class and developing a systematic methodology would have significant value....

  8. Serum transaminase levels and dengue shock syndrome in children

    Yoga Putra


    Full Text Available Background Clinical and biochemical impacts on liver dysfunction, as manifested by an increase in serum transaminase levels, are common in dengue infection. However, an association of elevated serum transaminase and dengue shock syndrome (DSS has not been well-established. Objective To assess for an association between serum transaminase levels and the presence of DSS in children. Methods A nested, case control study was conducted on children aged 1 month to 12 years admitted to Sanglah Hospital who were diagnosed with dengue infection. Baseline characteristics and serum transaminase levels were recorded. Patients who were included in the study were observed for the presence of DSS. Those who had DSS were selected as cases, and those who did not develop DSS were selected as controls. Data was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods with 95% confidence intervals and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Ninety-four children were involeved, 47 children in the case group and the other 47 were in the control group. Baseline characteristics of the subjects were similar between the case and control groups. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST level of ≥128 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT of ≥40 U/L were associated with DSS (OR 10; 95%CI 2.3 to 44.4; P=0.002 and (OR 7.3; 95%CI 1.6 to 32.9; P=0.009, respectively. Conclusion Elevated AST and ALT levels were associated with an increased risk of DSS in children with dengue infection

  9. Process considerations for protein engineering of ω-Transaminase

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Schwarze, Daniel; Tufvesson, Pär; Vogel, Andreas; Woodley, John

    enantio specificity (e.e). However, it is critical that this is done in parallel process development to make sure that the properties developed also fit the process requirements. As an example, ω -transaminases (EC can be used to produce optyically pure chiral amines (with 100% theoretical yield...... how changes to a wild type transaminase through protein engineering changed the characteristics of the biocatalyst and the implications this would have on a process. A methodology for characterizing the biocatalyst was developed which was subsequently applied to the wild type and 5 mutants selected...

  10. beta-Chloro-L-alanine inhibition of the Escherichia coli alanine-valine transaminase.

    Whalen, W A; Wang, M D; Berg, C M


    beta-Chloro-L-alanine, an amino acid analog which inhibits a number of enzymes, reversibly inhibited the Escherichia coli K-12 alanine-valine transaminase, transaminase C. This inhibition, along with the inhibition of transaminase B, accounted for the isoleucine-plus-valine requirement of E. coli in the presence of beta-chloro-L-alanine.

  11. Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase deficiencies

    Parviz, Mahsa; Vogel, Kara; Gibson, K Michael; Pearl, Phillip L.


    Clinical disorders known to affect inherited gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) metabolism are autosomal recessively inherited succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and GABA-transaminase deficiency. The clinical presentation of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency includes intellectual disability, ataxia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and epilepsy with a nonprogressive course in typical cases, although a progressive form in early childhood as well as deterioration in adulthood with worse...

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on fish transaminase and rhodanese

    Investigations on glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and rhodanese of both unirradiated and irradiated chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) have been carried out. Fish were irradiated with doses varied from 0 to 5 kGy, at a dose rate of 2 kGy/hr. Fish extracts prepared in 0.01 M phosphate-buffer of pH 7 were used throughout the enzyme experiments. The conclusion drawn from five replicates showed a significant decrease (P<=0.01) in fish G0T, GPT and rhodanese specific activities after irradiation. It is proved that GOT and GPT were more susceptible towards irradiation as compared to rhodanese. An irradiation dose of 4 kGy was able to inactivate G0T, GPT and rhodanese for ca 50, 44 and 36% respectively. Evidently transaminase as well as rhodanese specific activities to spoiled fish were significantly lower (P<=0.01) than those of fresh fish. The residual GOT, GPT and rhodanese specific activities in spoiled fish was found to be about 35, 41 and 22% respectively. (author)

  13. Analysis of an avtA::Mu d1(Ap lac) mutant: metabolic role of transaminase C.

    Whalen, W A; Berg, C M


    Escherichia coli can synthesize alpha-ketoisovalerate, the precursor of valine, leucine, and pantothenate, by three routes: anabolically via dihydroxyacid dehydrase and catabolically via both the branched-chain amino acid transaminase (transaminase B) and the alanine-valine transaminase (transaminase C). An E. coli K-12 mutant devoid of transaminase C (avtA) was isolated by mutagenizing an isoleucine-requiring strain devoid of transaminase B (ilvE::Tn5) with Mu d1(Ap lac) and selecting for va...

  14. Hybridization of glutamate aspartate transaminase. Investigation of subunit interaction.

    Boettcher, B; Martinez-Carrion, M


    Glutamate aspartate transaminase (EC is a dimeric enzyme with identical subunits with each active site containing pyridoxal 5'-phosphate linked via an internal Shiff's base to a lysine residue. It is not known if these sites interact during catalysis but negative cooperativity has been reported for binding of the coenzyme (Arrio-Dupont, M. (1972), Eur. J. Biochem. 30, 307). Also nonequivalence of its subunits in binding 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (Harris, H.E., and Bayley, P. M. (1975), Biochem. J. 145, 125), in modification of only a single tyrosine with full loss of activity (Christen, P., and Riordan, J.F. (1970), Biochemistry 9, 3025), and following modification with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (Cournil, I., and Arrio-Dupont, M. (1973), Biochemie 55, 103) has been reported. However, steady-state and transient kinetic methods as well as direct titration of the active site chromophore with substrates and substrate analogs have not revealed any cooperative phenomena (Braunstein, A. E. (1973), Enzymes, 3rd Ed. 9, 379). It was therefore decided that a more direct approach should be used to clarify the quistion of subunit interaction during the covalent phase of catalysis. To this end a hybrid method was devised in which a hybrid transaminase was prepared which contained one subunit with a functional active site while the other subunit has the internal Shiff's base reduced with NaBH4. The specific activities and amount of "actively bound" pyridoxal 5'-phosphate are both in a 2:1 ratio for the native and hybrid forms. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of the hybrid and native enzyme forms shows that both forms gave parallel double reciprocal plots which is characteristic of the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism of transamination. The Km values for the substrates L-aspartic acid and alpha-ketoglutaric acid are nearly identical while the Vmax value for the hybrid is one-half the value of the native transaminase. It therefore appears that

  15. Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Falkinham, J O


    A mutation affecting alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity has been shown to be cotransducible with ilv gene cluster. The transaminase deficiency results in conditional isoleucine auxotrophy in the presence of alanine. PMID:396446

  16. Bacillus anthracis ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase employs a different mechanism for dual substrate recognition than other amine transaminases.

    Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Matzel, Philipp; Sowa, Miriam A; Berglund, Per; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Höhne, Matthias


    Understanding the metabolic potential of organisms or a bacterial community based on their (meta) genome requires the reliable prediction of an enzyme's function from its amino acid sequence. Besides a remarkable development in prediction algorithms, the substrate scope of sequences with low identity to well-characterized enzymes remains often very elusive. From a recently conducted structure function analysis study of PLP-dependent enzymes, we identified a putative transaminase from Bacillus anthracis (Ban-TA) with the crystal structure 3N5M (deposited in the protein data bank in 2011, but not yet published). The active site residues of Ban-TA differ from those in related (class III) transaminases, which thereby have prevented function predictions. By investigating 50 substrate combinations its amine and ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity was revealed. Even though Ban-TA showed a relatively narrow amine substrate scope within the tested substrates, it accepts 2-propylamine, which is a prerequisite for industrial asymmetric amine synthesis. Structural information implied that the so-called dual substrate recognition of chemically different substrates (i.e. amines and amino acids) differs from that in formerly known enzymes. It lacks the normally conserved 'flipping' arginine, which enables dual substrate recognition by its side chain flexibility in other ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminases. Molecular dynamics studies suggested that another arginine (R162) binds ω-amino acids in Ban-TA, but no side chain movements are required for amine and amino acid binding. These results, supported by mutagenesis studies, provide functional insights for the B. anthracis enzyme, enable function predictions of related proteins, and broadened the knowledge regarding ω-amino acid and amine converting transaminases. PMID:26795966

  17. Regulation of transaminase C synthesis in Escherichia coli: conditional leucine auxotrophy.

    McGilvray, D; Umbarger, H E


    The regulation of synthesis of the valine-alanine-alpha-aminobutyrate transaminase (transaminase C) was studied in Escherichia coli mutants lacking the branched-chain amino acid transaminase (transaminase B). An investigation was made of two strains, CU2 and CU2002, each carrying the same transaminase B lesion but exhibiting different growth responses on a medium supplemented with branched-chain amino acids. Both had the absolute isoleucine requirement characteristic of ilvE auxotrophs, but growth of strain CU2 was stimulated by valine, whereas that of strain CU2002 was markedly inhibited by valine. Strain CU2002 behaved like a conditional leucine auxotroph in that the inhibition by valine was reversed by leucine. Results of enzymatic studies showed that synthesis of transaminase C was repressed by valine in strain CU2002 but not in strain CU2. Inhibition by valine in strain CU2002 appears to be the combined effect of repression on transaminase C synthesis and valine-dependent feedback inhibition of alpha-acetohydroxy acid synthase activity, causing alpha-ketoisovalerate (and hence leucine) limitation. The ilvE markers of strains CU2 and CU2002 were each transferred by transduction to a wild-type genetical background. All ilvE recombinants from both crosses resembled strain CU2002 and were inhibited by valine in the presence of isoleucine. Thus, strain CU2 carries an additional lesion that allows it to grow on a medium containing isoleucine plus valine. It is concluded that conditional leucine auxotrophy is characteristic of mutants carrying an ilvE lesion alone. PMID:4616947

  18. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects ☆

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji


    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase level...

  19. Catalytic Promiscuity of Transaminases: Preparation of Enantioenriched β-Fluoroamines by Formal Tandem Hydrodefluorination/Deamination.

    Cuetos, Aníbal; García-Ramos, Marina; Fischereder, Eva-Maria; Díaz-Rodríguez, Alba; Grogan, Gideon; Gotor, Vicente; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván


    Transaminases are valuable enzymes for industrial biocatalysis and enable the preparation of optically pure amines. For these transformations they require either an amine donor (amination of ketones) or an amine acceptor (deamination of racemic amines). Herein transaminases are shown to react with aromatic β-fluoroamines, thus leading to simultaneous enantioselective dehalogenation and deamination to form the corresponding acetophenone derivatives in the absence of an amine acceptor. A series of racemic β-fluoroamines was resolved in a kinetic resolution by tandem hydrodefluorination/deamination, thus giving the corresponding amines with up to greater than 99 % ee. This protocol is the first example of exploiting the catalytic promiscuity of transaminases as a tool for novel transformations. PMID:26836037

  20. A methodology for cascade selection for co-product removal in the ω-transaminase system

    Janes, Kresimir; Gernaey, Krist; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    Production of chiral amines using transaminases has indeed been proposed recently as an interesting alternative to conventional methods to help in the synthesis of many new pharmaceuticals. Two reaction strategies have been demonstrated: kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis. The latter...... methodology has been applied to an ω-transaminase system which is thermodynamically challenged and enzymatic ISCPR is deployed to shift the equilibrium. The enzymes proposed for co-product removal are dehydrogenases: lactate dehydrogenase (EC, alanine dehydrogenase (EC, yeast alcohol...

  1. Disproportional exaggerated aspartate transaminase is a useful prognostic parameter in late leptospirosis

    Ming-Ling Chang; Chih-Wei Yang; Jeng-Chang Chen; Yu-Pin Ho; Ming-Jeng Pan; Cheng-Hui Lin; Deng-Yn Lin


    AIM: To evaluate the hepatic dysfunction in leptospirosis is usually mild and resolved eventually. However,sequential follow-up of liver biochemical data remained lacking..METHODS: The biochemistry data and clinical symptoms of 11 sporadic patients were collected and analyzed, focusing on the impacts of leptospirosis upon liver biochemistry tests.RESULTS: The results disclosed that of the 11 cases, 5 or 45% died. The liver biochemistry data in the beginning of the disease course were only mildly elevated.Nevertheless, late exaggerated aspartate transaminase (AST)elevations were noted in three cases who finally died when compared with the typical course. Besides, significant higher AST/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratios (AARs) of the peak levels for transaminase were also noted in the cases who eventually succumbed. The mean±SD of AARs for the survival group and dead group were 5.65±2.27 (n = 5)and 1.86±0.64 (n = 6) respectively (P= 0.006). The ratios of the cases who finally died were all more than 3.0.Conversely, the survival group's ratios were less than 3.0.CONCLUSION: Serial follow-up of transaminase might provide evidence to predict some rare evolutions in leptospirosis. If AST elevated progressively without a concomitant change of ALT, it might indicate an acute disease course with ensuing death. Additionally, AAR is another prognostic parameter for leptospirosis. Once the value was higher than 3.0, a grave prognosis is inevitable.

  2. Amine donor and acceptor influence on the thermodynamics of ω-transaminase reactions

    Gundersen, Maria T.; Abu, Rohana; Schürmann, Martin; Woodley, John


    In recent years biocatalytic transamination using ω-transaminase has become established as one of the most interesting routes to synthesize chiral amines with a high enantiomeric purity, especially in the pharmaceutical sector where the demand for such compounds is high. Nevertheless, one limitat...

  3. A Practical and Fast Method To Predict the Thermodynamic Preference of ω-Transaminase-Based Transformations

    Meier, Robert J.; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John; Schürmann, Martin


    A simple, easy-to-use, and fast approach method is proposed and validated that can predict whether a transaminase reaction is thermodynamically unfavourable. This allowed us to de-select, in the present case, at least 50% of the reactions because they were thermodynamically unfavourable as confir...

  4. Simultaneous synthesis of 2-phenylethanol and L-homophenylalanine using aromatic transaminase with yeast Ehrlich pathway.

    Hwang, Joon-Young; Park, Jihyang; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Minho; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Byung-Gee


    2-Phenylethanol is a widely used aroma compound with rose-like fragrance and L-homophenylalanine is a building block of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. 2-phenylethanol and L-homophenylalanine were synthesized simultaneously with high yield from 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, respectively. A recombinant Escherichia coli harboring a coupled reaction pathway comprising of aromatic transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, carbonyl reductase, and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was constructed. In the coupled reaction pathway, the transaminase reaction was coupled with the Ehrlich pathway of yeast; (1) a phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (YDR380W) as the enzyme to generate the substrate for the carbonyl reductase from phenylpyruvate (i.e., byproduct of the transaminase reaction) and to shift the reaction equilibrium of the transaminase reaction, and (2) a carbonyl reductase (YGL157W) to produce the 2-phenylethanol. Selecting the right carbonyl reductase showing the highest activity on phenylacetaldehyde with narrow substrate specificity was the key to success of the constructing the coupling reaction. In addition, NADPH regeneration was achieved by incorporating the GDH from Bacillus subtilis in the coupled reaction pathway. Based on 40 mM of L-phenylalanine used, about 96% final product conversion yield of 2-phenylethanol was achieved using the recombinant E. coli. PMID:19016485

  5. Indian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presenting with raised transaminases are different at presentation

    Ajay Duseja; Naveen Kaita; Ashim Das; Radha Krishan Dhiman; Yogesh Kumar Chawla; Reena Das; Sanjay Bhadada; Ravinder Sialy; Kiran Kumar Thumburu; Anil Bhansali


    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with great interest the article, "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may not be a severe disease at presentation among Asian Indians" by Madan et al in the recent issue of WJG. Twenty-eight (55%) out of 51 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who presented with abnormal transaminases had histological evidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

  6. A Rapid Selection Procedure for Simple Commercial Implementation of omega-Transaminase Reactions

    Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Tufvesson, Pär; Rackham, Emma J.; Lloyd, Richard C.; Woodley, John


    A stepwise selection procedure is presented to quickly evaluate whether a given omega-transaminase reaction is suitable for a so-called "simple" scale-up for fast industrial implementation. Here "simple" is defined as a system without the need for extensive process development or specialized...

  7. Immobilization of Escherichia coli containing ω‐transaminase activity in LentiKats®

    Cárdenas‐Fernández, Max; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; López, Carmen; Álvaro, Gregorio; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John M.


    Whole Escherichia coli cells overexpressing ω‐transaminase (ω‐TA) and immobilized cells entrapped in LentiKats® were used as biocatalysts in the asymmetric synthesis of the aromatic chiral amines 1‐phenylethylamine (PEA) and 3‐amino‐1‐phenylbutane (APB). Whole cells were permeabilized with...

  8. Selections of minimal conditions for a simple intensification and scale up of w-transaminase reactions

    Gundersen, Maria T.; Lloyd, Richard C; Woodley, John

    A step wise decision matrix is presented to quickly evaluate w - transaminase for a ‘simple scale up’ in the synthetic direction . Here a ‘simple scale up’ is defined as a system without specialized equipment or process development, thus a rapid implementation . The three step method consists of...

  9. Purification, characterization, and molecular cloning of a novel amine:pyruvate transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17.

    Shin, J-S; Yun, H; Jang, J-W; Park, I; Kim, B-G


    A transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17 showing activity toward chiral amines was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were characterized. The transaminase showed an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography and a subunit mass of 50 kDa by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, suggesting a dimeric structure. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.4 and its absorption spectrum exhibited maxima at 320 and 405 nm. The optimal pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 9.2 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Pyruvate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate increased enzyme stability whereas (S)-alpha-methylbenzylamine reversibly inactivated the enzyme. The transaminase gene was cloned from a V. fluvialis JS17 genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence (453 residues) showed significant homology with omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminases (omega-APT) from various bacterial strains (80 identical residues with four omega-APTs). However, of 159 conserved residues in the four omega-APTs, 79 were not conserved in the transaminase from V. fluvialis JS17. Taken together with the sequence homology results, and the lack of activity toward beta-alanine (a typical amino donor for the omega-APT), the results suggest that the transaminase is a novel amine:pyruvate transaminase that has not been reported to date. PMID:12687298

  10. Two previously undetected variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase found by acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    McLellan, T


    Two new electrophoretic variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) have been found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at acidic pH. They appeared to represent a single allele, GPT 2, by the standard method of starch gel electrophoresis. Studies in families show that they are inherited as codominant alleles at the GPT locus. Population frequencies are about the same as those of other rare GPT variants. Their behavior on gels is consistent with both of them having substitutions of histi...

  11. Pengaruh Obat Anti-Tuberkulosis terhadap Perubahan Enzim Transaminase Hati dalam Dua Bulan Pengobatan Tahun 2015



    Since 1995, WHO recommends DOTS strategy to prevent TB in Indonesia. This strategy has high effectivity, but the cure rate is still low because of low compliance for regular treatment which one of the casues is drug side effect. Anti-TB Drug effects are various and one of them is hepatotoxicity which liver transaminase enzymes rise without clinical symptoms is a common episode after Anti-TB drug treatment so that BTS recommends liver function monitoring for two months. Therefore, the purpose ...


    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso


    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  13. Role of alanine-valine transaminase in Salmonella typhimurium and analysis of an avtA::Tn5 mutant.

    Berg, C M; Whalen, W A; Archambault, L B


    In Salmonella typhimurium, as in Escherichia coli, mutations in avtA, the gene encoding the alanine-valine transaminase (transaminase C), are silent unless they are combined with mutations involved in isoleucine-valine biosynthesis. avtA is repressed by leucine or alanine but not by valine. Transaminase C is found at reduced levels upon starvation for any one of several amino acids. We hypothesize that this is due to repression of avtA by the elevated alanine and leucine pools found in amino ...

  14. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Can Improve Liver Transaminase Quantities in Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs Hepatotoxicity: a Pilot Study.

    Masoumeh Asgarshirazi


    Full Text Available The present study has been directed to investigate Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA effect in children, to reduce the high Liver transaminases induced by Anticonvulsant drugs (drug induced hepatitis. This idea has been driven from Cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of UDCA to be used in drug induced inflammation in Liver. Twenty two epileptic patients aged between 4 mo - 3 yr whom were under anticonvulsant therapy with drugs such as valperoic acid, primidone, levetiracetam, Phenobarbital or any combination of them and had shown Liver transaminases rise , after rule out of Viral-Autoimmune, Metabolic and Anatomic causes, have been prescribed UDCA in dose of 10-15 mg/kg/day, at least for 6 months. Any patient who have shown confusing factors such as genetic disorders with liver involvement or spontaneous decline in enzymes or had not treatment compliance has been excluded from the study. Transaminases range changes as well as Probable side effects of the drug have been monitored. The results indicated that UDCA is effective and well tolerable in the children with drug induced hyper transaminasemia. No side effect has been seen and recorded in this study. Based on this study and its results, we recommend UDCA as a safe and effective choice in drug induced hepatotoxicities.

  15. Towards a standardized way of reporting physicochemical data and process metrics for transaminase reactions

    Tufvesson, Pär

    Transaminase catalyzed transformations have the potential of becoming a standard tool for the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines [1]. Many studies show the wide span of substrate acceptance and the excellent enantioselectivity that can be achieved [2]. However, many times critical informat......Transaminase catalyzed transformations have the potential of becoming a standard tool for the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines [1]. Many studies show the wide span of substrate acceptance and the excellent enantioselectivity that can be achieved [2]. However, many times critical...... information about the system and the reaction performance is lacking in the otherwise very useful scientific reports at laboratory scale. For instance, although K equilibrium is one of the key determining factors for the design and scale-up any transaminase process, it is very rarely reported [3]. In order...... to build a broader understanding of the correlation between the underlying physicochemical properties of the system (e.g. substrate volatility) and the process performance (e.g. gram of product per gram of biocatalyst), it would be highly beneficial if these data were reported, and ideally in a consistent...

  16. Marked elevation of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes in severe malnourished male with eating disorder.

    Urso, C; Brucculeri, S; Caimi, G


    We report a case of a 45 year old Caucasian malnourished male with an history of eating disorder who developed severe liver and pancreatic damage and multiorgan disfunction. At admission to our department, his body mass index (BMI) was 11.1. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of transaminases (AST= 2291 U/L, ALT= 1792 U/L), amylase (3620 U/L), lipase (4102 U/L), CPK= 1370 U/L, LDH= 2082 U/L. No other cause of acute liver and pancreatic damage was evidenced. Haematological disorders (anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia) found on admission seem related to bone marrow hypoplasia and to gelatinous marrow transformation described in severe state of malnutrition. Although a moderate increase in liver and pancreatic enzymes are a common finding in malnourished patients, only a small number of reports describes severe liver injury and multiorgan dysfunction. After a few days of treatment (hydration and nutritional support) a marked decrease of serum transaminases, lipase, amylase, CPK, LDH occurred, despite a transient increase in these levels secondary to refeeding syndrome. The association of chronic malnutrition and a decrease in systemic perfusion may be responsible for multiorgan dysfunction. In our patient the high levels of transaminases and pancreatic enzymes were the most important biochemical abnormalities normalized after refeeding. PMID:24217841

  17. Screening on the higher yield of transaminase producing escherichia coli with the metal ion implantation

    Mutagenic effects of the transaminase producing bacterium Escherichia coli U12-3-19 by low energy metal ion (Ti2+) implantation were investigated. And the different mutagenic effects of E. coli irradiated with UV and low-energy ions were compared. The results showed that the E. coli after the ion implantation could achieve higher rate of mutation and wide mutational spectrum. A high yield L-phe strain has been bred from this. In the shaking flask, the L-phe productivity of strain U12-25-116-J75 increased by 22.67% than of the comparison strain with the PPA concentration of 20 g/L. (authors)

  18. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.


    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  19. Termoativação da transaminase glutâmico oxaloacética

    Hélion Póvoa Júnior


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade da transaminase glutâmico oxaloacética (TGO em diferentes tecidos (fígado, músculo, rim, pulmão, baço e soro sanguíneo de ratos e de soro humano. verificou-se que a atividade da enzima proveniente de qualquer um destes tecidos é aumentada cerca de tr~es vezes quando a incubação se faz a 60ºC, ao invés de 37ºC. São feitas considerações acerca da importância deste fato.Glutamic Oxalacetic transaminase is thermoativated. Its optimum of catalytical activity is at 60ºC. At this temperature, colour is approximately three times more intense than at 37ºC, temperature usually utilized for determination of enzyme activity. This phenomenon is observed in human blood serum and several rat tissues (liver, heart, striated muscle, spleen, lung, kidney and blood serum.

  20. 308.15 K、313.15 K和318.15K下4-氨基丁酸在硫酸沙丁胺醇水溶液中的体积和黏度研究%Volumetric and Viscometric Studies of 4-Aminobutyric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Salbutamol Sulphate at 308.15,313.15 and 318.15 K

    K. Rajagopal; S.S. Jayabalakrishnan


    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements were carried out for 4-aminobutyric acid in 0.0041, 0.0125 and 0.0207 mol·L~(-1) aqueous salbutamol sulphate at T= 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K.. The measured values of density and viscosity were used to estimate some important parameters such as apparent molar volume V_φ, limiting apparent molar volume V_φ~0, transfer volume ΔV_φ~0, hydration number nH , second derivative of infinite dilution of partial molar volume with temperature (e)~2V_φ~0 /(e)T~2 , viscosity B-coefficients, variation of B with temperature dB/dT, free energy of activation per mole of solvent Δμ_1~(0*) and solute Δμ_2~(0*), activation entropy ΔS_2~(0*) and activation enthalpy ΔH_2~(0*) of the amino acids. These parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  1. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Maika Genz


    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  2. A methodology for cascade selection for co-product removal in the ω-transaminase system

    Janes, Kresimir; Gernaey, Krist; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    Production of chiral amines using transaminases has indeed been proposed recently as an interesting alternative to conventional methods to help in the synthesis of many new pharmaceuticals. Two reaction strategies have been demonstrated: kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis. The latter...... pharmaceutical processes can only be achieved by selectively removing the product and/or co-product formed during the reaction (so called in-situ (co)product removal (IS(C)PR)). Several different alternative co-product removal strategies have been suggested, all of which have different impacts on the overall...... process. Among others, one of the most promising strategies is to use a second enzyme reaction to remove the co-product in an enzymatic cascade [2]. Currently there are no decision tools available to help select appropriate cascade systems for process implementation. In the current work a methodology for...

  3. A case study on robust optimal experimental design for model calibration of ω-Transaminase

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    Proper calibration of models describing enzyme kinetics can be quite challenging. This is especially the case for more complex models like transaminase models (Shin and Kim, 1998). The latter fitted model parameters, but the confidence on the parameter estimation was not derived. Hence, the...... measurement errors. Since the latter was not provided, a conservative standard deviation of 5% was assumed. The confidence analysis yielded that only two (Vr and Kac) out of five parameters were reliable estimates, which means that model predictions and decisions based on them are highly uncertain. The reason...... behind this problem is practical identifiability, which can be related to both the model structure and/or the information content of the data.The available data are 25 experiments performed by Shin and Kim, set up in a 5x5 factorial design (2 substrates with 5 concentration levels each) across the...

  4. Process engineering tools to guide implementation and scale-up of transaminase cascades

    Tufvesson, Pär; Janes, Kresimir; Lima Ramos, Joana;

    a means to synthesize optically pure chiral amines from prochiral ketones using an amine donor. Chiral amines can also be synthesized by other routes but the importance of the compounds mean that a variety of routes will be required to cover the synthesis of many different chiral amines of different...... properties and values. A major challenge in the transaminase catalysed synthesis of chiral amines is the unfavourable equilibrium position [1]. There are several solutions to such equilibrium problems, including the use of in-situ product removal (ISPR) and cascade reactions to degrade or recycle the co......-product formed. Such techniques, especially those using cascades can be a great tool to overcome the thermodynamic hurdle, but also present some new challenges with respect to compatibility of reaction conditions, recycling of co-factors and last but not least, the added cost of the cascade system components [2...

  5. Effect of organophosphorus pesticide on plasma transaminases and amino acids in rats

    Pesticides are added to the environment for killing or injuring some of life. Most of the chemicals that are used as pesticides are not highly selective but are generally toxic to man, and other desirable form of life. in case of organophosphorus pesticides, the problem of accumulated residual physiological effects of these pesticides has lead to some studies on their effects on animals. the present investigation was undertaken to show the effect of repeated administered doses of organophosphorus pesticide, curacron, for different periods on brain and liver free amino acids. the toxic effects of repeated oral doses of curacron were evaluated by measuring serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases. also radioimmunoassay technique was used to study the effect of different repeated doses of curacron at different periods on triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) hormones using 125I labelled triiodothyronine and 125I labelled thyroxine

  6. Immobilisation of ω-transaminase for industrial application: Screening and characterisation of commercial ready to use enzyme carriers

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Schürmann, Martin; Panella, Lavinia; Vogel, Andreas; Woodley, John


    Despite of the advantages that enzyme immobilisation can bring to industrial biocatalysis, its utilisation is still limited to a small number of enzymes and processes. Transaminase catalysed processes are a good example where immobilisation can be of major importance and even decisive for economi...

  7. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects☆

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji


    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Methods Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Results Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27051595

  8. The coupling of ω-transaminase and Oppenauer oxidation reactions via intra-membrane multicomponent diffusion – A process model for the synthesis of chiral amines

    Esparza-Isunza, T.; González-Brambila, M.; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John; Lopez-Isunza, Felipe


    In this study we consider the theoretical coupling of an otherwise thermodynamically limited ω-transaminase reaction to an Oppenauer oxidation, in order to shift the equilibria of both reactions, with the aim of achieving a significant (and important) increase in the yield of the desired chiral...... amine product. Using 2-propylamine as the amine donor of the ω-transaminase reaction, gives acetone as a by-product, which in turn allows the coupling of the ω-transaminase reaction with the Oppenauer oxidation. The Oppenauer reaction converts secondary alcohols into ketones, and these can subsequently...... be fed to the ω-transaminase reaction. In this way, one of the products of the ω-transaminase reaction becomes the reactant of the Oppenauer reaction, and vice versa, creating a cycle which shifts the equilibria of both reactions. Such coupled reactions are frequently found in nature. The purpose of...

  9. Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats

    Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

  10. Magnetic catechol-chitosan with bioinspired adhesive surface: preparation and immobilization of ω-transaminase.

    Kefeng Ni

    Full Text Available The magnetic chitosan nanocomposites have been studied intensively and been used practically in various biomedical and biological applications including enzyme immobilization. However, the loading capacity and the remained activity of immobilized enzyme based on existing approaches are not satisfied. Simpler and more effective immobilization strategies are needed. Here we report a simple catechol modified protocol for preparing a novel catechol-chitosan (CCS-iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs composites carrying adhesive moieties with strong surface affinity. The ω-transaminase (ω-TA was immobilized onto this magnetic composite via nucleophilic reactions between catechol and ω-TA. Under optimal conditions, 87.5% of the available ω-TA was immobilized on the composite, yielding an enzyme loading capacity as high as 681.7 mg/g. Furthermore, the valuation of enzyme activity showed that ω-TA immobilized on CCS-IONPs displayed enhanced pH and thermal stability compared to free enzyme. Importantly, the immobilized ω-TA retained more than 50% of its initial activity after 15 repeated reaction cycles using magnetic separation and 61.5% of its initial activity after storage at 4°C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS for 15 days. The results suggested that such adhesive magnetic composites may provide an improved platform technology for bio-macromolecules immobilized.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum

    An ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from C. violaceum has been purified and crystallized in two crystal forms. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement. The enzyme ω-transaminase catalyses the conversion of chiral ω-amines to ketones. The recombinant enzyme from Chromobacterium violaceum has been purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was crystallized from PEG 4000 using the microbatch method. Data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution from a crystal belonging to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 61.9, c = 63.9 Å, α = 71.9, β = 87.0, γ = 74.6°. Data were also collected to 1.95 Å from a second triclinic crystal form. The structure has been solved using the molecular-replacement method

  12. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.


    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-support...

  13. Effect of Neemta 2100 toxicity on acetylcholinesterase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enzymes in serum of fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Parveen, M.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.


    Acetylcholinesterase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enzymes have been used as marker monitoring the effect of neem seed based pesticide Neemta 2100 on the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fishes exposed to sublethal concentrations of Neemta 2100 for acute periods of 24 and 48 hours were sacrificed to determine enzyme activities in serum affected due to toxicity. Laboratory studies of in vivo exposure of this pesticide showed synergistic inhibitory effect during acute period of to...

  14. Pattern of histological findings in chronic hepatitis C with alanine transaminase levels below twice the normal value

    To assess the pattern of liver histology in chronic hepatitis C, with serum alanine transaminase levels persistently up to twice the normal range, and to identify factors associated with minimal and clinically significant histological disease categories. This study was carried out at Ziauddin University Karachi and Pakistan Medical Research Council, Karachi, from January 2007 to July 2009. Biopsy specimens were staged and graded according to METAVIR scoring system. A fibrosis score of > F2 and activity score of > A2 was considered significant. Overall disease severity groups; minimal disease (less than F2 and A2) and significant disease (F2 or A2 and above), were compared for their association with different variables. Out of 83 patients, 32 had significant fibrosis and 15 had significant activity. Twenty three patients with significant fibrosis belonged to F2 stage. Nine had F3 fibrosis and none of our patients had cirrhosis. Overall 33 (40%) patients had significant disease. Age of the patient, alanine transaminase levels, number of the portal tracts and severity of the portal inflammation in liver biopsy were significantly associated with severity of the liver disease. Gender of the patient and steatosis in liver biopsy were not significant. A substantial proportion of patients with alanine transaminase levels within twice the upper limit of normal had significant liver disease. (author)

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of β-transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK

    β-Transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK was crystallized. The crystals were found to belong to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.91, b = 192.17, c = 52.75 Å. The crystals were obtained at 293 K and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å. β-Transaminase (β-TA) catalyzes the transamination reaction between β-aminocarboxylic acids and keto acids. This enzyme is a particularly suitable candidate for use as a biocatalyst for the asymmetric synthesis of enantiochemically pure β-amino acids for pharmaceutical purposes. The β-TA from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK (β-TAMs) belongs to a novel class in that it shows β-transaminase activity with a broad and unique substrate specificity. In this study, β-TAMs was overexpressed in Escherichia coli with an engineered C-terminal His tag. β-TAMs was then purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a crystal that belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.91, b = 192.17, c = 52.75 Å

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of omega-transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17

    The omega-transaminase from V. fluvialis JS17 was crystallized. Crystals were found to belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.43, b = 95.95, c = 122.89 Å. The crystals were obtained at 293 K and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å. Omega-transaminase (ω-TA) catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from a non-α-position amino acid or an amine compound with no carboxylic group to an amino acceptor. ω-TA from Vibrio fluvialis JS17 (ω-TAVf) is a novel amine:pyruvate transaminase that is capable of stereoselective transamination of aryl chiral amines. In this study, ω-TAVf was overexpressed in Escherichia coli with engineered C-terminal His tags. ω-TAVf was then purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 292 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a crystal belonging to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.43, b = 95.95, c = 122.89 Å

  17. Profile of hemogram and transaminases in dengue-suspected patients at a first-aid health unit

    Érica Maria da Silva


    Full Text Available Current retrospective analysis describes the laboratorial profile of patients hypothetically diagnosed with dengue at a First-Aid Health Unit in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Results of hemograms were assessed by counting platelets and transaminase dosages, in the first half of 2012. Further, 394 patients (252 females or 64% and 142 males or 34% were listed, mostly during March and April. Hemograms with platelet counting was undertaken with 210 patients (53.3% and hemogram plus transaminases dosages with 184 patients (46.7%. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and atypical lymphocytes occurred in both genders. Hematocrits were highest in males and transaminases were more altered in females. Patients attended at the health unit with clinical symptoms of classical dengue had a laboratory profile of non-specific exams which is a feature of infection by the dengue virus. Diagnosis could not be confirmed and the need of a fast test in the health unit services was mandatory. The above avoids dengue cases not being notified and treated or overestimated.

  18. Identification of novel thermostable taurine-pyruvate transaminase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans for chiral amine synthesis.

    Chen, Yujie; Yi, Dong; Jiang, Shuiqin; Wei, Dongzhi


    ω-Transaminases (ω-TAs) are one of the most popular candidate enzymes in the biosynthesis of chiral amines. Determination of yet unidentified ω-TAs is important to broaden their potential for synthetic application. Taurine-pyruvate TA (TPTA, EC is an ω-TA belonging to class III of TAs. In this study, we cloned a novel thermostable TPTA from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (TPTAgth) and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 65 °C, with remarkable thermostability and tolerance toward organic solvents. Its K M and v max values for taurine were 5.3 mM and 0.28 μmol s(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Determination of substrate tolerance indicated its broad donor and acceptor ranges for unnatural substrates. Notably, the enzyme showed relatively good activity toward ketoses, suggesting its potential for catalyzing the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amino alcohols. The active site of TPTAgth was identified by performing protein sequence alignment, three-dimensional structure simulation, and coenzyme pyridoxamine phosphate docking. The protein sequence and structure of TPTAgth were similar to those of TAs belonging to the 3N5M subfamily. Its active site was found to be its special large pocket and substrate tunnel. In addition, TPTAgth showed a unique mechanism of sulfonate/α-carboxylate recognition contributed by Arg163 and Gln160. We also determined the protein sequence fingerprint of TPTAs in the 3N5M subfamily, which involved Arg163 and Gln160 and seven additional residues from 413 to 419 and lacked Phe/Tyr22, Phe85, and Arg409. PMID:26577674

  19. A β-Alanine Catabolism Pathway Containing a Highly Promiscuous ω-Transaminase in the 12-Aminododecanate-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain AAC

    Wilding, Matthew; Thomas S Peat; Newman, Janet; Scott, Colin


    ABSTRACT We previously isolated the transaminase KES23458 from Pseudomonas sp. strain AAC as a promising biocatalyst for the production of 12-aminododecanoic acid, a constituent building block of nylon-12. Here, we report the subsequent characterization of this transaminase. It exhibits activity with a broad substrate range which includes α-, β-, and ω-amino acids, as well as α,ω-diamines and a number of other industrially relevant compounds. It is therefore a prospective candidate for the bi...

  20. Elevated transaminases as a predictor of coma in a patient with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

    Yoshida Shuhei


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver injury is a frequent complication associated with anorexia nervosa, and steatosis of the liver is thought to be the major underlying pathology. However, acute hepatic failure with transaminase levels over 1000 IU/mL and deep coma are very rare complications and the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Case presentation A 37-year-old Japanese woman showed features of acute liver failure and hepatic coma which were not associated with hypoglycemia or hyper-ammonemia. Our patient's consciousness was significantly improved with the recovery of liver function and normalization of transaminase levels after administration of nutritional support. Conclusions Our case report demonstrates that transaminase levels had an inverse relationship with the consciousness of our patient, although the pathogenesis of coma remains largely unknown. This indicates that transaminase levels can be one of the key predictors of impending coma in patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, frequent monitoring of transaminase levels combined with rigorous treatment of the underlying nutritional deficiency and psychiatric disorder are necessary to prevent this severe complication.




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare serum Aspartate Transaminase of normotensive pregnant women with those of pre-eclamptic and eclamptic women. To determine the relationship of levels of serum Aspartate Transaminase with severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its complications. METHOD The study was carried out on pregnant hypertensive patients attending Outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, AMCH Dibrugarh, Assam from 1 st July 2013 to 30 th June 2014. Normotensive pregnant women were taken as controls. Each serum sample from the control group as well as study group was estimated for Aspartate Transaminase using standard methods, and a comparison is drawn and analysed using t-test and chi-square test. RESULTS Serum Aspartate Transaminase levels were high in the study group. The levels of this enzyme were normal in the control group. CONCLUSION Aspartate Transaminase levels in patients suffering from preeclampsia and its complications are consistently higher compared to the normotensive pregnant patients. To determine the usefulness of inclusion of this enzyme along with other cardiac enzymes in the panel of investigations of pregnant women universally needs further large scale comparative studies.

  2. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc


    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products. PMID:24733517

  3. The use of 15N-labelled amino acids in vivo and in vitro for transamination studies: tryptophan transaminase in maize plants

    Besides conventional methods, transaminase activity can also be followed by an isotopically labelled substrate, i.e. by an amino acid with a 15N labelled amino group. The application of the labelled substrate enables their study in vitro as well as in vivo. This method was applied for following the tryptophan transaminase activity in germinating maize plants. The enzym preparations used for in vitro analysis were purified on a Sephadex G 100 column. For in vivo experiments the 15N substrate was introduced by vacuum infiltration into the plants leaves. The amino acids originated by transamination are chromatographically separated and after purifying by paper electrophoresis, the atom excess 15N is determined. In maize tissue originated glutamic acid (from infiltrated α-ketoglutarate substrate), which in the course of further reactions was transformed into aspartic acid and asparagine. The results found so far by studying the low activity of tryptophan-transaminase in vivo entitle us to improve our method of transaminase activity determination by using 15N labelled-substrate. (author)

  4. Sequence Classification: 891219 [

    Full Text Available aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase (4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase) involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathwa...ys; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; Uga1p || ...

  5. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of vigabatrin, a γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor, in Wistar rats submitted to rotarod task.

    Coelho, V R; Sousa, K; Pires, T R; Papke, Dkm; Vieira, C G; de Souza, L P; Leal, M B; Schunck, Rva; Picada, J N; Pereira, P


    Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug thatincreases brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels through irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxicological effects of VGB measuring motor activity and genotoxic and mutagenic effects after a single and repeated administration. Male Wistar rats received saline, VGB 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg by gavage for acute and subchronic (14 days) treatments and evaluated in the rotarod task. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline version of the comet assay in samples of blood, liver, hippocampus, and brain cortex after both treatments. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in bone marrow of the same animals that received subchronic treatment. The groups treated with VGB showed similar performance in rotarod compared with the saline group. Regarding the acute treatment, it was observed that only higher VGB doses induced DNA damage in blood and hippocampus. After the subchronic treatment, VGB did not show genotoxic or mutagenic effects. In brief, VGB did not impair motor activities in rats after acute and subchronic treatments. It showed a repairable genotoxic potential in the central nervous system since genotoxicity was observed in the acute treatment group. PMID:26500220

  6. Plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase of rat liver are related

    The hepatic plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABPPM) and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (mGOT) of rat liver have similar amino acid compositions and identical amino acid sequences for residues 3-24. Both proteins migrate with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, have a similar pattern of basic charge isomers on isoelectric focusing, are eluted similarly from four different high-performance liquid chromatographic columns, have absorption maxima at 435 nm under acid conditions and 354 nm at pH 8.3, and bind oleate. Sinusoidally enriched liver plasma membranes and purified h-FABPPM have GOT enzymatic activity. Monospecific rabbit antiserum against h-FABPPM reacts on Western blotting with mGOT, and vice versa. Antisera against both proteins produce plasma membrane immunofluorescence in rat hepatocytes and selectively inhibit the hepatocellular uptake of [3H]oleate but not that of [35S]sulfobromophthalein or [14C]taurocholate. The inhibition of oleate uptake produced by anti-h-FABPPM can be eliminated by preincubation of the antiserum with mGOT; similarly, the plasma membrane immunofluorescence produced by either antiserum can be eliminated by preincubation with the other antigen. These data suggest that h-FABPPM and mGOT are closely related

  7. [Transaminase activity of the cortical layer of the kidney of rats of different ages and sex after administration of hydrocortisone and insulin].

    Poletaeva, K A


    Response of cortical layer of rat kidney to separate and combined administration of hydrocortisone and insulin, as manifested by the activity of aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Asp-T) and alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Ala-T), varied in males and females of different age. Prolonged administration of insulin to normal preadolescent rats and to adult males and females did not affect the activity of Asp-T and Ala-T in the cortical layer of kidney. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to preadolescent male rats, there occurred no increase in the activity of Asp-T induced by administration of hydrocortisone alone. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to adult male rats, activity of Asp-T of the cortical layer of kidney remained at the same level at after administration of hydrocortisone alone. PMID:5317624

  8. Branched chain amino acid transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in the brain, liver and skele­tal muscle of acute hepatic failure rats



    Full Text Available Branched chain amino acid (BCAA transaminase activity increased in both the mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of brain from hepatic failure rats, in which a partial hepatectomy was performed 24h following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration, although the activity of liver and skeletal muscle was the same as in control rats. The elevation of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase activity in liver-injured rats was partly due to increased activity of brain specific Type III isozyme. Branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA dehydrogenase in the brain homogenates was not significantly altered in acute hepatic failure rats, while the liver enzyme activity was markedly diminished. BCKA dehydrogenase activity in the brain homogenates was inhibited by adding ATP to the assay system, and was activated in vitro by preincubating the brain homogenate at 37 degrees C for 15 min. These findings suggest that brain BCAA catabolism is accelerated in acute hepatic failure rats.

  9. Cloning-Independent Expression and Analysis of ω-Transaminases by Use of a Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System▿ †

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Han, Kyuboem; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Gee; Kim, Dong-Myung


    Herewith we report the expression and screening of microbial enzymes without involving cloning procedures. Computationally predicted putative ω-transaminase (ω-TA) genes were PCR amplified from the bacterial colonies and expressed in a cell-free protein synthesis system for subsequent analysis of their enzymatic activity and substrate specificity. Through the cell-free expression analysis of the putative ω-TA genes, a number of enzyme-substrate pairs were identified in a matter of hours. We e...

  10. Dynamics of HEV viremia, fecal shedding and its relationship with transaminases and antibody response in patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E

    Chandra Nidhi S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data regarding duration of fecal excretion and viremia on sequential samples from individual patients and its correlation with serum transaminases and antibody responses in patients with acute hepatitis E. This prospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care center in Northern India over 15 months. Only those patients of sporadic acute hepatitis E who were in their first week of illness and followed up weekly for liver function tests, IgM anti HEV antibody and HEV RNA in sera and stool were included. HEV RNA was done by RT - nPCR using two pairs of primers from RdRp region of ORF 1 of the HEV genome. Results Over a period of 15 months 60 patients met the inclusion criterion and were enrolled for the final analysis. The mean age of the patients was 29.2 ± 8.92 years, there were 39 males. The positivity of IgM anti HEV was 80% at diagnosis and 18.3% at 7th week, HEV RNA 85% at diagnosis and 6.6% at 7th week and fecal RNA 70% at the time of diagnosis and 20% at 4th week. The maximum duration of viremia detected was 42 days and fecal viral shedding was 28 days after the onset of illness. Conclusion Present study reported HEV RNA positivity in sera after normalization of transaminases. Fecal shedding was not seen beyond normalization of transaminases. However, viremia lasted beyond normalization of transaminases suggesting that liver injury is independent of viral replication.

  11. Suppression of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminases Induces Prominent GABA Accumulation, Dwarfism and Infertility in the Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi


    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this wor...

  12. Elevated transaminases as a predictor of coma in a patient with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

    Yoshida Shuhei; Shimada Masahiko; Kornek Miroslaw; Kim Seong-Jun; Shimada Katsunosuke; Schuppan Detlef


    Abstract Introduction Liver injury is a frequent complication associated with anorexia nervosa, and steatosis of the liver is thought to be the major underlying pathology. However, acute hepatic failure with transaminase levels over 1000 IU/mL and deep coma are very rare complications and the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Case presentation A 37-year-old Japanese woman showed features of acute liver failure and hepatic coma which were not associated with hypoglycemia or hyper-a...

  13. Valores de transaminasas en cabras criollas infectadas con Trypanosoma vivax Transaminases values in Creole goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    Emir Espinoza


    Full Text Available La presente comunicación reporta los valores de las enzimas transaminasas, Aspartatoaminotransferasa (AST y Alaninaaminotransferasa (ALT encontrados en sueros de cabras infectadas con la cepa de Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV y sus controles. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante un lapso experimental de diez semanas, divididos en dos períodos iguales (pre y post-infección por intermedio de un método colorimétrico, utilizando kits comerciales. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba t Student's. En el caso de la AST, la comparación de las medias parciales de ambos grupos infectado y control, no indicó diferencias estadísticas. Con respecto a la ALT, la contrastación de las medias parciales de pre y post-infección del grupo de cabras infectadas, señaló diferencias significativas (PThe present communication reports the transaminases enzymes values Aspartatoaminotransferase (AST and Alaninaaminotransferase (ALT in serum from goats infected with the Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV. The determinations were realized during a ten week experimental period divided into two equal periods (pre- and post-infection by colorimetric method, using commercial kits. The dates were analyzed through the t Student's test. In the AST case, the comparison between partial means of infected and control groups did not show any statistical differences. In relation to ALT, the contrast of partial means to pre- and post-infection from infected goats group indicated significant differences (P<0.01.

  14. Utility of Ultrasound, Transaminases, and Visual Inspection to Assess Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Petrick, Anthony; Wood, G. Craig; Still, Christopher D.; Strodel, William E.; Gabrielsen, John; Rolston, David; Chu, Xin; Argyropoulos, George; Ibele, Anna; Gerhard, Glenn S.


    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in adults with extreme obesity and can impact long-term health and survival. Liver biopsy is the only accurate test for diagnosis and staging, but is invasive and costly. Non-invasive testing offers an attractive alternate, but the overall accuracy remains a significant issue. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy and clinical utility of preoperative ultrasound and liver transaminase levels, as well as intra-operative hepatic visual inspection, for assessing presence of NAFLD as confirmed by hepatic histology. Methods Data was collected prospectively from 580 morbidly obese adult patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery with intraoperative wedge biopsy between January 2004 and February 2009. Complete data for ultrasound, ALT and AST levels, and documented visual inspection was available for 513 patients. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 69 % and that of NASH was 32 %. The individual non-invasive clinical assessments demonstrated low sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting the presence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, or fibrosis. The combination of normal or abnormal results for all tests improved predictive utility. Abnormal tests with all three assessments had a sensitivity of 95–98 % and a specificity of 28–48 % for major histologic findings in NAFLD/NASH. Normal tests with all three assessments had a sensitivity of 12–22 % and a specificity of 89–97 % for major histologic findings in NAFLD/NASH. Conclusions Although individual clinical tests for NAFLD have limited accuracy, the use of combined clinical tests may prove useful. PMID:26003548

  15. Mutants of GABA transaminase (POP2 suppress the severe phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Frank Ludewig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminubutyrate (GABA shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2 and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. We have previously shown that compromising the function of the GABA-shunt, by disrupting the SSADH gene of Arabidopsis, causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and cell death in response to light and heat stress. However, to date, genetic investigations of the relationships between enzymes of the GABA shunt have not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of succinic semialdehyde (SSA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and GABA in the accumulation of ROIs, we combined two genetic approaches to suppress the severe phenotype of ssadh mutants. Analysis of double pop2 ssadh mutants revealed that pop2 is epistatic to ssadh. Moreover, we isolated EMS-generated mutants suppressing the phenotype of ssadh revealing two new pop2 alleles. By measuring thermoluminescence at high temperature, the peroxide contents of ssadh and pop2 mutants were evaluated, showing that only ssadh plants accumulate peroxides. In addition, pop2 ssadh seedlings are more sensitive to exogenous SSA or GHB relative to wild type, because GHB and/or SSA accumulate in these plants. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the lack of supply of succinate and NADH to the TCA cycle is not responsible for the oxidative stress and growth retardations of ssadh mutants. Rather, we suggest that the accumulation of SSA, GHB, or both, produced downstream of the GABA-T transamination step, is toxic to the plants, resulting in high ROI levels and impaired development.

  16. The Efficacy of Silymarin in Decreasing Transaminase Activities in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Ali-Akbar Hajaghamohammadi


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common causes of increased liver enzymes. According to statistical reports, 20%-40% of Western population and 5%-30% of the population of Pacific and Asian countries are afflicted with this disease. The prevalence of NAFLD is higher in hyperlipidemic, diabetic and obese people. Considering the high prevalence of NAFLD and its complications and lack of consensus on its treatment, we were motivated to study the efficacy of silymarin on this disease. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 50 patients including 32 men (64% and 18 women (36% were divided into case and control groups. The mean age of case group was 40.3 and for control group was 39.9 years. All patients had elevated liver enzymes and had increased liver echogenicity (lipid accumulation on sonography. The case group was treated with one tablet containing 140 mg silymarin per day for two months and the control group was treated in the same manner with placebo. Before and after the study, weight, body mass index (BMI and liver transaminases levels were measured for each patient.Results: The difference between the mean weight and BMI measured before and after the study was not statistically significant in both case and control groups. But the mean ALT and AST levels deceased from 103.1 to 41.4 and 53.7 to 29.1 IU/mL, respectively in case group which was statistically significant (P<0.001 & P<0.001. In the control group, the decrease in mean ALT and AST, with decrease of 7.8 and 2.2 IU/mL, respectively, was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Considering the significant drop in liver enzymes following administration of silymarin, it seems that after conducting similar studies in order to determine the appropriate doses and treatment periods, this cheap and easy to access drug can be prescribed for treatment of NAFLD.

  17. Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung


    To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p = 0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p = 0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p = 0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval

  18. Detection of Reduced GABA Synthesis Following Inhibition of GABA Transaminase Using in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Signal of [13C]GABA C1

    Yang, Jehoon; Johnson, Christopher; Shen, Jun


    Previous in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis have relied on 13C label incorporation into GABA C2 from [1-13C] or [1,6-13C2]glucose. In this study, the [13C]GABA C1 signal at 182.3 ppm in the carboxylic/amide spectral region of localized in vivo 13C spectra was detected. GABA-transaminase of rat brain was inhibited by administration of gabaculine after pre-labeling of GABA C1 and its metabolic precursors with exogenous [2,5-13C2]glu...

  19. Effect of chronic treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA and ethanolamine O-sulphate on the in vitro GABA release from rat hippocampus

    Qume, M; Fowler, L. J.


    The effects of 2, 8 and 21 day oral treatment with the specific γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA (GVG) and ethanolamine O-sulphate (EOS) on brain GABA levels, GABA-T activity, and basal and stimulated GABA release from rat cross-chopped brain hippocampal slices was investigated.Treatment with GABA-T inhibitors lead to a reduction in brain GABA-T activity by 65–80% compared with control values, with a concomitant increase in brain GABA content of 40–100%.Basal ...

  20. A Process Concept for High-Purity Production of Amines by Transaminase-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis: Combining Enzyme Cascade and Membrane-Assisted ISPR

    Börner, Tim; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl;


    For the amine transaminase (ATA)-catalyzed synthesis of chiral amines, the choice of donor substrate is of high importance for reaction and process design. Alanine was investigated as an amine donor for the reductive amination of a poorly water-soluble ketone (4-phenyl-2-butanone) in a combined...... in situ product removal (ISPR) approach using liquid-membrane extraction together with an enzyme cascade. This ISPR strategy facilitates very high (>98%) product purity with an integrated enrichment step and eliminates product as well as coproduct inhibition. In the presented proof-of-concept alanine...

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (transaminase B) of Salmonella typhimurium, identification of the coenzyme-binding site and sequence comparison analysis

    The complete amino acid sequence of the subunit of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by automated Edman degradation of peptide fragments generated by chemical and enzymatic digestion of S-carboxymethylated and S-pyridylethylated transaminase B. Peptide fragments of transaminase B were generated by treatment of the enzyme with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, endoproteinase Lys-C, and cyanogen bromide. Protocols were developed for separation of the peptide fragments by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion-exchange HPLC, and SDS-urea gel electrophoresis. The enzyme subunit contains 308 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 33,920 daltons. The coenzyme-binding site was determined by treatment of the enzyme, containing bound pyridoxal 5-phosphate, with tritiated sodium borohydride prior to trypsin digestion. Monitoring radioactivity incorporation and peptide map comparisons with an apoenzyme tryptic digest, allowed identification of the pyridoxylated-peptide which was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and sequenced. The coenzyme-binding site is a lysyl residue at position 159. Some peptides were further characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

  2. Sequence Classification: 389262 [


  3. Sequence Classification: 399013 [


  4. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max; Ring-Larsen, H.; Krarup, H. B.


    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Plenin, A.E.


    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  6. Effects of the gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase inhibitors gabaculine and gamma-vinyl GABA on gamma-aminobutyric acid release from slices of rat cerebral cortex

    The release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from pre-loaded slices of rat cerebral cortex was investigated in the presence and absence of the GABA-transaminase inhibitors gabaculine and gamma-vinyl GABA. In the experiments carried out without an inhibitor, an ion-exchange column chromatographic technique was used to separate [3H]GABA from tritiated metabolites released with it into the superfusate. The presence of gabaculine (5 microM) substantially reduced the Ca2+-dependence of the release of [3H]GABA evoked by a 4 min 30 mM K+ pulse, whereas this was not appreciably reduced by the presence of gamma-vinyl GABA (2 mM or 10 mM). Nevertheless, the characteristics of [3H]GABA release were not identical in the presence and absence of either inhibitor

  7. 缬氨酸转氨酶基因原核表达载体构建及表达%Construction and expression of prokaryotic vector of valine-pyruvate transaminase gene

    张飞; 魏涛; 刘寅; 何培新


    构建了具有缬氨酸转氨酶基因的大肠杆菌工程菌,对该酶表达条件进行了优化.PCR结果表明,扩增出一特异DNA条带且长度与avtA基因长度1 254 bp符合.通过纸层析检测,筛选到了阳性克隆,但是酶活偏低.SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳显示目的蛋白表达量较低.酶表达优化结果显示:蛋白胨浓度12 g/L,IPTG浓度0.4 mmol/L,经过8h诱导,酶活达到最大值.%The engineered strain of Escherichia coli with valine-pyruvate transaminase gene was constructed and the expression condition for valine-pyruvate transaminase was optimized. The result of PCR showed that a special DNA band was amplified and the length of the band was accord with the length of avtA, 1 254 bp. Activity of valine-pyruvate transaminase was found by paper chromatography but the enzyme activity was not high. The expression of valine-pyruvate transaminase was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and a high expression was displayed. The optimal conditions were peptone 12 g/L,IPTG 0. 4 mmol/L and induced time 8 h.

  8. Efeito do Exercício com 1 e 3 Minutos de Intervalo de Descanso Entre as Séries na Atividade Sérica das Transaminases

    Ramon Martins Alves


    Full Text Available O treinamento de força (TF intenso ocasiona danos na estrutura muscular, que podem ser detectados por meio de marcadores indiretos. OBJETIVO. Verificar se há alterações na atividade da creatina quinase (CK, da aspartato transaminase (AST e alanina transaminase (ALT com o TF em diferentes intervalos entre séries e exercícios. MÉTODOS. Treze voluntários (± 21,8 anos; ±173,6 cm; ±68,3 kg realizaram o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM nos exercícios: supino reto, puxada (pulley, desenvolvimento sentado, tríceps (pulley e rosca bíceps. Após sete dias, todos foram submetidos a uma coleta de sangue (PRE e realizaram 4 séries máximas até a falha concêntrica com intensidade de 85% de 1RM e intervalos de 1 ou 3 minutos entre as séries e exercícios. Todos retornaram ao mesmo local 24, 48 e 72 horas após a sessão para mais uma coleta de sangue. Repetindo os procedimentos após uma semana, porém os voluntários que realizaram o teste com intervalo de 1 minuto na semana seguinte manteriam intervalos de 3 minutos e vice-versa. Realizou-se ANOVA mantendo como significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS. Houve redução significativa do número de repetições a cada série de todos os exercícios com 1 e 3 minutos de intervalo. Observou-se um aumento significativo da atividade sérica de CK e de AST 24, 48 e 72 horas utilizando ambos os intervalos. ALT não se alterou. CONCLUSÃO. O TF causou aumento na atividade de CK e AST, mas sem apresentar diferenças com os intervalos utilizados. Porém, pequenos intervalos reduzem o volume total de repetições.

  9. Substitution of glutamine for lysine at the pyridoxal phosphate binding site of bacterial D-amino acid transaminase. Effects of exogenous amines on the slow formation of intermediates.

    Futaki, S; Ueno, H; Martinez del Pozo, A; Pospischil, M A; Manning, J M; Ringe, D; Stoddard, B; Tanizawa, K; Yoshimura, T; Soda, K


    In bacterial D-amino acid transaminase, Lys-145, which binds the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in Schiff base linkage, was changed to Gln-145 by site-directed mutagenesis (K145Q). The mutant enzyme had 0.015% the activity of the wild-type enzyme and was capable of forming a Schiff base with D-alanine; this external aldimine was formed over a period of minutes depending upon the D-alanine concentration. The transformation of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form (i.e. the half-reaction of transamination) occurred over a period of hours with this mutant enzyme. Thus, information on these two steps in the reaction and on the factors that influence them can readily be obtained with this mutant enzyme. In contrast, these reactions with the wild-type enzyme occur at much faster rates and are not easily studied separately. The mutant enzyme shows distinct preference for D- over L-alanine as substrates but it does so about 50-fold less effectively than the wild-type enzyme. Thus, Lys-145 probably acts in concert with the coenzyme and other functional side chain(s) to lead to efficient and stereochemically precise transamination in the wild-type enzyme. The addition of exogenous amines, ethanolamine or methyl amine, increased the rate of external aldimine formation with D-alanine and the mutant enzyme but the subsequent transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme was unaffected by exogenous amines. The wild-type enzyme displayed a large negative trough in the circular dichroic spectrum at 420 nm, which was practically absent in the mutant enzyme. However, addition of D-alanine to the mutant enzyme generated this negative Cotton effect (due to formation of the external aldimine with D-alanine). This circular dichroism band gradually collapsed in parallel with the transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate enzyme. Further studies on this mutant enzyme, which displays the characteristics of the wild

  10. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus yang Terpapar Diazinon



    Full Text Available Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness. extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT level of mice (Mus musculus L. exposed to diazinon. The research used Compelete Random Design with five treatments. The treatment of each group were using CMC 1% (placebo control, diazinon solution 40 mg/Kg BW (negative ontrol and the leaves sambiloto extract 12,6; 25,2 and 37,8 mg /kg BW. Diazinon solution was given within 10 days and continued with extract of sambiloto leaves also within 10 days. Parameter observed was the microanatomic structure of liver and serum GPT level. The data was analyzed of Analysis of Varians (Anova and continued with DMRT at significance 5%. The result of the research showed that the giving of the extract of sambiloto leaves in some dose variation degree is significantly influential to repair the microanatomic structure of liver and to decrease the serum GPT level was 37,8 mg/Kg BW.

  11. Chemical protection against radiation effects on Serum transaminase and the levels of glutamic and pyruvic acids following gamma irradiation of rats

    The present study been carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of urea and vitamin E for protecting certain enzymatic systems from deleterious radiation effects. The activities of serum transaminase; aspartate aminotransferase (A S T) and alanine aminotransferase (A L T); as well as their relative substrates; glutamic and pyruvic acid levels; were selected for this study. The results indicated that whole body gamma irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy caused an evident elevation in the activities of both A S T and A L T and in the level of pyruvic acid at the experiment period (first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation). On the other hand the free glutamic acid level decreased at all post irradiation days. The variation in both enzymatic activities, pyruvic and glutamic acid levels became less pronounced in rats treated with either urea or vitamin E as chemical radioprotectors before whole body gamma irradiation. The results showed that the two agents are good radioprotectors, with respect to these parameters under investigation


    WANG Yuan; XIONG Li; TANG Hong-Feng; SHENG Xiu-Mei; LOU An; LI Jin


    Beta-cypermethrin is one of the synthetic pyrethroid, which is widely used to control insect pests and is found to be more effective than organphosphates and carbamates. However, it is also reported to be more toxic than organphosphates and carbamates. It has been suggested that synthetic pyrethroids are readily absorbed by the gills of fish even at very low concentrations.Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) exist in the cells of every tissue, particularly in the liver. If the liver is damaged, the enzymes are discharged from the cells into the serum. It increases the GPT and GOT metabolic activities quickly. It is, therefore, proposed that the effects of toxicants on serum GPT and GOT could be used as indexes in toxicological assessments. In this experiment, the effectiveness of beta-cypermethrin on the acute toxicity and on serum GPT and GOT concentration of crucian carp was studied. The LC50 of beta-cypermethrin for crucian carp was 11.4μg/L. The crucian carp serum was treated against beta-cypermethrin levels of 0.114μg/L, 0.57μg/L and 1.14μg/L for exposure times of 0d, 5d,10d, 15d and 20d, at all concentrations. The results show that when the beta-cypermethrin concentration increases and the exposure time is prolonged, the GPT and GOT activities of serum increased also. The results proved that beta-cypermethrin could cause great damage to crucian carp and its biochemical functions.

  13. High serum Aspartate transaminase levels on day 3 postliver transplantation correlates with graft and patient survival and would be a valid surrogate for outcome in liver transplantation clinical trials.

    Robertson, Francis P; Bessell, Paul R; Diaz-Nieto, Rafael; Thomas, Niclas; Rolando, Nancy; Fuller, Barry; Davidson, Brian R


    Aspartate transaminase, a liver specific enzyme released into serum following acute liver injury, is used in experimental organ preservation studies as a measure of liver IR injury. Whether post-operative serum transaminases are a good indicator of IR injury and subsequent graft and patient survival in human liver transplantation remains controversial. A single centre prospectively collected liver transplant database was analysed for the period 1988-2012. All patients were followed up for 5 years or until graft failure. Transaminase levels on the 1st, 3rd and 7th post-operative days were correlated with the patient demographics, operative outcomes, post-operative complications and both graft and patient survival via a binary logistic regression analysis. Graft and patient survival at 3 months was 80.3% and 87.5%. AST levels on the 3rd (P = 0.005) and 7th (P = 0.001) post-operative days correlated with early graft loss. Patients were grouped by their AST level (day 3): 2744iU. The incidence of graft loss at 3 months was 10%, 12%. 27% and 59% and 1-year patient mortality was 12%, 14%, 27% and 62%. Day 3 AST levels correlate with patient and graft outcome postliver transplantation and would be a suitable surrogate endpoint for clinical trials in liver transplantation. PMID:26615011

  14. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1

    Qiushi Chen


    Full Text Available Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1 is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A, and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells.

  15. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): Localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites

    Sohocki, M.M.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others


    Two frequent protein variants of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) (E.C. have been used as genetic markers in humans for more than two decades, although chromosomal mapping of the GPT locus in the 1980s produced conflicting results. To resolve this conflict and develop useful DNA markers for this gene, we isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones of GPT. We have definitively mapped human GPT to the terminus of 8q using several methods. First, two cosmids shown to contain the GPT sequence were derived from a chromosome 8-specific library. Second, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the cosmid containing the human GPT gene to chromosome band 8q24.3. Third, we mapped the rat gpt cDNA to the syntenic region of rat chromosome 7. Finally, PCR primers specific to human GPT amplify sequences contained within a {open_quotes}half-YAC{close_quotes} from the long arm of chromosome 8, that is, a YAC containing the 8q telomere. The human GPT genomic sequence spans 2.7 kb and consists of 11 exons, ranging in size from 79 to 243 bp. The exonic sequence encodes a protein of 495 amino acids that is nearly identical to the previously reported protein sequence of human GPT-1. The two polymorphic GPT isozymes are the result of a nucleotide substitution in codon 14. In addition, a cosmid containing the GPT sequence also contains a previously unmapped, polymorphic microsatellite sequence, D8S421. The cloned GPT gene and associated polymorphisms will be useful for linkage and physical mapping of disease loci that map to the terminus of 8q, including atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD1) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex, type Ogna (EBS1). In addition, this will be a useful system for characterizing the telomeric region of 8q. Finally, determination of the molecular basis of the GPT isozyme variants will permit PCR-based detection of this world-wide polymorphism. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[125I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author)

  17. Clinical analysis of 61 cases of progressive muscular dystrophy visiting as transaminase elevation%转氨酶升高的进行性肌营养不良61例

    吉英杰; 何卫平


    目的 探讨以转氨酶升高为首发表现的进行性肌营养不良(PMD)的临床特点,提高临床医生对该病的认识,避免误诊.方法 选取61例以转氨酶升高入院,最后确诊为PMD的患者,总结其临床资料,予以统计分析.结果 (1)男性占96.7%(59/61),73.8%(45/61)患儿6岁以下发病,半数左右的患儿学走路时间较晚,易摔倒、上楼需扶;(2)13.1%(8/61)的患儿有明确家族史,腓肠肌肥大的占59%(36/61),44.1%(26/59)Gower征阳性;(3)所有患者均有血清肌酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)明显增高,ALT、AST轻度升高;(4)肝活检无特异性病变,肌电图表现为肌源性疾病,肌活检有较特异病变.结论 PMD早期临床表现不典型,或经常被忽视,以发现转氨酶升高就诊者不在少数,容易被误诊为病毒性肝炎;PMD诊断需综合考虑临床表现、家族史、血清酶学、肌电图、肌活检等.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of PMD with the first presentation of transaminase elevation, and to improve the doctor's knowledge of this disease, avoiding misdiagnosis. Methods Sixty-one patients who were admitted to hospital with elevated transaminase were diagnosed to have progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD). Their clinical data was collected and analyzed. Results (1) In the cases, male were of %. 7% (59/61). 73. 8%(45/61) of the children had the signs and symptoms under six years old, and half of them walked later than the ordinary, fell down easily, and went upstairs with help; (2)13. l%o(8/61) of PMD children had conclusive family history. 59% (36/61) of them were with gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophic and 44. 1% (26/59) of them were with Gower showing positive; (3) All of patients had significant increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while mild increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase( AST); (4) Liver biopsy showed no specific lesions, EMG presented

  18. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    Rodríguez, G.; Gallego, S.; C. Breidenassel; Moreno, L A; Gottrand, F


    Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver...

  19. 缬氨酸转氨酶拆分DL-缬氨酸的催化条件%Study on chiral resolution of DL-valine valine catalyzed by valine-pyruvate transaminase

    张飞; 魏涛; 刘寅; 韩亚伟; 何培新


    利用具有缬氨酸转氨酶活性的工程菌对DL-缬氨酸进行拆分,考察了反应温度、pH值、底物摩尔比、底物浓度和金属离子对酶活性和底物转化率的影响.结果显示,该催化反应的最适反应条件为:反应温度是45℃,pH =9,L-缬氨酸与丙酮酸的摩尔比1∶8,DL-缬氨酸初始浓度为0.6 mol/L、丙酮酸初始浓度为2.4 mol/L,0.5 mmol/L的Mg2+和Na+对酶活性有明显的促进作用.%An engineered strain with catalytic activity of valine-pyruvate transaminase was used in chiral resolution of DL-valine.The effect of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pH, substrate mole ratio, substrate concentration and metal ions on enzyme activity was studied.Results showed that the optimal conditions were 45 ℃ and pH9.The optimal substrate ratio of L-valine to pyruvic acid was 1:8 ( mol: mol).The initial substrate concentration of DL-xaline and pyruvic acid were 0.6 mol/L and 2.4 mol/L respectively.Enzyme activity was improved by addition of 0.5 mmol/L Mg2+ and Na+.

  20. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate...

  1. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[[sup 125]I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Wakita, Y.; Kojima, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry); Schwendner, S.W.; McConnell, D.; Counsell, R.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)


    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author).

  2. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the screening of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? ¿Es útil la valoración de las transaminasas hepáticas para el screening del hígado graso no alcohólico en niños y adolescentes obesos?

    G. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity has increased dramatically all over the world and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity. NAFLD causes serum transaminase elevation and liver disease, which could end up in fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD seems to be associated with the metabolic complications of obesity, mainly insulin resistance. The aim of the present article is to review the role of serum liver enzyme assessment as a suitable non invasive predictor of NAFLD in children. Although serum liver enzyme elevation does not accurately measure liver damage, it may be a valuable and non invasive test to screen NAFLD in children and adolescents and a marker to control NAFLD evolution. To detect NAFLD in obese children and adolescents, transaminases serum concentrations should be routinely determined in these patients. In this sense, it seems necessary to obtain transaminase reference standards for children and adolescents.La prevalencia de obesidad en niños ha aumentado considerablemente en todo el mundo y el hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA es una de las complicaciones más frecuentemente asociadas al exceso de adiposidad. El HGNA provoca elevación de las transaminasas hepáticas y una alteración hepática que pueden desencadenar fibrosis, cirrosis e incluso malignización. El HGNA aparece asociado a las complicaciones metabólicas de la obesidad, sobre todo a la resistencia a la insulina. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar el rol que tienen las enzimas hepáticas como predictor no invasivo del HGNA en niños. Aunque la elevación de las enzimas hepáticas no valora con exactitud el daño hepático, pueden suponer un test no invasivo para el screening del HGNA en niños y adolescentes y un marcador de su evolución. Las transaminasas hepáticas deben ser determinadas de rutina en el diagnóstico del HGNA en niños y adolescentes. En este

  3. Factors associated with mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults initiating protease inhibitor-containing therapy: role of education level and of early transaminase level elevation (APROCO-ANRS EP11 study). The Antiprotéases Cohorte Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA EP 11 study.

    Lewden, Charlotte; Raffi, François; Cuzin, Lise; Cailleton, Valérie; Vildé, Jean-Louis; Chêne, Geneviève; Allavena, Clotilde; Salamon, Roger; Leport, Catherine


    This study attempted to identify factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults starting a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing therapy. Among 1155 patients consecutively enrolled in the APROCO study between May 1997 and June 1998, clinical characteristics were as follows: median age, 36 years; median baseline CD4 cell count, 288 cells/mm(3); and median baseline plasma HIV RNA load, 4.4 log(10) copies/mL. After a median follow-up of 27 months, 48 deaths had occurred, of which 44% were related to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The mortality rate was 2.9% at 12 months. When both data at baseline and data at 4 months after the start of PI therapy were considered, factors independently associated with mortality were (Cox model) low baseline plasma creatinine level, low school education level, low CD4 cell count at 4 months, low hemoglobin level, and elevated hepatic transaminase levels. Thus, social context plus clinical and biologic data, including the 4-month response to treatment, must be considered in treatment of HIV-infected patients. PMID:12195361

  4. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Accompanied by Marked Elevation of Transaminases

    Zenda, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Masaji; Kaneko, Shuichi


    A 56-year-old woman was admitted because of frequent watery diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. An examination of the stool for norovirus antigen was positive, and a blood examination revealed a marked elevation of liver enzymes. Liver dysfunction, as well as symptoms related to gastroenteritis, was ameliorated solely by supportive treatment. Although liver injury concurrent with norovirus gastroenteritis is rarely documented and its pathogenesis remains unknown, clinicians should consi...

  5. The Research of Inj ection ad Acumen of Thymopeptide on Influence of organ index and the Activation of serum transaminase in Movement Training Rats%胸腺肽穴位注射对运动训练大鼠脏器指数和血清转氨酶活性的影响研究

    成红娟; 马亚妮


    Objective:The purpose of the experiment is to study the influence of thymic peptide point inj ection on the organ index and serum transaminase activity of sports training rats.Methods:In the experiments,two different methods were selected,administrating thymic peptide to animals by intramuscular inj ection and selecting“Zusanli”,“Guanyuan”and“Neiguan”three point to inject thymic peptide,respectively.Then to study their effect onthe organ index and serum transaminase activity of sports training rats.Results:Movement made the cardiac index of rats increased significantly.The increasing trend of cardiac index was repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The difference of cardiac index between the point inj ection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05).Movement made the liver index of rats lower than the control group.The decreasing trend of liver index was repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The difference of liver index between the point injection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05). Movement made the ALT and AST activity increased significantly.The increasing trends of the ALT and AST were repressed through the intramuscular drug offers and point inj ection drug offers.The ALT and AST of the traning control group and the intramuscular experimental group increased significantly compared with the control proup(P <0.01).The difference of ASL between the point inj ection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.05).Also,there was statistical difference bwtween injectio ad acumen experimental group and movement control group(P<0.01).The difference of ALT between the point injection drug group and the intramuscular experimental group was statistically significant(P<0.01).Conclusion:Both intramuscular injection of thymic peptide

  6. Investigation of the neutral loss of a full amino acid mass during collision-induced dissociation of the b(3)+ ion derived from a model peptide containing a 4-aminobutyric acid residue.

    Talaty, Erach R; Chueachavalit, Chawalee; Osburn, Sandra; Van Stipdonk, Michael J


    In a previous study we found that a dominant fragmentation pathway observed for collision-induced dissociation (CID) of b(3)+ derived from peptides with sequence AXAG, where X is gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaAbu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap), involved the loss of 89 mass units (u). A neutral loss of 89 u corresponded to the free acid mass of an alanine (A) residue. This specific pathway was studied in greater detail here using a series of A(gammaAbu)AG peptides with strategic positioning of (15)N, (13)C and (2)H isotope labels. Based on the extensive labeling, several possible routes to the net elimination of 89 u are proposed. One is based on initial elimination of either aziridinone or imine and CO, followed by opening of an oxazolinone, tautomerization and elimination of H2O. Another involves formation of an aziridinone by cleavage of the N-terminal amide bond, and transfer of O and H atoms to this fragment via an H-bonded ion-molecule complex to complete the loss of 89 u. Both types of pathway include the transfer/migration of H atoms from the alpha-carbon position of gammaAbu or A residues. PMID:17610213

  7. Clinical research of two cases of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome%谷氨酰胺-果糖-6-磷酸转氨酶1相关性肢带型先天性肌无力综合征二例临床分析

    张巍; 徐春晓; 孟令超; 吕鹤; 左越焕; 刘靖; 王朝霞; 袁云


    Objective To describe clinical,neurophysiological and pathological features in 2 patients with glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1)-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome.Methods We recruited two patients diagnosed as GFPT1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome in Peking University First Hospital in March and June 2014 respectively.Then we collected clinical,laboratory,neurophysiological,neuropathological and genetic data of the 2 patients to characterize the disease features.We also followed up the two patients to evaluate therapeutic effects.Results Case 1 was a sixteen years old boy complaining of exercise related fatigue for 10 years.Case 2 was a nine years old boy complaining of exercise related fatigue for 6 years.Both patients revealed mild proximal weakness during physical examinations.The level of serum creatine kinase was 224 IU/L in case 1 and within normal range in case 2.Repetitive nerve stimulation with 3 Hz at axillary nerve revealed decremental response of the main compound muscle action potential amplitude,which was 46.9% in case 1 and 17.5% in case 2.Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody was not detected in both cases.Both of them responded well to oral pyridostigmine bromide.Muscle biopsies and GFPT1 gene analysis were performed in 2 cases.Muscle biopsy revealed massive tubular aggregates within muscle fibers in case 1 and type 1 fiber predoninance in case 2.GFPT1 showed 2 compound heterozygous mutations in patient 1 with p.Y367C and p.G564C,and in patient 2 with p.G26S and p.V291I respectively.Conclusions Childhood onset,fluctuating limb girdle weakness,decrement on low frequency repetitive nerve stimulation,tubular aggregates on muscle pathology could be considered as the diagnostic clues for GFPT1-related limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome.Cholinesterase inhibitors therapy could be used as the first choice in this disease.%目的 观察2例谷氨酰胺-果糖-6-磷酸转氨酶1(GFPT1)相关

  8. Effect of Kasni seed preparations on serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Praveen Katiyar


    Results: All the three groups showed a significant reduction in SGPT and SGOT across the four time periods. Post hoc Tukey HSD test shown that there was a significant difference between group I and II (p=0.011 and group I and III (p=0.000 for SGPT and group I and II (p=0.012 and group I and III (p=0.000 for SGOT. Conclusions: The add on therapy with Kasni seed preparations is more effective for the management of altered SGPT and SGOT levels in Type2 diabetes mellitus patients than only oral hypoglycaemic agent in decreasing SGPT and SGOT of selected patients. Among Kasni seed preparation treated groups, decoction was found more effective than crude seed powder. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2429-2435



    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  10. The effect of gamma rays on the total protein content of aldolase, glutamic acid transaminase and glutamic acid-pyruvic acid transaminase in the rabbit lens

    The author subjected rabbit eyes to gamma rays using the Stallard applicators which are also employed in the treatment of intraocular tumors in human eyes. In the radiated eyes there was a reduction of activity of aldolase and GOT in the lenses which was indirectly proportional to the applied dose of ionized rays. The lens of the fellow eye which was not directly subjected to radiation showed also a lowering of enzyme activity which was however of only a low degree. In the material examined there were no changes in total protein content. There were however slight changes in the activity of GPT. In the discussion special attention is paid to radiation damage to the fellow eyes which were not subjected to direct radiation. (orig.)

  11. Development of Better Analogs of Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Epilepsy by CADD

    Manoj Kumar Mahto


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders occurring due to the abnormal functioning of the various receptors and enzymes in the central nervous system. Many potentials drugs were developed in recent times which act on ion channels like sodium (Na+, calcium (Ca2+, chloride (Cl-, and receptors like GABA receptor and enzymes like GABA transaminase. Some drugs act as enzyme, ion channel inhibitors or blockers, and some drugs as receptor agonist like barbiturates, benzodiazepines acting on GABA receptors. In the present study performed computational techniques in order to develop better inhibitors for the enzyme GABA transaminase by modifying the terminal ‘methyl’ group of the Valproic acid structure with electrophilic, nucleophile and neutral pharmacophoric features. Molecular mechanics studies has been carried out for the analogs and protein – ligand interactions of these analogs was identified through docking studies using GOLD 4.1 software against the enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-aminotransferase(GABA transaminase. From the docking studies we found that replacement of methyl with amine, hydrogen and hydroxyl groups (hydrophilic groups, are showing better fitness than that of the valproic acid.

  12. Process Considerations for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Amines using ω-Transaminase

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson

    improve its stability and allow recycling and easy separation; (ii) the use of controlled release of substrate (fed-batch) or in situ substrate supply – (ISSS) to decrease substrate inhibition and deal with the substrate low solubility; and (iii) the use of in situ product (ISPR) and co-product removal...... (IScPR) to respectively alleviate product inhibition and shift the reaction equilibrium. From an academic point of view, more important than the implementation of these technologies to a specific example, is the development of a general methodology that can be later applied in other cases. Hence, this......) the selection of suitable polymeric resins for product removal. The work has been performed in collaboration with c-LEcta GmbH (Leipzig, Germany) and DSM Innovative Synthesis (Geleen, The Netherlands) who supplied the enzymes for the case study, making possible the successful demonstration of the...

  13. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja


    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p difference in alcohol metabolism and effects between girls and boys: girls need less alcohol than boys to achieve the same blood alcohol levels than boys, and are more prone to loss of consciousness. PMID:26992701

  14. Hepatic glycogen deposition in a patient with anorexia nervosa and persistently abnormal transaminase levels.

    Kransdorf, Lisa N; Millstine, Denise; Smith, Maxwell L; Aqel, Bashar A


    Anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders characterized by calorie restriction have been associated with a variety of hepatic abnormalities. Fatty steatosis has been described in eating disorder patients. We report the rare finding of glycogen accumulation in the liver in a patient with anorexia nervosa, which to our knowledge is only the second such case reported in the literature. This case highlights the importance of monitoring for liver abnormalities in patients with restrictive eating disorders. PMID:26066296

  15. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    Dalia De Ita-Pérez; Isabel Méndez; Olivia Vázquez-Martínez; Mónica Villalobos-Leal; Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz


    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This stu...

  16. Process considerations for the asymetric synthesis of chiral amines using transaminases

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Al-Haque, Naweed; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Woodley, John


    combination of modern biotechnological tools for improving the biocatalyst alongside using process engineering and integrated separation techniques for improving productivities. However, many challenges remain in order for the technology to be more widely applicable, such as technologies for obtaining high...... yields and productivities when the equilibrium of the desired reaction is unfavorable. This review summarizes both the process challenges and the strategies used to overcome them, and endeavors to describe these and explain their applicability based on physiochemical principles. This article also points...

  17. Is zinc concentration in toxic phase plasma related to dengue severity and level of transaminases?

    Kamolwish Laoprasopwattana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between plasma zinc values and the severity of dengue viral infection (DVI and DVI-caused hepatitis. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2008-2010 in hospitalized children aged <15 years confirmed with DVI. Complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and zinc values (mcg/dL were determined twice: first during the toxic phase (Zn1 and secondly two weeks after recovery (Zn2. RESULTS: 39 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 9.7 ± 3.7 years, and 15/39 diagnosed with dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Zn1 values were lower than Zn2 values [median (IQR: 46.0 (37.0, 58.0 vs 65.0 (58.0, 81.0 mcg/dL, respectively, p <0.01]. Zn1 but not Zn2 values had a negative correlation with AST and ALT (rs = -0.33, p = 0.04 and rs = -0.31, p = 0.05, respectively. Patients with DSS had lower Zn1 but not Zn2 values compared with non-DSS patients [median (IQR Zn1, 38.0 (30.0, 48.0 vs 52.5 (41.2, 58.7, p = 0.02; Zn2, 61.0 (56.0, 88.0 vs 65.0 (59.5, 77.5, respectively, p = 0.76]. Zn1 values showed a decreasing trend across increasing dengue severity groups (p = 0.02. Age <5 years and DVI-associated diarrhea were associated with low Zn1. CONCLUSION: Children who had a higher grade of dengue disease severity and liver cell injury had lower Zn1 values. Low Zn1 values were probably caused by loss from diarrhea and from zinc translocating to liver cells.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose


    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  19. Transaminase catalitique activity features derived from intact and irradiated animal tissue at iodine ions effect

    Influence of X-radiation with simultaneous introduction of iodine ions into the animal on activity of two wide-spread trasnminase - Ac and A - was investigated. This is probably related with change of membrane permeability under the effect of radiation, as well as with peculiarities of structure and physico-chemical properites of isoenzyme spectrum of A- and Ac-transminase

  20. Leucine aminopeptidase and transaminase activity of intestine epithelium of chickens fed on gamma-irradiated feed

    An experiment was conducted with 4 groups of male broilers. From hatching to the age of 49 days the chickens were fed as follows: group 1 (control) - compound feed, group 2 - feed gamma treated at 0.35 Mrad, group 3 - at 0.7 Mrad, and group 4 - at 1.0 Mrad. In a homogenate of jejunum mucosa, isolated from 24 chickens, it was determined the activity of leucine aminopeptidase, glutamic oxalacetic transminase and glutamic pyruvic transminase as well as the content of protein. Data obtained showed that activity of leucine aminopeptidase in the intestinal mucosa decreased at most twofold in chickens receiving feed treated at 0.7 Mrad. Irradiation at 1.0 Mrad also led to a significant lowering of enzime activity; at 0.35 Mrad there was of no impact on the activity of this hydrolase in the jejunal mucosa of chickens fed on such feed. Glutamic oxalacetic transminase activity increased significantly only when treated at 0.7 Mrad. Glutamic pyruvic transminase activity was not effected by the applied gamma ray radiation in this experiment

  1. Retrospective assessment of exposure dose from the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases

    Development of a method for retrospective assessment of absorbed dose in humans by the activities of SGOT and SGPT. SGOT and SGPT were measured after Raitmann and Frenkel. The dose-effect curves were measured after Raitmann and Frenkel. The dose-effect curves were based on the results of examinations of 223 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences directly after exposure to super-background ionizing radiation. A dose-effect relationship between SGOT and SGPT activities and the absorbed dose is observed for the dose range of 20-40 sGy. The absorbed dose is assessed from the proposed curves reflecting the correlation and the estimation formula

  2. A comparative study of serum histaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in acute myocardial infarction

    Gupta S


    Full Text Available Serum histaminase and SGOT were estimated in 35 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 34 cases of ischaemic heart disease (Other than acute myocardial infarction and 30, age and sex match-ed, healthy subjects which served as controls, to evaluate the com-parison of time relation activity, diagnostic and prognostic value of histaminase and SGOT. The enzymes were estimated within 6 hours, then repeated -within 24 hours, 2nd day, 3rd day, 5th day, 10th day and 15th day, ascertained from the time o f pain in the chest. Raised histaminase levels were found in 97.14%; cases, while SGOT levels were found elevated in only 91.4% cases of acute myo-cardial infarction of which 30 were electrocardiographically proved and 5 had equivocal electrocardiographic evidence of acute infarc-tion like LBBB, complete heart block, ventricular tachycardia and old myocardial infarction. Furthermore elevation of histaminase was 6.2 times whereas of SGOT only 5.2 times above the mean normal value. Serum histaminase was found elevated in all the 6 cases who presented within 6 hours of infarction, while SGOT did not rise in any of these cases. Both histaminase and SGOT reached the peak levels on the 2nd day and persisted for whole of the first week. Higher levels of these enzymes were found associated with worse prognosis. Above observations show that the serum histaminase rises earlier than SGOT and can prove the diagnosis of myocardial infarction even when SGOT and ECG fail to reveal the diagnosis. It is a more sensitive index and has higher peak rise of levels than SGOT. How-ever its pattern of rise, fall and prognostic values are similar to that of SGOT.

  3. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    D.H. Park; R. Mirabella; P.A. Bronstein; G.M. Preston; M.A. Haring; C.K. Lim; A. Collmer; R.C. Schuurink


    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h

  4. The effect of Morus alba leaves extract and powder on resistin levels and liver transaminase enzymes activities in diabetes.

    Salemi, Z; Barzin Tond, S; Fallah, S; Shojaii, A; Seifi, M


    The current study was designed to investigate the changes of the resistin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of diabetic rats after treatment with Morus alba leaves flavonoid extract (MLE) and Morus alba leaves powder (MLP). Thirty male wistar rats in five groups including control and diabetic groups were included. Diabetic groups consisted of diabetic control, sham and treated group with MLE and MLP. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and - nicotinamide. The serum concentrations of resistin and insulin in the study groups were identified by ELISA. ALT and AST activities were assayed by spectrophotometer. For the first time, it was shown that the uptake of MLE and MLP by diabetic rats could significantly decrease the serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), resistin levels and enzymes activity of ALT and AST and increases the concentration of serum insulin significantly (P<0.05). in comparison with the sham group and diabetic control. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the anti-diabetic and inflammatory properties of MLE and MLP. In this study, the possible protective effect of MLE and MLP administration was evaluated against destructive effect of STZ on liver and pancreas function in diabetic rats. The results showed that these effects may play an important role in the regulating of adipokines secretion such as resistin and insulin secretion which are involved in the control of diabetes and obesity. MLE and MLP treatment could be useful agents in combination with other therapies in diabetes improvement. PMID:27262814

  5. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max; Ring-Larsen, H.; Krarup, H. B.


    hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included....... During supplementation, the antioxidant group had significantly higher levels of plasma ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol than the placebo group and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase had significantly increased from baseline to month 6. No differences were observed in serum alanine...

  6. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%, with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001 or as Type-B (34%, with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001 and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01. On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05 than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  7. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    Andreia Salezze Vieira


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special drugs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted by carrying out a secondary analysis of each patient's data. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who received isotretinoin between January and December 2009, only 70 were actually treated for 3 months or more and handed in the results of their laboratory tests. Of these 70 patients, 39 (55.7% were female. The mean age of the women (23.9 years was higher than the mean age of the men (20.1 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of triglycerides (87.01 ± 48.25 versus 105.32 ± 48.76 mg/dL, AST (20.44 ± 6.26 versus 24.38 ± 11.92 U/L and ALT (18.24 ± 8.31 versus 23.34 ± 20.03 U/L performed prior to and 3 months or more after oral isotretinoin treatment. After treatment with oral isotretinoin, triglyceride levels had increased beyond the normal range in 11% of the patients, while 8.6% had elevated AST levels and 7.3% had increased ALT levels. CONCLUSION: The results in this population show that the use of oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acne may result in altered triglyceride, AST and ALT levels. These findings are in accordance with data published previously in the scientific literature, confirming the need to monitor these patients.FUNDAMENTOS: A isotretinoína tem sido usada no tratamento dos casos mais graves de acne, embora possa induzir reações adversas nos tecidos mucocutâneos e hepáticos, alterações nos níveis lipídicos e teratogenicidade. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou o perfil de alterações nas concentrações de Alanina Aminotransferrase, Aspartato Aminotransferrase e triglicerídeos em pacientes que fizeram uso de isotretinoína oral fornecida pelo serviço Farmácia de Medicamentos Excepcionais de São Mateus/ES. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo observacional longitudinal exploratório retrospectivo, utilizando coleta de dados secundários de cada paciente. RESULTADOS: Dos 130 pacientes que receberam isotretinoína no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2009, somente 70 realizaram o tratamento por 3 meses ou mais e apresentaram os resultados dos exames. Desses 70 pacientes, 39 (55,7% eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade das mulheres (23,9 anos foi maior do que a média de idade dos homens (20,1 anos. Houve aumento estatisticamente significante nas dosagens de triglicerídeos (87,01±48,25 versus 105,32 ± 48,76, Aspartato Aminotransferrase (20,44 ± 6,26 versus 24,38 ± 11,92 e Alanina Aminotransferrase (18,24 ± 8,31 versus 23,34 ± 20,03, realizadas antes e após 3 meses ou mais de tratamento com isotretinoína oral. Após o tratamento com isotretinoína oral, 11% dos pacientes apresentaram elevação de triglicerídeos acima dos valores normais, 8,6% apresentaram elevação da Aspartato Aminotransferrase e 7,3% tiveram elevação da Alanina Aminotransferrase. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o uso de isotretinoína oral para o tratamento da acne, na população estudada, pode levar a alterações nas dosagens de triglicerídeos, Alanina Aminotransferrase e Aspartato Aminotransferrase, como mostrado pela literatura científica, confirmando a necessidade de monitoramento.

  8. Liver stiffness in the hepatitis B virus carrier: A non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases

    Oliveri, Filippo; Coco, Barbara; Ciccorossi, Pietro; Colombatto, Piero; Romagnoli, Veronica; Cherubini, Beatrice; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana


    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by Fibroscan (FS), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers.

  9. The effect of isotretinoin on triglycerides and liver aminotransferases Influência da isotretinoína nas transaminases hepáticas e triglicerídeos

    Andreia Salezze Vieira; Vanessa Beijamini; Ana Carolina Melchiors


    BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin has been used to treat the most severe cases of acne; however, it may provoke adverse events in mucocutaneous and hepatic tissues, lead to alterations in lipid levels and cause teratogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride levels in patients who had been treated with oral isotretinoin dispensed by the São Mateus/ES pharmacy for special d...

  10. Alkaline phosphatase and transaminase activity in rat liver and blood serum at delayed periods following external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to plutonium 239

    A study was made of activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase in rat liver and blood serum at remote times after external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to 239Pu nitrate delivered in two chronically effective doses. The radionuclide was shown to be mainly responsible for the changes observed in activity of the enzymes under study. The degree to which the changes were manifest depended upon dose of plutonium administered

  11. 荞麦属种质资源的谷草转氨酶同工酶研究%Study of Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase Isozyme on Resources of Genus Fagopyrum

    张以忠; 陈庆富


    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术对荞麦属(Fagopyrum Mill)S个种(含大粒组7个种和小粒组1个种)33份荞麦资源的谷草转氨酶同工酶进行了研究.结果发现:谷草转氨酶同工酶酶带共14条.不同物种的酶带为3~5条,甜荞和苦荞分别有3带和5条带.酶谱分析及聚类分析表明:大粒组荞麦种的酶带与F. gracilipes等小粒组荞麦种问差异极大,甜荞和苦荞酶带分别与F.megaspaaanium和F.pilus相似,并分别与F.megaspartanium和F.pilus聚类最近,暗示F.megaspartanium和F.pilus可能分别是甜荞和苦荞的祖先种.

  12. 慢性乙型肝炎患者31P MRS与血清肝功能相关性研究%Relationship of in vivo 31P MR spectroscopy to serum transaminase in chronic hepatitis B

    崔恩铭; 谭理连; 李志铭; 汪银玉; 林凡; 刘克; 黄勇


    目的:探讨慢性乙型肝炎患者肝脏31P MRS波谱及代谢生化信息特点,以及与肝功能变化之间的相关性及临床价值.方法:按2000年西安会议全国病毒性肝炎防治方案标准,将26例慢性乙型肝炎患者分为轻、中、重及肝功能正常肝炎组,并选择20例健康志愿者作对照,分别行常规MR扫描及31P MRS成像,观察31P MRS波谱及代谢生化信息特点,并分析各指标与肝功能生化指标(ATL、AST)之间的相关性.结果:对照组的%PME及PME/PDE分别为9.32+2.74,0.31±0.06,肝功能正常肝炎组分别为9.5±4.2,0.32±0.14,轻度组分别为10.97±1,0.38±0.08,中度组分别为12.59±3.18,0.45±0.13,重度组分别为15.49±4.7,0.53±0.14.肝功能正常的肝炎患者各31P MRS指标与对照组无统计学差异,而对照组与重度组、轻度组与重度组之间的%PME,以及对照组与中度组、对照组与重度组、轻度组与重度组之间的PME/PDE有统计学差异,其中PME/PDE与ALT呈正相关(P=0.037),而与AST无相关性(P=0.075).结论:肝脏31P MRS能无创的、直接的检测肝代谢过程的生化信息及能量状况,能提示慢性乙型肝炎患者有肝功能损害程度,对慢性乙型肝炎患者的肝功能检测及监测具有重要价值.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G;


    the bioconversions were subsequently scaled up to preparative scales in batch stirred-tank reactors. The microwell methods thus provide process chemists and engineers with a valuable tool for the rapid and early evaluation of potential synthetic strategies. Overall, this work describes a concise and...

  14. Hydrogen exchange at the β-carbon of amino acids during transamination

    The hydrogen exchange at the β-carbon of L-alanine, L-glutamate and L-aspartate with water has been examined during transamination catalyzed by glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and by glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. A significant hydrogen exchange at the β-carbon has been demonstrated during incubation of L-[3-3H] alanine + glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, L-[3-3H] alanine + α-oxoglutarate + glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, L-[3-3H] glutamate + glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, L-[3-3H] glutamate + oxalocetate + glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and L-[3-3H] glutamate + pyruvate + glutamic-pyruvic transaminase as shown by the appearance of 3H2O. No hydrogen exchange at the β-carbon of L-glutamate occurred during incubation of L-[3-3H] -glutamate with glutamic-pyruvic transaminase alone. The hydogen exchange at the β-carbon of L-glutamate coincides with transamination as demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 2H2O-L-glutamate exchange during transamination by glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. No hydrogen exchange at the β-carbon occurred during transamination of L-aspartate by glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results are discussed with special reference to the different equilibria between the pyridoxal form and the pyridoxamine form of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. (orig.)

  15. Leversygdom hos børn kan forekomme uden forhøjelse af leverspecifikke enzymer

    Caverius, Anna Ulrika; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Lausen, Birgitte; Olsen, Marianne


    In children, liver diseases are rarely suspected without elevated levels of liver transaminases. We describe two cases of portal hypertension of children who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, splenomegaly and cytopenia. Both cases had normal levels of liver transaminases; thus...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK102306 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 5e-11 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK105642 [KOME

    Full Text Available rsor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 4e-14 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 3e-19 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK099445 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_PIG 1e-18 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_HUMAN 4e-13 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-13 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK068200 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) (L- GABT_RAT 5e-13 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK103274 [KOME

    Full Text Available sor (EC ((S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase) (EC (Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase) (GABA... transaminase) (GABA aminotransferase) (GABA-AT) (GABA-T) ( GABT_MOUSE 1e-12 ...

  4. Dielectric constant and ionic strength effects on DNA precipitation.

    Flock, S; Labarbe, R; Houssier, C


    We have investigated the effect of different zwitterionic compounds on DNA precipitation induced by spermine4+. Glycine, beta-alanine, 4-aminobutyric acid, and 6-aminocaproic acid have shown an increasing capacity to attenuate DNA precipitation. This protection effect has been correlated with the dielectric constant increase of their corresponding solutions. Calculations based on these experimental data and counter-ion condensation theory have confirmed the importance of this parameter for DN...

  5. Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    Maria Goretti R. Queiroz; José Henrique L. Cardoso; Adriana R. Tomé; Roberto C. P. Lima Jr.; Jamile M. Ferreira; Daniel F. Sousa; Felipe C. Lima; Campos, Adriana R.


    Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) leaf essential oil (EOCz) was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities, that were significantly (p

  6. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J


    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  7. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.


    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  8. Rat brain slices produce and liberate kynurenic acid upon exposure to L-kynurenine

    Turski, W A; Gramsbergen, J B; Traitler, H; Schwarcz, R


    extracellular KYNA appears to occur at the level of L-KYN uptake and/or kynurenine transaminase, the biosynthetic enzyme of KYNA. KYNA production from L-KYN was linear up to 4 h and reached a plateau at a L-KYN concentration of 250 microM. The process was effectively inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor...

  9. Sequence Classification: 445208 [

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|37524309|ref|NP_927653.1| valine...--pyruvate aminotransferase (transaminase C) (alanine--valine transaminase) || ...

  10. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Kandaswamy Selvakumar; Senthamilselvan Bavithra; Sekaran Suganya; Firdous Ahmad Bhat; Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy; Jagadeesan Arunakaran


    Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment....

  11. Six different plasma enzymes in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and their usefulness in pathological diagnosis

    Dieter, M.P.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.


    1. Activities of creatine phosphokinase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphate aldolase and cholinesterase were measured in plasma of bald eagles. 2. There were no sex differences in the plasma enzyme activities. 3. An acute dieldrin dosage (10 mg/kg) of a female bald eagle resulted in 400% increases in activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and 250% increases in activities of lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. 4. At 11 days post-dosage all but one of the plasma enzyme activities had returned to normal; glutamic oxalacetic transaminase activity remained 100% above pre-dosage values. 5. Plasma enzyme assays constitute a non-destrcutive procedure that can be used in valuable wildlife species to screen for the presence and prevalence of environmental contaminants.

  12. Demonstration of extensive GABA synthesis in the small population of GAD positive neurons in cerebellar cultures by the use of pharmacological tools

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Kortner, Trond M; Qu, Hong; Olstad, Elisabeth; Suñol, Cristina; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    was unchanged during the first 5 days and both decreased thereafter. The presence of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 10 microM) which inhibits transaminases and other pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes including GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), in the culture medium caused an increase in the intracellular......, was shown by labeling from [U-(13)C]glutamine added on day 7. Altogether the findings show continuous GABA synthesis and degradation throughout the culture period in the cerebellar neurons. At 10 microM AOAA, GABA synthesis from [U-(13)C]glutamine was not affected, indicating that transaminases are...

  13. Comparative toxicity and biochemical responses of certain pesticides to the mature earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa under laboratory conditions.

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Ismail, Saad M M; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Ahmed, Yousery M


    This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of aldicarb, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl toward mature Aporrectodea caliginosa earthworms. The effects of the LC(25) values of these pesticides on the growth rate in relation to glucose, soluble protein, and activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AIP) were also studied. The results showed that aldicarb was the most toxic of the tested pesticides, followed in order by cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl. A reduction in growth rate was observed in all pesticide-treated worms, which was accompanied by a decrease in soluble protein and an increase in transaminases and phosphatases. Relationships between growth rate, protein content, transaminases, and phosphatases provided strong evidence for the involvement of pesticidal contamination in the biochemical changes in earthworms, which can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination by pesticides. PMID:14502587

  14. Differential Glutamate Metabolism in Proliferating and Quiescent Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Coloff, Jonathan L; Murphy, J Patrick; Braun, Craig R; Harris, Isaac S; Shelton, Laura M; Kami, Kenjiro; Gygi, Steven P; Selfors, Laura M; Brugge, Joan S


    Mammary epithelial cells transition between periods of proliferation and quiescence during development, menstrual cycles, and pregnancy, and as a result of oncogenic transformation. Utilizing an organotypic 3D tissue culture model coupled with quantitative metabolomics and proteomics, we identified significant differences in glutamate utilization between proliferating and quiescent cells. Relative to quiescent cells, proliferating cells catabolized more glutamate via transaminases to couple non-essential amino acid (NEAA) synthesis to α-ketoglutarate generation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. As cells transitioned to quiescence, glutamine consumption and transaminase expression were reduced, while glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was induced, leading to decreased NEAA synthesis. Highly proliferative human tumors display high transaminase and low GLUD expression, suggesting that proliferating cancer cells couple glutamine consumption to NEAA synthesis to promote biosynthesis. These findings describe a competitive and partially redundant relationship between transaminases and GLUD, and they reveal how coupling of glutamate-derived carbon and nitrogen metabolism can be regulated to support cell proliferation. PMID:27133130

  15. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  16. Ribavirin plus interferon versus interferon for chronic hepatitis C

    Brok, J; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C


    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The disease progresses without symptoms for several decades and most patients are diagnosed based on the presence of hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid and elevated transaminases....

  17. Alterations in certain Enzymatic Activities in Liver and Serum of Male Rats Treated with Endotoxin Or Exposed To Gamma Radiation

    This study was performed to determine the effects of endotoxins and gamma radiation on glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Endotoxin (isolated from Escherichia coli, Serotype 055) was supplemented to rats by gavage with a dose level of 20 mg/kg /day for a period of four weeks. Whole body gamma irradiation was carried out by exposure of rats to 4 Gy delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly. The results demonstrated that endotoxin administration as well as exposure to gamma radiation produced significant increases in the activities of liver transaminases and acid phosphatase enzymes 1,2 and 4 weeks post treatment. In the serum of endotoxin treated rats, the activities of transaminases showed non-significant changes while significant increases were observed in the serum of irradiated rats

  18. Safety and vasopressor effect of rosuvastatin in septic patients

    Hanaa A. El Gendy


    Conclusions: Rosuvastatin 20 mg/day in septic patients increased number ABPSPD, decreased time to initial ABPSPD, norepinephrine dose and duration, with no significant elevation in transaminases or CPK.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse

    Seok-Yeong Yu; Bo-Ra Yoon; Young-Jun Lee; Jong Seok Lee; Hee-Do Hong; Young-Chul Lee; Young-Chan Kim; Chang-Won Cho; Kyung-Tack Kim; Ok-Hwan Lee


    As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise grou...

  20. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran


    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, ...

  1. Dengue haemorrhagic fever presenting with cholestatic hepatitis: two case reports and a review of literature

    Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Ratnatilaka, Asoka; Jeyalakshmy, Sivakumar


    Background Dengue fever is a common mosquito borne viral fever in South Asia, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Dengue fever is well known to involve the liver, especially in dengue hemorrhagic fever. The hepatic involvement is usually that of a mild hepatitis with transaminase derangement without jaundice. In cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever where shock has ensued, a severe hepatitis with gross derangements of transaminases and bilirubin may occur. These are two rare cases o...

  2. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif


    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...


    Zulfa Zakiah; Masriani; Chairul; Ekowati Handharyani; Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan; Wasmen Manalu


    The Effects of Carbon Tetrachloride Administration on Liver and Renal Function. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) that induces liver damage is widely used in hepatoprotector experiments. Carbon tetrachloride at a single dose 0,1; 1,0; and 10 ml/kg body weight was administrated intraperitoneally in male rats to investigate liver and renal damage. Liver damage was monitored by increased alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and serum to...

  4. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic potential of minocycline.

    Böcker, R.; Estler, C J; Ludewig-Sandig, D


    Minocycline (25 to 100 micrograms/g) dose dependently increased serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, urea, and bilirubin levels, and the hepatic triglyceride content in mice. In animals pretreated with phenobarbital to enhance minocycline metabolism, the effects on liver triglycerides were attenuated, while the changes in serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, urea, and bilirubin were enhanced. It is concluded that part of the toxic effects of minocycline may be produced by a metabolite o...

  5. Assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Louis J. La Grange; Samson Mukaratirwa


    Fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. They represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. The parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The humoral immune response to Trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an ...

  6. Association of lipid peroxidation with hepatocellular injury in preterm infants

    Weinberger, Barry; Watorek, Kazimierz; Strauss, Richard; Witz, Gisela; Hiatt, Mark; Hegyi, Thomas


    Introduction We wished to determine whether cholestasis induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in preterm newborn infants is associated with increased oxidative stress secondary to increased reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesized that elevated urinary thiobarbituric-acid-reacting substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, would be associated with hepatocellular injury as measured by serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. Materials and met...

  7. Mild Hypertransaminasemia in Primary Care

    Al-Busafi, Said A; Hilzenrat, Nir


    The liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST), are commonly used in clinical practice as screening as well as diagnostic tests for liver diseases. ALT is more specific for liver injury than AST and has been shown to be a good predictor of liver related and all-cause mortality. Asymptomatic mild hypertransaminasemia (i.e., less than five times normal) is a common finding in primary care and this could be attributed to serious underlying condition or has transien...

  8. Acute effect of nano-copper on liver tissue and function in rat

    Miron Doudi; Mahbubeh Setorki


    Objective(s): This paper reports on the toxicity of CuO NPs on hepatic enzymes and liver and lung histology. Materials and Methods: To assess the toxicity of copper nanoparticles (10-15 nm) in vivo, pathological examinations and blood biochemical indexes including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) at various time points (2, 7 and 14 days)were studied. Thirty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Treatment groups...

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    P. Padma; Chansouria, J.P.N.; Khosa, R.L.


    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity ...

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of Centaurium erythraea on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Mroueh, Mohamad; Saab, Yolande; Rizkallah, Raed


    The methanol extract of the leaves of Centaurium erythraea L. (Gentianaceae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in rats. An oral dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 6 days or a single dose of 900 mg/kg for 1 day exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The activity of the extract was supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. PMID:15174008

  11. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira


    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    Gaurav Lodhi; Singh, Hemant K.; PANT, KAMLESH K.; Rao, Ch V; Zeashan Hussain


    Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats re...

  13. Redox Nanoparticle Therapeutics for Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Nagasaki, Yukio


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of an antioxidative nanoparticle (RNPN) recently developed against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The effects of oral administration of RNPN to APAP-treated mice were assessed for various biochemical liver function parameters: alanine transaminase (ALT) activity, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, prothrombin time, and serum albumin (ALB) level. The treatment effects were asses...


    Jeél Moya S; Liz Pio D


    Objective: To determine the enzymatic biochemical parameters (glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before cancer treatment. Material and Methods: A prospective experimental, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 children between 2 and 15 years old, from several Neoplastic Centers in Lim...

  15. Biochemical adaptations in middle-distance runners: an assessment of blood and anthropometric parameters

    Danila Di Majo; Gabriella Schiera; Valentina Contrò; Elena Joana Armeli; Marcello Giaccone; Marco Giammanco; Marcello Traina; Antonio Palma; Patrizia Proia


    In order to understand the mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of purely aerobic workout, we investigated the effect of 2 months of training on nine males (17-22 year-old) middle distance running agonistic athletes. Blood sample was collected in the morning to analyze: hematological parameters, lipid profile, liver function enzymes [glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT)] and skeletal and myocardial markers of musc...

  16. GABAB antagonists

    Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Hansen, J J; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P;


    Phaclofen, which is the phosphonic acid analogue of the GABAB agonist (RS)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid (baclofen), is a GABAB antagonist. As part of our studies on the structural requirements for activation and blockade of GABAB receptors, we have resolved phaclofen using chiral...... chromatographic techniques. The absolute stereochemistry of (-)-(R)-phaclofen was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. (-)-(R)-Phaclofen was shown to inhibit the binding of [3H]-(R)-baclofen to GABAB receptor sites on rat cerebellar membranes (IC50 = 76 +/- 13 microM), whereas (+)-(S)-phaclofen was...... inactive in this binding assay (IC50 > 1000 microM). (-)-(R)-Phaclofen (200 microM) was equipotent with (RS)-phaclofen (400 microM) in antagonizing the action of baclofen in rat cerebral cortical slices, while (+)-(S)-phaclofen (200 microM) was inactive. The structural similarity of the agonist (R)-baclofen...

  17. Markedly Elevated Liver Enzymes in Choledocholithiasis in the absence of Hepatocellular Disease

    Tetangco, Eula Plana; Shah, Natasha; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Raddawi, Hareth


    Liver enzyme levels are commonly obtained in the evaluation of many conditions. Elevated alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase have traditionally been considered a “hepatocellular” pattern concerning for ischemic, viral, or toxic hepatitis. Elevations in these levels pose a diagnostic dilemma in patients without a clinical picture consistent with liver disease. On the other hand, elevated alkaline phosphatase historically represents a “cholestatic” pattern concerning for gallbladder and biliary tract disease. Often, patients present with a “mixed” picture of elevation in all 3 liver enzymes, further confounding the clinical scenario. We present 4 cases of women with severe upper abdominal pain and markedly elevated transaminases. Three of the patients had accompanying jaundice. A higher rise in enzyme levels was seen in those who had greater bile duct dilation. All patients saw a rapid decrease in transaminases after biliary decompression, along with a fall in alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels. No evidence of liver disease was found, nor were there any signs of hepatocellular disease on imaging. The patients were ultimately found to have choledocholithiasis on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with no hepatocellular disease. Furthermore, our cases show that severe abdominal pain in the setting of elevated liver enzymes is likely associated with biliary disease rather than a primary hepatic process. Recognition of this rare pattern of markedly elevated transaminases in isolated biliary disease can aid in avoiding unnecessary evaluation of primary hepatic disease and invasive surgical interventions such as liver biopsy. PMID:27408902

  18. Biochemical assessment of physical training: a tool to sports dietitians-nutritionists

    Aritz Urdampilleta


    Full Text Available The high demand in athletes creates the need to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this review is to analyze the biochemical parameters of utility for biological control of the athlete, and provide tools to sports dietitian-nutritionist in the follow-up of the training.Glucose and lipid profile parameters are widely used but insufficient to control training. The lactic acid level in the plasma is the most common tool to assess training load, where values higher than 4 mmol/l, suggest an intensive training. Other enzymes in high concentrations such as creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and two transaminases: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT or aspartate transaminase (AST or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT or alanine transaminase or aminotransferase (ALT suggest that the training load was high producing microscopic tearing of the muscle fibers. Determination of other substrates such as ammonia, glutamine, or testosterone/cortisol ratio, used to detect a possible overtraining syndrome. Likewise the latest research suggest that high cortisol levels decrease the immune system.Moreover, an increase of urea, alanine or ketone bodies are related to muscle glycogen stores depleted. Therefore, the information provided by these parameters is useful for the sports dietitian-nutritionist for dietary and nutritional interventions to achieve more effective in function of the training goals.

  19. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A

    Burke A. Cunha


    Full Text Available Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present in influenza and malaria. Mildly increased serum transaminases are common in malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza while very high serum transaminases point to HAV. We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection.

  20. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    van Bemmelen, F.J.; Schouten, M.J.; Fekkes, D.; Bruinvels, J.


    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis.

  1. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    van Bemmelen, F J; Schouten, M J; Fekkes, D; Bruinvels, J


    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis. PMID:2864395

  2. Radiation effects of some enzymatic activities in tissues of rats subjected to whole body gamma irradiation

    The present study deals with the changes produced in the activity of transaminases and cholinesterase in the tissues of male rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body-irradiation. The activity of these enzymes was estimated at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days following irradiation. The results indicated that radiation induced changes in the activity of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyrovic transaminase (GPT) in liver brain and serum of white rats; as well as in the activity of liver and brain cholinesterase. Changes in the enzymatic activities are dependent on the time after irradiation and the tissue containing the enzyme. It could be concluded that each enzyme has a range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation according to its presence in the animal organ. This must serve cancer radiotherapy for patients

  3. Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A.

    Cunha, Burke A; Teper, Rina Seerke; Raza, Muhammad


    Travelers returning from the tropics with fever remain a diagnostic challenge. Fever and chills suggest malaria, but may be present in dengue, chikungunya and influenza, and splenomegaly favors malaria or typhoid fever. In terms of laboratory tests, leukopenia suggests dengue fever, chikungunya fever or influenza. Atypical lymphocytes are present in malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza HAV, but not typhoid fever. Thrombocytopenia is profound in dengue fever, is also present in influenza and malaria. Mildly increased serum transaminases are common in malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and influenza while very high serum transaminases point to HAV. We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection. PMID:27051578

  4. Multi-step biocatalytic strategies for chiral amino alcohol synthesis.

    Villegas-Torres, Maria F; Martinez-Torres, R Julio; Cázares-Körner, Armando; Hailes, Helen; Baganz, Frank; Ward, John


    Chiral amino alcohols are structural motifs present in sphingolipids, antibiotics, and antiviral glycosidase inhibitors. Their chemical synthesis presents several challenges in establishing at least two chiral centres. Here a de novo metabolic pathway using a transketolase enzyme coupled with a transaminase enzyme has been assembled. To synthesise this motif one of the strategies to obtain high conversions from the transaminase/transketolase cascade is the use of hydroxypyruvate (HPA) as a two-carbon donor for the transketolase reaction; although commercially available it is relatively expensive limiting application of the pathway on an industrial scale. Alternately, HPA can be synthesised but this introduces a further synthetic step. In this study two different biocatalytic strategies were developed for the synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT) without adding HPA into the reaction. Firstly, a sequential cascade of three enzymatic steps (two transaminases and one transketolase) for the synthesis of ABT from serine, pyruvate and glycolaldehyde as substrates. Secondly, a two-step recycling cascade where serine is used as donor to aminate erythrulose (catalysed by a transketolase) for the simultaneous synthesis of ABT and HPA. In order to test the novel pathways, three new transaminases are described, two ω-transaminases able to accept a broad range of amine acceptors with serine as amine donor; and an α-transaminase, which showed high affinity towards serine (KM: 18mM) using pyruvate as amine acceptor. After implementation of the above enzymes in the biocatalytic pathways proposed in this paper, the two-step recycling pathway was found to be the most promising for its integration with E. coli metabolism. It was more efficient (10-fold higher conversion), more sustainable and cost-effective (use of low cost natural substrates and only two enzymes), and the reaction could be performed in a one-pot system. PMID:26453469


    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  6. AcEST: DK943524 [AcEST

    Full Text Available 9REH0|A9REH0_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 105 1e-21 tr|Q9M8M7|Q9M8M7_ARATH Putative acetylornithine transamina...tein OS=Clost... 72 1e-11 tr|Q56ZU0|Q56ZU0_ARATH Acetylornithine; 18... 103 6e-21 tr|Q8LDM4|Q8LDM4_ARATH Putative acetylornithine transamina...M7_ARATH Putative acetylornithine transaminase; 18117-19955 (Putative mitochondrial acetylornithine transamina...O04866|ARGD_ALNGL Acetylornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial OS=Alnus glutinosa

  7. [Tenofovir and entecavir for chronic hepatitis B infection treatment: a single-center experience

    Fabio Tarsetti


    DISCUSSION: Tenofovir seems to exert a better viral replication inhibition (though not statistically significant and to show transaminases improvement in comparison with entecavir, which, in turn, results more effective in HBeAg/HBsAg seroconversion. Both drugs have a high safety profile in terms of side effects. [Article in Italian

  8. Protective effect of enterosgel on rat liver lysosomes during cytostatic treatment.

    Grek, O R; Mishenina, S V; Pupyshev, A B


    Polychemotherapy with a complex of cytostatics (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) induces progressive damage to hepatocyte membranes, which manifested in labilization of lysosomes and activation of lysosomal enzymes and serum transaminases. Enterosgel stabilized liver lysosomes and reduced manifestation of hepatocyte cytolysis. PMID:12533758

  9. Zn(OTf)2-catalysed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins: Efficient synthesis and biochemical assay of 3,3-di(heteroaryl)oxindoles

    C Praveen; S Narendiran; P Dheenkumar; P T Perumal


    An efficient and cheap synthetic approach to 3,3-di(indolyl)oxindoles and 3,3-di(pyrrolyl) oxindoles has been developed via Zn(OTf)2 catalysed indolylation and pyrrolylation of isatins. A preliminary biochemical assay of the synthesized molecules in rodent models were performed to estimate the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and malondialdehyde levels.

  10. Trauma induced thyroid storm complicated by multiple organ failure

    Mehmet Kanbay; Aysegul Sengul; Nilgün Güvener


    @@ Thyroid storm is a state of severe hyperthyroidism perhaps accompanied by systemic organ decompensation. This is a life threatening condition. In this report, we present a case of thyroid storm caused by trauma, with several atypical features including multiple organ failure, elevated transaminases and acute renal failure. Prompt recognition and treatment is important in limiting the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

  11. İç Hastalıkları Pratiğinde Çölyak Hastalığı: Olgu Sunumu

    YILDIZ, Pinar; TEMEL, Tuncer; Pasaoglu, Ozgul


    SUMMARY: Introduction: Celiac Disease is a chronic gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Celiac disease in patient with abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, diarrhea, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as anemia, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyrodism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, epilepsy, stomatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, resistant transaminase levels, infertility extraintestinal symptoms and signs can be seen. Case Report: He were report two cases, 49 and 50 years old woma...

  12. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Dasal Vasantharaja


    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (


    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  14. Biochemical assessment of liver in sickle cell disease patients at a tertiary care hospital of north India

    Pankaj Tripathi


    Conclusions: Steady state SCD patients had elevation of Transaminases and remaining liver function parameters compared to age matched controls. It is advisable that liver function tests be interpreted with caution in these patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 57-60

  15. Evaluation of moxifloxacin-induced biochemical changes in mice

    Grace E Ukpo


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicological effects of moxifloxacin in mice to determine the toxicological implications. Forty mice of both sexes were divided into four groups of 10 mice each, designated as A, B, C and D. Group A served as the control and received 2 ml of distilled water, while Groups B, C and D were orally administered 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight of moxifloxacin once daily for 7 days, respectively. The weights of the mice were recorded before and throughout the duration of drug administration. Blood samples were collected for serum analysis. Total blood protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were assayed. There were significant ( P≤0.05 differences in the concentrations of serum creatinine, urea, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, cholesterol and triglyceride of mice administered moxifloxacin. Serum level of total bilirubin in low dose treated animals was not significantly different from that of the control group animals, but there were significant dose dependent decrease in the animals treated with 25 mg/kg as well as 50 mg/kg. Data of the study indicate there was a dose dependent reduction in the protein metabolites, lipid profile and liver enzyme activities of mice administered moxifloxacin.

  16. A subfamily of PLP-dependent enzymes specialized in handling terminal amines.

    Schiroli, Davide; Peracchi, Alessio


    The present review focuses on a subfamily of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, belonging to the broader fold-type I structural group and whose archetypes can be considered ornithine δ-transaminase and γ-aminobutyrate transaminase. These proteins were originally christened "subgroup-II aminotransferases" (AT-II) but are very often referred to as "class-III aminotransferases". As names suggest, the subgroup includes mainly transaminases, with just a few interesting exceptions. However, at variance with most other PLP-dependent enzymes, catalysts in this subfamily seem specialized at utilizing substrates whose amino function is not adjacent to a carboxylate group. AT-II enzymes are widespread in biology and play mostly catabolic roles. Furthermore, today several transaminases in this group are being used as bioorganic tools for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines. We present an overview of the biochemical and structural features of these enzymes, illustrating how they are distinctive and how they compare with those of the other fold-type I enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25770684

  17. Biochemical Studies Of The Effect Of Two Laser Radiation Wavelengths On The Khapra Beetle Trogoderma Granarium Everts (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud H.; El-Nozahy, Adel M.; Ahmed, Salwa M. S.; Khalifa, Ibtesam A.


    The present work was carried out to evaluate the actual effect of subleathal dosage of LD30 of two different lasers (Argon-ion and CO2 lasers) on the main metabolites, phosphatases enzymes, transaminases, acetylcholinestrase and peroxidases in the one day adult stage of Trogoderma granarium treated as 2-3 days old pupae. Our results clearly indicated that two different wavelengths of laser radiation increased significantly the total proteins content, whereas no significant changes occurred in the total lipids for the two laser radiation wavelenghts. On the other hand the total carbohydrates were significantly decreased when irradiating using CO2 laser wavelength which is not the case for the Argon-ion laser radiation. Significant changes of phosphatases occurred for both wavelengths. Inhibition of transaminases GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases) and insignificant changes of GPT (glutamic pyruvic oxaloacetic transaminases) was observed for both laser wavelengths. Significant inhibition of acetyl cholinestrase was observed using CO2 laser and insignificant changes were recorded for Argon ion laser radiation where as insignificant decrease of peroxideses was observed for both lasers.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of the CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant for migraine prevention

    Ho, Tony W; Connor, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Pearlman, Eric; Koppenhaver, Janelle; Fan, Xiaoyin; Lines, Christopher; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J; Michelson, David


    in the telcagepant groups, had an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation ≥ 3 × the upper limit of normal and 7 of these also had an aspartate aminotransferase elevation ≥ 3 × the upper limit of normal. Two patients had very high symptomatic transaminase elevations that occurred within 2-6 weeks of...

  19. Imaging cerebral 2-ketoisocaproate metabolism with hyperpolarized (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    Butt, Sadia Asghar; Søgaard, Lise Vejby-Christensen; Magnusson, Peter O.; Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer; Akeson, Per; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H


    The branched chain amino acid transaminase (BCAT) has an important role in nitrogen shuttling and glutamate metabolism in the brain. The purpose of this study was to describe the cerebral distribution and metabolism of hyperpolarized 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate (KIC) in the normal rat using magnetic...

  20. Analysis of radiorespirometric pattern in rats bearing liver injury treated with CCl4

    Respirometric pattern in rats during the recovery from liver injury treated with 20% CCl4 for radioactivity from glucose (U-14C) was studied associating with the changes in transaminase and glycolytic enzyme activities. The results were as follows: (1) In radiorespirometry, peak time (PT) was delayed about 10 minutes over as compared with control, hastened markedly at 3rd day, and thereafter become to be normal level. On the other hand, peak height (PH) and yield value (YV) which decreased at 1st day were represented the values at 3rd day before the treatment of CCl4. (2) Transaminase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities were both increased immediately after the treatment of CCl4 on the basis of liver cell destruction and reached at maximum between 1st and 2nd day. At 3rd day, these activities were become to decrease and shown normal levels at 4th day. (3) Glycolytic enzyme, pyruvate kinase (PK), hexokinase (HK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) were markedly activated at 3rd day and thereafter shown normal level. (4) These radiorespirometric pattern reflected well the physiological or biochemical states in rats. As the results of this study, radiorespirometry can be useful method for clinical diagnosis of liver disease. (author)

  1. A robust methodology for kinetic model parameter estimation for biocatalytic reactions

    Al-Haque, Naweed; Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson;


    correlation of the parameters. The final model with the fitted parameters is able to describe both initial rate and dynamic experiments. Application of the methodology is illustrated with a case study using the x-transaminase catalyzed synthesis of 1-phenylethylamine from acetophenone and 2-propylamine....

  2. Effect of antihypertensive drugs on cardiac enzymes in hypertension with myocardial infarction in NIDDM

    Kamble, M. M.; Vaidya, S. M.


    Enzymology is a diagnostic indicator for myocardial infarction and diabetes in hypertension patients. Therefore the selection of methods for measurement of cardiac enzyme, Aspartate transaminase (AST), Creatine kinase(CK), and isoenzyme of creatine kinase (MB form), determine the effectiveness of antihypertension drug would provide the physician with diagnostic and prognostic clinical evidence.

  3. Safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with impaired liver function : a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study

    Joerger, M.; Huitema, A. D. R.; Huizing, M. T.; Willemse, P. H. B.; Rosing, H.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.; Vermorken, J. B.


    Aims To assess quantitatively the safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. Methods Solid tumour patients were enrolled into five liver function cohorts as defined by liver transaminase and total bilirubin concentrations. Paclitaxel was administere


    Plasma creatinine and inorganic phosphorus were increased in manganese oxide (Mn3O4)-treated adult male Coturnix quail, but BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio, uric acid, and total calcium were decreased. 2. Serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic p...

  5. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Gary E. Rodrick


    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  6. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Hua-Dong; Jia, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Wang, Jun-Song


    Dichlorvos (DDVP), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), has caused serious pollution in environment. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of DDVP on goldfish (Carassius auratus). After 10 days' exposure of DDVP at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/L, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathology revealed severe impairment of gills, livers and kidneys, and immunohistochemistry disclosed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes in brains. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed that DDVP influenced many metabolites (glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine, 4-aminobutyrate, glutathione, AMP and lactate in brain; glutathione, glucose, histamine in liver; BCAAs, AMP, aspartate, glutamate, riboflavin in kidney) dose-dependently, involved with imbalance of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and disorders of energy and amino acid metabolism. Several self-protection mechanisms concerning glutamate degradation and glutathione (GSH) redox system were found in DDVP intoxicated goldfish. PMID:26210017

  7. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    WU Huifeng; JI Chenglong; WANG Qing; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; FENG Jianghua


    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology.Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however,little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees.In this study,we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology.Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities.In addition,we found that hypotaurine,malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills,while alanine,arginine,glutamate,succinate,4-aminobutyrate,taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills.Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn,as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles,but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn.Therefore,we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution,whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  8. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    Wang, Mingkui


    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine

    Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry


    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

  10. Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to γ-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring γ-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, γ-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or γ-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  11. Quantitative analysis of phenibut in rat brain tissue extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Grinberga, Solveiga; Zvejniece, Liga; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija; Pugovics, Osvalds


    Phenibut (3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid) is a gamma-aminobutyric acid mimetic drug, which is used clinically as a mood elevator and tranquilizer. In the present work, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenibut in biological matrices has been developed. The method is based on protein precipitation with acidic acetonitrile followed by isocratic chromatographic separation using acetonitrile-formic acid (0.1% in water; 8:92, v/v) mobile phase on a reversed-phase column. Detection of the analyte was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transition m/z 180.3 --> m/z 117.2. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification for phenibut in rat brain extracts was 50 ng/mL. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained over the whole concentration range. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacological study to analyze phenibut concentration in rat brain tissue extract samples. PMID:19034959

  12. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua


    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  13. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Deja, Stanisław; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Halama, Marek; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Kafarski, Paweł; Poliwoda, Anna; Młynarz, Piotr


    Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids), choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC), tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences. PMID:25437454

  14. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids, choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient <0.4. This methodology allowed for the differentiation between the fruiting bodies of A. muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 applying high-throughput sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Wibberg, Daniel; Jelonek, Lukas; Rupp, Oliver; Kröber, Magdalena; Goesmann, Alexander; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas


    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus of the phylum Basidiomycota. It affects a wide range of agriculturally important crops and hence is responsible for economically relevant crop losses. Transcriptome analysis of the bottom rot pathogen R. solani AG1-1B (isolate 7/3/14) by applying high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods addressing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data interpretation provided new insights in expressed genes of this fungus. Two normalized cDNA libraries representing different cultivation conditions of the fungus were sequenced on the 454 FLX (Roche) system. Subsequent to cDNA sequence assembly and quality control, ESTs were analysed applying advanced bioinformatics methods. More than 14 000 transcript isoforms originating from approximately 10 000 predictable R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genes are represented in each dataset. Comparative analyses revealed several differentially expressed genes depending on the growth conditions applied. Determinants with predicted functions in recognition processes between the fungus and the host plant were identified. Moreover, many R. solani AG1-IB ESTs were predicted to encode putative cellulose, pectin, and lignin degrading enzymes. Furthermore, genes playing a possible role in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, melanin synthesis, plant defence antagonism, phytotoxin, and mycotoxin synthesis were detected. PMID:25209639

  16. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Junbao Yu


    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  17. Biofuel and chemical production by recombinant microorganisms via fermentation of proteinaceous biomass

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung; Yan, Yajun; Huo, Yixin


    Provided herein are metabolically modified microorganisms characterized by having an increased keto-acid flux when compared with the wild-type organism and comprising at least one polynucleotide encoding an enzyme that when expressed results in the production of a greater quantity of a chemical product when compared with the wild-type organism. The recombinant microorganisms are useful for producing a large number of chemical compositions from various nitrogen containing biomass compositions and other carbon sources. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing alcohols, acetaldehyde, acetate, isobutyraldehyde, isobutyric acid, n-butyraldehyde, n-butyric acid, 2-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 2-methyl-1-butyric acid, 3-methyl-1-butyraldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butyric acid, ammonia, ammonium, amino acids, 2,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,4-butanediamine, isobutene, itaconate, acetoin, acetone, isobutene, 1,5-diaminopentane, L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, shikimic acid, mevalonate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), isoprenoids, fatty acids, homoalanine, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA), succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, tetrahydrofuran, 3-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, gamma-butyrolactone, pyrrolidinone, n-methylpyrrolidone, aspartic acid, lysine, cadeverine, 2-ketoadipic acid, and/or S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) from a suitable nitrogen rich biomass.

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    Rajendran Kuppusamy


    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L. Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse

    Seok-Yeong Yu


    Full Text Available As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise groups supplemented with commercial red ginseng (CRG or not supplemented. The muscular glycogen level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the HGR group were higher than that of the CGR group. Furthermore, the HRG treatment group displayed upregulated mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and muscle regulatory factor 4. These results indicate that HRG may protect oxidative stress induced by exercise as well as improve exercise performance capacity.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex trifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage

    Manjunatha B


    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf of Vitex trifolia was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. To assess the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts, various biochemical parameters viz., total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined. Results of the serum biochemical estimations revealed significant reduction in total bilirubin and serum marker enzymes and increase in total protein in the animals treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts. However significant rise in these serum enzymes and decrease in total protein level was noticed in CCl4 treated group indicating the hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective activity is also supported by histological studies of liver tissue. Histology of the liver tissue treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts showed normal hepatic architecture with few fatty lobules. Hence the present study revealed that Vitex trifolia could afford significant protection against CCl 4 induced hepatocellular injury.

  1. Steroid hormone "cortisone" and "20-hydroxyecdysone" involved in the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Hsu; Nan, Fan-Hua


    This study investigated the effect of two steroid hormones on phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) production in the haemocytes, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity, and plasma cholesterol concentrations in white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Phenoloxidase activity, THC and plasma cholesterol concentration in shrimps treated with cortisone and 20-hydroxyecdysone were found to be lower when compared with the control groups. In the observation of O2(-) production, treatment of cortisone and hydroxyecdysone were reducing the activity in the 1st day, but to be undiversified with the elapsed time. By contrast, SOD activity in the hepatopancreas, plasma GOT activity, and GPT activity were significantly increased when compared with the control groups. PMID:27403594

  2. Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice

    Maria Goretti R. Queiroz


    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae leaf essential oil (EOCz was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o. acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activities, that were significantly (p<0.01 elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Histopathological examinations of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in the acetaminophen treated group, while these were completely absent in the standard and EOCz treated groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that the Croton zehntneri essential oil can prevent hepatic injuries from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  3. AcEST: DK951949 [AcEST

    Full Text Available |P73133|ARGD_SYNY3 Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Synecho... 32 1.4 sp|Q80WC3|TNC18_MOUSE Trinucleotide repeat-containing...>sp|P73133|ARGD_SYNY3 Acetylornithine aminotransferase OS=Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803) GN=argD PE=3 SV=1 Leng...s... 34 5.2 tr|Q2JUB9|Q2JUB9_SYNJA Acetylornithine transaminase OS=Synechoco... 34 5.2 tr|Q0JR45|Q0JR45_ORYSJ Os01g0120600 protein... OS=Yersi... 33 6.7 tr|Q2JLM2|Q2JLM2_SYNJB Acetylornithine transaminase OS=Sy...LLLVYGVSNWLPTMMR 275 >tr|Q2T3G6|Q2T3G6_BURTA Diaminopimelate decarboxylase OS=Burkholderia thailandensis (strain

  4. Does kombucha tea reduce the damage-induced by radiation exposure?

    This work has been performed to investigate the protective effect and the antimicrobial activity that occur following oral administration of kombucha tea (kt) ferment in rats with a fractionated dose of 9 Gy. The protective effect of kt ferment was monitored by assessment of serum enzymes activities of creatin phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and concentrations of urea and creatinine as well as contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in heart, liver and kidney tissues. Besides evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was carried out by determination of the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count as an example of the beneficial bacteria in the rat intestine and the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (S. aureus) count as an example of the pathogenic bacteria for rats. The results obtained suggest that administration of this ferment tea could ameliorate biochemical and microbial disturbances in irradiated rats

  5. Effects of Various Drugs on Alcohol-induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver

    Svetlana Trivic


    Full Text Available The major aim of this work was to investigate how alcohol-induced oxidative stress in combined chemotherapy changes the metabolic function of the liver in experimental animals. This research was conducted to establish how bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin, applied to the experimental model, affected the antioxidative status of the liver. The following parameters were determined: reduced glutathione, activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation intensity. Alanine transaminase was measured in serum. Alcohol stress (AO group reduced glutathione and the activity of xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase, but increased catalase and alanine transaminase activity. The best protective effect was achieved with the bromocriptine (AB1 group, while other groups had similar effects on the studied parameters.

  6. Biochemical Effects of Plumbagin on Fibrosarcoma Induced Rats



    Full Text Available Natural products from plants are used for treating a number of diseases. Many of the pharmacological principles of the currently used anticancer agents have been initially isolated from plants. Plumbagin, a napthaquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica and has been claimed to possess antitumor effect. The tumor weight was found to be reduced in methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma rats after plumbagin treatment. Elevated levels of proteins, lipid profile and also in the activities of pathophysiological enzymes such as gammaglutamyl trans peptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, lutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, in plasma, liver and kidney extracts of fibrosarcoma rats decreased significantly after Plumbagin treatment. These observations clearly suggested the antitumor potency of plumbagin in experimentally induced fibrosarcoma in rats.

  7. A Biochemical Logic Approach to Biomarker-Activated Drug Release

    Bocharova, V; MacVittie, K; Arugula, M A; Guz, N V; Dokukin, M E; Halamek, J; Sokolov, I; Privman, V; Katz, E; 10.1039/C2JM32966B


    The present study aims at integrating drug-releasing materials with signal-processing biocomputing systems. Enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)---biomarkers for liver injury---were logically processed by a biocatalytic cascade realizing Boolean AND gate. Citrate produced in the system was used to trigger a drug-mimicking release from alginate microspheres. In order to differentiate low vs. high concentration signals, the microspheres were coated with a protective shell composed of layer-by-layer adsorbed poly(L-lysine) and alginate. The alginate core of the microspheres was prepared from (Fe3+)-cross-linked alginate loaded with rhodamine 6G dye mimicking a drug. Dye release from the core occurred only when both biomarkers, ALT and AST, appeared at their high pathophysiological concentrations jointly indicative of liver injury. The signal-triggered response was studied at the level of a single microsphere, yielding information on the dye release kinetics.

  8. Brewers’ Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Bee Ling Tan


    Full Text Available Brewers’ rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers’ rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM. Alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers’ rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers’ rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers’ rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers’ rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.

  9. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    Hijona Elisabeth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol. Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice.

  10. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past

  11. Studies on curacron food poisoning in male rats

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones

  12. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Pimple B


    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  13. Study on the effect of food irradiation on some blood serum enzymes in rats

    Rats were fed irradiated diets as part of a study of screening tests for the safety of irradiated food. The diet consisted (g/100 g) of casein, 8.5; skim-milk, 9.4; potato starch, 50.00; wheat flour, 16.50; sucrose, 5.00; sunflower oil, 6.00; choline chloride, 0.10; salt mixture, 3.50; and vitamin mix.ure, 1.00. Diets were irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad and were fed ad lib. for 4 months. Levels of serum (i) glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, (ii) glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and (iii) lactic dehydrogenase were determined. No significant changes were observed in (i) or (iii) on ieeding irradiated diets, or in (ii) for male rats. Significant decreases (P < 0.02) in (ii) were observed in female rats fed diets irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad. (orig.)

  14. Protective effect of stress-induced liver damage by saponin fraction from Codonopsis lanceolata.

    Kim, Min Ho; Lee, Jaehwi; Yoo, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong Gyu; Byeon, Se Eun; Hong, Eock Kee; Cho, Jae Youl


    Saponins are valuable principles found in various herbal medicine with pharmaceutical, cosmetical and nutraceutical merits. In this study, we evaluated the protective role of saponin fraction (Cl-SF), prepared from Codonopsis lanceolata, an ethnopharmacologically famous plant in Korea, China and Japan, on water immersion stress-induced liver damage and radical generation. Cl-SF clearly decreased the up-regulated levels of serum glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase induced by water-immersed stress conditions. Furthermore, Cl-SF seemed to block the stress-induced radicals. Thus, Griess and DPPH assays revealed that Cl-SF significantly suppressed both radical generation in sodium nitroprusside-treated RAW264.7 cells and nitric oxide production in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that Cl-SF may be considered as a promising stress-regulatory principle with radical scavenging actions. PMID:19898808

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea and Cumin seeds on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress

    A. Nishadh


    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the protective effect of Vernonia cinerea against carbon tetrachloride (1.0ml / kg b.wt / day administered intraperitoneally for 2 days in male albino Wistar rats. The levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, and urea were determined. The activities of glutathione, Vitamin C and the levels of lipid peroxides in 10% w/v liver homogenate were also determined. The CCl4 induction resulted a significant elevation in the levels of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and creatinine with decreased urea. The activities of hepatic glutathione and vitamin C were also significantly depleted with increased lipid peroxides in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The oral administration of herbal drug alone did not show any toxicity in the liver tissue. These results suggest that the herbal drug may probably act as a natural antioxidant against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative stress.

  16. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Tutul, Ershad; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Hassan, Md Abul; Faiz, M A; Hossain, Moazzem; Hussain, Maleeha; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur


    The present study describes the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and toxicological evaluations of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Bangladesh. In toxicity evaluation on rats, the methanol extract of seedlings showed mortality, while both seedling and mature plant extracts raised the serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values and produced significant abnormalities in the histopathology of liver and kidney of rats. On the other hand, the aqueous soluble fraction of methanol extract of mature plant (LC50 = 0.352 microg/mL) and methanol crude extract of seedlings (LC50 = 0.656 microg/mL) demonstrated significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A total of four compounds were purified and characterized as stigmasterol (1), 11-hydroxy-11-carboxy-4-oxo-1(5),2(Z)-xanthadien-12,8-olide (2), daucosterol (3) and lasidiol-10-anisate (4). The present study suggests that X. strumarium is toxic to animal. PMID:20922910

  17. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir


    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections. PMID:20628963

  18. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.


    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  19. The Prevalence, laboratory confirmation, clinical features and public health significance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Badrood city, an old focus of Isfahan Province, Central Iran

    Rohollah Dehghani; Hamid kassiri; Narges Mehrzad; Nilofar Ghasemi


    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK) leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant.Methods:Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight), CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight) and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight) and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope.Results:Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dose-dependent manner, which were elevated by CCl4. However, CCl4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections.Conclusions:Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  20. Role of Galectin-3 in Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Inflammatory Mediator Production

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Sun, Richard; Mishin, Vladimir; Hall, LeRoy B.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.


    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in the regulation of macrophage activation and inflammatory mediator production. In the present studies, we analyzed the role of Gal-3 in liver inflammation and injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Treatment of wild-type (WT) mice with APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) resulted in centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminases. This was associated with increased hepatic expression of Gal-3 messenger RNA and protein. Im...

  1. Effects of phospholipid hepatoprotectors on apoptosis during experimental liver pathology induced by isoniazid and paracetamol.

    Udut, V V; Vengerovsky, A I; Dygai, A M


    Phospholipid hepatoprotectors essentiale, eplir, and their combinations with succinic acid decreased the relative content of apoptotic lymphocytes and granulocytes in the blood, content of TNF-α, total and indirect bilirubin, and activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase and increase the content of IL-10 in rats with experimental intoxication induced by isoniazid and paracetamol. A combination of eplir and succinic acid was most effective in preventing the development of leukocyte apoptosis. PMID:23658881

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 protects donor livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury:The role of Kupffer cells


    AIM:To examine whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 overexpression would exert direct or indirect effects on Kupffer cells activation, which lead to aggravation of reperfusion injury.METHODS: Donors were pretreated with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inducer and antagonist, respectively. Livers were stored at 4℃ for 24 h before transplantation. Kupffer cells were isolated and cultured for 6 h after liver reperfusion.RESULTS: Postoperatively, serum transaminases were significantly ...

  3. Cholestatic Jaundice Associated with Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase IA Deficiency

    Morris, A A M; Olpin, S E; Bennett, M. J.; Santani, A; Stahlschmidt, J; McClean, P


    Liver dysfunction usually accompanies metabolic decompensation in fatty acid oxidation disorders, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) Ia deficiency. Typically, the liver is enlarged with raised plasma transaminase activities and steatosis on histological examination. In contrast, cholestatic jaundice is rare, having only been reported in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency. We report a 3-year-old boy with CPT Ia deficiency who developed hepatomegaly and ch...

  4. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    Murali, Arvind R.; Kotwal, Vikram; Chawla, Saurabh


    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic...

  5. Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats

    Seo, Su-Jeong; Cho, Jae Youl; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Choi, Yong-Soon


    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is prepared by the process of steaming the roots of Panax ginseng. In this study, the feeding effects of KRG-water extract (KRGE) on ethanol-induced liver damage were elucidated by measuring serum biomarkers in rats. Serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) activity and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats, whereas the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glu...

  6. Partial Liver Ischemia Is Followed by Metabolic Changes in the Normally Perfused Part of the Liver during Reperfusion

    Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Grønbæk, Henning; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Karlsen, S.; Mortensen, Frank Viborg


    Background: Temporary vascular in- and outflow occlusion is an effective technique for bleeding control during liver resection. However, occlusion can result in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the liver. The aim of this study in a porcine model was to investigate the effect of in- and outflo...... continuous decreases in lactate and pyruvate levels in the whole liver, even though the ischemic insult was not detectable in transaminase levels....

  7. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine


    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron ...

  8. Lipidomic profiling reveals protective function of fatty acid oxidation in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity[S

    Shi, Xiaolei; Yao, Dan; Gosnell, Blake A.; Chen, Chi


    During cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity, lipid accumulation occurs prior to necrotic cell death in the liver. However, the exact influences of cocaine on the homeostasis of lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In this study, the progression of subacute hepatotoxicity, including centrilobular necrosis in the liver and elevation of transaminase activity in serum, was observed in a three-day cocaine treatment, accompanying the disruption of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. Serum TAG level incre...

  9. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    Ali Natasha; Moiz Bushra; Moatter Tariq; Ahmed Shiraz; Adil Salman; Khurshid Mohammad


    Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for...

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family.

    Ahmed, Bahar; Alam, Tanveer; Varshney, Manoj; Khan, Shah Alam


    The different extracts of Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) and Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin. The methanolic extracts showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin. Other extracts namely petroleum ether and acetone also exhibited a potent activity. PMID:11849834