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Sample records for 3he gas volumetrically

  1. The Gas Motion Due To Non-Uniform Heating By 3He(n,p)3H Reactions In The Nuclear-Pumped3He -Lasers

    Çetin, Füsun

    2007-04-01

    In the nuclear pumped-lasers, the passage of these energetic charged particles through gas results in a non-uniform volumetric energy deposition. This spatial non-uniformity induces a gas motion, which results in density and hence refractive index gradients that affects the laser's optical behaviour. The motion of 3He gas in a closed cavity is studied when it experiences transient and spatially non-uniform volumetric heating caused by the passage of 3He(n,p)3H reaction products. Gas motion is described by the radial velocity field of gas flow. Spatial and temporal variations of radial gas velocity are calculated for various tube parameters by using a dynamic energy deposition model. In the calculations, it is assumed that the laser tube is irradiated with neutrons from the pulse at a peak power of 1200 MW corresponding to a maximum thermal neutron flux of 8×1016 n / cm2sn in the central channel of ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor. Results are examined.

  2. Realization of administration unit for 3He with gas recycling

    Since many years hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases are used for MR-imaging of the lung. In the beginning the HP gas was filled in Tedlar-bags and directly inhaled by the patients. An administration unit was built respectively to the Medical Devices Law to administer patients HP noble gas boli (3He,129Xe) in defined quantities and at a predefined time during inspiration with high reproducibility and reliability without reducing MR-quality. The patient's airflows are monitored and recorded. It is possible to use gas admixtures, measure the polarization on line and collect the exhaled gas for later recycling. The first images with healthy volunteers were taken with this setup in a clinical study. Current results will be presented.

  3. High-pressure /sup 3/He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, /sup 3/He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10/sup -3/ (n/cm/sup 2/)/sup -1/. The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector.

  4. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Watt, David; Hersman, Bill

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  5. Gas cells for 3He hyperpolarized via spin-exchange optical pumping

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Tan, J. A.; Woo, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a device for the production of hyperpolarized 3He, which is widely used in spinrelated nuclear physics research. Spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) is employed to polarize 3He enclosed in a circular borosilicate glass cell suitable not only for the production of polarized gas but also for its storage. The portable glass cell can, thus, be transported to any other research facility. The glass cell can be refilled several times. Special attention is given to the preparation and the filling of the cell to minimize the impurities on its walls and in the gas. We employ glass tubes with shorter lengths and larger diameters in the gas-filling system to achieve the improvement in the air flow necessary to obtain purer polarized 3He samples. The cell is prepared, and after it has been filled with rubidium (Rb) and 3He-N2 mixture, it is sealed under high vacuum conditions. The cell containing the mixture is exposed to circularly-polarized laser light with a wavelength of 795 nm at temperatures of 180 - 220 °C for SEOP. The polarization of 3He is measured via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We obtained 40% polarized 3He in less than 15 hours and 50% in about 25 hours. The longitudinal relaxation time T 1 of the polarized 3He we measured was about 58 hours.

  6. NMR measurements of hyperpolarized 3He gas diffusion in high porosity silica aerogels

    Tastevin, Geneviève; Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    2005-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 3He is used to nondestructively probe by NMR the structure of custom-made and commercial silica aerogels (97% and 98.5% porous). Large spin-echo signals are obtained at room temperature and very low magnetic field (2mT) even with small mounts of gas. Attenuation induced by applied field gradients results from the combined effects of gas diffusion and confinement by the porous medium on atomic motion. Nitrogen is used as a buffer gas to reach equivalent 3He pressures ranging fro...

  7. 3D MRI of non-Gaussian 3He gas diffusion in the rat lung

    Jacob, Richard E.; Laicher, Gernot; Minard, Kevin R.

    2007-10-01

    In 3He magnetic resonance images of pulmonary air spaces, the confining architecture of the parenchymal tissue results in a non-Gaussian distribution of signal phase that non-exponentially attenuates image intensity as diffusion weighting is increased. Here, two approaches previously used for the analysis of non-Gaussian effects in the lung are compared and related using diffusion-weighted 3He MR images of mechanically ventilated rats. One approach is model-based and was presented by Yablonskiy et al., while the other approach utilizes the second order decay contribution that is predicted from the cumulant expansion theorem. Total lung coverage is achieved using a hybrid 3D pulse sequence that combines conventional phase encoding with sparse radial sampling for efficient gas usage. This enables the acquisition of nine 3D images using a total of only ˜1 L of hyperpolarized 3He gas. Diffusion weighting ranges from 0 s/cm 2 to 40 s/cm 2. Results show that the non-Gaussian effects of 3He gas diffusion in healthy rat lungs are directly attributed to the anisotropic geometry of lung microstructure as predicted by the Yablonskiy model, and that quantitative analysis over the entire lung can be reliably repeated in time-course studies of the same animal.

  8. Neutron radiography of a static density gradient of 3He gas at cryogenic temperatures

    Wichmann, G.; Antognini, A.; Eggenberger, A.; Kirch, K.; Piegsa, F. M.; Soler, U.; Stahn, J.; Taqqu, D.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a stationary helium gas density gradient which is needed for a proposed novel low-energy μ+ beam line. In a closed system with constant pressure the corresponding density gradient is only a function of the temperature. In a neutron radiography experiment two gas cells with different geometries were filled with 3He gas at constant pressures of about 10 mbar. Temperatures in the range from 6 K to 40 K were applied and density distributions with a maximum to minimum density ratio of larger than 3 were realized. The distribution was investigated employing the strongly neutron absorbing isotope 3He. A simple one-dimensional approach derived from Fourier's law describes the obtained gas density with a deviation < 2 %.

  9. Hyperpolarised sup 3 He gas production for magnetic resonance imaging of the human air ways

    Fichele, S

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental techniques, and methods employed in hyperpolarised sup 3 He gas production and magnetic resonance imaging of the human air-ways, using spin-echo sequences and MR tagging techniques. An in-house polariser utilising the metastability optical pumping technique was constructed. The main results of this work are concerned with engineering difficulties involved in compressing HP sup 3 He and a large proportion of this PhD thesis details the design, construction, and performance of an in-house built peristaltic compressor. In preliminary imaging experiments using RARE, high signal to noise projection images of the lungs were acquired using less than 0.5 cm sup 3 (STP) of purely polarised HP gas. Later, increased HP gas quantities (typically 10 cm sup 3) were obtained by employing the peristaltic compressor. Consequently we could acquire 10 mm thick slices spanning the entire lung following a single sup 3 He gas bolus administration. Finally, the first results using MR tagging t...

  10. Development of a 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter to measure the 3He(n,p)T cross section in the intermediate energy range

    A 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter has been developed for measuring the neutron energy range from thermal to 3 MeV. Great effort was concentrated on improving the detector design to optimize light production and collection to improve the energy resolution which is primarily controlled by photon statistics. The detectors were tested using a 238Pu alpha-particle source, a thermal neutron beam from the NBS reactor, and the white-neutron spectrum from the NBS linac. The detector measures an energy resolution of 17 % (FWHM) for the 3He(n,p)T reaction at 2.0 MeV which is sufficient for cross section measurement. (author)

  11. Development of a 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter to measure the 3He(n,p)T cross section in the intermediate energy range

    A 3He/Xe gas scintillation counter has been developed for measuring the neutron energy range from thermal to 3 MeV. Great effort was concentrated on improving the detector design to optimize light production and collection to improve the energy resolution which is primarily controlled by photon statistics. The detectors were tested using a 238Pu alpha-particle source, a thermal neutron beam from the NBS reactor, and the white-neutron spectrum from the NBS linac. The detector measures an energy resolution of 17% (FWHM) for the 3He(n,p)T reaction at 2.0 MeV which is sufficient for cross section measurement. 12 refs., 8 figs

  12. Magic-PASTIS for XYZ polarization analysis using SEOP polarized 3He gas

    We present progress towards a complete system for neutron polarization analysis on a time-of-flight (TOF) neutron spectrometer with a large area/angle detector array. Finite element calculations have been used to model the field gradients of a newly proposed PASTIS coil set, which uses a wide-angle banana shaped 3He Neutron Spin Filter cell (NSF) to cover a large neutron scattering solid angle. The final goal of this insert is to enable X-Y-Z polarization analysis to be installed on the future hot/thermal time-of flight spectrometers, although the method is also applicable to thermal/cold spectrometers as well. The components of this system, such as the magnetic field coils and design are applicable to neutron spectroscopy with wide angle detector arrays in general, and the 3He wide angle cell developments for polarized inelastic neutron scattering are independent from the methods used to polarize the gas as well.

  13. Far-ultraviolet signatures of the 3He(n,tp) reaction in noble gas mixtures

    Hughes, Patrick P; Thompson, Alan K; Vest, Robert E; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Previous work showed that the 3He(n,tp) reaction in a cell of 3He at atmospheric pressure generated tens of far-ultraviolet photons per reacted neutron. Here we report amplification of that signal by factors of 1000 and more when noble gases are added to the cell. Calibrated filter-detector measurements show that this large signal is due to noble-gas excimer emissions, and that the nuclear reaction energy is converted to far-ultraviolet radiation with efficiencies of up to 30%. The results have been placed on an absolute scale through calibrations at the NIST SURF III synchrotron. They suggest possibilities for high-efficiency neutron detectors as an alternative to existing proportional counters.

  14. Realization of administration unit for {sup 3}He with gas recycling

    Gueldner, Manuela; Grossmann, Tino; Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Otten, Ernst-Wilhelm; Salhi, Zahir [Institute of Physics, University Mainz (Germany); Becker, Stefan; Friesenecker, Andreas; Weiss, Patrick; Zentel, Juergen [ic-automation GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Gast, Klaus K.; Rivoire, Julien; Scholz, Alexander; Schreiber, Laura M.; Terekhov, Maxim; Wolf, Ursula [Department of Radiology, University Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Since many years hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases are used for MR-imaging of the lung. In the beginning the HP gas was filled in Tedlar-bags and directly inhaled by the patients. An administration unit was built respectively to the Medical Devices Law to administer patients HP noble gas boli ({sup 3}He,{sup 129}Xe) in defined quantities and at a predefined time during inspiration with high reproducibility and reliability without reducing MR-quality. The patient's airflows are monitored and recorded. It is possible to use gas admixtures, measure the polarization on line and collect the exhaled gas for later recycling. The first images with healthy volunteers were taken with this setup in a clinical study. Current results will be presented.

  15. Airsea gas exchange in the North Atlantic: 3He/SF6 experiment during GasEx-98

    Ho, David T.; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2016-01-01

    GasEx-98 was the first open-ocean process study where gas transfer velocity measurements were made with several robust techniques, including airside eddy covariance of CO2 and deliberate injection of 3He and SF6. While the CO2 eddy covariance results have been fully analysed and publicised, leading to a boom in the use of this technique in the marine environment, the 3He/SF6 results have not received the same level of analysis. Here, based on new approaches that we have developed to analyse 3...

  16. Comparison of Thermal Neutron Detection Efficiency of $^{6}$Li Scintillation Glass and $^{3}$He Gas Proportional Tube

    Xu, Ming; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Guo-Ming; Tao, Jun-Quan

    2013-01-01

    We report on a comparison study of the $^{3}$He gas proportional tube and the $^{6}$Li incorporated scintillation glasses on thermal neutron detection efficiency. Both $^{3}$He and $^{6}$Li are used commonly for thermal neutron detection because of their high neutron capture absorption coefficient. By using a neutron source $^{252}$Cf and a paraffin moderator in an alignment system, we can get a small beam of thermal neutrons. A flash ADC is used to measure the thermal neutron spectrum of eac...

  17. Visual assessment of functional lungs parenchyma on HRCT and {sup 3}He-MRI in patients after single lung transplantation: comparison with quantitative volumetric results; Visuelle Abschaetzung der funktionellen Lungenanteile in der HRCT und {sup 3}He-MRT bei Patienten nach Einzel-Lungentransplantation: Vergleich mit der absoluten Volumetrie

    Zaporozhan, J.; Ley, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); DKFZ, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Gast, K.K.; Heussel, C.P.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Biedermann, A. [III. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Eberle, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Anaesthesiologie, Univ. und Inselspital Bern (Switzerland); Mayer, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [DKFZ, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Visual assessment of the ventilation using HRCT and {sup 3}He-MRI in patients after single lung transplantation (SLTX). Analysis of specific ventilation defects found with {sup 3}He-MRI and morphological changes found with HRCT. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 8 male patients (54{+-}6 years) suffering from emphysema and six patients (3 males and 3 females, 58{+-}9.5 years) suffering from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) after SLTX. The morphological changes at HRCT were classified and localized. In {sup 3}He-MRI (2D FLASH), 10 to 14 slices (slice thickness 10 mm, gap 5 mm) were acquired in coronal orientation to cover the whole lung. Ventilation defects were localized and characterized. The visually estimated ventilation was recorded on a 5-point scoring system. A double threshold technique was applied to volumetric quantification in {sup 3}He-MRI to serve as internal reference. Results: We found no correlation between morphological changes in HRCT and ventilation defects in {sup 3}He-MRI. The visual assessment of ventilation in {sup 3}He-MRI was sufficient in patients with emphysema, but this was not confirmed in patients with IPF. The visual assessment in HRCT did not correlate with the volumetric evaluation in both conditions. Conclusion: The various ventilation defects were not linked to specific morphological changes. For the visually assessed ventilation in patients with emphysema, {sup 3}He-MRI is superior to HRCT. (orig.)

  18. Two and three-dimensional segmentation of hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary gas distribution

    Heydarian, Mohammadreza; Kirby, Miranda; Wheatley, Andrew; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2012-03-01

    A semi-automated method for generating hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) measurements of individual slice (2D) or whole lung (3D) gas distribution was developed. 3He MRI functional images were segmented using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical K-means clustering of the 3He MRI signal and in addition a seeded region-growing algorithm was employed for segmentation of the 1H MRI thoracic cavity volume. 3He MRI pulmonary function measurements were generated following two-dimensional landmark-based non-rigid registration of the 3He and 1H pulmonary images. We applied this method to MRI of healthy subjects and subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The results of hierarchical K-means 2D and 3D segmentation were compared to an expert observer's manual segmentation results using linear regression, Pearson correlations and the Dice similarity coefficient. 2D hierarchical K-means segmentation of ventilation volume (VV) and ventilation defect volume (VDV) was strongly and significantly correlated with manual measurements (VV: r=0.98, phierarchical K-means segmentation of VV and VDV was also strongly and significantly correlated with manual measurements (VV: r=0.98, psemi-automated segmentation of 3He MRI gas distribution provides a way to generate novel pulmonary function measurements.

  19. CAST search for sub-eV mass solar axions with $^{3}$He buffer gas

    Aune, S; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Brauninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Gruber, E; Guthorl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Karuza, M; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S.K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using 3He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with 4He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV < m_a < 0.64 eV. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 2.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, the exact value depending on the pressure setting. KSVZ axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In future we will extend our search to m_a < 1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  20. Effective Volumetric Factor for Inhomogeneous Temperature in Volumetric Measurements of Gas Absorption and Desorption

    I.V. Drozdov

    2014-01-01

    Accounting of effective volumetric factor for the measurement at inhomogeneous temperature allows to the simplify the measurement process avoiding a pre-calibration with a noble gas. The volumetric correction in form of the volumetric factor is calculated analytically by modeling of the temperature profile in the volumetric apparatus, and provides a quite agreement with the measured results. The calculation can be applied for each volumetric measurement with an inhomogeneous temperature distr...

  1. Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways

    Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and that (2) remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements.

  2. Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways

    Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2012-08-01

    Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and that (2) remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements.

  3. Metastability exchange optical pumping of 3He gas up to hundreds of millibars at 4.7 Tesla

    Nikiel-Osuchowska, Anna; Collier, Guilhem; Głowacz, Bartosz; Pałasz, Tadeusz; Olejniczak, Zbigniew; Wȩglarz, Władysław P.; Tastevin, Geneviève; Nacher, Pierre-Jean; Dohnalik, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    Metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) is experimentally investigated in 3He at 4.7 T, at room temperature and for gas pressures ranging from 1 to 267 mbar. The 23S-23P transition at 1083 nm is used for optical pumping and for detection of the laser-induced orientation of 3He atoms in the rf discharge plasma. The collisional broadening rate is measured (12.0 ± 0.4 MHz mbar-1 FHWM) and taken into account for accurate absorption-based measurements of both nuclear polarization in the ground state and atom number density in the metastable 23S state. The results lay the ground for a comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of MEOP, by comparison with achievements at lower field (1 mT-2 T) over an extended range of operating conditions. Stronger hyperfine decoupling in the optically pumped 23S state is observed to systematically lead to slower build-up of 3He orientation in the ground state, as expected. The nuclear polarizations obtained at 4.7 T still decrease at high pressure but in a less dramatic way than observed at 2 T in the same sealed glass cells. To date, thanks to the linear increase in gas density, they correspond to the highest nuclear magnetizations achieved by MEOP in pure 3He gas. The improved efficiency puts less demanding requirements for compression stages in polarized gas production systems and makes high-field MEOP particularly attractive for magnetic resonance imaging of the lungs, for instance.

  4. Comparison of thermal neutron detection efficiency of 6Li scintillation glass and 3He gas proportional tube

    We report on a comparison study of the 3He gas proportional tube and the 6Li incorporated scintillation glasses on thermal neutron detection efficiency. Both 3He and 6Li are used commonly for thermal neutron detection because of their high neutron capture absorption coefficient. By using a neutron source 252Cf and a paraffin moderator in an alignment system, we can get a small beam of thermal neutrons. A flash ADC is used to measure the thermal neutron spectrum of each detector, and the detected number of events is determined from the spectrum, then we can calculate the detection efficiency of different detectors. Meanwhile, the experiment has been modeled with GEANT4 to validate the results against the Monte Carlo simulation. (authors)

  5. Gas transport below artificial recharge ponds: Insights from dissolved noble gases and a dual gas (SF6 and 3He) tracer experiment

    Clark, JF; Hudson, GB; Avisar, D

    2005-01-01

    A dual gas tracer experiment using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and an isotope of helium (3He) and measurements of dissolved noble gases was performed at the El Rio spreading grounds to examine gas transport and trapped air below an artificial recharge pond with a very high recharge rate (∼4 m day-1). Noble gas concentrations in the groundwater were greater than in surface water due to excess air formation showing that trapped air exists below the pond. Breakthrough curves of SF6 and 3He at two ...

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient of hyperpolarized (3)He with minimal influence of the residual gas in small animals.

    Carrero-González, L; Kaulisch, T; Ruiz-Cabello, J; Pérez-Sánchez, J M; Peces-Barba, G; Stiller, D; Rodríguez, I

    2012-09-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gases is a parameter that reflects changes in lung microstructure. However, ADC is dependent on many physiological and experimental variables that need to be controlled or specified in order to ensure the reliability and reproducibility of this parameter. A single breath-hold experiment is desirable in order to reduce the amount of consumed HP gas. The application of a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) causes an increase in the residual gas volume. Depending on the applied PEEP, the ratio between the incoming and residual gas volumes will change and the ADC will vary, as long as both gases do not have the same diffusion coefficient. The most standard method for human applications uses air for breathing and a bolus of pure HP (3)He for MRI data acquisition. By applying this method in rats, we have demonstrated that ADC values are strongly dependent on the applied PEEP, and therefore on the residual gas volume in the lung. This outcome will play an important role in studies concerning certain diseases, such as emphysema, which is characterized by an increase in the residual volume. Ventilation with an oxygen-helium mixture (VOHeM) is a proposed single breath-hold method that uses two different gas mixtures (O(2)-(4)He for ventilation and HP (3)He-N(2) for imaging). The concentration of each gas in its respective mixture was calculated in order to obtain the same diffusion coefficient in both mixtures. ADCs obtained from VOHeM are independent of PEEP, thus minimizing the effect of the different residual volumes. PMID:22275333

  7. High 3He gas emissions from the Irpinian Apennine. Mantle relations and genetic hypothesis

    A gas geochemical prospection has been carried out in a tectonically active area located in the Southern Apenninic belt (Italy) with the purpose to investigate the origin of local gaseous emissions. On the basis of helium isotopic ratios, a high contribution of deep-marked fluids has been recognised. Local field evidences of gases flow rate do not seem consistent with only a mantle provenance of fluids. It seems likely that the gases source has to be located at shallower depth than the crust-mantle transition

  8. Studies of implosion dynamics of D{sup 3}He gas-filled plastic targets using nuclear diagnostics at OMEGA

    Falk, Magnus

    2004-09-01

    Information about target-implosion dynamics is essential for understanding how assembly occurs. Without carefully tailored assembly of the fuel, hot-spot ignition on National Ignition Facility (NIF) will fail. Hot spot ignition relies on shock convergence to 'ignite' the hot spot (shock burn), followed by propagation of the burn into the compressed shell material (compressive burn). The relationship between these events must be understood to ensure the success of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. To further improve our knowledge about the timing of these events, temporal evolution of areal density (density times radius, normally referred to as {rho}R) and burn of direct-drive, D{sup 3}He gas-filled plastic target implosions have been studied using dd neutrons and d{sup 3}He protons. The proton temporal diagnostic (PTD) code was developed for this purpose. {rho}R asymmetries were observed at shock-bang time (time of peak burn during shock phase) and grew approximately twice as fast as the average {rho}R, without any phase changes. Furthermore, it was observed that the shock-bang and compression-bang time occur earlier, and that the time difference between these events decreases for higher laser energy on target, which indicates that the compression-bang time is more sensitive to the variation of laser energy on target. It was also observed that the duration of shock and compression phase might decrease for higher laser energy on target.

  9. Studies of implosion dynamics of D3He gas-filled plastic targets using nuclear diagnostics at OMEGA

    Information about target-implosion dynamics is essential for understanding how assembly occurs. Without carefully tailored assembly of the fuel, hot-spot ignition on National Ignition Facility (NIF) will fail. Hot spot ignition relies on shock convergence to 'ignite' the hot spot (shock burn), followed by propagation of the burn into the compressed shell material (compressive burn). The relationship between these events must be understood to ensure the success of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. To further improve our knowledge about the timing of these events, temporal evolution of areal density (density times radius, normally referred to as ρR) and burn of direct-drive, D3He gas-filled plastic target implosions have been studied using dd neutrons and d3He protons. The proton temporal diagnostic (PTD) code was developed for this purpose. ρR asymmetries were observed at shock-bang time (time of peak burn during shock phase) and grew approximately twice as fast as the average ρR, without any phase changes. Furthermore, it was observed that the shock-bang and compression-bang time occur earlier, and that the time difference between these events decreases for higher laser energy on target, which indicates that the compression-bang time is more sensitive to the variation of laser energy on target. It was also observed that the duration of shock and compression phase might decrease for higher laser energy on target

  10. Search for Sub-eV Mass Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He Buffer Gas

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using 3He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with 4He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV a aγ -10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to ma < or approx. 1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds.

  11. Geostatistical Analysis of Tritium, 3H/3He Age and Noble Gas Derived Parameters in California Groundwater

    Visser, A.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Fram, M. S.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Esser, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Key characteristics of California groundwater systems related to aquifer vulnerability, sustainability, recharge locations and mechanisms, and anthropogenic impact on recharge, are revealed in a spatial geostatistical analysis of the data set of tritium, dissolved noble gas and helium isotope analyses collected for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) and California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) programs. Over 4,000 tritium and noble gas analyses are available from wells across California. 25% of the analyzed samples contained less than 1 pCi/L indicating recharge occurred before 1950. The correlation length of tritium concentration is 120 km. Nearly 50% of the wells show a significant component of terrigenic helium. Over 50% of these samples show a terrigenic helium isotope ratio (Rter) that is significantly higher than the radiogenic helium isotope ratio (Rrad = 2×10-8). Rter values of more than three times the atmospheric isotope ratio (Ra = 1.384×10-6) are associated with known faults and volcanic provinces in Northern California. In the Central Valley, Rter varies from radiogenic to 2.25 Ra, complicating 3H/3He dating. The Rter was mapped by kriging, showing a correlation length of less than 50 km. The local predicted Rter was used to separate tritiogenic from atmospheric and terrigenic 3He. Regional groundwater recharge areas, indicated by young groundwater ages, are located in the southern Santa Clara Basin and in the upper LA basin and in the eastern San Joaquin Valley and along unlined canals carrying Colorado River water. Recharge in California is dominated by agricultural return flows, river recharge and managed aquifer recharge rather than precipitation excess. Combined application of noble gases and other groundwater tracers reveal the impact of engineered groundwater recharge and prove invaluable for the study of complex groundwater systems. This work was performed under the

  12. The 3He Supply Problem

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  13. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV≲m(a)≲0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(aγ)≲2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)≲1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds. PMID:22243149

  14. Gas transport below artificial recharge ponds: insights from dissolved noble gases and a dual gas (SF6 and 3He) tracer experiment.

    Clark, Jordan F; Hudson, G Bryant; Avisar, Dror

    2005-06-01

    A dual gas tracer experiment using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and an isotope of helium (3He) and measurements of dissolved noble gases was performed at the El Rio spreading grounds to examine gas transport and trapped air below an artificial recharge pond with a very high recharge rate (approximately 4 m day(-1)). Noble gas concentrations in the groundwater were greater than in surface water due to excess air formation showing that trapped air exists below the pond. Breakthrough curves of SF6 and 3He at two nearby production wells were very similar and suggest that nonequilibrium gas transfer was occurring between the percolating water and the trapped air. At one well screened between 50 and 90 m below ground, both tracers were detected after 5 days and reached a maximum at approximately 24 days. Despite the potential dilution caused by mixing within the production well, the maximum concentration was approximately 25% of the mean pond concentration. More than 50% of the SF6 recharged was recovered by the production wells during the 18 month long experiment. Our results demonstrate that at artificial recharge sites with high infiltration rates and moderately deep water tables, transport times between recharge locations and wells determined with gas tracer experiments are reliable. PMID:15984768

  15. A High-Pressure Polarized $^3$He Gas Target for Nuclear Physics Experiments Using A Polarized Photon Beam

    Ye, Q; Chen, W; Gao, H; Zheng, W; Zong, X; Averett, T; Cates, G D; Tobias, W A

    2009-01-01

    Following the first experiment on three-body photodisintegration of polarized $^3$He utilizing circularly polarized photons from High Intensity Gamma Source (HI$\\gamma$S) at Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), a new high-pressure polarized $^3$He target cell made of pyrex glass coated with a thin layer of sol-gel doped with aluminum nitrate nonahydrate has been built in order to reduce photon beam induced backgrounds. The target is based on the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping of hybrid rubidium and potassium and the highest polarization achieved is $\\sim$62\\% determined from both NMR-AFP and EPR polarimetry. The $X$ parameter is estimated to be $0.17\\pm0.06$ and the performance of the target is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We also present beam test results from this new target cell and the comparison with the GE180 $^3$He target cell used previously at HI$\\gamma$S. This is the first time that sol-gel coating technique has been used in a polarized $^3$He target for nuclea...

  16. Measurement of polarization of {sup 3}He with mobile polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filter

    Ino, T. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Kim, G.N., E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.W. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Skoy, V.R. [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    A mobile polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filter was developed for both optical pumping and transportation, and the polarization of {sup 3}He was measured with cold neutrons of HANARO in KAERI. The progress of polarization build-up during the optical pumping of the {sup 3}He cell was observed by adiabatic fast-passage NMR system. The {sup 3}He cell was made of an alumino-silicate glass GE-180 with a cylindrical shape of 40 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length from KEK. A cell contained 5.74 bar⋅cm of {sup 3}He gas. The whole installation after 8 h pumping was transported to the general-purpose test station of the HANARO research reactor and the polarization of {sup 3}He was measured with cold neutrons. The measured polarization of {sup 3}He was 0.18 ± 0.01 by measuring the neutron transmission through the {sup 3}He cell.

  17. Limits on possible new spin-spin interactions between neutrons from measurements of the Longitudinal Spin Relaxation Rate of Polarized $^{3}$He Gas

    Fu, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    New particles with masses in the sub-eV range have been predicted by various theories beyond the Standard Model. Some can induce new spin-spin interactions between fermions. Existing constraints on such interactions between nucleons with mesoscopic ranges (millimeters to nanometers) are quite poor. Polarized $^{3}$He gas is an especially clean system to use to constrain these possible new spin-spin interactions because the spin-independent atomic potential between helium atoms is well-characterized experimentally. The small effects from binary atomic collisions in a polarized gas from magnetic dipole-dipole and other possible weak spin-spin interactions which lead to spin relaxation can be calculated perturbatively. We compare existing measurements of the longitudinal spin relaxation rate $\\Gamma_{1}$ of polarized $^3$He gas with theoretical calculations and set a $1\\sigma$ upper bound on the pseudoscalar coupling strength $g_p$ for possible new neutron-neutron dipole-dipole interactions of $g_p^{(n)}g_p^{(n)...

  18. A dynamic model for power deposition in 3He lasers pumped by 3He(n,p) 3H reactions

    Çetin, Füsun

    2004-07-01

    The coupled variation of power density with gas density in a nuclear-pumped laser, which is excited by 3He(n,p) 3H reaction products, is considered. In the literature, volumetric excitation by reaction products of 3He(n,p) 3H is only considered for the case in which gas density is uniform and does not change during the pumping. In this work, a time-dependent model describing the coupled fluid dynamic and particle transport behaviour of the gas has been developed. In modelling charge particle transport behaviour, a previously reported energy deposition model for a constant gas density is extended for a variable gas density by taking into account variations in the particle range, macroscopic cross sections and neutron flux depending on density field of the gas. The coupled equations, which are obtained by using the power deposition density expression obtained for variable gas density in the acoustically filtered equations of motion of the gas, are solved numerically. Spatial and temporal variations of power deposition density and gas density during the pumping pulse are determined for various operating pressures ranging from 0.5 to 10 atm. In the calculations, the characteristics of I.T.U TRIGA Mark-II Reactor are used and it is assumed that laser tube is placed in the centre of the reactor core. Obtained results are presented and examined.

  19. Electrodisintegration of 3He

    An experimental study of the reaction 3He(e, d) e'p was carried out by measuring differential cross sections of deuterons as a function of deuteron energy and angle for three incident electron energies. The electrodisintegration cross section was also calculated using an Irving-Gunn wave function for the ground state with a plane wave for the final-state. As in the case of photodisintegration calculations the result indicates the need for including complete final-state rescattering effects

  20. Laboratory Search for Spin-dependent Short-range Force from Axion-Like-Particles using Optically Polarized 3He gas

    Chu, Ping-Han; Fu, ChangBo; Gao, Haiyan; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Laskaris, Georgios; Li, Ke; Smith, Erick; Snow, William Michael; Yan, Haiyang; Zheng, Wangzhi

    2012-01-01

    The possible existence of short-range forces between unpolarized and polarized spin-1/2 particles has attracted the attention of physicists for decades. These forces are predicted in various theories and provide a possible new source for parity (P) and time reversal (T) symmetry violation. We use an ensemble of polarized 3He gas in a cell with a 250 um thickness glass window to search for a force from scalar boson exchange over a sub-millimeter ranges. This interaction would produce a NMR frequency shift as an unpolarized mass is moved near and far from the polarized ensemble. We report a new upper bound on the product g_{s}g_{p}^{n} of the scalar couplings to the fermions in the unpolarized mass, and the pseudoscalar coupling of the polarized neutron in the 3He nucleus for force ranges from 1e-4 to 1e-2 m, which corresponds to a mass range of 2e-3 to 2e-5 eV for the scalar boson.

  1. Metastability exchange optical pumping in 3He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of 3He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p3 and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B≤30 mT and p3=0.63-2.45 mbar. 3He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  2. ^3He Spin Pump

    Yamaguchi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Kojima, H.

    2009-03-01

    The superfluid component of ^3He A1 phase is spin-polarized. The process of forcing the superfluid component through a spin filtering structure, in a manner of mechano-magnetic effect, can be used to increase the spin polarization beyond the equilibrium under a given applied magnetic field. We have constructed a test cell in which a glass capillary array acts as the spin (and entropy) filter and an electrostatically actuated diaphragm forces the superfluid flow through it. Preliminary results show that a maximum relative increase of polarization by 50 % could be achieved. The maximum increase in polarization appears to be limited by the critical superfluid flow through the channels in the glass capillary array. The dependence of the observed effects on temperature, pressure and magnetic field will be presented.

  3. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Arik, M; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Brauninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Gomez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthorl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Karuza, M.; Konigsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzon, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodriguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomas, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  4. Concept for a neutron spectrometer based on optical detection of 3He(n,p)3H reactions in a gas

    The conceptual framework is described for a new type of neutron spectrometer, based on the principle of optical detection of charged particle tracks in a gas. Whereas the elastic scattering of a neutron gives rise to the single track of a charged recoil particle, the reaction 3He(n,p)3H produces an event in which two tracks (those of the proton and triton) diverge from a common vertex at the capture site. The optical detection method, which allows direct visualisation of tracks, could be used to distinguish between one or two pronged events. The measured total light output from an absorption event would be proportional to Tp + Tt, the sum of the initial kinetic energies of the proton and triton. Independently of its incident direction, the energy of the absorbed neutron would be given by T = Tp + T1 - Q, where Q = 765 keV is the energy released by the reaction. (author)

  5. The Effect Of Neutron Attenuation On Power Deposition In Nuclear Pumped 3He-Lasers

    Çetin, Füsun

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are driven by the products of nuclear reactions and directly convert the nuclear energy to directed optical energy. Pumping gas lasers by nuclear reaction products has the advantage of depositing large energies per reaction. The need for high laser power output implies high operating pressure. In the case of volumetric excitation by 3He(n, p)3H reactions, however, operation at high pressure (more than a few atm) causes excessive neutron attenuation in the 3He gas. This fact adversely effects on energy deposition and, hence, laser output power and beam quality. Here, spatial and temporal variations of neutron flux inside a closed 3He -filled cylindrical laser tube have been numerically calculated for various tube radii and operating pressures by using a previously reported dynamic model for energy deposition. Calculations are made by using ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor as the neutron source. The effects of neutron attenuation on power deposition are examined.

  6. Electrothermal energy conversion using electron gas volumetric change inside semiconductors

    Yazawa, K.; Shakouri, A.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and analyze an electrothermal energy converter using volumetric changes in non-equilibrium electron gas inside semiconductors. The geometric concentration of electron gas under an electric field increases the effective pressure of the electrons, and then a barrier filters out cold electrons, acting like a valve. Nano- and micro-scale features enable hot electrons to arrive at the contact in a short enough time to avoid thermalization with the lattice. Key length and time scales, preliminary device geometry, and anticipated efficiency are estimated for electronic analogs of Otto and Brayton power generators and Joule-Thomson micro refrigerators on a chip. The power generators convert the energy of incident photons from the heat source to electrical current, and the refrigerator can reduce the temperature of electrons in a semiconductor device. The analytic calculations show that a large energy conversion efficiency or coefficient of performance may be possible.

  7. Ion-kinetic simulations of D-3He gas-filled inertial confinement fusion target implosions with moderate to large Knudsen number

    Larroche, O.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Atzeni, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Séguin, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments designed to investigate the transition to non-collisional behavior in D3He-gas inertial confinement fusion target implosions display increasingly large discrepancies with respect to simulations by standard hydrodynamics codes as the expected ion mean-free-paths λc increase with respect to the target radius R (i.e., when the Knudsen number NK=λc/R grows). To take properly into account large NK's, multi-ion-species Vlasov-Fokker-Planck computations of the inner gas in the capsules have been performed, for two different values of NK, one moderate and one large. The results, including nuclear yield, reactivity-weighted ion temperatures, nuclear emissivities, and surface brightness, have been compared with the experimental data and with the results of hydrodynamical simulations, some of which include an ad hoc modeling of kinetic effects. The experimental results are quite accurately rendered by the kinetic calculations in the smaller-NK case, much better than by the hydrodynamical calculations. The kinetic effects at play in this case are thus correctly understood. However, in the higher-NK case, the agreement is much worse. The remaining discrepancies are shown to arise from kinetic phenomena (e.g., inter-species diffusion) occurring at the gas-pusher interface, which should be investigated in the future work.

  8. Metastability exchange optical pumping in {sup 3}He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    Batz, Marion

    2011-07-08

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of {sup 3}He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p{sub 3} and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B{<=}30 mT and p{sub 3}=0.63-2.45 mbar. {sup 3}He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  9. Benchmark calculations for evaluation methods of gas volumetric leakage rate

    A containment function of radioactive materials transport casks is essential for safe transportation to prevent the radioactive materials from being released into environment. Regulations such as IAEA standard determined the limit of radioactivity to be released. Since is not practical for the leakage tests to measure directly the radioactivity release from a package, as gas volumetric leakages rates are proposed in ANSI N14.5 and ISO standards. In our previous works, gas volumetric leakage rates for several kinds of gas from various leaks were measured and two evaluation methods, 'a simple evaluation method' and 'a strict evaluation method', were proposed based on the results. The simple evaluation method considers the friction loss of laminar flow with expansion effect. The strict evaluating method considers an exit loss in addition to the friction loss. In this study, four worked examples were completed for on assumed large spent fuel transport cask (Type B Package) with wet or dry capacity and at three transport conditions; normal transport with intact fuels or failed fuels, and an accident in transport. The standard leakage rates and criteria for two kinds of leak test were calculated for each example by each evaluation method. The following observations are made based upon the calculations and evaluations: the choked flow model of ANSI method greatly overestimates the criteria for tests ; the laminar flow models of both ANSI and ISO methods slightly overestimate the criteria for tests; the above two results are within the design margin for ordinary transport condition and all methods are useful for the evaluation; for severe condition such as failed fuel transportation, it should pay attention to apply a choked flow model of ANSI method. (authors)

  10. Transition from hydrodynamic to ballistic quasiparticle behavior in a Fermi gas: The response of a vibrating-wire resonator in a 3He-4He solution from 0.3 to 10 mK

    Measurements of the frequency shift, δf1, and the damping, δf2, of a vibrating wire in a saturated 3He-4He solution are reported. A transition is observed in the 3He quasiparticle Fermi gas from a hydrodynamic regime at 10 mK to a collisionless excitation gas regime at the lowest temperatures, 1 and δf2 supports the slip theory of Hojgaard Jensen et al. with the recent modification proposed by Carless, Hall, and Hook

  11. Response to Commentary on "The influence of lung airways branching structure and diffusion time on measurements and models of short-range 3He gas MR diffusion".

    Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2014-02-01

    Our extensive investigation of the cylinder model theory through numerical modelling and purpose-designed experiments has demonstrated that it does produce inaccurate estimates of airway dimensions at all diffusion times currently used. This is due to a variety of effects: incomplete treatment of non-Gaussian effects, finite airway size, branching geometry, background susceptibility gradients and diffusion time dependence of the (3)He MR diffusion behaviour in acinar airways. The cylinder model is a good starting point for the development of a lung morphometry technique from (3)He diffusion MR but its limitations need to be understood and documented in the interest of reliable clinical interpretation. PMID:24342570

  12. 3He Neutron Spin Filter cell development program at JCNS

    In order to produce high-quality 3He Neutron Spin Filters (NSF) with a high polarisation level, it is necessary to achieve a long 3He relaxation time by the reduction of the wall relaxation. This requires one to minimise the amount of impurities at the surface of the glass cells, and to have as few contaminants as possible in the gas filling system. In this report we describe the detailed procedure we employ to produce 3He cells using our newly built filling station. The obtained life times for a number of cells are practically approaching the fundamental limit imposed by the dipole-dipole interaction between 3He atoms.

  13. 3He Spin Filter for Neutrons

    Batz, M.; Baeßler, S.; Heil, W.; Otten, E. W.; Rudersdorf, D.; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Sobolev, Y.; Wolf, M.

    2005-01-01

    The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarized 3He opens up the possibility of polarizing neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. This paper gives a report on the neutron spin filter (NSF) development program at Mainz. The polarization technique is based on direct optical pumping of metastable 3He atoms combined with a polarization preserving mechanical compression of the gas up to a pressure of several bar, necessary to run a NSF. The concept of a remote type of operation using detachable NSF cells is presented which requires long nuclear spin relaxation times of order 100 hours. A short survey of their use under experimental conditions, e.g. large solid-angle polarization analysis, is given. In neutron particle physics NSFs are used in precision measurements to test fundamental symmetry concepts.

  14. Size effects in superfluid 3He

    The superfluid density and transition temperature of 3He filling the pores of packed alumina powder have been measured by fourth sound. The measurements were performed simultaneously for three separate fourth sound resonators, each packed with a different nominal grain size of 1.0 μm. 0.3 μm and 0.05 μm. The bulk 3He superfluid transition temperature, which was determined independently, was compared to the transition temperature of each resonator. We observed a systematic depression for both the superfluid density and transition temperature as the powder size was decreased. The depressions in the transition temperature were compared with theoretical estimates of size dependent transition temperatures for the ideal geometry of an infinite cylinder. In the analysis the cylinder radius was replaced by defining an average radius of the pore structure which was empirically determined by nitrogen gas sorption and mercury intrusion techniques. The pressure dependence of the transition temperature depression is found to be consistent with theoretical estimates of the superfluid coherence length. The experimentally determined magnitude of the coherence length based on the pore structure analysis is in agreement with theoretical estimates, confirming that the coherence length of superfluid 3He is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of He II

  15. A multipurpose 3He refrigerator

    Pizzo, L.; Dall'Oglio, G.; Martinis, L.; Sabbatini, L.

    2006-10-01

    We introduce a mini 3He refrigerator, operating at ˜300 mK starting from 4.2 K without pumping on the main 4He bath. The innovative idea is that the present one is suitable for a very fast operation; for its use, it is sufficient a storage 4He Dewar. In this way we drastically reduce the time required to cool it down, because there is no need for a classic cryostat. This prototype is particularly aimed for all those operations in which it is necessary to test a large number of samples that do not require long duration measurements at low temperature.

  16. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  17. Applications of 3He neutron spin filters at the NCNR

    At the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), we have applied 3He neutron spin filters (NSFs) to the instruments where 3He NSFs are advantageous, such as thermal triple-axis spectrometry, small-angle neutron scattering, and diffuse reflectometry. We present the status of our development and application of this method, including polarized gas production by spin-exchange optical pumping, magnetostatic cavities for storage of the polarized gas on the beam line, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based, on-line monitoring and reversal of the 3He polarization. We present the status of developing user-friendly interfaces incorporated into the instrument software to handle these 3He neutron spin filters while taking data and performing data analysis. Finally we discuss the status of development of a polarization capability on the multi-axis crystal spectrometer, which requires polarization analysis over a 220 deg. angular range.

  18. Test of 3He-based neutron polarizers at NIST

    Neutron spin filters based on polarized 3He are useful over a wide neutron energy range and have a large angular acceptance among other advantages. Two optical pumping methods, spin-exchange and metastability-exchange, can produce the volume of highly polarized 3He gas required for such neutron spin filters. We report a test of polarizers based on each of these two methods on a new cold, monochromatic neutron beam line at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

  19. Duoplasmatron source modifications for 3He+ operation

    A duoplasmatron ion source is used to produce 25 mA of 3He+ with a pulse width of ∼80ms at 360 Hz for acceleration to 10.5 MeV. At this energy, 3He striking water or carbon targets can produce short lived isotopes of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F for medical positron emission tomography (PET). A duoplasmatron ion source was chosen originally since it is capable of a sufficient singly charged helium beam with an acceptable gas consumption. Stable long-term operation of the source required a change in the filament material to molybdenum, and a careful understanding of the oxide filament conditioning, operation and geometry. Other improvements, particularly in the electronics, were helpful to increasing the reliability. The source has operated for many months at ∼2.5% duty factor without significant problems and with good stability. We report here the effort that was done to make this source understandable and reliable

  20. Intermolecular interactions in nuclear magnetic resonance: medium shifts of the 1H and 13C nuclei in methane in the gas phase and in solution and of gaseous 3He

    An analysis has been carried out of the continuum and the binary collision models used in the description of NMR solvent shifts caused by Van der Waals intermolecular interactions. The basic assumption underlying the models, i.e. σ sub(w)= -BE2 (I) is examined. The possible effects on I of such phenomena as B anisotropy and field gradients are discussed, as well as the inadequacy of I in representing the true intermolecular shielding. A new expression for E2 is proposed, which in connection with I forms the bais of a modified binary collision model. The new E2 expression takes into account the dynamic character of the interaction. The major obstacle to the binary collision model, the requirement for accurate parameters for the intermolecular potential employed in the statistical-mechanical averaging, is alleviated by the establishment of priority rules to be used in the selection of these paramters. The proposed binary collision model and a collision model are used to interpret the 1H and 13C medium shifts of methane in the gas phase and in solution. The proton shift data conform equally well to either model; the 13C data indicate that a large solvent-dependent term contributes to the observed medium shifts in addition to I. Proton and 13C B parameters of methane in the gas phase and in solution are discussed. Preliminary results of 3He medium shifts as a function of gas density are presented. An extracted B parameter based on the proposed binary collision model appears to agree well with the result of a quantum-mechanical calculation of B for a 3He atom in a uniform static electric field. (LL)

  1. The Panofsky ratio in 3He

    The branching ratios have been measured for γ-ray channels produced by π- stopping in liquid 3He. The results for the Panofsky ratio are P3 = ω(π-3He → π0t)/ω(π-3He → γt) = 2.83±0.07, and for the ratio of the radiative breakup channels, B3 = ω(π-3He → γnd+γnnp)/ω(π-3He → γt) = 1.35±0.11. (orig.)

  2. Removing gaseous contaminants in 3He by cryogenic stripping

    The Tritium Operations Group at LLNL, Tritium Facility has recently developed a 3He recovery system to remove argon, xenon, neon, hydrogen, and all other contaminants from the 3He stream in an Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) experimental apparatus. In this paper the authors will describe in detail the background information, technical requirements, the design approach, and the results of their experimental tests. The authors believe this gas purification system may have other applications as it provides at a reasonable cost an efficient method for purification of gaseous helium

  3. Spin dynamics of 3He in aerogel

    The authors report continuous-wave NMR measurements on superfluid 3He contained inside high porosity aerogel at 3.24 MPa, in a 28.4 mT magnetic field, and down to 0.9 mK. Three different purities of 3He were used: pure 3He, 3He with enough 4He to replace the first localized layer, and 3He with enough 4He to replace both localized layers. Below 2.26mK, the NMR spectrum does not consist of a single Lorentzian, but a distribution of NR resonant frequencies both above and below the Larmor frequency, ωL. Upon cooling, the component of the spectrum at frequencies below the Larmor frequency moves to higher frequencies over a narrow temperature range and does not return to ω L upon warming. The higher frequency component of the spectrum displays two resolvable peaks which become a complex structure upon removal of the localized 3He spins. The spectrum changes as the magnetic field is rotated about the axis of the aerogel sample, indicating that the 3He is able to detect a preferred direction in the aerogel. The shape of the spectrum shows no rotation or magnetic field hysteresis. The authors find that the average frequency shifts of the NMR spectra do not depend on the presence of the localized 3He spins. These frequency shifts and the presence of a temperature-independent magnetization for the liquid 3He suggest that the aerogel stabilizes a single equal-spin-pairing state in the experiments

  4. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.;

    1976-01-01

    The latent heat for solidification of **3He has been measured along the **3He melting curve between 23 and 1 mK. A temperature scale is established which depends only on measurements of heat, pressure and volume, and on the condition that the entropy of solid **3He approaches R ln 2 at high...... temperatures. The A feature of the melting curve which suggests itself as a thermometric fixed point is found to be T//A equals 2. 75 plus or minus 0. 11 mK. The agreement between this value and independent measurements of T//A, based on nuclear or electronic paramagnetism, Johnson noise thermometry...

  5. Neutron-sensitive ZnS/{sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic scintillator detector as an alternative to a {sup 3}He-gas-based detector for a plutonium canister assay system

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: nakamura.tatsuya@jaea.go.jp [J-PARC, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ohzu, A. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Honda, K. [J-PARC, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Birumachi, A.; Ebine, M. [Nuclear Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamagishi, H. [J-PARC, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kureta, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Soyama, K. [J-PARC, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, H. [Tokai Reprocessing Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seya, M. [Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    A neutron-sensitive ZnS/{sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic scintillator detector was developed as an alternative to a {sup 3}He-gas-based detector for use in a plutonium canister assay system. The detector has a modular structure, with a flat ZnS/{sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic scintillator strip that is installed diagonally inside a light-reflecting aluminium case with a square cross-section, and where the scintillation light is detected using two photomultiplier tubes attached at both ends of the case. The prototype detectors, which have a neutron-sensitive area of 30 mm×250 mm, exhibited a sensitivity of 21.7–23.4±0.1 cps/nv (mean±SD) for thermal neutrons, a {sup 137}Cs gamma-ray sensitivity of 1.1–1.9±0.2×10{sup −7} and a count variation of less than 6% over the detector length. A trial experiment revealed a temperature coefficient of less than −0.24±0.05%/°C over the temperature range of 20–50 °C. The detector design and the experimental results are presented.

  6. Neutron-sensitive ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator detector as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector for a plutonium canister assay system

    Nakamura, T.; Ohzu, A.; Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Honda, K.; Birumachi, A.; Ebine, M.; Yamagishi, H.; Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kureta, M.; Soyama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Seya, M.

    2014-11-01

    A neutron-sensitive ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator detector was developed as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector for use in a plutonium canister assay system. The detector has a modular structure, with a flat ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator strip that is installed diagonally inside a light-reflecting aluminium case with a square cross-section, and where the scintillation light is detected using two photomultiplier tubes attached at both ends of the case. The prototype detectors, which have a neutron-sensitive area of 30 mm×250 mm, exhibited a sensitivity of 21.7-23.4±0.1 cps/nv (mean±SD) for thermal neutrons, a 137Cs gamma-ray sensitivity of 1.1-1.9±0.2×10-7 and a count variation of less than 6% over the detector length. A trial experiment revealed a temperature coefficient of less than -0.24±0.05%/°C over the temperature range of 20-50 °C. The detector design and the experimental results are presented.

  7. 3He Neutron Detector Pressure Effect and Comparison to Models

    Reported here are the results of measurements performed to determine the efficiency of 3He filled proportional counters as a function of gas pressure in the SAIC system. Motivation for these measurements was largely to validate the current model of the SAIC system. Those predictions indicated that the neutron detection efficiency plotted as a function of pressure has a simple, logarithmic shape. As for absolute performance, the model results indicated the 3He pressure in the current SAIC system could not be reduced appreciably while meeting the current required level of detection sensitivity. Thus, saving 3He by reducing its pressure was predicted not to be a viable option in the current SAIC system.

  8. Ultrasensitive 3He magnetometer for measurements of high magnetic fields

    Nikiel, Anna; Blümler, Peter; Heil, Werner; Hehn, Manfred; Karpuk, Sergej; Maul, Andreas; Otten, Ernst; Schreiber, Laura M.; Terekhov, Maxim

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 3He magnetometer capable to measure high magnetic fields ( B> 0.1 T) with a relative accuracy of better than 10-12. Our approach is based on the measurement of the free induction decay of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized 3He following a resonant radio frequency pulse excitation. The measurement sensitivity can be attributed to the long coherent spin precession time T2 ∗ being of order minutes which is achieved for spherical sample cells in the regime of "motional narrowing" where the disturbing influence of field inhomogeneities is strongly suppressed. The 3He gas is spin polarized in situ using a new, non-standard variant of the metastability exchange optical pumping. We show that miniaturization helps to increase T2 ∗ further and that the measurement sensitivity is not significantly affected by temporal field fluctuations of order 10-4.

  9. Ultrasensitive 3He magnetometer for measurements of high magnetic fields

    Nikiel, A; Heil, W; Hehn, M; Karpuk, S; Maul, A; Otten, E; Schreiber, L M; Terekhov, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a 3He magnetometer capable to measure high magnetic fields (B > 0.1 Tesla) with a relative accuracy of better than 10^-12. Our approach is based on the measurement of the free induction decay of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized 3He following a resonant radio frequency pulse excitation. The measurement sensitivity can be attributed to the long coherent spin precession time T2* being of order minutes which is achieved for spherical sample cells in the regime of motional narrowing where the disturbing influence of field inhomogeneities is strongly suppressed. The 3He gas is spin polarized in-situ using a new, non-standard variant of the metastability exchange optical pumping. We show that miniaturization helps to increase T2* further and that the measurement sensitivity is not significantly affected by temporal field fluctuations of order 10^-4.

  10. Economic evaluation of D-T, D-3He, and catalyzed D-D fusion reactors

    Because the D-3He reaction generates no neutrons and the D-D reaction can use abundant fuel resources, these reactions are expected to be used in advanced fuel fusion reactors. Economic considerations and engineering problems are important for realizing such reactors as commercial plants. Therefore, we estimate and compare the cost of electricity (COE) from D-T, D-3He, and catalyzed D-D (cat D-D) fusion reactors. D-3He and cat D-D reactors have a low neutron wall load. Therefore, the D-3He reactor has no wall replacement cost. In addition, no tritium breeding system is needed for the D-3He reactor, but 3He gas is rare. Because the reaction rates of the D-3He and D-D reactions are less, D-3He and D-D reactors require highly efficient confinement properties and operation at high ion temperatures. Furthermore, the power densities of D-3He and D-D reactors are smaller than that of the D-T reactor; thus, D-3He and D-D reactors require a large plasma volume. Assuming a high ion temperature (= 60 keV) and high normalized beta (= 7-8), the COE of a D-3He reactor is expected to be similar to that of a D-T reactor. In terms of cost, cat D-D is disadvantageous in comparison with D-3He and D-T reactors. (author)

  11. Nuclear relaxation of 3He at the surface of solid H2

    We present a detailed experimental study of the wall-relaxation on solid H2 surfaces of a dilute 3He gas, oriented by optical pumping. In these experiments, we measure the nuclear relaxation time of the whole sample of 3He which is directly related to the relaxation time Tsub(a) of the 3He atoms adsorbed on the solid H2 coating the sample walls. Measurement of T1 as a function of the temperature leads to an experimental determination of the adsorption energy of a 3He atom on solid H2: ΔW (3He/H2) = 12+-3 K. In addition, experiments have been done on D2 and Ne solid coatings leading to ΔW (3He/D2) = 20+-3 K and ΔW (3He/Ne) = 38+-5 K; all these experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical predictions

  12. Photodisintegration of 3H and 3He

    The photoneutron cross sections for 3H and 3He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of 3H and the three-body breakup of both 3H and 3He; these measurements for 3H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF3-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the 3H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on 16O and 2H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for 3He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for 3H and 3He have nearly the same shape, but the one for 3He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for 3He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for 3H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for 3H and 3He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables

  13. A 3He Cryostat for Scientific Measurements in Pulsed High Magnetic Fields

    Wang, Shaoliang; Li, Liang; Liu, Mengyu; Zuo, Huakun; Peng, Tao

    A top loading 3He cryostat has been developed for scientific experiments with a 60 T pulsed magnetic field facility at Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. The cryostat consists of a 4He bath cryostat, a 3He insert and a closed circulation system for 3He gas handling. To eliminate the eddy current heating during the pulse, the tail of the 3He insert with a vacuum space at the bottom is made from fiberglass tubing coated with epoxy. The 3He bath is separated from the 4He bath with the vacuum space. The 4He bath cryostat provides cooling power to condense 3He gas by a neck tube on top of the tail. Experimental results have shown that the sample can be cooled down to 385 mK and kept cold for more than 150 second by one-shot cooling, which is sufficiently long for an experiment in a pulsed high magnetic field.

  14. Heat capacity of 3He in aerogel

    The heat capacity of pure 3He in low density aerogel is measured at 22.5 bars. The superfluid response is simultaneously monitored with a torsional oscillator. A slightly rounded heat capacity peak, 65 μK in width, is observed at the 3He-aerogel superfluid transition, Tca. Subtracting the bulk 3He contribution, the heat capacity shows a Fermi-liquid form above Tca. We can fit the heat capacity attributed to superfluid within the aerogel with a rounded BCS form accounting for 0.30 of the nonbulk fluid in the aerogel, or by assuming a substantial reduction in the superfluid order parameter. Both approaches are consistent with earlier superfluid density measurements

  15. Quantum prewetting transitions in liquid 3He

    Multilayer 3He film growth on weak-binding alkali substrates is investigated with a non-local density functional theory. Although 3He wets all substrates, prewetting transitions are predicted to occur on cesium and potassium. Emphasis is put on the role played by the Fermi statistics. Prewetting critical temperatures are estimated. Continuous wetting at zero temperature is recovered with increasing strength of substrate potential. The heat capacity and the magnetization of the films exhibits steps associated with the occupation of two-dimensional (2D) Fermi discs. (authors). 24 refs., 4 figs

  16. Development of polarized {sup 3}He filter for polarized neutron experiment

    Sakai, K.; Sato, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Masuda, Y.; Muto, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Morimoto, K.

    1996-08-01

    A high-pressure polarized {sup 3}He gas cell, pumped with two diode lasers, has been developed at KEK for use as a polarizer and a spin analyzer for low energy neutrons. The polarization attained of {sup 3}He was determined through the measurement of the transmission of the unpolarized neutrons through the {sup 3}He cell. So far we obtained P{sub He}=18% at 10 atm and P{sub He}=12% at 20 atm. (author)

  17. 3He-MRI of pulmonary ventilation: First clinical applications

    Purpose of the study is the visualisation of normal pulmonary ventilation in healthy volunteers and the evaluation of abnormalities in patients with different lung diseases using 3He magnetic resonance imaging (3He-MRI). Material und methods: Hyperpolarised 3He gas (V=300 ml, p=3x105 Pa, polarised to 35-45% by optical pumping, provided in special glass cells) was inhaled by eight healthy volunteers and ten patients with different lung diseases. A 3 D FLASH sequence (TR=11.8 ms; TE=5 ms; matrix 144x256, FOV 350 mm, section thickness 7-10 mm, coronal orientation) was performed in a single breath-hold (22-42 s). Clinical and radiological examinations were available for correlation. Results: The studies were successfully carried out in 8/8 volunteers and in 8/10 patients. The central airways were constantly visualised with intermediate to high signal instensity. The lung parenchyma of volunteers with normal ventilatory function showed rather homogeneous intermediate to high signal, whereas patients with chronic abstructive lung disease and/or pneumonia presented severe signal inhomogeneitises. Space-occupying lesions and pleural effusion caused large areas with little or no signal. The represented the lesion and adjacent ventilatory disturbances whose extent had not been presumed from chest X-ray or CT. The spatial resolution was higher than in ventilation scintigraphy. Conclusion: 3He MRI is a promising new modality for the assessment of pulmonary ventilation and its anormalies. (orig.)

  18. 3He-4He II mixtures

    A theoretical study of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties of 3He-4He II mixtures at temperatures below 250 mK is described. A hydrodynamic model is set up which incorporates mutual friction between the two components. Results of an investigation into the quantitative calculation of the mutual friction are reported. 148 refs.; 34 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. Functional {sup 3}He-MRI of the lungs; Funktionelle {sup 3}He-MRT der Lunge

    Gast, K.K.; Wolf, U. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Pulmonary diseases have a high health-related and economic significance. {sup 3}He-MRI is an alternative imaging method which can detect ventilatory disturbances with a high sensitivity. The application of different pulse sequences allows static and dynamic assessment of ventilation and bronchial gas flow, non-invasive measurement of intrapulmonary oxygen partial pressure and quantification of pulmonary parenchyma destruction and overinflation. Generally, the method is applicable for obstructive and restrictive ventilatory disturbances but initial approaches also exist for vascular pulmonary diseases. Specific clinical applications remain to be determined but {sup 3}He-MRI is an excellent instrument for the assessment of physiologic and pathophysiologic interrelations in the distribution of ventilation. (orig.) [German] Lungenerkrankungen haben einen hohen gesundheitlichen und volkswirtschaftlichen Stellenwert. Die {sup 3}He-MRT ist eine alternative bildgebende Methode, die sensitiv Ventilationsstoerungen nachweisen kann. Ueber unterschiedliche Pulssequenzen koennen Ventilation und Gasfluesse statisch und dynamisch dargestellt, der intrapulmonale Sauerstoffpartialdruck nichtinvasiv gemessen und die Destruktion und Ueberblaehung des Lungenparenchyms quantifiziert werden. Prinzipiell ist die Methode fuer die Untersuchung obstruktiver und restriktiver Ventilationsstoerungen anwendbar, Ansaetze existieren jedoch auch fuer vaskulaere Lungenerkrankungen. Spezifische klinische Anwendungen fuer die {sup 3}He-MRT muessen noch erarbeitet werden, sie ist jedoch ein hervorragendes Instrument zur Untersuchung physiologischer und pathophysiologischer Zusammenhaenge bei der Ventilationsverteilung. (orig.)

  20. NMR experiments on pure 3He and 3He-4He mixtures in silica aerogel

    We have carried out a series of NMR experiments on 4He systems filling the pores of silica aerogel with 95% porosity. The systems studied included 3He-4He mixtures with a wide range of 3He concentrations x3 as well as pure 3He. All experiments were conducted in an 8 T field and for temperatures T ≥ 6 mK. This resulted in strong spin polarization at the lowest temperatures (up to approximately 80%) for the localized layer observed for a pure 3He sample. For pure 3He, the magnetic behavior is dominated by the localized spins, which are found to constitute 6% of the sample. The coupled system of localized plus liquid spins displays rapid transverse magnetization relaxation with an anomalous temperature dependence. For intermediate x3 magnetization measurements provide a preliminary indication of the phase diagram of mixtures filling this porous material. The magnetization is hysteretic over some ranges of x3

  1. 3He(n,p) reaction simulation for formation analyses

    Computer modeling of neutron well logging instrument responses is becoming a necessity for petro-physical research and oil companies. It serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Neutrons in these tools are generally detected through 3He filled detectors. Detection of neutrons in a 3He counter occurs by means of the (n, p) reaction, yielding a proton and a triton. Computational simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNP has been considered a powerful tool to simulate the response of neutron porosity tools. In the MCNP code the detection of neutrons in a 3He gas has been making by means of energy functions that convert neutron fluxes to reaction rates (n,p). It allows obtaining count values comparable with experimental data. However, it does not allow producing light ions from neutron capture reactions like triton and proton, and nor study the behavior of these particles as a function of the detector design. With the development of the version MCNPX 2.6, the simulation of light ions (protons, triton) from neutron capture reactions was made possible. The purpose of this work is to use the new capabilities included in the MCNPX 2.6 code to simulate the 3He(n,p) reaction for nuclear well logging applications. The results obtained confirm that it is useful to predict the count values, as it allows obtaining results comparable with the literature. Besides, the new capabilities of the MCNPX 2.6 allow producing the triton and proton reaction products and the expected pulse height spectrum from a 3He detector in which the wall effect is significant. (author)

  2. DC discharge characteristics and fluorine atom yield in NF3/He

    Liping Duo; Shukai Tang; Haijun Yu; Jian Wang; Xiangde Min; Liucheng Li; Yuqi Jin; Bailing Yang; Fengting Sang

    2006-01-01

    @@ DC discharge characteristics of NF3/He have been investigated experimentally under different experimental conditions, for example, different electrode materials, separations, flow rates of the gas NF3 or He, and series resistances. The optimum discharge parameters and the fluorine atom yield from the DC discharge of NF3/He as function of load power are studied experimentally.

  3. A polarized sup 3 He internal target for storage rings

    Poolman, H R; Bulten, H J; Doets, M; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Geurts, D G; Harvey, M; Mul, F A

    2000-01-01

    A polarized sup 3 He internal target was employed at the internal target facility of the Amsterdam electron Pulse Stretcher and Storage ring (AmPS) at the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (NIKHEF). The unique features of internal targets such as chemical and isotopic purity, high and rapidly reversible polarization, and the ability to manipulate the target spin orientation were successfully demonstrated. A nuclear polarization of 0.50 (0.42) at a sup 3 He gas flow of 1.0 (2.0)x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 could be obtained. Operation at a nominal flow of 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 resulted in a target thickness of 0.7x10 sup 1 sup 5 at cm sup - sup 2 at a target temperature of 17 K.

  4. X-rays from pionic 3He

    Pionic X-ray energies, lorentzian widths, and relative intensities have been measured for the transitions in liquid 3He. The pion-nucleus interaction is found to result in an attractive shift of the 1s level of 27 +- 5 eV and in a lorentzian width of 65 +- 12 eV. The measured Ksub(β) to Ksub(α) intensity ratio is 1.05 +- 0.07. (Auth.)

  5. Coupling between Solid 3He on Aerogel and Superfluid 3He in the Low Temperature Limit

    We have cooled liquid 3He contained in a 98% open aerogel sample surrounded by bulk superfluid 3He-B at zero pressure to below 120 μK. The aerogel sample is placed in a quasiparticle blackbody radiator cooled by a Lancaster-style nuclear cooling stage to ∼200 μK. We monitor the temperature of the 3He inside the blackbody radiator using a vibrating wire resonator. We find that reducing the magnetic field on the aerogel sample causes substantial cooling of all the superfluid inside the blackbody radiator. We believe this is due to the demagnetization of the solid 3He layers on the aerogel strands. This system has potential for achieving extremely low temperatures in the confined fluid

  6. Study of the nuclear fusion in dμ3He complex

    Experimental study of the nuclear fusion reaction in charge-asymmetrical dμ3He complex (dμ3He → α (3.5 MeV) + p (14.64 MeV) is presented. The 14.64-MeV protons were detected by three pairs of Si(dE - E) telescopes placed around the cryogenic target filled with the D2 + 3He gas at 34 K. The 6.85 keV γ rays emitted during the de-excitation of the dμ3He complex were detected by a germanium detector. The measurements were performed at two D2 + 3He target densities, ψ = 0.0585 and ψ 0.169 (relative to liquid hydrogen density) with an atomic concentration of 3He c3He = 0.0469. The values of the effective rate of nuclear fusion in dμ3He was obtained for the first time: λf(tilde) (4.5-2.0+2.6) · 105s-1(ψ = 0.0585); λf(tilde) = (6.9-3.03.6) · 105s-1(ψ 0.168). The J =0 nuclear fusion rate in dμ3He was derived: λfJ=0 (9.7-2.6+5.7) · 105s-1 (ψ 0.0585); λfJ=0 = (12.4-5.4+6.5) · 105s-1 (ψ 0.168)

  7. Development of 3He-BOCA power ramping facility, 1

    Development of a He-3 power controlled boiling water capsule, 3He-BOCS, for LWR fuels power ramping test in JMTR has been carried out since 1978 on a five-year program; in the reactor, irradiation tests of various fuels and structual materials have been made since 1969. Using stagnant-pressurized water as a thermal medium, the capsule provides pressure and temperature conditions similar to those in LWRs. Heat generation of a fuel pin can be controlled by a He-3 gas screen surrounding the capsule. The facility is capable of testing numbers of both fresh and irradiated fuel pins under LWR operating conditions for power ramping and cycling. After explaining the operating priciples of 3He-BOCA and the development program, the following are described: the results of preliminary out-of-pile test on heat conductive characteristics of the capsule and a conceptual design of the 3He-BOCA for power ramping of a short fuel pin from 250 W/cm to 500 W/cm under BWR conditions. (author)

  8. Pion absorption in flight on 3He

    Pion absorption in flight on 3He has been measured in a kinematically complete manner. The experiment was done in the πE1-channel at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, SIN, using π+- and π--beams of 120 and 165 MeV kinetic energy. Two of the emitted particles were measured in coincidence and identified by their time-of-flight/pulseheight relation. The obtained two-dimensional energy representation enabled a separation of the different kinematical regions and exhibited a clear enhancement in the region of quasifree absorption, QFA. (orig./WL)

  9. 3He and 4f instable compounds

    The high localization of the 4f electron and the possibility of a weak delocalization through the coupling with the itinerant electrons lead to Fermi liquid properties. With the example of CeAl3, the main role of the coherence between the Ce is emphasized at low temperature. Thermal dilatation data show the transition from a regime of almost independent Kondo centers to a regime of coherent Kondo centers. The occurence of the superconductivity in the heavy fermion CeCu2Si2 is discussed and compared to the superfluidity of liquid 3He

  10. 3He and BF3 Neutron Detector Pressure Effect and Model Comparison

    Paper for SORMA conference Radiation detection systems for homeland security applications must possess the capability of detecting both gamma rays and neutrons. The radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems that are currently deployed use a plastic scintillator for detecting gamma rays and 3He gas-filled proportional counters for detecting neutrons. Proportional counters filled with 3He are the preferred neutron detectors for use in RPMs because 3He has a large neutron cross section, is relatively insensitive to gamma-rays, is neither toxic nor corrosive, can withstand extreme environments, and can be operated at a lower voltage than some of the alternative proportional counters. The amount of 3He required for homeland security and science applications has depleted the world supply and there is no longer enough available to fill the demand. Thus, alternative neutron detectors are being explored. Two possible temporary solutions that could be utilized while a more permanent solution is being identified are reducing the 3He pressure in the proportional counters and using boron trifluoride (BF3) gas-filled proportional counters. Reducing the amount of 3He required in each of the proportional counters would decrease the rate at which 3He is being used, not enough to solve the shortage but perhaps enough to increase the amount of time available to find a working replacement. BF3 is not appropriate for all situations as these detectors are less sensitive than 3He, BF3 gas is corrosive, and a much higher voltage is required than what is used with 3He detectors. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency of 3He and BF3 as a function of tube pressure were made. The experimental results were also used to validate models of the RPMs.

  11. 3He and BF3 neutron detector pressure effect and model comparison

    Radiation detection systems for homeland security applications must possess the capability of detecting both gamma rays and neutrons. The radiation portal monitor systems that are currently deployed use a plastic scintillator for detecting gamma rays and 3He gas-filled proportional counters for detecting neutrons. Proportional counters filled with 3He are the preferred neutron detectors for use in radiation portal monitor systems because 3He has a large neutron cross-section, is relatively insensitive to gamma-rays, is neither toxic nor corrosive, can withstand extreme environments, and can be operated at a lower voltage than some of the alternative proportional counters. The amount of 3He required for homeland security and science applications has depleted the world supply and there is no longer enough available to fill the demand. Thus, alternative neutron detectors are being explored. Two possible temporary solutions that could be utilized while a more permanent solution is being identified are reducing the 3He pressure in the proportional counters and using boron trifluoride gas-filled proportional counters. Reducing the amount of 3He required in each of the proportional counters would decrease the rate at which 3He is being used; not enough to solve the shortage, but perhaps enough to increase the amount of time available to find a working replacement. Boron trifluoride is not appropriate for all situations as these detectors are less sensitive than 3He, boron trifluoride gas is corrosive, and a much higher voltage is required than what is used with 3He detectors. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency of 3He and boron trifluoride as a function of tube pressure were made. The experimental results were also used to validate models of the radiation portal monitor systems.

  12. A density functional for liquid 3He

    We present a density functional for the description of liquid 3He properties at zero temperture in a mean field approximation. Its basic ingredients are a zero-range, particle- and spin-density dependent effective interaction of Skyrme type, and a long-range effective interaction of Lennard-Jones type supplemented with a weighted density approximation similar to the one used in the study of classical fluids, to phenomenologically account for short range correlations. After fixing the value of its parameters, the functional yields a good desription of the equation of state and Landau parameters (spin symmetric and spin antisymmetric as well) from saturation to solidification densities. The zero sound propagation at finite momentum transfer is quantitatively reproduced up to the Fermi momentum, and qualitatively above it. The surface tension is in agreement with experiment, which makes the functional well suited for 3He drop calculations. We describe the structure of drops made of up to 516 atoms. As a novel application, we discuss the possible appearance of triplet pairing in a nl-shell of a drop applying the formalism to the 1j-shell holding up to 30 atoms from N=169 to 198. (orig.)

  13. Volumetric fraction measurement in oil-water-gas multiphase flow with dual energy gamma-ray system

    LI Dong-hui; WU Ying-xiang; LI Zhi-biao; ZHONG Xing-fu

    2005-01-01

    Volumetric fraction distribution measurement is a constituent part of process tomography system in oil-water-gas mulfiphase flow. With the technological development of nuclear radial inspection, dual-energy γ-ray techniques make it possible to investigate the concentration of the different components on the cross-section of oil-water-gas multiphase pipe-flow. The dual-energy gamma-ray technique is based on materials attenuation coefficients measurement comprised of two radioactive isotopes of 241Am and 241Cs which have emission energies at 59.5 keV and 662 keV in this project. Nuclear instruments and data acquisition system were designed to measure the material's attenuation dose rate and a number of static tests were conducted at the Multiphase Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three phases of oil-water-gas media were investigated for their possible use to simulate different media volumetric fraction distributions in experimental vessels. Attenuation intensities were measured, and the arithmetic of linear attenuation coefficients and the equations of volumetric fractions were studied. Investigation of an unexpected measurement error from attenuation equations revealed that a modified arithmetic was involved and finally the system achieved acceptable accuracy in experimental research.

  14. Experimental study of fusion neutron and proton yields produced by petawatt-laser-irradiated D2-3He or CD4-3He clustering gases

    Bang, W; Bonasera, A; Quevedo, H J; Dyer, G; Bernstein, A C; Hagel, K; Schmidt, K; Gaul, E; Donovan, M E; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Barbarino, M; Kimura, S; Mazzocco, M; Natowitz, J B; Ditmire, T

    2013-01-01

    We report on experiments in which the Texas Petawatt laser irradiated a mixture of deuterium or deuterated methane clusters and helium-3 gas, generating three types of nuclear fusion reactions: D(d, 3He)n, D(d, t)p and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model using known cross sections and measured plasma parameters. Within our measurement errors, the fusion products were isotropically distributed. Plasma temperatures, important for the cross sections, were determined by two independent methods: (1) deuterium ion time-of-flight, and (2) utilizing the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He)n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. This experiment produced the highest ion temperature ever achieved with laser-irradiated deuterium clusters.

  15. First measurement of the helicity dependence of 3He photoreactions in the Δ(1232 resonance region

    Costanza Susanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first measurement of the helicity dependence for several photo-reaction channels on 3He was carried out in the photon energy range between 150 and 500 MeV at the MAMI accelerator (Mainz. The experiment used the large acceptance Crystal Ball spectrometer, complemented by charged particle and vertex detectors, a circularly polarised tagged photon beam and a longitudinally polarised high-pressure 3He gas target. Results of the helicity dependent total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on 3He and of both the unpolarised and polarised partial cross sections for the pion photoproduction channels γ 3He → πX and for the γ 3He → ppn channel, measured for the first time at MAMI, will be shown. They can also be found in [1].

  16. Preconceptual engineering design for the APT 3He Target/Blanket concept

    A preconceptual engineering design has been developed for the 3He Target/Blanket (T/B) System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This concept uses an array of pressure tubes containing tungsten rods for the neutron spallation source and 3He gas contained in a metal tank and blanket tubes as the tritium production material. The engineering design is based on a physics model optimized for efficient tritium production. Principle engineering consideration were: provisions for cooling all materials including the 3He gas; containment of the gas and radionuclides; remote handling; material compatibility; minimization of 3He, D2O, and activated waste; modularity; and manufacturability. The design provides a basis for estimating the cost to implement the system

  17. Formation of 3He droplets in dilute 3He-4He solid solutions

    Huan, Chao; Candela, Don; Kim, Sung; Yin, Liang; Xia, Jiang-Sheng; Sullivan, Neil

    2015-03-01

    We review the different stages of the formation of 3He droplets in dilute solid 3He-4He solutions. The studies are interesting because the phase separation in isotopic helium mixtures is a first-order transition with a conserved order parameter. The rate of growth of the droplets as observed in NMR studies is compared with the rates expected for homogeneous nucleation followed by a period of coarsening known as Ostwald ripening. Work suported by the National Science Foundation - DMR-1303599 and DMR- 1157490 (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory).

  18. Hyperpolarised 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    During recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hyperpolarised (HP) 3He gas has emerged as a promising new method for the imaging of lung ventilation. However, systematic comparisons with nuclear medicine techniques have not yet been performed. The aim of this study was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed. The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. We found a good correlation between HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT for both visual defect score (r=0.80, p81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI was one-third less than that on 81mKr SPECT), but the difference was reduced after normalisation for different breathing depths (HP 3He MRI at total lung capacity; 81mKr SPECT at tidal breathing at functional residual capacity). HP 3He MRI provides detailed ventilation distribution images and defect scores are comparable on HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT. Additionally, new insights into the regional pulmonary microstructure via the apparent diffusion coefficient measurements are provided by HP 3He MRI. HP 3He MRI is a promising new diagnostic tool for the assessment of ventilation distribution. (orig.)

  19. Low temperature adsorption of 3He on silica aerogel surface and its influence on 3He spin kinetics

    Significant influence of the aerogel surface heterogeneity on the processes of 3He nuclear magnetic relaxation at temperatures 1.5 − 4.2 K is discovered. This influence appears, for instance, in differences of the 3He T1 relaxation times for small portion of 3He, adsorbed at different temperatures. Binding energy data of 3He and distributions of this energy in two types of aerogel were obtained experimentally. Adsorbed 3He molecules with binding energies 60 – 250 K play supreme role in processes of nuclear magnetic relaxation of gaseous and liquid 3He in aerogel.

  20. APT 3He target/blanket. Topical report

    The 3He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D2O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process

  1. A compact SEOP 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR

    Ino, Takashi; Arimoto, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Kenji; Kira, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Takenao; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Chang, Lieh-Jeng

    2012-02-01

    We developed AFP NMR in an aluminum container for polarized noble gas nuclei. The radio frequency magnetic field inside the aluminum container was designed from computer simulations. The polarization loss by the AFP spin flip of 3He was measured to be as low as 3.8×10-4. With this technique, a compact in-situ polarizing 3He neutron spin filter with AFP NMR is demonstrated.

  2. Critical opalescent light scattering from 3He

    The experimental work reported in this paper was stimulated by the widespread revival of interest in critical phenomena. In this experiment the authors measured the intensity of light scattered from 3He while very slowly warming the sample at constant pressure through the critical region. About 0.3 mW from a helium-neon laser was incident on the cell; cell temperature was recorded continuously, as was the light scattered at 45 degrees and 135 degrees. A succession of passes was made at different pressures, all less than c, so these results apply only in the one-phase region above the critical point. Sample density at the beginning of a pass began at ρ > c, then decreased as the sample warmed to ρ c. The scattering intensity increased monotonically as the molar density decreased toward the critical density, then decreased monotonically thereafter on that isobaric pass. The scattering maximum on each pass occurred at the temperature max where the isothermal compressibility was a maximum. The asymptotic divergence of T was evaluated along the locus of these maxima

  3. Possibility of optically pumped 3He as an internal target

    A number of techniques can be listed for obtaining polarized 3He nuclei. This paper focuses only on direct optical pumping of 3He(3S1) with collisional transfer to 3He. A comprehensive review is not attempted. The basic aspects of the method are presented followed by a discussion of only the most recent work

  4. sup 3 He- sup 3 He dating: A case for mixing of young and old groundwaters

    Kamensky, I.L.; Tolstikhin, I.N. (Kola Science Center (Russian Federation)); Tokarev, I.V. (Leningrad Mining Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1991-10-01

    {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He ratios were measured in shallow underground waters (opened by water-supplying wells) of the Large Vud-Javr intramountain artesian basin in the Khibiny alkaline massif, the Kola Peninsula. The ratios vary from 1.321 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.065 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} and from 1.412 to 2.941, respectively, and a well-defined correlation is observed between them. Both these ratios in aquifers are known to be time-dependent, the former increases with time due to accumulation of {sup 3}He, produced in waters by {sup 3}H {beta}-decay; the latter decreases due to migration of helium from water-bearing rocks into the waters. The correlation is interpreted as a result of the mixing of two different types of waters. The approximation line enables the authors to estimate the isotopic ratios for the endmembers participating in the mixing and the mean residence time ({tau}) of tritigenic helium-3 in the water: (1) {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 3.655 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He = 4.03, and taking into consideration {sup 3}H concentrations in the well waters, {sup 3}H = 31.1 TU (practically the same for all samples), {tau} = 15.8 {plus minus} 1.5 years for the young water; (2) {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 0.20 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 4}He = 0.18 and T = 0.11 Ma for the old one, the contribution of the old water being less than 10%. In one well a considerable contribution of modern-day meteoric water, about 16%, is observed.

  5. Acoustic and optical investigations of superfluid 3He. Doctoral thesis

    Manninen, A.

    1993-06-15

    The thesis is an experimental survey of properties of rotating and stationary superfluid (3)He. Two techniques, acoustics and optics, were used. Ultrasound, together with NMR, has provided most of the present experimental knowledge about the superfluid phases of (3)He. The author applied acoustics for the first time to study rotating (3)He. The main result was the discovery of a new vortex in (3)He-A when the magnetic field is low. New phenomena were observed in stationary (3)He as well. Most importantly, one of the collective modes, the real squashing (rsq) mode, of (3)He-B could be excited by means of two-phonon absorption. Superfluid (3)He was studied optically for the first time. No one has previously seen (3)He in the superfluid state. The principal achievement was developing techniques which facilitate optical experiments at temperatures below 1 mK, required to study superfluid (3)He. Optical fibers were used to transmit light between room temperature and the cold parts of the cryostat. Before these investigations, photography had not been done below 10 mK. The usefulness of optics as a proble of the superfluid phases of (3)He was demonstrated by studying the macroscopic shape of the free surface of rotating (3)He-B. The classical parabolic meniscus was observed, which is indicative of the equilibrium density of vortices.

  6. Feasibility study of a sup 3 He-magnetometer for neutron electric dipole moment experiments

    Borisov, Y; Leduc, M; Lobashev, V; Otten, E W; Sobolev, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report on a sup 3 He-magnetometer capable of detecting tiny magnetic field fluctuations of less than 10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 T in experiments for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. It is based on the Ramsey technique of separated oscillating fields and uses nuclear spin-polarized sup 3 He gas which is stored in two vessels of V approx =10 l in a sandwich-type arrangement around the storage bottle for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The gas is polarized by means of optical pumping in a separate, small discharge cell at pressures around 0.5 mbar and is then expanded into the actual magnetometer volume. To detect the polarization of sup 3 He gas at the end of the storage cycle the gas is pumped out by means of an oil-diffusion pump and compressed again into the discharge cell where optical detection of nuclear polarization is used.

  7. Polarisation and compression of 3He for Magnetic Resonance Imaging purposes

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is often used in medical science as a diagnostic tool for the human body. Conventional MRI uses the NMR signal from the protons of water molecules in tissue to image the interior of the patient's body. However, for certain areas such as the lungs and airways, the usage of a highly polarised gas yields better results. We are currently constructing an apparatus that uses polarised 3He gas to produce detailed images of those signal-deficient moyeties. We also plan to study possible uptake of polarised 3He gas by the circulatory system to image other organs

  8. Specific-heat measurements on dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    The author measured the specific heat of dilute 3He-4He mixtures in the concentration range from X = 1 x 10-3 to X = 3 x 10-3 and in the temperature range from 100 mK to 600 mK. This has been done by means of a thermal relaxation method. This method provides some interesting features and is applied, to our knowledge, for the first time to dilute 3He-4He mixtures. To reach the required temperature range for our experiments a 4He circulating 3He-4He dilution refrigerator has been constructed. The results confirm the deviation of the 3He contribution to the specific heat from the ideal Fermi gas behaviour. (Auth.)

  9. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors for direct 3He replacement

    High-efficiency Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors (MSNDs) have been tiled and arranged in a cylindrical form factor in order to serve as a direct replacement to aging and increasingly expensive 3He gas-filled proportional neutron detectors. Two 6-in long by 2-in diameter cylinders were constructed and populated with MSNDs which were then directly compared to a 4 atm Reuter Stokes 3He detector of the same dimensions. The Generation 1 MSND-based 3Helium-Replacement (HeRep Mk I) device contained sixty-four 1-cm2 active-area MSNDs, each with an intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of approximately 7%. A Generation 2 device (the HeRep Mk II) was populated with thirty 4-cm2 active-area MSNDs, with an intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of approximately 30%. The MSNDs of each HeRep were integrated to count as a single device. The 3He proportional counter and the HeRep devices were tested while encased in a cylinder of high-density polyethylene measuring a total of 6-in by 9-in. The 3He counter and the HeRep Mk II were each placed 1 m from a 54-ng 252Cf source and tested for efficiency. The 3He proportional counter had a net count rate of 17.13±0.10 cps at 1 m. The HeRep Mk II device had a net count rate of 17.60±0.10 cps, amounting to 102.71±2.65% of the 3He gas counter while inside of the moderator. Outside of moderator, the 3He tube had a count rate of 3.35±0.05 cps and the HeRep Mk II device reported 3.19±05, amounting to 95.15±9.04% of the 3He neutron detector

  10. Measure of the volumetric efficiency and evaporator device performance for a liquefied petroleum gas spark ignition engine

    Highlights: ► Measure of the effect of LPG fuel on volumetric efficiency of a SI petrol ICE. ► Steady-state and transient performance of a LPG evaporator device on a SI ICE. ► Volume displaced by LPG causes slight performance loss in SI petrol engines. ► LPG reveals peak efficiency and high-efficiency range wider than petrol in SI ICE’s. ► One-stage pressure reducer for LPG performs satisfactorily during SI ICE transients. - Abstract: The use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as fuel for spark ignition engines originally designed to be gasoline fuelled is common practice in many countries. Despite this, some questions remain still open. The present paper deals with the two main problems related to LPG port-fuel SI engines: the volumetric efficiency drop and the LPG evaporator device performance. A passengers car SI engine equipped with a “third generation” kit for the dual-fuel operation was tested using a dynamometer test rig. A single-stage pressure reducer was selected as LPG evaporator, to take advantage of an additional pre-heating of the liquid LPG that allows higher power output than a two-stage device of the same size. Engine performance, volumetric efficiency and change of LPG thermodynamic states in the evaporator were measured both in steady-state and transient operation of the engine. Steady-state measurements show the advantage of LPG in terms of engine efficiency, and quantify the drop in steady-state brake torque due to the volume swept by gaseous fuel in the fresh charge admission process. On the other hand, transient measurements show that a single-stage evaporator device is capable to match overall simplicity and satisfactory performance during strong changes in engine load.

  11. 3He charge form factors by nuclear recoil detection

    3He charge form factors were measured by observing the scattering reaction 3He(e,3He)e from square momentum transfers 0.885 to 3.20 fm-2. The results compare favorably with earlier electron scattering experiments. A model-independent determination of the radial charge density gives an rms radius of 1.877 +- 0.019 fm, in excellent agreement with previous radii determinations

  12. Application of gaseous absorbers for testing the fuel elements in nonstationary regimes. [/sup 3/He

    Andreev, V.I.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Kosilov, A.N.; Kuznetsov, Eh.M.; Potapenko, P.T.; Sivokon, V.P.; Fokin, A.B.; Yakovlev, V.V.

    1981-11-01

    A possibility of operative local control of power release in loop channels of a research reactor MR by means of a gaseous neutron absorber with /sup 3/He being of use as absorber is studied. The gas control system intended for the study of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel element serviceability in transients is described. The calculation-experimental investigation results of the dependence of power change of an experimental heat-generating assembly and reactivity on /sup 3/He pressure in the channel are presented. A conclusion on satisfactory efficiency of the described gas control system is made on the base of the analysis of the results obtained.

  13. Polarization phenomena for low energy d + 3He collisions

    Polarization phenomena are studied for the reaction d + 3He → p + 4He (for Ed ≤ 1 MeV) using a formalism of partial amplitudes. The nuclei are considered as elementary particles with definite values of spin and P-parity. A general parametrization of the matrix element in terms of a limited number of partial amplitudes (for d + 3He-interaction in s - and p- states) is given and the expressions for all polarization observables are derived for the s-interaction. Relations between different polarization observables are derived and the conditions for maximizing the differential cross section of the process d + 3He → p + 4He are indicated. The spin structure of the matrix elements of the processes d + 3He → d +3He, d + 3He → n +p + 3He, d + 3He → p + p + 3H and d + 3He → d + d + p is established in the near-threshold region. (author)

  14. Measurements of the 3He fusion product in TFTR

    The 0.8-MeV 3He ion created in the d(d,n)3He fusion reaction is confined in TFTR and can undergo d(3He,p)α fusion reactions. The time evolution, and profile of the 14.7-MeV proton emission indicates that collisional energy transfer with plasma electrons is the dominant process influencing the charged 3He fusion product for TFTR plasmas and that there is no observable anomalous transport. The magnitude of the burnup exceeds classical expectations by a factor-of-two-to-three which is a little beyond experimental uncertainties. 19 refs., 11 figs

  15. 3He functions in tokamak-pumped laser systems

    3He placed in an annular cell around a tokamak fusion generator can convert moderated fusion neutrons to energetic ions by the 3He(n,p)T reaction, and thereby excite gaseous lasants mixed with the 3He while simultaneously breeding tritium. The total 3He inventory is about 4 kg for large tokamak devices. Special configurations of toroidal-field magnets, neutron moderators and beryllium reflectors are required to permit nearly uniform neutron current into the laser cell with minimal attenuation. The annular laser radiation can be combined into a single output beam at the top of the tokamak

  16. Three-body 3He photodisintegration in the Δ region

    Three-body 3He photodisintegration was measured in the photon energy range (Eγ) of 145--425 MeV. The total cross section for photon absorption on the np pairs in 3He, σ(3He(γ,np)psp), where psp is a spectator proton, is reported here for the first time. The Eγ dependence of the σ is found to scale to that of σ(2H(γ,np)), and the ratio is determined to be σ(3He(γ,np)psp)/σ(2H(γ,np))=1.24±0.,26

  17. Degassing of 3H/3He, CFCs and SF6 by denitrification: measurements and two-phase transport simulations.

    Visser, Ate; Schaap, Joris D; Broers, Hans Peter; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2009-01-26

    The production of N2 gas by denitrification may lead to the appearance of a gas phase below the water table prohibiting the conservative transport of tracer gases required for groundwater dating. We used a two-phase flow and transport model (STOMP) to study the reliability of 3H/3He, CFCs and SF6 as groundwater age tracers under agricultural land where denitrification causes degassing. We were able to reproduce the amount of degassing (R2=69%), as well as the 3H (R2=79%) and 3He (R2=76%) concentrations observed in a 3H/3He data set using simple 2D models. We found that the TDG correction of the 3H/3He age overestimated the control 3He/3He age by 2.1 years, due to the accumulation of 3He in the gas phase. The total uncertainty of degassed 3H/3He ages of 6 years (+/-2 sigma) is due to the correction of degassed 3He using the TDG method, but also due to the travel time in the unsaturated zone and the diffusion of bomb peak 3He. CFCs appear to be subject to significant degradation in anoxic groundwater and SF6 is highly susceptible to degassing. We conclude that 3H/3He is the most reliable method to date degassed groundwater and that two-phase flow models such as STOMP are useful tools to assist in the interpretation of degassed groundwater age tracer data. PMID:19042054

  18. Measurement of the3He permeability of DT-filled fused silica inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets to study the effects of3He on neutron emission during implosion

    A set of laser implosion experiments were conducted at the OMEGA laser at the Univ. of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) to study the effect of He concentration in DT-filled target shells on fusion yield in ICF implosions.. Eleven laser fusion shells consisting of 1100-μm diameter, hollow, fused silica spheres with 4.6 to 4.7-μm-thick walls were loaded with 520 kPa of deuterium-tritium (DT) and then with 3He (101.3 or 520 kPa). The 3He permeabilities of the shells were determined by measuring the pressure rate of rise into a system with known volume. A mathematical method was developed that relied on the experimental fill pressure and time, and the rate of rise data to solve differential equations using MathCAD to simultaneously calculate 3He permeability and initial 3He partial pressure inside the shell. Because of the high permeation rate for 3He out of the shells compared to that for DT gas, shells had to be recharged with 3He immediately before being laser imploded or 'shot' at LLE. The 3He partial pressure in each individual shell at shot time was calculated from the measured 3He permeability. Two different partial pressures of 3He inside the shell were shown to reduce neutron and gamma yields during implosion. (authors)

  19. Model formalism of liquid 3He-B at equilibrium

    The approximate formal treatment of the nuclear spin system of normal liquid 3He given some time ago is extended to the ordered 3He phase. The formalism leads to the prediction of normal thermal behavior of 3He-B at lower pressures and at temperatures approaching its phase-boundary temperatures. In contrast to the disordered normal liquid phase, which is thermally anomalous, the entropy of the 3He-B decreases on isothermal compression, or its isobaric volume expansion coefficient is positive. The equilibrium thermal behavior of ordered 3He-B is thus qualitatively different from that of disordered liquid 3He. Experimental control of these aspects of the liquid 3He phase transformation is lacking at the present time. Both early and new 3He-B paramagnetic susceptibility data, extended recently over a wide reduced-temperature range, disclose a fundamental competition between the spontaneous ordering mechanism responsible for the existence of 3He-B and the specific ordering process imposed upon this phase on application of an external constant and uniform magnetic field. As a consequence, magnetized 3He-B will be shown to increase its entropy on isothermal magnetization and to cool on adiabatic magnetization. The magnetocaloric effect is, however, only moderate. The competition of the ordering process leads to the delay or possibly even to the suppression of the formation of the ordered phase, a state of affairs foreseen in our earlier work. At low or moderate magnetic field strengths, the zero-field phase-boundary temperatures are shown to shift toward lower temperatures while, simultaneously, the order of the phase change decreases, from second order, in the absence of the field, to first order. Although of model-theoretic character, involving limitations of various types, the rich physical content of 3He-B at equilibrium clearly emerges in the present work

  20. Study of a helium II refrigeration system with cold-compressors. Proposal of decrease the number of compressor stage and system compactness by using 3He to working gas

    This paper will study the possibility of a He II refrigerator made up of three cold compressor by making use of helium -3 characteristics. This system is compact enough to fit inside a small cold box, so it can be easily connected with an existing helium -4 refrigerator. We calculated specifications of system include cold compressor design, He II cooling capacity, 4.4 K refrigeration load and etc. Especially estimation of required inventory of helium-3 is important because helium-3 gas is very expensive. We applied stainless steel micro-tube type compact laminar flow heat exchanger which was the item of our development. The result of calculation of helium-3 inventory was to be small enough to prove practicality of constructing this refrigerator. (author)

  1. 3He(3H,γ)6Li

    The authors have calculated the 3He(3H,γ)6Li reaction rate at big bang temperatures based on a microscopic study in the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method. It is discussed whether 6Li could be made by 3He + 3H fusion in the early epoch of our universe

  2. Some new NMR effects in superfluid 3He--A

    Longitudinal and transverse satellite lines have been observed by CW techniques in superfluid 3He-A under a variety of experimental conditions. A new metastable mode has been observed in superfluid 3He-A using pulsed NMR techniques. The frequency shift of this mode is related to the frequency shift of the transverse satellite line

  3. magnetic resonance of 3He nuclei in porous media

    The data on 3He spin kinetics in porous media above the Fermi temperature of 3He are summarized. Presented results are obtained in Kazan Federal University in last ten years and are the base of developing method of helium porometry. Guidelines for investigation of samples with unknown pore sizes and superficial their properties are proposed

  4. Ions Preheated in 3He-Rich Solar Particle Events

    王德焴

    2003-01-01

    A wave-particle resonance absorption model in the two-ion plasma is suggested in explanation to the coronal ions preheating in 3He-rich solar particle events. It is found that 3He and Fe ions are preferably preheated by the ion-ion hybrid waves at their fundamental and second harmonic ion cyclotron frequencies, respectively.

  5. Pulsed NMR experiments in superfluid 3He confined in aerogel

    Pulsed NMR experiments have been performed in both B and supercooled A phases of superfluid 3He in aerogel. Dependencies of spin precession frequency on tipping angle in B-phase of superfluid 3He in aerogel are found to be different for pure 3He and for the cell preplated with 4He. A sharp increase of the frequency for tipping angles greater than 104 deg. was observed in low temperature superfluid phase of 3He in 4He preplated aerogel as it is expected for the B-phase structure of the order parameter. Dependencies of the frequency on the tipping angle in supercooled A-phase are similar for both pure 3He and 4He preplated aerogel

  6. Feasibility studies of D—3He fusion power in China

    DengBai-Quan; FengKei-Ming; 等

    1997-01-01

    The systematic study on D-3He advanced fuel fusion in China has been performed.Comparisons between D-3He and D-T fuel cycles in physics,engineering,environmental safety and so on have been made.D-3He fusion offers significant adavantages for reducing the neutron yield by a factor of 10-60,The 3He resource and mining possibility are investigated.The energy payback factor of 97 for mining lunar 3He resource is calculated.The operating parameter scope for D-3He fueled Tokamak reactor is analyzed.The prompt energy broadening for fusion products is calculated and results are consistent with those obtained by Lehner using a different method.Centrally peaked current drive with high efficiency is studied utilizing plasma synchrotron radiation.Centrally peaked current drive with gigh efficiency is studied utilizing plasma synchrotron radiation.More than 80% of plasma current required can be driven passively.A D-3He fueled Tokamak commercial reactor-Mooncity was designed.Neutronics calculations show that the radioactivity,afterheat,BHP value for Mooncity are 10-60 times less than those for D-T fusion.

  7. Cosmogenic and nucleogenic ^3He in apatite, titanite, and zircon

    Farley, K. A.; Libarkin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S; Amidon, W.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic ^3He was measured in apatite, titanite, and zircon and cosmogenic ^(21)Ne in quartz at 13 depth intervals in a 2.7-m long drill core in a Miocene ignimbrite from the Altiplano of Bolivia. All three ^3He depth profiles as well as the ^(21)Ne profile attenuate exponentially with depth, indicating that both of these isotopes are cosmogenic in origin with no significant contribution from other sources. The attenuation lengthscale for ^3He production of Λ = 180 ± 11 g/cm^2 is consistent...

  8. D-3He fuel cycles for neutron lean reactors

    The intrinsic potential of D-3He as a reactor fuel is investigated for a large range of 3He to D density ratios. A steady-state zero-dimensional reactor model is developed in which much care is attributed to a proper treatment of fast fusion products. Useful ranges of reactor parameters as well as temperature-density windows for driven and ignited operation are identified. Various figures of merit are calculated, such as power densities, net power production, neutron production, tritium load and radiative power. These results suggest several optimistic conclusions about the performance of D-3He as a reactor fuel

  9. Dressed Spin of Polarized 3He in a Cell

    Chu, P H; Peng, J C; Beck, D H; Chandler, D E; Clayton, S; Hu, B Z; Ngan, S Y; Sham, C H; So, L H; Williamson, S; Yoder, J

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized 3He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room temperature cell. The 3He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field is then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the 3He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  10. Safeguards Technology Factsheet 3He-free Neutron Coincidence Counter

    A full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Counter - Boron: HLNB) based on 3He alternative detection technology was designed and built at LANL and field tested at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) during FY15. HLNB is based on boron-lined proportional plates that replace the traditional 3He proportional tubes and was designed as a direct alternative to 3He-based High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNC-II). During the JAEA field trial the HLNB demonstrated comparable performance to HLNC-II, which represents a key development in the area of 3He alternative technologies and provides a complete demonstration of the technology for nuclear safeguards applications including high mass MOX samples.

  11. Magnetization and spin diffusion of liquid 3He in aerogel

    We report theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the normal-state spin diffusion coefficient of 3He in aerogel, including both elastic and inelastic scattering of 3He quasiparticles, and compare these results with data for 3He in 98% porous silica aerogel. This analysis provides a determination of the elastic mean free path within the aerogel. Measurements of the magnetization of the superfluid phase in the same aerogel samples provide a test of the theory of pairbreaking and magnetic response of low-energy excitations in the 'dirty' B phase of 3He in aerogel. A consistent interpretation of the data for the spin-diffusion coefficient, magnetization, and superfluid transition temperature is obtained by including correlation effects in the aerogel density

  12. Electromagnetic physics with a polarized 3He target

    In the trinucleon system, 3He is preferable for polarization measurements because it is stable and a well-understood polarization method exists. Also, to a good approximation, the 3He spin is effectively due to the spin of its neutron and hence acts as a polarized neutron target. This is important because dense targets of polarized free neutrons are not possible. Thus, in a simple-minded picture, one can think of polarization measurements on 3He as a means of tagging the neutron in this nucleus. In a general program of polarization measurements on the proton, deuteron, and 3He, one could investigate the form-factors and small wave-function components of the nucleon and its excited states in the nuclear medium. (orig./WL)

  13. The SLAC high-density gaseous polarized 3He target

    A large-scale high-pressure gaseous 3He polarized target has been developed for use with a high-intensity polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This target was used successfully in an experiment to study the spin structure of the neutron. The target provided an areal density of about 7 x1021 nuclei/cm2 and operated at 3He polarizations between about 30% and 40% for the six-week duration of the experiment

  14. Neutron orbital structure from generalized parton distributions of 3He

    Rinaldi, M; Scopetta, S.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized parton distribution H and E of the 3He nucleus, which could be measured in hard exclusive processes, such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering, are thoroughly analyzed in impulse approximation, within the Av18 interaction. It is found that their sum is dominated to a large extent by the neutron contribution: The peculiar spin structure of 3He makes this target unique for the extraction of the neutron information. This observation could allow to access for the first ti...

  15. Extracting generalized neutron parton distributions from 3He data

    Rinaldi, M; Scopetta, S.

    2012-01-01

    An impulse approximation analysis is described of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E of the 3He nucleus, quantities which are accessible in hard exclusive processes, such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). The calculation is based on the Av18 interaction. The electromagnetic form factors are correctly recovered in the proper limits. The sum of the GPDs H and E of 3He, at low momentum transfer, is largely dominated by the neutron contribution, thanks to the ...

  16. Analytic vortices in rotating superfluid 3He-A

    Recent works on analytic vortices in rotating 3He-A are reviewed. It is shown that the circular-hyperbolic vortex lattice has the lowest free energy in an axial magnetic field. The associated nuclear magnetic resonance satellites account for not only the observed satellite frequencies in a rotating 3He-A experiment but also the observed intensity of the satellite resonances. 15 references, 3 figures

  17. Elastic and charge exchange scattering of pions from 3He

    Elastic and charge exchange scatterings of pions from 3He are studied using on optical potential in the momentum representation, which includes the second order effect as well as the nucleon binding correction. These corrections are found to be appreaciable but still not enough to resolve the discrepancy between theoretical calculations and recent experimental data on the reaction 3He(π-, π0)3H. (author)

  18. The 3He spectral function in light-front dynamics

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Kaptari, Leonid; Pace, Emanuele; Salmè, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered for the extraction of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers, where final state interactions are taken into account. The generalization of the analysis to a Poincar\\'e covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  19. Electroproduction of low energy π+ from 3He

    Differential cross sections were measured for the electro-pion production from H and 3He at an incident energy of 200 MeV and pion energies from 7.3 to 12.1 MeV. Pion-angular distributions are presented and compared with theory. For hydrogen there is good agreement. A simple three-channel calculation performed for the pion production from 3He was found to over estimate the cross section at forward pion angles

  20. Polar Phase of Superfluid (3)He in Anisotropic Aerogel.

    Dmitriev, V V; Senin, A A; Soldatov, A A; Yudin, A N

    2015-10-16

    We report the first observation of the polar phase of superfluid (3)He. This phase appears in (3)He confined in a new type of aerogel with a nearly parallel arrangement of strands which play the role of ordered impurities. Our experiments qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions and suggest that in other systems with unconventional Cooper pairing (e.g., in unconventional superconductors) similar phenomena may be found in the presence of anisotropic impurities. PMID:26550884

  1. The (t,3He) and (3He,t) reactions as probes of Gamow-Teller strength

    Zegers, R G T; Austin, S M; Bazin, D; Berg, G P A; Brown, B A; Cole, A L; Daito, I; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Galès, Sydney; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, H; Hayami, R; Hitt, G W; Howard, M E; Itoh, M; Jänecke, J; Kawabata, T; Kawase, K; Kinoshita, M; Nakamura, T; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, S; Okamura, S; Richter, W A; Roberts, D A; Sherrill, B M; Shimbara, Y; Steiner, M; Uchida, M; Ueno, H; Van den Berg, A M; Yamagata, T; Yosoi, M; Austin, Sam M.

    2006-01-01

    Charge-exchange reactions are an important tool for determining weak-interaction rates. They provide stringent tests for nuclear structure models necessary for modeling astrophysical environments such as neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae. In this paper we demonstrate via a study of 26Mg(t,3He) that the (t,3He) reaction at 115 MeV/nucleon is an accurate probe for extracting Gamow-Teller strengths. This study is complemented by 26Mg(3He,t) data taken at 140 MeV/nucleon which allows for a comparison of T=2 analog states excited via the mirror reactions. A good correspondence is found between Gamow-Teller distributions measured via the 26Mg(3He,t) and 26Mg(p,n) experiments, indicating probe-independence of the strength extraction. Results from 26Mg(t,3He) and 26Mg(d,2He) also display good correspondence, showing that with the (t,3He) reaction a new tool has become available for studying Gamow-Teller strengths in the beta+ direction. Furthermore, we test shell-model calculations using the new USD-05B inte...

  2. On the optimisation of the use of {sup 3}He in radiation portal monitors

    Tomanin, Alice [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ITU—Ispra (Italy); University of Ghent, Engineering Faculty, B-9052 Gent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Peerani, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ITU—Ispra (Italy); Janssens-Maenhout, Greet [University of Ghent, Engineering Faculty, B-9052 Gent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) are used to detect illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material concealed in vehicles, cargo containers or people at strategic check points, such as borders, seaports and airports. Most of them include neutron detectors for the interception of potential plutonium smuggling. The most common technology used for neutron detection in RPMs is based on {sup 3}He proportional counters. The recent severe shortage of this rare and expensive gas has created a problem of capacity for manufacturers to provide enough detectors to satisfy the market demand. In this paper we analyse the design of typical commercial RPMs and try to optimise the detector parameters in order either to maximise the efficiency using the same amount of {sup 3}He or minimise the amount of gas needed to reach the same detection performance: by reducing the volume or gas pressure in an optimised design.

  3. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for {sup 3}He-based neutron detectors

    Lacy, Jeffrey L., E-mail: jlacy@proportionaltech.com [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of {sup 3}He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of {sup 3}He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on {sup 3}He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of {sup 10}B-enriched boron carbide ({sup 10}B{sub 4}C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of {sup 10}B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional {sup 3}He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as {sup 10}BF{sub 3} tubes and {sup 10}B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed {sup 3}He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter {sup 3}He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  4. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for 3He-based neutron detectors

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B.

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of 3He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of 3He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on 3He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of 10B-enriched boron carbide ( 10B 4C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of 10B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional 3He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as 10BF 3 tubes and 10B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed 3He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter 3He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  5. Novel and efficient 10B lined tubelet detector as a replacement for 3He neutron proportional counters

    Tsorbatzoglou, Kyriakos; McKeag, Robert D.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel and robust proportional detector which addresses the well publicized shortage of 3He gas by using a 10B lining applied to a tubelet configuration. The advantage of the tubelet structure is that it yields a detector maintaining the form factor of a conventional 3He tube whilst achieving a sensitivity of up to 75% of a 3 atm 3He device. The design and fabrication of the tubelet detector is presented and discussed with test data comparing the new detector to existing 3He and BF 3 tubes. The application of the tubelet design to security and industrial applications including retro-fitting to existing portals and suitability for high integrity oil and gas installations is addressed.

  6. Spin exchange optical pumping based polarized 3He filling station for the Hybrid Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a new direct geometry spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument is equipped with polarization analysis capability with 60° horizontal and 15° vertical detector coverages. In order to provide wide angle polarization analysis for this instrument, we have designed and built a novel polarized 3He filling station based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. It is designed to supply polarized 3He gas to HYSPEC as a neutron polarization analyzer. In addition, the station can optimize the 3He pressure with respect to the scattered neutron energies. The depolarized 3He gas in the analyzer can be transferred back to the station to be repolarized. We have constructed the prototype filling station. Preliminary tests have been carried out demonstrating the feasibility of the filling station. Here, we report on the design, construction, and the preliminary results of the prototype filling station.

  7. Experimental Search for μd 3He Fusion

    The vast majority of muon catalyzed fusion research has been concerned with muonic molecules of hydrogen isotopes only, since the dynamics of higher-Z muonic atoms in general preclude the formation of molecular systems. In the specific case of hydrogen-helium mixtures, bound muonic molecular states can exist, and thus it is possible to search for the reactionμd 3Heλ-tilde fμ+α(3.66 MeV)+p(14.64 MeV).Until recently, the theoretical predictions for the nuclear fusion rate in the μd 3He molecule, λ-tildef, ranged over one order of magnitude, from 105 to 106 per second. An experimental upper limit has been measured for λ-tildef in HD + 3He giving a value (4 s-1 [1]). We report on the analysis of an experiment in D2 + 3He which has shown a signal coming either from the muon catalyzed reaction, or from the fusion in flight of 3He's formed from dμd fusion.

  8. Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (3He) Spin Structure

    Solvignon, P; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, K; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Cates, G D; Chang, G; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Feuerbach, R; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Glashausser, C; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Ibrahim, H; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kelleher, A; Kelly, J; Keppel, C; Kim, W; Korsch, W; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Ma, B; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Camacho, C Munoz; Paschke, K; Reitz, B; Saha, A; Sheyor, R; Singh, J; Slifer, K; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wijesooriya, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Woo, S; Yang, J -C; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_1 of the neutron and $^3$He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c)^2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_1 down to at least Q^2 = 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A_1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q^2-dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c)^2.

  9. Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (3He) Spin Structure

    Solvignon, Patricia; Liyanage, Nilanga; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Aniol, Konrad; Averett, Todd; Boeglin, Werner; Camsonne, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chudakov, Eugene; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Feuerbach, Robert; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Glashausser, Charles; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kelly, J.; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, Wooyoung; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Ma, Bin; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Munoz-Camacho, Carlos; Paschke, Kent; Reitz, Bodo; Saha, Arunava; Sheyor, Ran; Singh, Jaideep; Slifer, Karl; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Wang, Kebin; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Woo, Seungtae; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-10-01

    We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_1 of the neutron and $^3$He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c)^2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_1 down to at least Q^2 = 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A_1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q^2-dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c)^2.

  10. Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron (3He) Spin Structure

    We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g1 of the neutron and 3He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c)2. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g1 down to at least Q2=1.8 (GeV/c)2 in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q2 dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c)2

  11. Light-Front Dynamics and the 3He Spectral Function

    Pace, Emanuele; Kaptari, Leonid; Rinaldi, Matteo; Salme', Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Two topics are presented. The first one is a novel approach for a Poincare' covariant description of nuclear dynamics based on light-front Hamiltonian dynamics. The key quantity is the light-front spectral function, where both normalization and momentum sum rule can be satisfied at the same time. Preliminary results are discussed for an initial analysis of the role of relativity in the EMC effect in 3He. A second issue, very challenging, is considered in a non-relativistic framework, namely a distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He in order to take care of the final state interaction between the observed pion and the remnant in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He. The generalization of the analysis within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  12. Asymmetries in electron-induced breakup of polarized 3He

    The Jefferson Lab Experiment E05-102 'Measurement of Ax' and Az' asymmetries in the quasi-elastic 3He(e,e'd) reaction' was performed in Hall A in 2009. The main physics motivation of the experiment was to investigate the effects of small components of the 3He ground-state wave-function by a simultaneous measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in quasi-elastic kinematics for three exclusive channels, (e,e'd), (e,e'p), and (e,e'n), at almost identical momentum transfers, as well as for (e,e'). This experiment will help map the spin structure of the 3He nucleus onto the picture of the ''free'' polarized neutron. As such, it is of great relevance to the polarized-neutron programs at Jefferson Lab and beyond.

  13. Neutron orbital structure from generalized parton distributions of 3He

    Rinaldi, M

    2012-01-01

    The generalized parton distribution H and E of the 3He nucleus, which could be measured in hard exclusive processes, such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering, are thoroughly analyzed in impulse approximation, within the Av18 interaction. It is found that their sum is dominated to a large extent by the neutron contribution: The peculiar spin structure of 3He makes this target unique for the extraction of the neutron information. This observation could allow to access for the first time, in dedicated experiments, the orbital angular momentum of the partons in the neutron.

  14. Neutron orbital structure from generalized parton distributions of 3He

    Rinaldi, M.; Scopetta, S.

    2012-06-01

    The generalized parton distribution H and E of the 3He nucleus, which can be measured in hard exclusive processes such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering, are thoroughly analyzed in impulse approximation, within the Av18 interaction. It is found that their sum, at low momentum transfer, is dominated to a large extent by the neutron contribution: the peculiar spin structure of 3He makes this target unique for the extraction of the neutron information. This observation allows access, in dedicated experiments, to the orbital angular momentum of the partons in the neutron.

  15. Rotational quenching of CS in ultracold 3He collisions

    Kaur, Rajwant; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanical scattering calculations of rotational quenching of CS (v = 0) collision with 3He are performed at ultracold temperatures and results are compared with isotopic 4He collision. Rotational quenching cross sections and rate coefficients have been calculated in the ultracold region for rotational levels up to j = 10 using the He-CS potential energy surface computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. The quenching cross sections are found to be two orders of magnitude larger for the 3He than the 4He isotope under ultracold conditions. Wigner threshold law is found to be valid below 10-3 K temperature.

  16. A measurement of the Panofsky ratio in 3He

    The nucleus 3He is one of the simplest nuclear systems; hence it is often used to study the complications introduced by the presence of additional nucleons on basic processes such as pion absorption on a free nucleon. 3He is the only nucleus for which both the pion charge exchange and radiative capture processes can occur at rest with reasonable probability. The ratio of these two processes is the well-known Panofsky ratio, P3 = ω(π-3He→π0T)/ω(π-+3He→γT). (orig./WL)

  17. 3H and 3He electromagnetic form factors

    We report the results of three experiments on elastic electron scattering from 3H and 3He. A detailed description of the experiments and the data obtained is given. We have performed a combined analysis of the world data on 3H and 3He. This analysis gives a complete experimental information on the trinucleon electromagnetic form factors up to q2=30 fm-2, and also provides a separation into the isoscalar and isovector form factors. The results are compared to selected calculations that include nucleonic and mesonic degrees of freedom. ((orig.))

  18. Transport properties of spin polarized 3He-4He mixtures

    We have calculated the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and longitudinal spin diffusion coefficient in 3He-4He mixtures which are spin polarized. The calculation applies to all temperature regimes. We have also calculated the Onsager cross coefficient which arises because of the coupling between heat and longitudinal spin currents. The interaction between 3He quasiparticles is taken to be a constant as a first approximation. We have also investigated the changes brought about by allowing the interaction to vary with the momentum of the quasiparticle

  19. Ultrasensitive 3He magnetometer for measurements of high magnetic fields

    Nikiel, A.; Blümler, P.; Heil, W.; Hehn, M.; Karpuk, S.; Maul, A.; Otten, E.; Schreiber, L. M.; Terekhov, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a 3He magnetometer capable to measure high magnetic fields (B > 0.1 Tesla) with a relative accuracy of better than 10^-12. Our approach is based on the measurement of the free induction decay of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized 3He following a resonant radio frequency pulse excitation. The measurement sensitivity can be attributed to the long coherent spin precession time T2* being of order minutes which is achieved for spherical sample cells in the regime of motional narrowing whe...

  20. Surface Waves on the Superfluids ^3He and ^4He

    Manninen, M. S.; Ranni, A.; Rysti, J.; Todoshchenko, I. A.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    Free surface waves were examined both in superfluids ^3He and ^4He with the premise that these inviscid media would represent ideal realizations for this fluid dynamics problem. The work in ^3He is one of the first of its kind, but in ^4He, it was possible to produce a much more complete set of data for meaningful comparison with theoretical models. Most measurements were performed at the zero temperature limit, meaning Tmonitored as the liquid depth in the cell was varied. Despite of the wealth of data, perfect agreement with the constructed theoretical models could not be achieved.

  1. An internal polarized 3He target for electron storage rings

    We describe an internal polarized 3He target currently under construction which will be used in several electron storage ring experiments. The target is based on the technique of metastability exchange laser optical pumping, where the polarized atoms flow into a cryogenically-cooled storage cell. This novel technique allows for high precision measurements where the beam interacts with the pure atomic species. Both the HERMES experiment at DESY and the BLAST detector at the MIT Bates Laboratory will use the polarized 3He target in their measurements. Details of the target system, including the provisions needed to incorporate the target into the electron storage ring, are presented. (orig.)

  2. sup 3 He neutron polarising filters -- theoretical comparison with supermirrors and Heusler alloy polarisers

    Cussen, L D; Hicks, T J

    2000-01-01

    There is currently intense interest in the development of gaseous sup 3 He neutron polarising transmission filters. The key areas of development are increasing the currently achievable levels of nuclear spin polarisation, pi, within the sup 3 He gas and improving the reliability of the devices. Recent work has identified 'quality factors' which can be used to determine the optimum thickness of such filters under various experimental conditions. The best achievable quality factor for a sup 3 He polariser with a given pi is determined. It is demonstrated that the optimum filter thickness depends only weakly on pi and is always approximately given by the dimensionless expression rho sigma lambda t=3.4 where rho is the density of sup 3 He atoms in the filter, sigma is the absorption cross section at a wavelength of 1 A, lambda is the neutron wavelength in A and t is the filter thickness. Quality factors are calculated for existing types of neutron polariser (supermirrors and Heusler alloy monochromators) as a fun...

  3. {sup 3}He neutron polarising filters -- theoretical comparison with supermirrors and Heusler alloy polarisers

    Cussen, L.D. E-mail: leocussen@vut.edu.au; Goossens, D.J.; Hicks, T.J

    2000-02-01

    There is currently intense interest in the development of gaseous {sup 3}He neutron polarising transmission filters. The key areas of development are increasing the currently achievable levels of nuclear spin polarisation, {pi}, within the {sup 3}He gas and improving the reliability of the devices. Recent work has identified 'quality factors' which can be used to determine the optimum thickness of such filters under various experimental conditions. The best achievable quality factor for a {sup 3}He polariser with a given {pi} is determined. It is demonstrated that the optimum filter thickness depends only weakly on {pi} and is always approximately given by the dimensionless expression {rho}{sigma}{lambda}t=3.4 where {rho} is the density of {sup 3}He atoms in the filter, {sigma} is the absorption cross section at a wavelength of 1 A, {lambda} is the neutron wavelength in A and t is the filter thickness. Quality factors are calculated for existing types of neutron polariser (supermirrors and Heusler alloy monochromators) as a function of instrumental parameters. These results are used to determine the 'break even' point for the new polarisers - the {pi} needed for the new polarisers to outperform existing types of polarisers. A quantitative discussion of regimes of usefulness of the different polariser types for all common instrument types is presented.

  4. Second sound, osmotic pressure, and Fermi-liquid parameters in 3He-4He solutions

    Second-sound velocities and osmotic pressures are analyzed to obtain the first experimental values for the Landau compressibility parameter F0/sup s/ in 3He-4He solutions. Data are presented as a function of pressure and 3He concentration, and are compared to theoretical predictions. The square of the second-sound velocity at finite temperature is found to be accurately proportional to the internal energy of a perfect Fermi gas. Using inertial effective masses given by the Landau-Pomeranchuk theory, the square of the velocity is found to separate into two parts: a temperature-dependent part characterized completely by ideal Fermi-gas behavior and a temperature-independent part containing all the Fermi-liquid corrections. This is related to a similar separation found in the osmotic pressure

  5. A broadband Ytterbium-doped tunable fiber laser for 3He optical pumping at 1083 nm

    Tastevin, Geneviève; Grot, Sébastien; Courtade, Emmanuel; Bordais, Sylvain; Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    2004-01-01

    Submitted: July 2003, Published online: December 2003, Published: Appl. Phys. B 78 (2004) 145-156. Copyright : Springer-Verlag 2003 (http://www.springerlink.com). V3: symbols corrected in Figs 10-11; minor final changes included. Large amounts of hyperpolarized 3He gas with high nuclear polarization rates are required for use in neutron spin filters or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of human lung. Very high efficiency can be obtained by metastability exchange optical pumping using mult...

  6. NMR experiments on rotating superfluid 3He-A and 3He-B and their theoretical interpretation

    We have constructed a rotating nuclear demagnetization cryostat and used it for continuous-wave NMR experiments on superfluid 3He-A and 3He-B. The measurements were performed in a long cylindrical geometry of 5 mm diameter, with the cylinder axis parallel to the axis of rotation and with the external magnetic field H/sub O/ = 284 or 142 Oe in the same direction. The angular velocity of rotation Ω was varied between 0.2 and 1.5 rad/sec, and the experiments were done under 29.3 bar pressure at temperatures between T/sub c/ = 2.72 and about 1.4 mK. As a guide to the new and esoteric field of superfluid 3He in rotation, we first review the general theory at some length in relatively simple terms. Pictorial explanations are often given

  7. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boron-lined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter-Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.

  8. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boron-lined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter—Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness

  9. The design of the 3He readout system on CSNS

    Used in the High-Intensity Powder Diffraction in China Spallation Neutron Sources (CSNS) Project, the electronic parts of the 3He readout system is introduced. The design of the Charge Measurement module (MQ) is described in details, including the structure of the circuit, the firmware of the FPGA on the board. The test results are given out in the final. (authors)

  10. Extracting neutron generalized parton distributions from 3He data

    Rinaldi, M

    2012-01-01

    An impulse approximation analysis is described of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E of the 3He nucleus, quantities which are accessible in hard exclusive processes, such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). The calculation is based on the Av18 interaction. The electromagnetic form factors are correctly recovered in the proper limits. The sum of the GPDs H and E of 3He, at low momentum transfer, is largely dominated by the neutron contribution, thanks to the unique spin structure of 3He. This nucleus is therefore very promising for the extraction of the neutron information. By increasing the momentum transfer, however, this conclusion is somehow hindered by the the fast growing proton contribution. Besides, even when the neutron contribution to the GPDs of 3He is largely dominating, the procedure of extracting the neutron GPDs from it could be, in principle, nontrivial. A technique is therefore proposed, independent on both the nuclear potential and the nucleon model used in ...

  11. Extracting generalized neutron parton distributions from 3He data

    Rinaldi, M.; Scopetta, S.

    2013-03-01

    An impulse-approximation (IA) analysis of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E of the 3He nucleus, quantities which are accessible in hard exclusive processes, such as coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), is described. The calculation is based on the Av18 interaction. The electromagnetic form factors are correctly recovered in the proper limits. The sum of the GPDs H and E of 3He, at low momentum transfer, is largely dominated by the neutron contribution, thanks to the unique spin structure of 3He. This nucleus is therefore very promising for the extraction of the neutron information. By increasing the momentum transfer, however, this conclusion is somehow hindered by the the fast growing proton contribution. Besides, even when the neutron contribution to the GPDs of 3He is largely dominating, the procedure of extracting the neutron GPDs from it could be, in principle, nontrivial. A technique is therefore proposed, independent of both the nuclear potential and the nucleon model used in the calculation, able to take into account the nuclear effects included in the IA analysis and to safely extract the neutron information at values of the momentum transfer large enough to allow the measurements. Thanks to this observation, coherent DVCS should be considered a key experiment to access the neutron GPDs and, in turn, the orbital angular momentum of the partons in the neutron.

  12. The {sup 3}He neutron-spin filter at ILL

    Tasset, F.; Heil, W.; Humblot, H.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Roberts, T. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Neutron-Spin Filters (NSF) using gaseous polarised {sup 3}He have long been recognised as of enormous potential value in many polarised neutron-scattering applications and, accordingly, ILL started a development programme some years ago. This report gives an account of the present status of the project. (author). 13 refs.

  13. Minimal mass-size of a stable 3He cluster

    Guardiola Barcena, Rafael; Navarro Faus, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The minimal number of 3He atoms required to form a bound cluster has been estimated by means of a Diffusion Monte Carlo procedure within the fixed-node approximation. Several importance sampling wave functions have been employed in order to consider different shell-model configurations. The resulting upper bound for the minimal number is 32 atoms.

  14. Conceptual design of D-3He FRC reactor 'ARTEMIS'

    A comprehensive design study of the D-3He fueled field-reversed configuration (FRC) reactor 'ARTEMIS' is carried out for the purpose of proving its attractive characteristics and clarifying the critical issues for a commercial fusion reactor. The FRC burning plasma is stabilized and sustained in a steady equilibrium by means of a preferential trapping of D-3He fusion-produced energetic protons. A novel direct energy converter for 15MeV protons is also presented. On the bases of a consistent scenario of the fusion plasma production and simple engineering, a compact and simple reactor concept is presented. The design of the D-3He FRC power plant definitely offers the most attractive prospect for energy development. It is environmentally acceptable in view of radio-activity and fuel resources; and the estimated cost of electricity is low compared to a light water reactor. Critical issues concerning physics or engineering for the development of the D-3He FRC reactor are clarified. (author)

  15. Theoretical description of deeply virtual Compton scattering off $^3$He

    Rinaldi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) off $^3$He nuclei has been proposed to access the neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In Impulse Approximation (IA) studies, it has been shown, in particular, that the sum of the two leading twist, quark helicity conserving GPDs of $^3$He, $H$ and $E$, at low momentum transfer, is dominated by the neutron contribution, so that $^3$He is very promising for the extraction of the neutron information. Nevertheless, such an extraction could be not trivial. A technique, able to take into account the nuclear effects included in the IA analysis in the extraction procedure, has been therefore developed. In this work, the IA calculation of the spin dependent GPD $\\tilde H$ of $^3$He is presented for the first time. This quantity is found to be largely dominated, at low momentum transfer, by the neutron contribution, which could be extracted using arguments similar to the ones previously proposed for the other GPDs. The known forward limit of the I...

  16. Electron elastic scattering and quark structure of 3He nucleus

    It is shown that for the interpretation of the behaviour of the 3He nucleus form factor at transfer momenta q > 6 fmsup(-1) of importance are nine-quark admixtures and their interference with nucleon and six-quark channels

  17. 3He(t,t)3He elastic scattering measurements from 9 to 17 MeV

    Angular distributions of the analyzing power and differential cross section for 3He(t,t)3He elastic scattering are reported for triton bombarding energies of 9.02, 11.00, 13.02, 15.02, 16.00, and 17.02 MeV, over a c.m. angular range from 25degree to 155degree. Excitation functions for the analyzing power are presented for the energy range 14.42--17.22 MeV. Problems in the phase-shift analysis of the data are discussed

  18. A 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer with 87 Rb magnetometry

    Limes, Mark; Sheng, Dong; Romalis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We report progress on a 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer detected with a 87 Rb magnetometer. The noble-gas co-magnetometer is insensitive to any long-term bias field drifts, but the presence of hot Rb can cause instability in the ratio of 3 He-129 Xe precession frequencies. We use a sequence of Rb π pulses to suppress the instability due to Rb-noble gas interactions by a factor of 104 along all three spatial axes. For detection, our 87 Rb magnetometer operates using single-axis 87 Rb π pulses with σ+ /σ- pumping-this technique decouples the 87 Rb magnetometer from bias fields, and allows for SERF operation. We are presently investigating systematic effects due to combinations of several imperfections, such as longitudinal noble gas polarization, imperfect 87 Rb π pulses, and 87 Rb pump light shifts. Thus far, our 87 Rb magnetometer has a sensitivity of 40 fT/√{Hz}, and our 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer has achieved a single-shot precession frequency ratio error of 20 nHz and a long-term bias drift of 8 nHz at 7 h. We are developing the co-magnetometer for use as an NMR gyro, and to search for possible spin-gravity interactions. Supported by DARPA and NSF.

  19. The electrodisintegration of 3He studied with the 3He(e,e'p)2H and 3He(e,e'd)1H reactions

    The author presents a survey of experimental and theoretical results for the ground-state properties of 3He. The formalism of the (e,e'p) and (e,e'd) reactions is presented. A short description of the instrumentation, in particular those elements which are typical for the present study, and of the data analysis is given. This includes a description of the elements required in the 'recoil detection' technique. The kinematics of the experiments and the results are presented. The results are discussed and compared with calculations. (Auth.)

  20. Emphysematous changes and normal variation in smokers and COPD patients using diffusion 3He MRI

    Introduction: This study aims to quantify global and regional changes of diffusive motion of 3He gas within the lung, as determined by hyperpolarized 3He MR apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement, in non-smokers, smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods: Age-matched groups of six healthy non-smokers, five healthy smokers and five patients with COPD. The experiments were performed with approval from the local Research Ethics Committee. Diffusion imaging was performed following hyperpolarized 3He gas inhalation, producing ADC maps. Mean and standard deviation of the ADCs were used to compare the subject groups and assess regional variations within individuals. Results: The intra-individual standard deviation of ADC in the healthy smokers was significantly larger than that of the non-smoking group (P < 0.02). Compared to the non-smoking group, COPD patients had significantly higher mean and standard deviation of ADC (P < 0.01). The mean ADC in the anterior half of the chest was systematically higher than in the posterior half in the healthy non-smoking subject group. Discussion: This study suggests that there are regional trends in the ADC values of healthy volunteers that may have implications for the clinical interpretation of ADC values. Less homogeneous ADC values have been detected in asymptomatic smokers, indicative of damage to the distal air spaces

  1. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    Tsai, L L; Li, C -H; Rosen, M S; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2007-01-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a "walk-in" capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging su...

  2. A 3He{sup +}{sup +} RFQ accelerator for the production of PET isotopes

    Pasquinelli, R.J.; E887 Collaboration

    1997-05-01

    Project status of the 3He{sup +}{sup +} 10.5 MeV RFQ Linear Accelerator for the production of PET isotopes will be presented. The accelerator design was begun in September of 1995 with a goal of completion and delivery of the accelerator to BRF in Shreveport, Louisiana by the summer of 1997. The design effort and construction is concentrated in Lab G on the Fermilab campus. Some of the high lights include a 25 mA peak current 3He` ion source, four RFQ accelerating stages that are powered by surplus Fermilab linac RF stations, a gas jet charge doubler, and a novel 540 degree bending Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT). The machine is designed to operate at 360 Hz repetition rate with a 2.5% duty cycle. The average beam current is expected to be 150-300 micro amperes electrical, 75- 150 micro amperes particle current.

  3. Quasifree photoabsorption on neutron-proton pairs in 3He

    Three-body photodisintegration of 3He is calculated in the photon energy range 200-400 MeV assuming quasifree absorption on np pairs both in initial quasideuteron and singlet configurations. The model includes the normal nucleonic current, explicit meson exchange currents and the Δ(1232)-isobar excitation. The total cross section is increased by a factor of about 1.5 compared with free deuteron photodisintegration. Well below and above the Δ-region also some spin observables differ significantly from the ones of free deuteron disintegration due to the more compressed wave function of the correlated np pairs in 3He compared to the deuteron. The initial singlet state causes a significant change in the analysing power Ay. These differences could presumably be seen at the conjugate angles where two-body effects are maximized and where photoreactions could complement similar pion absorption experiments. ((orig.))

  4. Josephson flow oscillations in superfluid 3He-B

    Experiments for observing pressure-induced Josephson oscillations in superfluid 4He renewed the interest for analogous experiments in superfluid 3He. The weak coupling of two superfluids is obtained by a small channel with dimensions in the order of the coherence length. The order-parameter functions, the supercurrent Jψ through the orifice, and the Ginzburg-Landau free energy, Fψ is calculated for different cross sections. A new feature of the function Jψ in comparison to the current-phase relationships for superconducting microbridges is the occurrence of two nontrivial zeros of Jψ. It turns out that the frequency, ω, of the Josephson flow oscillations, which follow the sudden application of a force ΔF on a diaphragm, depends on ΔF in a way similar to that in which the frequency of the parallel ringing experiment in 3He-Α depends on the field step ΔΗ. (6 refs., 12 figs.)

  5. A theory of low energy π-3He elastic scattering

    The main aim of this work is the construction of a first-order optical potential for the scattering of pions by 3He at low energy with as few approximations as possible. In particular the Fermi motion is treated extremely carefully by using microscopic 3He wave functions and by performing the complete Fermi-integral. Differential cross-sections and analyzing powers have been calculated. In a detailed comparison between the first-order optical with one which results from using the semi-factored approximation, it became clear that the latter has the following shortcomings: 1. the dependence of the subenergy on the pion-nucleus scattering angle, and 2. the independence of this energy on the relative motion of the spectator nucleons. (author). 101 refs.; 15 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold metastable ^3He dimers

    Cocks, Daniel G; Whittingham, Ian B

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the fermionic ^3He(2 ^3S_1)+ ^3He(2 ^3P_j)system, where j=0,1,2, are investigated using the recently available ab initio short-range ${}^{1,3,5}\\Sigma^{+}_{g,u}$ and ${}^{1,3,5}\\Pi_{g,u}$ potentials computed by Deguilhem et al. (J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 2009, 42, 015102). Single-channel and multichannel calculations have been undertaken in order to investigate the effects of Coriolis and non-adiabatic couplings. The possible experimental observability of the theoretical levels is assessed using criteria based upon the short-range character of each level and their coupling to metastable ground states. Purely long-range levels have been identified and 30 short-range levels near five asymptotes are suggested for experimental investigation.

  7. Studies of 3He Induced Nuclear Reactions on Cadmium

    Excitation functions of 3He induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium were measured using the standard stacked foil technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The experimental cross sections for the nuclear reactions natCd(3He,xnp )117m,g,116m115m,114m,113m,111,110m,g,109,108,107 In were measured from their threshold energy up to 27 MeV. The integral yields for some medically important products were determined. Theoretical calculations using the nuclear codes ALICE- IPPE, TAL YS, and EMPIRE-3 were used to describe the formation of these products. Theoretical and experimental results were compared with each other. K

  8. Nuclear (K) Bound States in 4He and 3He

    LI Yi-He; WU Shi-Shu

    2009-01-01

    @@ We construct a phenomenological K N interaction which reproduces the two resonances: the energy of the first resonance is 1420MeV and the other is 1392MeV. The A(1405) is found by a superposition of the two reso-nances with appropriate weights. Within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, we have studied K- - 3He(T=0) and K- - 4He(T=1/2). The binding energy BK-is 93MeV(72MeV) and the width F is 13 MeV(25 MeV) for K- - 3He(T=0) (K- - 4He(T=1/2)).

  9. Project of polarized 3He source at RARF

    At RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF), a K540 four-sector ring cyclotron (RRC) was completed in November 1986, and has delivered beams to the experiments since May 1987. At present, a heavy-ion linac (RILAC) with a PIG source is used as an injector for RRC. The construction of another injector, a K70AVF cyclotron, has been started and will be completed at the end of 1988 FY. The AVF cyclotron is equipped with a polarized 3He source as well as an ECR source and a duoplasmatron source. The nuclear polarization of 3He will be obtained with the optical pumping of atoms in the metastable state (23 S1) followed by the metastability exchange collision. Polarized atoms will be ionized with an ECR source. The source is expected to be constructed in three years. (author)

  10. Magnetism of liquid 3He up to 200 T

    We report measurements of nuclear magnetism of degenerate liquid 3He below 0.1 K. Nuclear polarization up to 60% was transiently obtained by rapid melting of a 80% polarized 3He solid. From simultaneous measurements of the magnetization and of the heat released during the relaxation towards magnetic equilibrium, we deduce the magnetization dependence of the free energy of the liquid, and hence the magnetization curve up to 200 T. At 26 bar and 80 mK, we find that the susceptibility decreases with increasing magnetization. This rules out any significant metamagnetism of the liquid, in contradiction with former expectations. In order to confirm this behaviour by a static experiment, we have developed a torque magnetometer to carry out precision measurements of the equilibrium magnetization up to 30 T (corresponding to a 12% polarization) and at 50 mK. Preliminary results of this experiment are reported. (orig.)

  11. Transverse sound in liquid-3He-aerogel system

    Transverse sound in normal liquid 3He in aerogel is studied on the basis of the Landau transport equation taking into account the simultaneous oscillation of the aerogel. We show that the nature of transverse sound is strongly modified if aerogel is immersed in the liquid. Scattering of 3He quasiparticles by the aerogel molecules causes friction between the liquid and the aerogel, giving rise to coupled motion of the two systems. There exists a low-attenuation transverse sound mode in this coupled system. The high-temperature behavior of its attenuation α is given by α∝const+T-2, which is in contrast to α∝T in pure liquid H3e in the hydrodynamic regime

  12. Acoustic properties of superfluid 3He in 97% aerogel

    Superfluid 3He in silica aerogel provides a unique system for studying the effect of quenched disorder in the unconventional superfluid. We have performed longitudinal ultrasound (5.7 MHz) attenuation and sound velocity measurements of the superfluid 3He in 97% porosity aerogel. The attenuation and sound velocity were determined by direct propagation of sound pulses through the medium in a wide range of temperatures, down to 400 μK. The superfluid transition, marked by the increase in sound velocity, is substantially suppressed from that in 98% aerogel used in most of studies. The superfluid fraction determined from the sound velocity is less than 0.02 even at the lowest temperature.

  13. 3He melting curve thermometry in a nuclear polarization experiment

    Temperature measurement and control are important in brute force polarization experiments. We discuss the installation and use of 3He melting curve thermometers in a cryostat used to polarize a TiH2 target. Comparison is made between the melting curve thermometers and the 60CoCo nuclear orientation thermometer, which is often used in such experiments. The melting curve thermometers provide increased temperature resolution and sensitivity, and were used in a feedback heating system to control temperature to ±5.5 μK at 16.5 mK. The 3He melting curve and the 60CoCo temperature scales are found to agree within 2% at 15 mK. The present status of the melting curve scale and the effect of a magnetic field on melting curve thermometry are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Low-density phases of 3He monolayers adsorbed on graphite

    Ruggeri, Michele; Vitali, Ettore; Galli, Davide Emilio; Boninsegni, Massimo; Moroni, Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature of a 3He monolayer adsorbed on graphite, either clean or preplated with 4He, unexpectedly point to a gas-liquid phase transition at a very low areal density of the order of 0.01 Å-2 . This result stems from an essentially unbiased calculation of the ground-state energy for an infinite, defect-free substrate, which interacts with He atoms via a realistic potential, whereas the interaction between two He atoms includes two- and three-body terms. The sensitivity of the gas-liquid coexistence region on the model Hamiltonian employed is discussed.

  15. Fluctuations above the superfluid transition in liquid 3He

    It is shown that fluctuations above the superfluid transition in liquid 3He depend strongly upon the relative angular momentum l of a Cooper pair but are insensitive to the fourth order term in the Ginsburg-Landau free energy. The effects are shown to be observable in the static magnetization, viscosity and spin diffusion and give a means of determining the value of l. (U.S.)

  16. Phase slippage in superfluid 3He-B

    We review some applications of the hydrodynamic Josephson effects. The relationship between the quantum mechanical phase difference along a micro-orifice and the flow through it is discussed in terms of a simple model which accounts for the observations performed in 3He-B above 0.7 Tc. Possible uses of the superfluid hydromechanical resonator as a sensitive and stable absolute gyrometer are described

  17. A study of 3He films using SQUID NMR

    Confinement of superfluid 3He to a geometry of order the coherence length is predicted to produce interesting size effects and modify the superfluid phase diagram. This thesis describes the development of an experiment to measure these effects using NMR as a probe of the spin dynamics. A pulsed NMR spectrometer was developed with a low Tc SQUID as the first stage amplifier. The sample was located in a receiver coil that formed part of a tuned circuit with the SQUID input coil. The first spectrometer was operated in an open-loop configuration but was later converted to use feedback to stabilize the SQUID gain. This later version used a DC SQUID with APF operating in flux-locked loop using the Direct Offset Integration Technique. The noise was limited by the Johnson noise in the tuned circuit in tests down to 1.5 K and the estimated noise temperature was ∼100 mK. NMR signals were observed at ∼1 MHz from low-density 3He samples adsorbed on a Mylar substrate which were in reasonable agreement with the estimated signal sizes. A cell was constructed with a highly polished silver substrate to study a 100 nm thick 3He film adsorbed on an area of ∼1 cm2. This was mounted on a newly installed demagnetization cryostat. A dipper probe was constructed for the SQUID spectrometer which demonstrated an overall coupled energy sensitivity of 327 h before being mounted on the cryostat. NMR signals were observed from samples equivalent to films of thickness 100, 400, and 800 nm on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 60 mK down to 415 μK. No superfluid transition was detected. With each sample a time dependence of the signal was observed which may be attributable to a thermomechanical effect in normal liquid 3He. Based on the measured signals, it is predicted that ∼1016 spins should be detectable in a single-shot. (author)

  18. Hard Two-body Photodisintegration of 3He

    Pomerantz, I; Gilman, R; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Strauch, S; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Allada, K; Amaryan, M J; Pereira, S Anefalos; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Beck, A; Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Boeglin, W; Bono, J; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bubis, N; Burkert, V; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; Cusanno, F; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; de Jager, C W; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Dutta, C; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garibaldi, F; Geagla, O; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Glister, J; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Katramatou, A T; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Khrosinkova, E; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lewis, S; Lindgren, R; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McCullough, E; McKinnon, B; Meekins, D; Meyer, C A; Michaels, R; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Moffit, B; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Nepali, C S; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Petratos, G G; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rodriguez, I; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Saini, M S; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Saylor, N A; Schott, D; Schulte, E; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Shneor, R; Smith, G D; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wang, Y; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, M H; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zachariou, N; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2013-01-01

    We have measured cross sections for the gamma+3He->p+d reaction at photon energies of 0.4 - 1.4 GeV and a center-of-mass angle of 90 deg. We observe dimensional scaling above 0.7 GeV at this center-of-mass angle. This is the first observation of dimensional scaling in the photodisintegration of a nucleus heavier than the deuteron.

  19. Orbital angular momentum in /sup 3/He-A-italic

    Balatskii-breve, A.V.; Mineev, V.P.

    1985-12-01

    The intrinsic angular momentum in the A-italic phase of superfluid /sup 3/He is found in terms of the response to the angular velocity of rotation. It is shown that in the weak-coupling approximation at an arbitrary temperature and with allowance for the Fermi-liquid renormalization the intrinsic angular momentum is small in accordance with the smallness of the asymmetry in the distribution of particles and holes.

  20. Investigating Neutron Polarizabilities through Compton Scattering on $^3He$

    Choudhury, D.; Nogga, A.; Phillips, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    We examine manifestations of neutron electromagnetic polarizabilities in coherent Compton scattering from the Helium-3 nucleus. We calculate $\\gamma ^3He$ elastic scattering observables using chiral perturbation theory to next-to-leading order (${\\mathcal O}(e^2 Q)$). We find that the unpolarized differential cross section can be used to measure neutron electric and magnetic polarizabilities, while two double-polarization observables are sensitive to different linear combinations of the four ...

  1. Hard Photodisintegration of 3He into pd pair

    Maheswari, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of high energy photodisintegration of the $^3He$ nucleus to the $pd$ pair at $90^0$ center of mass demonstrated an energy scaling consistent with the quark counting rule with unprecedentedly large exponent of $s^{-17}$. To understand the underlying mechanism of this process we extended the theoretical formalism of hard rescattering mechanism to calculate the $\\gamma ^3He\\rightarrow pd$ reaction. In HRM the incoming high energy photon strikes a quark from one of the nucleons in the target which subsequently undergoes hard rescattering with the quarks from the other nucleons generating hard two-body system in the final state of the reaction. Within the HRM we derived the parameter free expression for the differential cross section of the reaction, which is expressed through the $^3He\\rightarrow pd$ transition spectral function, cross section of hard $pd\\rightarrow pd$ scattering and the effective charge of the quarks being interchanged during the hard rescattering process. The numerical ...

  2. High Efficiency Spin Flipper for the n3He Experiment

    Hayes, Christopher; n3He Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The n3He experiment, constructed on the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FnPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source, is designed to measure the parity violating (PV) proton asymmetry Ap in the capture reaction n +3 He -->3 H + p + 765 keV The asymmetry has an estimated value Ap ~ - 1 ×10-7 and is directly related to the weak isospin conserved couplings hρ0 and ωρ0 which are of fundamental interest in the verification of the meson exchange model of low energy NN intereactions. Data production for the n3He experiment began in February 2015 and is scheduled to continue thru December 2015 - reaching a statistical sensitivity δAp ~10-8 or better. I will discuss the spin flipper which is designed using the theory of double cosine-theta coils, and capable of flipping neutron spins with an efficiency approaching its maximum value ɛsf = 1 . I will also discuss the theory of Spin Magnetic Resonance (SMR) and how it is employed by the spin flipper to flip 60 Hz pulses of cold neutrons over a range of wavelengths.

  3. Saddle point condition for D - 3He tokamak fusion reactor

    In this paper the concept of a generalized ignition contour map, showing bar PhtT2E, NTE, and T, is used to study the ignition criterion for a D-3He fusion reactor with plasma temperature and density profiles. Direct heating scenarios to the D - 3He ignition regime without the help of deuterium-tritium burning are considered. The machine size and enhancement factor for the confinement time required to reach D - 3He ignition can be simple determined by comparing the height of the operation path with Goldston L-mode scaling and the height of the generalized saddle point. A confinement enhancement factor of 2 to 3 is required in the case of a large plasma current (30 to 80 MA) in a small-aspect-ratio tokamak. On the other hand, for a small plasma current (approx-lt 10 MA), large-aspect-ratio tokamak, an enhancement factor of 5 to 6 is necessary to reach ignition. Fuel dilution effects by fusion products and impurities, the confinement degradation effect due to 14-MeV protons, and the operation paths are also considered. To lower the height of the saddle point, and hence the auxiliary heating power, we optimize the fuel composition and examine operation in the hot ion mode

  4. Superfluid phase stability of 3He in axially anisotropic aerogel

    Measurements of superfluid 3He in 98% aerogel demonstrate the existence of a metastable A-like phase and a stable B-like phase. It has been suggested that the relative stability of these two phases is controlled by anisotropic quasiparticle scattering in the aerogel. Anisotropic scattering produced by axial compression of the aerogel has been predicted to stabilize the axial state of superfluid 3He. To explore this possibility, we used transverse acoustic impedance to map out the phase diagram of superfluid 3He in a ∼ 98% porous silica aerogel subjected to 17% axial compression. We have previously shown that axial anisotropy in aerogel leads to optical birefringence and that optical cross-polarization studies can be used to characterize such anisotropy. Consequently, we have performed optical cross-polarization experiments to verify the presence and uniformity of the axial anisotropy in our aerogel sample. We find that uniform axial anisotropy introduced by 17% compression does not stabilize the A-like phase. We also find an increase in the supercooling of the A-like phase at lower pressure, indicating a modification to B-like phase nucleation in globally anisotropic aerogels.

  5. Precision study of the eta-3He system using the d+p->3He+eta reaction

    Mersmann, T; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Kulessa, P; Maeda, Y; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Ohm, H; Papenbrock, M; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Rausmann, T; Schleichert, R; Serdyuk, V; Stein, H J; Ströher, H; Täschner, A; Valdau, Y; Wilkin, C; Wro'nska, A; Valdau, Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The differential and total cross sections for the d+p->3He+eta reaction have been measured in a high precision high statistics COSY-ANKE experiment near threshold using a continuous beam energy ramp up to an excess energy Q of 11.3 MeV with essentially 100% acceptance. The kinematics allowed the mean value of Q to be determined to about 9 keV. Evidence is found for the effects of higher partial waves for Q>4 MeV. The very rapid rise of the total cross section to its maximum value within 0.5 MeV of threshold implies a very large eta-3He scattering length and hence the presence of a quasi-bound state extremely close to threshold.

  6. Orientation-Dependent 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human MRI System

    Mair, R W; Patz, S; Rosen, M S; Ruset, I C; Topulos, G P; Tsai, L L; Butler, J P; Hersman, F W; Walsworth, R L

    2004-01-01

    Orientation-dependent imaging of human lungs is demonstrated using inhaled laser-polarized 3He gas and an open-access very-low-magnetic field (< 5 mT) MRI instrument. This prototype device employs a simple, low-cost electromagnet, with an open geometry that allows variation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Two-dimensional 3He images were acquired with 2 mm in-plane resolution from a subject in two orientations: lying supine, and sitting in a vertical position with one arm raised. The images show clear differences in lung shape and inhaled 3He gas distribution, consistent with the expected orientation dependence of pulmonary physiology.

  7. Observation of the n(3He,t)p Reaction by Detection of Far-Ultraviolet Radiation

    Thompson, Alan K; Cooper, John W; Hughes, Patrick; Vest, Robert E; Clark, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    We have detected Lyman alpha radiation as a product of the n(3He,t)p nuclear reaction occurring in a cell of 3He gas. The predominant source of this radiation appears to be decay of the 2p state of tritium produced by charge transfer and excitation collisions with the background 3He gas. Under the experimental conditions reported here we find yields of tens of Lyman alpha photons for every neutron reaction. These results suggest a method of cold neutron detection that is complementary to existing technologies that use proportional counters. In particular, this approach may provide single neutron sensitivity with wide dynamic range capability, and a class of neutron detectors that are compact and operate at relatively low voltages.

  8. Influence of fluid-mechanical characteristics of the system on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and gas dispersion in three-phase system

    Knežević Milena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of gas bubbles and volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kla, in a three phase system, with different types of solid particles at different operation conditions were studied in this paper. The ranges of superficial gas and liquid velocities used in this study were 0,03-0,09 m/s and 0-0,1 m/s, respectively. The three different types of solid particles were used as a bed in the column (glass dp=3 mm, dp=6 mm; ceramic dp=6 mm. The experiments were carried out in a 2D plexiglas column, 278 x 20,4 x 500 mm and in a cylindrical plexiglas column, with a diameter of 64 mm and a hight of 2000 mm. The Kla coefficient increased with gas and liquid velocities. Results showed that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient has a higher values in three phase system, with solid particles, compared with two phase system. The particles properties (diameter and density have a major impact on oxygen mass transfer in three phase systems.

  9. Experimental investigation of the liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient for upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels

    X. Y. Ji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gas-liquid two-phase mass transfer process in microchannels is complicated due to the special dynamical characteristics. In this work, a novel method was explored to measure the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Pressure transducers were utilized to measure the pressure variation of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in three vertical rectangular microchannels and the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa was calculated through the Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation of the gas phase. Carbon dioxide-water, carbon dioxide-ethanol and carbon dioxide-n-propanol were used as working fluids, respectively. The dimensions of the microchannels were 40 µm×240 µm (depth×width, 100 µm×800 µm and 100 µm×2000 µm, respectively. Results showed that the channel diameter and the capillary number influence kLa remarkably and that the maximum value of kLa occurs in the annular flow regime. A new correlation of kLa was proposed based on the Sherwood number, Schmidt number and the capillary number. The predicted values of kLa agreed well with the experimental data.

  10. Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3H/3He ages and derived parameters excess air and recharge temperature

    Highlights: • Key results of the groundwater age-dating interlaboratory comparison exercise. • The reproducibility of the tritium measurements was 13.5%. • The noble gas reproducibility was <2% (R, He, Ne) and <3% (Ar, Kr, Xe). • The measurement uncertainty meets the requirements for 3H/3He dating. • Other sources of uncertainty are less well defined than the analytical uncertainty. - Abstract: Groundwater age dating with the tritium–helium (3H/3He) method has become a powerful tool for hydrogeologists. The uncertainty of the apparent 3H/3He age depends on the analytical precision of the 3H measurement and the uncertainty of the tritiogenic 3He component. The goal of this study, as part of the groundwater age-dating interlaboratory comparison exercise, was to quantify the analytical uncertainty of the 3H and noble gas measurements and to assess whether they meet the requirements for 3H/3He dating and noble gas paleotemperature reconstruction. Samples for the groundwater dating intercomparison exercise were collected on 1 February, 2012, from three previously studied wells in the Paris Basin (France). Fourteen laboratories participated in the intercomparison for tritium analyses and ten laboratories participated in the noble gas intercomparison. Not all laboratories analyzed samples from every borehole. The reproducibility of the tritium measurements was 13.5%. The reproducibility of the 3He/4He ratio and 4He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe concentrations was 1.4%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 2.2%, 2.9%, and 2.4% respectively. The uncertainty of the tritium and noble gas measurements results in a typical 3H/3He age precision of better than 2.5 years in this case. However, the measurement uncertainties for the noble gas concentrations are insufficient to distinguish the appropriate excess air model if the measured helium concentration is not included. While the analytical uncertainty introduces an unavoidable source of uncertainty in the 3H/3He apparent age estimate, other sources of

  11. In vivo lung morphometry with hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI: Theoretical background

    Sukstanskii, A. L.; Yablonskiy, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    MRI-based study of 3He gas diffusion in lungs may provide important information on lung microstructure. Lung acinar airways can be described in terms of cylinders covered with alveolar sleeve [Haefeli-Bleuer, Weibel, Anat. Rec. 220 (1988) 401]. For relatively short diffusion times (on the order of a few ms) this geometry allows description of the 3He diffusion attenuated MR signal in lungs in terms of two diffusion coefficients—longitudinal (D) and transverse (D) with respect to the individual acinar airway axis [Yablonskiy et al., PNAS 99 (2002) 3111]. In this paper, empirical relationships between D and D and the geometrical parameters of airways and alveoli are found by means of computer Monte Carlo simulations. The effects of non-Gaussian signal behavior (dependence of D and D on b-value) are also taken into account. The results obtained are quantitatively valid in the physiologically important range of airway parameters characteristic of healthy lungs and lungs with mild emphysema. In lungs with advanced emphysema, the results provide only "apparent" characteristics but still could potentially be used to evaluate emphysema progression. This creates a basis for in vivo lung morphometry—evaluation of the geometrical parameters of acinar airways from hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI, despite the airways being too small to be resolved by direct imaging. These results also predict a rather substantial dependence of 3He ADC on the experimentally-controllable diffusion time, Δ. If Δ is decreased from 3 ms to 1 ms, the ADC in normal human lungs may increase by almost 50%. This effect should be taken into account when comparing experimental data obtained with different pulse sequences.

  12. Superfluid phase of 3He-B near the boundary

    Following our analysis of some older and most recent transverse sound experiments in superfluid 3He-B we have been able to solve one of the long-existing problem of superfluid quantum liquids in confined geometry, namely, answer a question what is the boundary state of 3He-B. We have devoted specific attention to the differences between transverse sound experiments data from that obtained in longitudinal sound experiments. In our analysis, we have considered several potentially possible explanations of the above experimental data: existence of a new superfluid phase in the vicinity of the boundary; excitation of different branches of squashing mode by longitudinal and transverse sounds and, finally, deformation of the B-phase near the boundary. The last possibility seems to be the most likely explanation implying that the boundary state of 3He-B is, in fact, the deformed B- phase, as was first suggested by Brusov and Popov about two decades ago for a case of presence of external perturbations such as a magnetic and an electric fields. Our result implies that influence of a wall or, in other words, a confined geometry does not lead to the existence of a new phase near the boundary, as had been suggested many years ago, but, instead, similarly to the case of other external perturbations (such as magnetic, electric fields etc.), the wall deforms the order parameter of the B-phase and this deformation leads to several very important consequences. For example, frequencies of the collective modes in the vicinity of the boundary change by up to about 20 percent.

  13. Hard breakup of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus

    We investigate a large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM a quark of one nucleon knocked out by an incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with large relative momentum. Assuming the dominance of the quark-interchange mechanism in a hard nucleon-nucleon scattering, the HRM allows the expression of the amplitude of a two-nucleon breakup reaction through the convolution of photon-quark scattering, NN hard scattering amplitude, and nuclear spectral function, which can be calculated using a nonrelativistic 3He wave function. The photon-quark scattering amplitude can be explicitly calculated in the high energy regime, whereas for NN scattering one uses the fit of the available experimental data. The HRM predicts several specific features for the hard breakup reaction. First, the cross section will approximately scale as s-11. Second, the s11 weighted cross section will have the shape of energy dependence similar to that of s10 weighted NN elastic scattering cross section. Also one predicts an enhancement of the pp breakup relative to the pn breakup cross section as compared to the results from low energy kinematics. Another result is the prediction of different spectator momentum dependencies of pp and pn breakup cross sections. This is due to the fact that the same-helicity pp-component is strongly suppressed in the ground state wave function of 3He. Because of this suppression the HRM predicts significantly different asymmetries for the cross section of polarization transfer NN breakup reactions for circularly polarized photons. For the pp breakup this asymmetry is predicted to be zero while for the pn it is close to (2/3).

  14. Vortex clusters in superfluid 3He-B

    A unique property of 3He-B is vortex-free rotation, due to a high nucleation threshold of the singular vortices. In contrast to other superfluids, rotational states consisting of a vortex cluster surrounded by vortex-free counterflow form spontaneously and can also be prepared with a fixed number of vortices. The clusters can be analyzed by means of NMR measurements with high precision. These techniques have been exploited to study rotational states in the presence of different phase boundaries. (orig.)

  15. Meson Photoproduction off the Deuteron and off 3He

    Photoproduction of mesons off the deuteron and He nuclei has been studied at the tagged photon facilities of the Bonn ELSA accelerator and the Mainz MAMI accelerator with the Crystal/ setup (Mainz). Meson photoproduction off the neutron has been investigated for different final states (πo, πo πo, πo π-, η, η', ηπo). A surprising finding was a narrow structure in the γn→nη excitation function, which is not seen in the proton case. Photoproduction off 3He has provided further evidence for the formation of an h-mesic state.

  16. /sup 3/He and 4f instable compounds

    Flouquet, J.; Jaccard, J. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, C.N.R.S., 38 - Grenoble (France)); Ribault, M. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91 - Orsay (France))

    1984-01-01

    The high localization of the 4f electron and the possibility of a weak delocalization through the coupling with the itinerant electrons lead to Fermi liquid properties. With the example of CeAl/sub 3/, the main role of the coherence between the Ce is emphasized at low temperature. Thermal dilatation data show the transition from a regime of almost independent Kondo centers to a regime of coherent Kondo centers. The occurence of the superconductivity in the heavy fermion CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ is discussed and compared to the superfluidity of liquid /sup 3/He.

  17. Hyperpolarised {sup 3}He MRI and {sup 81m}Kr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Stavngaard, Trine [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark); Soegaard, Lise Vejby; Hanson, Lars G. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark); Mortensen, Jann; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Schmiedeskamp, Joerg [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Dirksen, Asger [Gentofte University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark)

    2005-04-01

    During recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hyperpolarised (HP) {sup 3}He gas has emerged as a promising new method for the imaging of lung ventilation. However, systematic comparisons with nuclear medicine techniques have not yet been performed. The aim of this study was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. HP {sup 3}He MRI, {sup 81m}Kr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed. The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP {sup 3}He MRI and {sup 81m}Kr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. We found a good correlation between HP {sup 3}He MRI and {sup 81m}Kr SPECT for both visual defect score (r=0.80, p<0.0001) and objective estimate of ventilation (r=0.45, p=0.0157). In addition, both scans were well correlated with reference methods for the diagnosis of emphysema (pulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on {sup 81m}Kr SPECT (the score on HP {sup 3}He MRI was one-third less than that on {sup 81m}Kr SPECT), but the difference was reduced after normalisation for different breathing depths (HP {sup 3}He MRI at total lung capacity; {sup 81m}Kr SPECT at tidal breathing at functional residual capacity). HP {sup 3}He MRI provides detailed ventilation distribution images and defect scores are comparable on HP {sup 3}He MRI and {sup 81m}Kr SPECT. Additionally, new insights into the regional pulmonary microstructure via the apparent diffusion coefficient measurements are provided by HP {sup 3}He MRI. HP {sup 3}He MRI is a promising new diagnostic tool for the assessment of ventilation distribution. (orig.)

  18. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic time series site

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-03-01

    We provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic based on a three year time-series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We combine the 3He data with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely balance the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also applied the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost three-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003-2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.3 mol m-2 y-1, which is ~ 40% smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference between the time periods, which is barely significant, may be due to a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by decoupling of 3He and nitrate during obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean.

  19. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional oxygen mapping by 3He-MRI validation in a lung phantom

    The aim of this study was to validate oxygen-sensitive 3He-MRI in noninvasive determination of the regional, two- and three-dimensional distribution of oxygen partial pressure. In a gas-filled elastic silicon ventilation bag used as a lung phantom, oxygen sensitive two- and three-dimensional 3He-MRI measurements were performed at different oxygen concentrations which had been equilibrated in a range of normal and pathologic values. The oxygen partial pressure distribution was determined from 3He-MRI using newly developed software allowing for mapping of oxygen partial pressure. The reference bulk oxygen partial pressure inside the phantom was measured by conventional respiratory gas analysis. In two-dimensional measurements, image-based and gas-analysis results correlated with r=0.98; in three-dimensional measurements the between-methods correlation coefficient was r=0.89. The signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional measurements was about half of that of two-dimensional measurements and became critical (below 3) in some data sets. Oxygen-sensitive 3He-MRI allows for noninvasive determination of the two- and three-dimensional distribution of oxygen partial pressure in gas-filled airspaces. (orig.)

  20. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    Myers, Luke S. [Bluffton University, Bluffton, OH; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arrington, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  1. Study of response of 3He detectors to monoenergetic neutrons

    In the search of a hybrid system (the coupling of the particle accelerator to an under-critical reactor) for radioactive waste transmutation the TARC (Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing) program has been developed. Due to experimental limitations, the time-energy relation at higher neutron energies, particularly, around 2 MeV, which is an important domain for TARC, cannot be applied. Consequently the responses of the 3He ionization neutron detector developed for TARC experiment have been studied using a fast monoenergetic neutron source. The neutrons were produced by the interaction of the proton delivered by Van de Graaff accelerator of CENBG. The originality of the detector consists in its structure of three series of electric conductors which are mounted around the anode: a grid ensuring the detector proportionality, a cylindrical suit of alternating positive voltage and grounded wires aiming at eliminating the radial end effects, serving as veto and two cylinders serving as end plugs to eliminate the perpendicular end effects. Examples of anode spectra conditioned (in anticoincidence) by the mentioned vetoes are given. One can see the contribution of the elastic scattering from H and 3He. By collimating the neutron beam through a borated polyethylene system it was possible to obtain a mapping of the detector allowing the study of its response as a function of the irradiated zones (anode and grid)

  2. Neutron scattering from liquid {sup 3}He at intermediate energies

    Guckelsberger, K. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Azuah, R.T. [Department of Physics, Keele University, Keele Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)]|[Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0Qx (United Kingdom); Stirling, W.G. [Keele University (United Kingdom); Bennington, S.M.; Yates, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0Qx (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of strongly interacting quantum liquids is at the heart of much of contemporary physics and the archetypal Fermi liquid is {sup 3}He at low temperatures. However, due to the enormous absorption of neutrons by {sup 3}He, experiments are exceedingly difficult. At very high incident neutron energies (>1 eV), the struck atoms behave as if they were free. In a sense, one can ``switch on the interaction`` by using neutrons with ever lower energies until they are-near 1 meV-comparable to that of the interaction. In the present work we use 80-400 meV neutrons to resolve a long standing puzzle: previous measurements suggested strong fluctuations in the width of the recoil peak that could not be understood in terms of a simple theory. Using improved instrumentation (MARI at the spallation source) and novel sample cell design we could improve statistics by more than one order of magnitude. The new data covering an extended energy range are presented and seem to confirm the theory. (orig.).

  3. Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance of 3He-B superfluid

    Experiments which contribute to a better understanding of the 3He superfluid in the B phase are reported: a/ The first direct determinations of the gap parameter at zero temperature are given and the longitudinal N.M.R. frequency signal is measured for various pressures. b/ These experiments show a new saturation phenomenon in the ringing signal decay time Tsub(R)(T) at low temperatures. c/ Under conditions of slight non-linearity the excitation of 3He-B longitudinal N.M.R. gives rise to a special system wherein the ringing signal decay is all the faster as the excitation is stronger. A so-called ''memory'' time is measured distinctly longer than the ringing time measured under quasi-linear excitation conditions. It was found that the ringing signal decay, at first exponential for weak excitations γH1 approximately 7 10-3 Ωsub(L), becomes quasi-linear when the excitation is about γH1 approximately 10-2Ωsub(L). This abnormal behaviour cannot be explained by thermal effects related to N.M.R. excitation nor by inhomogeneity effects of the excitation magnetic field. Our interpretation is that excitations γH1 approximately 10-2 Ωsub(L) cause structural defects in the orientation of the vector n which are found to disappear according to an exponential law in times of around 10 ms

  4. First observation of two hyperfine transitions in antiprotonic 3He

    We report on the first experimental results for microwave spectroscopy of the hyperfine structure of p-bar3He+. Due to the helium nuclear spin, p-bar3He+ has a more complex hyperfine structure than p-bar4He+, which has already been studied before. Thus a comparison between theoretical calculations and the experimental results will provide a more stringent test of the three-body quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory. Two out of four super-super-hyperfine (SSHF) transition lines of the (n,L)=(36,34) state were observed. The measured frequencies of the individual transitions are 11.12559(14) GHz and 11.15839(18) GHz, less than 1 MHz higher than the current theoretical values, but still within their estimated errors. Although the experimental uncertainty for the difference of these frequencies is still very large as compared to that of theory, its measured value agrees with theoretical calculations. This difference is crucial to be determined because it is proportional to the magnetic moment of the antiproton.

  5. Hard photodisintegration of a proton pair in {sup 3}He

    Stanley Brodsky; Leonid Frankfurt; Ronald Gilman; J. R. Hiller; G. A. Miller; Eliezer Piasetzky; Misak Sargsian; Mark Strikman

    2003-05-01

    Hard photodisintegration of the deuteron has been extensively studied in order to understand the dynamics of the transition from hadronic to quark-gluon descriptions of the strong interaction. In this work, we discuss the extension of this program to hard photodisintegration of a pp pair in the {sup 3}He nucleus. Experimental confirmation of new features predicted here for the suggested reaction would advance our understanding of hard nuclear reactions. A main prediction, in contrast with low-energy observations, is that the pp breakup cross section is not much smaller than the one for pn break up. In some models, the energy-dependent oscillations observed for pp scattering are predicted to appear in the {gamma} {sup 3}He {yields} pp + n reaction. Such an observation would open up a completely new field in studies of color coherence phenomena in hard nuclear reactions. We also demonstrate that, in addition to the energy dependence, the measurement of the light-cone momentum distribution of the recoil neutron provides an independent test of the underlying dynamics of hard disintegration.

  6. The 3H–3He Charge Radii Difference

    Myers L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  7. Study of 40Ca(3He,t)40Sc and 9Be(3He,t)9B reactions

    The objective of this research thesis is to perform additional experiments for a better definition of the interaction occurring during the (3He,t) charge exchange reaction, notably in the case of transitions between different layers, and in the case of a target nucleus with a non null spin. In this respect, this thesis addresses the study of 40Ca and 9Be nuclei. After a description of experimental devices and of the obtained performance, the author reports the development of microscopic calculation model within the framework of the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation). Experimental results are then presented, analysed and discussed

  8. Helicity dependence of the γ 3He → πX reactions in the Δ(1232) resonance region

    The helicity dependences of the differential cross sections for the semi-inclusive γ 3He → π0 X and γ 3He → π± X reactions have been measured for the first time in the energy region 200 γ 450 MeV. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz using a longitudinally polarised high-pressure 3He gas target. Hadronic products were measured with the large-acceptance Crystal Ball detector complemented with additional devices for charged-particle tracking and identification. Unpolarised differential cross sections and their helicity dependence are compared with theoretical calculations using the Fix-Arenhoevel model. The effect of the intermediate excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance can be clearly seen from this comparison, especially for the polarised case, where nuclear effects are relatively small. The model provides a better theoretical description of the unpolarised charged pion photoproduction data than the neutral pion channel. It does significantly better in describing the helicity-dependent data in both channels. These comparisons provide new information on the mechanisms involved in pion photoproduction on 3He and suggest that a polarised 3He target can provide valuable information on the corresponding polarised quasi-free neutron reactions. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear reaction analysis as a tool for the 3He thermal evolution in Li2TiO3 ceramics

    Carella, E.; Sauvage, T.; Bès, R.; Courtois, B.; González, M.

    2014-08-01

    Li2TiO3 ceramic is one of the promising solid breeding candidates for fuel generation in deuterium-tritium Fusion reactors. The Tritium (T) release characteristics consist of a complex combination of gas diffusion stages inside the solid. Considering that this ceramic will produce high concentration of gaseous transmutation products (3H and 4He) when exposed to high-energy neutrons, there are considerable interests in studying 3He thermal evolution for the fundamental understanding of the light ion behavior in breeder blanket materials under reactor conditions. 3He atoms used to simulate the 4He incorporation were implanted by a 600 keV ion beam at a fluence of 1017 at/cm2 and the 3He(d,α)1H nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique was subsequently used to study depth profiles evolution after different thermal annealing treatments. The release experiments showed that 3He outgassing is not effective at room temperature, remaining quite negligible till 300 °C. After this temperature, the 3He content in the sample reduces steadily with increasing the annealing temperature, and less than 5% of the initial 3He concentration was found at 900 °C after an isochronal annealing, without significant depth-profile broadening. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies characterization highlight the microstructural changes of the implanted and annealed ceramic within the nuclear cascades zone. The correlation of results obtained by electron microscopy and NRA technique leads to the conclusion that the helium release is governed by a transport mechanism that involves rapid migration/diffusion through interconnected gas cavities and resulting microcracks before reaching grain boundaries and opened pores.

  10. Nuclear spin dynamics in solid 3He at ultralow temperatures

    In this thesis the experimental study of the spin dynamics of solid 3He is described. By means of magnetization measurements above 3 mK a Curie-Weiss behaviour was found with θW∼2.1 mK and by this an order parameter of J=θWkB/∼-0.5 KkB was observed, while in the range of 1 to 3 mK a pure Curie behaviour was found. By means of NMR measurements the values of τ1(6 mK)=240 ms±12 ms and τ1(1 mK)∼ 40 ms were determined, while spin-echo measurements yielded the spin-spin relaxation time τ2(6 mK)=4540 μs±140 μs. Furthermore neutron scattering studies were performed. (HSI)

  11. Vortex structure in rotational state superfluid 3He

    The structure of vortices in rotational superfluid 3He is considered. It is marked that in the A-phase quantum vortices are possible, in which the A-phase superfluid state is never disturbed. As a consequence of a discrete combined invariance (calibration transformation plus rotation of a spin subsystem) one more exotic type of vortices is possible in the A-phase. This is a hybrid of disclination in a magnetic anisotropy vector field d (with a half-integer Frank index) and vortex that possesses a half-integer number of circulation quanta. Such vortices can be observed at rotation of the A-phase confined between parallel plates. The vortex properties in the B-phase are determined by a continuous combined symmetry. The calculations show the vortex in the β-phase at low pressures to be in the ν-state. The vortices considered are observed in the NMR experiments

  12. Preparations for HFS spectroscopy of antiprotonic 3He

    Full text: Antiprotonic helium (pHe) is a neutral exotic atom, consisting of a helium nucleus, an electron and an antiproton. The interactions of the angular momenta and spins of its constituents cause splitting within the principle states. The measured transition frequencies between hyperfine levels can be compared with three-body QED calculations as a test of the theory. Previous measurements have been performed on p4He. The next two years will be dedicated to measuring a similar transition within p3He. Due to the additional coupling to the helion spin, it consists of an octuplet of states instead of a quadruplet. A new microwave cavity has been designed and is being constructed for the transition frequency of 11.14 GHz. This cavity has been simulated using the high frequency structure simulator HFSS to obtain the correct cavity dimensions. A new cryostat to cool the target is under construction. Numerical simulations are also in progress. (author)

  13. Muon capture on the deuteron and 3He

    Elmeshneb A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We plan to investigate the role of meson exchange currents in the description of the µ− + d → νµ + n + n and µ− + 3He → νµ + 3H reactions. They both are treated as the decay of the corresponding muonic atoms, with the muon initially on the lowest K shell. The muon binding energy in these atoms can be safely neglected and in the initial state we deal essentially with the deuteron (or 3He and muon at rest. These two reactions are interesting for several reasons. First of all, they offer a testing ground for the nuclear wave functions, which for any nucleon-nucleon (NN and three-nucleon (3N forces can be constructed for such light systems with great accuracy. In these reactions few-nucleon weak current operators are an important dynamical ingredient. In the current operators apart from the relatively well known single nucleon contributions, two-nucleon parts (generated by various meson exchanges play an important role. Their details are not well known and several models should be considered. We present our formalism for dealing with these reactions and a simple method for partial wave decomposition of the two-nucleon operators. The crucial nuclear matrix elements of the corresponding weak current operators will be calculated in the momentum space and using partial wave decomposition. The effect of meson exchanges will be investigated in the energy spectrum of the emitted neutrinos (in the deuteron case and in the total decay rates for the two reactions. We will employ various models of NN and 3N forces, such as the Bonn B or chiral NNLO potentials. Our results with the single nucleon currents look already very promising and we hope for the improvement in the description of the experimental data, when dominant two-nucleon current operators are included in our framework.

  14. Nuclear spin dynamics in solid {sup 3}He at ultralow temperatures; Kernspindynamik in festem {sup 3}He bei ultratiefen Temperaturen

    Kath, Matthias

    2009-11-06

    In this thesis the experimental study of the spin dynamics of solid {sup 3}He is described. By means of magnetization measurements above 3 mK a Curie-Weiss behaviour was found with {theta}{sub W}{approx}2.1 mK and by this an order parameter of J={theta}{sub W}k{sub B}/{approx}-0.5 Kk{sub B} was observed, while in the range of 1 to 3 mK a pure Curie behaviour was found. By means of NMR measurements the values of {tau}{sub 1}(6 mK)=240 ms{+-}12 ms and {tau}{sub 1}(1 mK){approx} 40 ms were determined, while spin-echo measurements yielded the spin-spin relaxation time {tau}{sub 2}(6 mK)=4540 {mu}s{+-}140 {mu}s. Furthermore neutron scattering studies were performed. (HSI)

  15. The interfacial thermal resistance between bulk superfluid 3He and liquid 3He in aerogel at ultralow temperatures

    We present the first measurements of the thermal boundary resistance of the interface between the two different liquid phases: bulk superfluid and liquid confined in aerogel. We set up a heat flow along a liquid-filled tube containing a plug of 98% aerogel, and measure the temperature at the two ends. At the lowest temperatures, the resistance is dominated by the boundary resistance at the aerogel surfaces and is unaffected by the superfluid transition of the 3He in the aerogel. Whereas in conventional Kapitza resistance the boundary conductance is limited by acoustic mismatch, here the conductance is limited by an energy mismatch, since quasiparticles with energies above the bulk B-phase gap may freely cross the interface, while those with lower energies are confined to the aerogel

  16. Spin exchange optical pumping based polarized {sup 3}He filling station for the Hybrid Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Jiang, C. Y.; Tong, X.; Brown, D. R.; Culbertson, H.; Kadron, B.; Robertson, J. L. [Instrument and Source Design Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Graves-Brook, M. K. [Research Accelerator Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hagen, M. E. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lee, W. T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Winn, B. [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a new direct geometry spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument is equipped with polarization analysis capability with 60 Degree-Sign horizontal and 15 Degree-Sign vertical detector coverages. In order to provide wide angle polarization analysis for this instrument, we have designed and built a novel polarized {sup 3}He filling station based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. It is designed to supply polarized {sup 3}He gas to HYSPEC as a neutron polarization analyzer. In addition, the station can optimize the {sup 3}He pressure with respect to the scattered neutron energies. The depolarized {sup 3}He gas in the analyzer can be transferred back to the station to be repolarized. We have constructed the prototype filling station. Preliminary tests have been carried out demonstrating the feasibility of the filling station. Here, we report on the design, construction, and the preliminary results of the prototype filling station.

  17. Safety analysis of high pressure 3He-filled micro-channels for thermal neutron detection.

    Ferko, Scott M.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2008-11-01

    This document is a safety analysis of a novel neutron detection technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories. This technology is comprised of devices with tiny channels containing high pressure {sup 3}He. These devices are further integrated into large scale neutron sensors. Modeling and preliminary device testing indicates that the time required to detect the presence of special nuclear materials may be reduced under optimal conditions by several orders of magnitude using this approach. Also, these devices make efficient use of our {sup 3}He supply by making individual devices more efficient and/or extending the our limited {sup 3}He supply. The safety of these high pressure devices has been a primary concern. We address these safety concerns for a flat panel configuration intended for thermal neutron detection. Ballistic impact tests using 3 g projectiles were performed on devices made from FR4, Silicon, and Parmax materials. In addition to impact testing, operational limits were determined by pressurizing the devices either to failure or until they unacceptably leaked. We found that (1) sympathetic or parasitic failure does not occur in pressurized FR4 devices (2) the Si devices exhibited benign brittle failure (sympathetic failure under pressure was not tested) and (3) the Parmax devices failed unacceptably. FR4 devices were filled to pressures up to 4000 + 100 psig, and the impacts were captured using a high speed camera. The brittle Si devices shattered, but were completely contained when wrapped in thin tape, while the ductile FR4 devices deformed only. Even at 4000 psi the energy density of the compressed gas appears to be insignificant compared to the impact caused by the incoming projectile. In conclusion, the current FR4 device design pressurized up to 4000 psi does not show evidence of sympathetic failure, and these devices are intrinsically safe.

  18. Determination of the nuclear induced electrical conductivity of 3He for magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    This is the final report for a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The continual need for more efficient, high-output energy conversion techniques has renewed interest in nuclear-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. To provide the fundamental knowledge required to evaluate the potential value of this concept, a one-year project aimed at measuring the nuclear-induced electrical conductivity of a 3He/4He gas mixture under thermodynamic conditions consistent with the MHD flow conditions was carried out. The range of bulk gas conditions to be considered were: pressure = 0.1 to 3800 Torr and temperature = 300 to 1500 K. The maximum neutron flux to be considered was 1016/cm2sec. The range of parameters considered surpassed previous experiments in all aspects

  19. Executive summary: advanced-fuel fusion systems, the D-3He satellite approach

    An evaluation was made of the potential advantages and feasibility of fusion power plants designed to employ near-term non-D--T fuels such as deuterium and D-3He. The following topics are discussed here: (1) cost studies and net-energy analysis, (2) D-3He Bumpy Torus satellite, (3) exploratory studies of a D-3He field-reversed mirror satellite, (4) preliminary advanced fuel pellet studies, and (5) 3He neutral beam injector

  20. NMR studies on vortices in rotating 3He-A

    NMR measurements are reported on rotating 3He-A in a long cylindrical geometry of 5 mm diameter at a liquid pressure of 29.3 bar and in axial magnetic fields of 14.2, 28.4, and 56.9 mT. At 28.4 mT, NMR studies are also reported in fields inclined by 250 and 900 from the axis of rotation. The frequency shift, the width, and the intensity of the spin wavemodes localized on the soft vortex cores, as well as the additional broadening of the main NMR line during rotation, were measured as a function of temperature, angular velocity Ω, magnetic field intensity, and its inclination angle. Also observed were a critical angular velocity of vortex formation, hysteretic behavior in the number of vortices when comparing accelerating rotation to decelerating, and metastable vortex densities, presumably a vortex tangle after rapid oscillatory acceleration. The results can be understood in terms of the continuous 4π vortices first proposed by Seppaelae and Volovik

  1. Vortex sheet in superfluid 3He-A

    A new state of rotating superfluid 3He-A has been found recently. Usually superfluids respond to rotation by creating an array of vortex lines, which are parallel to the rotation axis, and the circulation around them is quantized. In the new state the vorticity is located on a 2 dimensional sheet instead of 1 D lines. The sheet is parallel to the rotation axis z but in the x - y plane it folds to equidistant layers. The distance between the layers is larger but on the same order of magnitude as the distance between vortex lines. In contrast to other superfluids, the sheet is stable in the A phase because, of its internal structure. The sheet has as a backbone a topologically stable domain wall called soliton, to which non-singular vorticity is bound. Thus it can exist in spite of its presumably higher energy. The vortex sheet is distinguished by its NMR response, in particular because of its higher absorption at a characteristic frequency. Experiment and theory on the vortex sheet are in good agreement

  2. Negative pion absorption at rest in 3He

    The pnn and dn final states after the absorption of stopped pions in 3He have been measured in a kinematically complete experiment covering the whole phase space. Proton-neutron, deuteron-neutron, and neutron-neutron coincidences have been detected with a charged-particle hodoscope and large-area time-of-flight counters. For the first time, triple coincidences between the pionic K x rays and two particles have been measured thus selecting absorption from the atomic 1s state. It has been found that the absorption is dominated by the two-nucleon mechanism (2NA) on isoscalar nucleon pairs as indicted by the measured ratio of 6.3±1.1 for back-to-back correlated nn and pn pairs. A substantial amount of the three-body final state pnn is affected by the final-state interaction (FSI) or leads to the two-particle final state dn. Ratios of 3.1±0.4 for 2NA to FSI and of 4.2±0.6 for the pnn to the dn final state are measured. No evidence has been found for three-nucleon absorption with an upper limit of %/πstop-

  3. Andreev reflection in rotating superfluid 3He-B

    Andreev reflection of quasiparticle excitations from quantized line vortices is reviewed in the isotropic B phase of superfluid 3He in the temperature regime of ballistic quasiparticle transport at T ≤ 0.20Tc. The reflection from an array of rectilinear vortices in solid-body rotation is measured with a quasiparticle beam illuminating the array mainly in the orientation along the rotation axis. The result is in agreement with the calculated Andreev reflection. The Andreev signal is also used to analyze the spin-down of the superfluid component after a sudden impulsive stop of rotation from an equilibrium vortex state. In a measuring setup where the rotating cylinder has a rough bottom surface, annihilation of the vortices proceeds via a leading rapid turbulent burst followed by a trailing slow laminar decay, from which the mutual friction dissipation can be determined. In contrast to the currently accepted theory, it is found to have a finite value in the zero-temperature limit: α(T→0) = (5 ± 0.5) × 10−4

  4. Measurement of the Coherent Neutron Scattering Length of 3He

    Ketter, W.; Heil, W.; Badurek, G.; Baron, M.; Loidl, R.; Rauch, H.

    2005-01-01

    By means of neutron interferometry the s-wave neutron scattering length of the 3He nucleus was re-measured at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). Using a skew symmetrical perfect crystal Si-interferometer and a linear twin chamber cell, false phase shifts due to sample misalignment were reduced to a negligible level. Simulation calculations suggest an asymmetrically alternating measuring sequence in order to compensate for systematic errors caused by thermal phase drifts. There is evidence in the experiment’s data that this procedure is indeed effective. The neutron refractive index in terms of Sears’ exact expression for the scattering amplitude has been analyzed in order to evaluate the measured phase shifts. The result of our measurement, b′c = (6.000 ± 0.009) fm, shows a deviation towards a greater value compared to the presently accepted value of b′c = (5.74 ± 0.07) fm, confirming the observation of the partner experiment at NIST. On the other hand, the results of both precision measurements at NIST and ILL exhibit a serious 12σ (12 standard uncertainties) deviation, the reason for which is not clear yet.

  5. The scattering of polarized deuterons on 3He between 10 and 17 MeV

    Using the LASL polarized beam facility, the cross section and vector and tensor analysing powers for the 3He(d vector,d)3He and 3He(d vector,p)4He reactions have been measured in a large angular range at energies between 10 and 17 MeV. (orig./WL)

  6. Precision Measurement of the Spin-dependent Asymmetry in the Threshold Region of Quasielastic 3He

    Feng Xiong

    2002-09-01

    The first precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of polarized {sup 3}He(polarized e, e') was carried out in Hall A at the Jefferson Laboratory, using a longitudinally polarized continuous electron beam incident on a high-pressure polarized {sup 3}He gas target. The polarized electron beam was generated by illuminating a strained GaAs cathode with high intensity circularly polarized laser light, and an average beam polarization of about 70% was achieved. The {sup 3}He target was polarized based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumpint and the average target polarization was about 30%. The scattered electrons were detected in the two Hall A high resolution spectrometers, HRSe and HRSh. The data from HRSh were used for this analysis and covered both the elastic peak and the threshold region. Two kinematic points were measured in the threshold region, one with a central Q{sup 2}-value of 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2} at an incident beam energy E{sub 0} = 0.778 GeV and the other with a central Q{sup 2}-value of 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} at E-0 = 1.727 GeV. The average beam current was 10 mu-A, which was mainly due to the limitation of the polarized {sup 3}He target. The measured asymmetry was compared with both plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) calculations and non-relativistic full Faddeev calculations which include both final-state interactions (FSIs) and meson-exchange currents (MECs) effects. The poor description of the data by PWIA calculations at both Q{sup 2}-values suggests the existence of strong FSI and MEC effects in the threshold region of polarized {sup 3}He (polarized e, e'). Indeed, the agreement between the data and full calculations is very good at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. On the other hand, a small discrepancy at Q{sup 2} = 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} is observed, which might be due to some Q{sup 2} -dependent effects such as relativity and three-nucleon forces (3NFs), which are not included in the framework

  7. Measurement of the fusion rate in μd3He

    Many atomic and molecular processes may occur after a muon has been stopped in a mixture of hydrogen and helium isotopes. In particular, the muonic molecule μd3He can be formed. This molecule either decays or undergoes muon catalyzed fusion. Theory predicts a fusion rate much lower than the decay rate; moreover, the various theoretical predictions differ from each other by several orders of magnitude.With the experiment presented here we intend to measure the effective fusion rate via the detection of the 14.7 MeV fusion proton. A new target and gas mixing system, designed at JINR, were used in a ten-day test run at PSI. The fusion protons and products from other transfer and background reactions were measured with several different detectors (plastic scintillators, BGO, Germanium, neutron, and Silicon detectors).The formation rate of the μd3He molecule and an upper limit for the effective fusion rate have been measured and are presented here

  8. Up-coming polarised neutron capabilities on ANSTO instruments using polarised 3He neutron spin filters

    Commissioning works are underway at ANSTO's OPAL reactor for using polarised 3He based neutron polarisers and polarization analysers for polarised neutron experimental works. This is a joint project of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL) to equip 6 OPAL neutron scattering instruments with polarised neutron capabilities for magnetism research. With the new capabilities, the magnetic signals from the sample's magnetic structures and magnetic excitations will clearly be identified. On the diffractometer Wombat, this will provide the location, magnitude and directions of the magnetic moments at the molecular scale. On reflectometer Platypus, this will resolve the magnetic profile into the depth of a magnetic thin-film. On SANS Quokka, this will identify the magnetic structure of nano-scale magnetic particles. And on inelastic-scattering,thg instruments Taipan Pelican and Sika this will measure the strength and polarization of the magnetic excitations The use to more instruments, including the Laue diffractometer Koala and new instruments are being explored. A 3He gas polarizing station that uses the Metastable Exchange Optical Pumping method has been built and installed at ANSTO. It has reached 72% 'He polarization in polariser and analyser cells at a 1.2 bar-litre production. The polarisers and analysers are being commissioned and tested on the instruments. In this presentation, we will illustrate how polarised neutrons can be used for magnetism research. The latest status of the commissioning works will be presented.

  9. Investigation of adsorption and wetting of 3He on cesium and cesiated glass

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the binding of 3He on cesium substrates, using optical pumping to spin-polarize the atoms. The behavior of 3He on the walls at low temperature can be analyzed through the evolution of the nuclear magnetization of the sample. Preliminary results are presented, including: (1) adsorption studies of gaseous 3He on cesiated glass; (2) magnetic relaxation time of polarized liquid 3He on cesium and cesiated glass; (3) evidence for wetting of liquid 3He on cesium. 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ. PMID:24905153